Arca diluvii, copyright Hectonichus.

Belongs within: Arcidae.

The Arcinae are a group of byssally-attached bivalves that are first definitely known from the Jurassic. Members of the type genus, Arca, have elongate, inaequilateral shells with a subrectangular to subtrapezoidal shape, that are commonly expanded or auriculate posteriorly. Acar has an ovoid shell with a prominent posterior umbonal carina and uniform, decussate ornamentation.

    |--Acar Gray 1857 BD86, K07
    |    |--*A. divaricata P61
    |    |--A. gradata F27a [=Arca gradata F27a, Barbatia gradata C64; incl. Arca pholadiformis C64]
    |    |--A. sandersonae Powell 1933 P61
    |    `--A. sociella (Brookes 1926) P61 [=Arca sociella F27a]
    `--Arca Linnaeus 1758 SY85
         |  i. s.: A. acupicta Viader 1951 L96
         |         A. adamsi G79
         |         A. afra Gmelin 1791 H09
         |         A. americana [incl. A. pexata] G79
         |         A. approximata Viader 1951 L96
         |         A. arata C64
         |         A. auriculata G79
         |         A. avellana Lamarck 1819 BW09
         |         A. barbata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         A. boucardi Jousseaume 1894 XZ10
         |         A. canalis C64
         |         A. centrota G79
         |         A. clathrata Defrance 1816 [incl. A. clathrata Lamarck 1819 non Defrance 1816] F27b
         |         A. ‘clathrata’ Reeve 1844 (n. d.) nec Defrance 1816 nec Lamarck 1819 F27b
         |         A. congesta C64
         |         A. corpulenta Smith 1885 H09
         |         A. cottoni Waghorn 1927 W27
         |         A. dautzenbergi Lamy 1907 H09
         |         A. decussata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         A. ‘decussata’ (Sowerby 1833) non Linnaeus 1758 [=Byssoarca decussata] H09
         |         A. disparilis Reeve 1844 H09
         |         A. elegans Viader 1951 L96
         |         A. euryta [incl. A. clathrata Leckenby 1858 nec Defrance 1816 nec Lamarck 1819 nec Reeve 1844] F27b
         |         A. fasciata Reeve 1844 H09
         |         A. floridana G79
         |         A. foliata Forskäl 1775 H09
         |         A. fusca Lightfoot 1786 K65
         |         A. glacialis Mighels 1843 J49 [incl. A. korenii J64, A. obliqua N79]
         |         A. glycymeris Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         A. granosa Linnaeus 1758 H09
         |         A. hectori Woods 1917 F27a
         |         A. imbricata Bruguière 1792 H09
         |         A. incongrua [incl. A. braziliana] G79
         |         A. labiata Lightfoot 1786 K65
         |         A. lactea Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         A. lateralis Reeve 1844 H09
         |         A. lienardi Viader 1951 L96
         |         A. listeri [incl. A. granulata] G79
         |         A. mccoyi Tennison Woods 1877 P79
         |         A. microdonta Conrad 1855 C64
         |         A. multicostata [incl. A. grandis] C64
         |         A. navicularis Bruguière 1789 MG-H11
         |         A. noae Linnaeus 1758 M12
         |         A. nummaria Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         A. obesa Sowerby 1833 F27b
         |         A. obispoana C64
         |         A. occidentalis G79
         |         A. pallens Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         A. pectiniformis [=Pectunculus pectiniformis] C64
         |         A. pectunculoides N79
         |         A. pella Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         A. pilula Reeve 1844 H09
         |         A. reticulata F27a
         |         A. semitorta Lamarck 1819 H09
         |         A. senilis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         A. squamosa G79 (see below for synonymy)
         |         A. tenebrica Reeve 1844 H09
         |         A. tenella Reeve 1844 H09
         |         A. tetragona GW02
         |         A. tortuosa Linnaeus 1758 H09
         |         A. trilineata C64
         |         A. tuberculosa [incl. A. similis] C64
         |         A. umbonata [incl. A. mutabilis] G79
         |         A. undata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         A. ventricosa Lamarck 1819 MG-H11
         |         A. wendti Lamy 1907 H09
         |--A. (Arca) subvelata Suter 1917 F27a
         |--A. (Anadarca Gray 1847) F27a
         `--A. (Diluvarca Woodring 1925) F27a
              |--A. (*D.) diluvii F27a
              `--A. (D.) trapezia Deshayes 1839 F27a, H09 [incl. A. lischkei H08]

Arca squamosa G79 [incl. A. angulata G79, A. divaricata G79, A. domingensis G79, A. donaciformis G79, A. helbingii C64, A. reeveana C64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H08] Hedley, C. 1908. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part X. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 456–489, pls 7–10.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. Report of the committee appointed for exploring the coasts of Shetland by means of the dredge. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 70–81.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[K07] Kamenev, G. M. 2007. The taxonomic position of Bentharca xenophoricola (Kuroda, 1929) and Bentharca rubrotincta Kuroda & Habe in Habe, 1958 (Bivalvia: Arcidae). Malacologia 49 (2): 351–365.

[K65] Kay, E. A. 1965. The Reverend John Lightfoot, Daniel Solander, and the Portland Catalogue. Nautilus 79 (1): 10–19.

[L96] Loch, I. 1996. Notice: R. Viader collection. Molluscan Research 17: 110.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M12] Morton, B. 2012. The biology and functional morphology of Nucula pusilla (Bivalvia: Protobranchia: Nuculidae) from Western Australia, Australia: primitive or miniature simplicity? Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 85–100.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[P79] Petterd, W. F. 1879. List of the freshwater shells of Tasmania. Journal of Conchology 2: 80–88.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[SY85] Sha J.-G. & Yuan F.-S. 1985. Buchia fauna from Dong’anzhen Formation near Dong’an of Raohe County, Heilongjiang. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 24 (6): 651–662.

[W27] Waghorn, R. J. 1927. The geology of the Ruakokopatuna Valley, southern Wairarapa. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 226–234.

[XZ10] Xu, F., & J. Zhang. 2010. Study on the bivalve faunal composition of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 7–12. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Last updated: 9 November 2021.

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