Reconstruction of the Early Permian Protorothyris archeri by Smokeybjb.

Belongs within: Reptiliomorpha.
Contains: Captorhinidae, Ichthyosauria, Diapsida, Parareptilia.

It is widely realised that Reptilia as traditionally recognised is paraphyletic, and some have therefore recommended abandoning the name entirely. As used here, the Reptilia are essentially all animals more closely related to modern reptiles (including birds) than to mammals. Some would restrict 'Reptilia' to the crown clade therein, and use 'Sauropsida' for the total group. However, the uncertain phylogenetic position of turtles means that the scope of 'Reptilia' may differ significantly between authors under such a definition: turtles may belong in the Eureptilia, derived from within the Diapsida, or they may be derived among the Parareptilia. Also subject to revision has been the position of the Lower Permian aquatic Mesosauridae: Laurin & Reisz (1995) placed them outside the Eureptilia + Parareptilia clade, but an improved description of the skull material of Mesosaurus tenuidens by Modesto (2006) led them to place the mesosaurs as sister to the parareptiles.

Synapomorphies (from Laurin & Reisz 1995, for 'Sauropsida'): Maxilla separated from quadratojugal by jugal; ventral margin of postorbital region of skull rectilinear; single coronoid present; femoral shaft long and slender; single pedal centrale present.

<==Reptilia [Euryapsida, Romeriidae, Sauropsida, Testudinomorpha]
    |--Eureptilia MA04
    |    |--Captorhinidae M06
    |    `--Romeriida MA04
    |         |--+--Ichthyosauria P98
    |         |  `--Diapsida M06
    |         `--Protorothyrididae [Protorothyridae] LR95
    |              |--Hylonomus LR95
    |              |--Cephalerpeton LR95
    |              |--Brouffia LR95
    |              |--Coelostegus LR95
    |              |--Protorothyris archeri MS07
    |              |--Anthracodromeus LR95
    |              `--Paleothyris Carroll 1969 M06, LR95
    |                   `--P. acadiana Carroll 1969 RCQ03
    `--Proganosauria [Anapsida] M06
         |  i. s.: Tokosaurus [Tokosauridae] TT05
         |           `--T. perforatus Tverdokhlebova & Ivakhnenko 1984 TT05
         |         Bolosauridae TT05
         |           |--Davletkulia gigantea Ivakhnenko 1990 (n. d.) TT05
         |           |--Bolosaurus LR95
         |           `--Belebey TT05
         |                |--B. maximi Tverdokhlebova 1987 TT05
         |                `--B. vegrandis Ivakhnenko 1973 TT05
         |         Nyctiphruretus SS02 [Nyctiphruretida LR95, Nyctiphruretidae]
         |         Colobomycter pholeter M06
         |--Mesosauridae M06
         |    |--Mesosaurus tenuidens M06
         |    |--Brazilosaurus M06
         |    `--Stereosternum tumidum M06
         `--Parareptilia MA04

Reptilia incertae sedis:
  Vitalia MDS02
  Omphalosaurus MM03 [incl. Pessopteryx Wiman 1910 MM00]
    |--O. nevadanus Merriam 1906 MM00
    `--O. nisseri (Wiman 1910) (see below for synonymy) MM00
  Kronosaurus N85
  Placodus N85
  Glauconia Gray 1845 BR05
  Aphaniotis M89
    |--A. acutirostris Modigliani 1889 M89
    `--A. fusca (Peters 1864) [=Otocryptis fusca] M89
  Gonyocephalus grandis M89
  Simotes M89
    |--S. labuanensis [incl. S. affinis Fischer 1885] M89
    `--S. octolineatus M89
  Compsosoma melanurum M89
  Tropidonotus M89
    |--T. chrysargos M89
    |--T. quincunciatus P89
    `--T. trianguligerus M89
  Gonyosoma oxycephalum M89
  Chrysopelea ornata M89
  Dryophis prasina M89
  Amblycephalus [Amblycephalidae] M89
    `--A. boa M89
  Ptychozoon homalocephalum M89
  Pseudorhabdion longiceps M89
  Ablabes M89
    |--A. baliodirus M89
    `--A. ornatus M89
  Hypsirhina albomaculata M89
  Zapyrus fuscus M89
  Ophites M89
    |--O. albofuscus M89
    `--O. subcinctus M89
  Callophis M89
    |--C. flaviceps M89
    `--C. intestinalis M89
  Dictyobolus E88
  Broomia E88
  Lacertulus E88
  Aenigmatosaurus E88
  Protolacerta Casamiquela 1975 E88
  Macrornis Seeley 1866 M02
    `--*M. tanaupus Seeley 1866 M02
  Algyroides K08
    |--A. fitzingeri M55
    `--A. nigropunctatus K08
  Telescopus fallax K08

Omphalosaurus nisseri (Wiman 1910) [=*Pessopteryx nisseri; incl. P. arctica Wiman 1910, P. pinguis Wiman 1910] MM00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[E88] Evans, S. E. 1988. The early history and relationships of the Diapsida. In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, vol. 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds (M. J. Benton, ed.) pp. 221-260. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[K08] Korsós, Z. 2008. History of the Herpetological Collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 37-93.

[LR95] Laurin, M., & R. R. Reisz. 1995. A reevaluation of early amniote phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 113: 165-223.

[MM00] Maisch, M. W., & A. T. Matzke. 2000. The Ichthyosauria. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 298: 1-159.

[MM03] Maisch, M. W., & A. T. Matzke. 2003. Observations on Triassic ichthyosaurs. Part XII. A new Early Triassic ichthyosaur genus from Spitzbergen. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 229 (3): 317-338.

[M55] Mertens, R. 1955. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Insel Elba. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 287-296.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M06] Modesto, S. P. 2006. The cranial skeleton of the Early Permian aquatic reptile Mesosaurus tenuidens: implications for relationships and palaeobiology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 146: 345-368.

[MA04] Modesto, S. P., & J. S. Anderson. 2004. The phylogenetic definition of Reptilia. Systematic Biology 53 (5): 815-821.

[MDS02] Modesto, S. P., R. J. Damiani & H.-D. Sues. 2002. A reappraisal of Coletta seca, a basal procolophonid reptile from the Lower Triassic of South Africa. Palaeontology 45 (5): 883-895.

[MS07] Modesto, S. P., D. M. Scott, D. S. Berman, J. Müller & R. R. Reisz. 2007. The skull and the paleoecological significance of Labidosaurus hamatus, a captorhinid reptile from the Lower Permian of Texas. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149 (2): 237-262.

[M89] Modigliani, E. 1889. Materiali per la fauna erpetologica dell'isola Nias. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 113-124.

[N85] Norman, D. 1985 (reprinted 2000). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

[P89] Parona, C. 1889. Sopra alcuni elminti di Vertebrati birmani raccolti da Leonardo Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 765-780.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[RCQ03] Ruta, M., M. I. Coates & D. L. J. Quicke. 2003. Early tetrapod relationships revisited. Biological Reviews 78: 251-345.

[SS02] Spencer, P. S., & G. W. Storrs. 2002. A re-evaluation of small tetrapods from the Middle Triassic Otter Sandstone Formation of Devon, England. Palaeontology 45 (3): 447-467.

[TT05] Tverdokhlebov, V. P., G. I. Tverdokhlebova, A. V. Minikh, M. V. Surkov & M. J. Benton. 2005. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 27-77.

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