Dytiscinae

Megadytes latus, photographed by Wolfgang Walz Hillermann.


Belongs within: Dytiscidae.
Contains: Hydaticus, Aciliini.

The Dytiscinae are a large clade of diving beetles. With the exception of the basal Cybistrini, males of the Dytiscinae have the pro- and mesotarsomeres broadly expanded with ventral sucker-like setae, used to grip the female during mating. In a number of subsequent lineages, females have conversely evolved ornamented elytra that may reduce the effectiveness of such gripping setae (Miller 2003). The Cybistrini are united by a number of features including a small apicoventral region of very stiff setae on the elytra, a dorsal series of natatory setae on the metafemur, a relatively large cluster of setae at the apicodorsal angle of the metatibia, and an anterior metatibial spur that is acuminate and distinctly broader basally than the posterior spur (Miller 2001).

Chracters (from Miller 2001): Anterolateral margin of eye evenly rounded; female genitalia of dytiscine type, with bursa absent and spermatophore placed in membranous pouch ventrad of gonocoxae; gonocoxae strongly fused dorsally; median lobe bilaterally symmetrical; larvae with fringe of fine setae along last abdominal segments.

<==Dytiscinae
    |--Cybistrini M03
    |    |  i. s.: Regimbartina pruinosa M01
    |    |--+--Spencerhydrus Sharp 1882 M03, LM87
    |    |  |    |--*S. latecinctus Sharp 1882 [incl. S. semiflavus Sharp 1882] LM87
    |    |  |    `--S. pulchellus Sharp 1882 LM87
    |    |  `--+--Austrodytes Watts 1978 M01, LM87
    |    |     |    `--*A. insularis (Hope 1842) [=Cybister insularis] LM87
    |    |     `--Onychohydrus M03
    |    |          |--O. (Onychohydrus) M01
    |    |          |    |--O. (O.) hookeri M01
    |    |          |    `--O. (O.) scutellaris M01
    |    |          `--O. (Sternhydrus) atratus M01
    |    `--+--Megadytes M03
    |       |    |  i. s.: M. aeneus Ormancey 1843 R89
    |       |    |         M. fallax R89
    |       |    |         M. puncticollis R89
    |       |    |--M. (Bifurcitus) giganteus M01
    |       |    `--+--M. (Paramegadytes) glaucus M01
    |       |       `--M. (Megadytes) M01
    |       |            |--M. (M.) fraternus M01
    |       |            |--M. (M.) laevigatus M01
    |       |            |--M. (M.) latus M01
    |       |            `--M. (M.) marginithorax M01
    |       `--Cybister Curtis 1827 M03, LM87
    |            |  i. s.: *C. virens (Müller 1776) [=Dytiscus virens] LM87
    |            |         C. cephalotes G89
    |            |         C. godeffroyi (Wehncke 1876) [=Trogus godeffroyi; incl. C. simoni Régimbart 1877] LM87
    |            |         C. loxidiscus Wilke 1919 LM87
    |            |         C. yulensis Guignot 1956 LM87
    |            |--C. marginicollis M01
    |            |--+--C. ellipticus M01
    |            |  `--C. fimbriolatus M01
    |            `--+--C. puncticollis M01
    |               `--C. tripunctatus (Olivier 1795) M01, LM87 (see below for synonymy)
    |                    |--C. t. tripunctatus I92
    |                    `--C. t. orientalis Gschwendtner 1931 I92
    `--+--+--Hyderodes Hpe 1838 M03, LM87 [Hyderodini]
       |  |    |--*H. shuckardi Hope 1838 LM87
       |  |    `--H. crassus Sharp 1882 [incl. H. collaris Sharp 1882] LM87
       |  `--+--Hydaticus M03
       |     `--+--+--Aciliini M03
       |        |  `--Notaticus [Aubehydrinae, Aubehydrini] M03
       |        |       `--N. fasciatus M03
       |        `--Eretes Castelnau 1832 M03, LM87 [Eretini]
       |             |--*E. stictus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Dytiscus stictus] LM87
       |             |--E. australis (Erichson 1842) [=Eunectes australis; incl. Eu. punctipennis Macleay 1871] LM87
       |             |--E. explicitus B14
       |             `--E. griseus M03
       `--Dytiscus Linnaeus 1758 [Dytiscini] M01
            |--D. alaskanus M01
            |--D. caraboides Linnaeus 1758 L58
            |--D. cinereus Linnaeus 1758 L58
            |--D. cordieri M01
            |--D. dauricus M01
            |--D. delictus Zaitsev 1906 I92
            |--D. erytrocephalus Linnaeus 1758 L58
            |--D. fasciventris M03
            |--D. fuscipes Linnaeus 1758 L58
            |--D. fuscus Linnaeus 1758 L58
            |--D. hermanni [=Hydrachne hermanni] L02
            |--D. latissimus Linnaeus 1758 L58
            |--D. maculatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
            |--D. marginalis Linnaeus 1758 B14 [incl. D. marginalis var. conformis C01]
            |--D. marginicollis M01
            |--D. palustris L02
            |--D. persicus B14
            |--D. piceus Linnaeus 1758 L58
            |--D. scarabaeoides Linnaeus 1758 L58
            |--D. semistriatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
            |--D. sexpustulatus L02
            |--D. sharpi Wehncke 1875 I92
            |--D. striatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
            |--D. sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
            `--D. verticalis M03

Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier 1795) M01, LM87 [=Dytiscus tripunctatus LM87; incl. C. gayndahensis Macleay 1871 LM87, C. granulatus Blackburn 1888 LM87]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M01] Miller, K. B. 2001. On the phylogeny of the Dytiscidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) with emphasis on the morphology of the female reproductive system. Insect Systematics and Evolution 32: 45–92.

[M03] Miller, K. B. 2003. The phylogeny of diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) and the evolution of sexual conflict. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 79: 359–388.

[R89] Régimbart, M. 1889. Enumération des Haliplidae, Dytiscidae et Gyrinidae recueillis par M.r le Prof. L. Balzan dans l’Amérique méridionale et description de quelques autres espèces voisines. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 256–268.

Last updated: 25 May 2017.

Copelatinae

Copelatus haemorrhoidalis, photographed by Gábor Keresztes.


Belongs within: Dytiscidae.

The Copelatinae is a speciose clade of diving beetles, most species of which are included in the genus Copelatus.

Characters (from Miller 2001): Metacoxal lines closely approximated medially (metacoxal lines lost in Lacconectus); spermatheca strongly reduced; scutellum externally visible; metatarsal claws equal in length in both sexes.

<==Copelatinae [Copelatini]
    |  i. s.: Aglymbus M01
    |--Agaporomorphus M01
    |    |--A. knischi M01
    |    `--A. perairai M01
    `--+--Lacconectus M01
       |    |--L. formosanus M01
       |    `--L. peguensis RB02
       `--Copelatus Erichson 1832 M01
            |  i. s.: C. australiae M03
            |         C. distinctus M01
            |         C. ferrugineus TDC06
            |         C. longicornis R89
            |         C. melanarius TDC06
            |         C. nakamurai Guéorguiev 1970 I92
            |         C. nomax S86
            |         C. ragazzii G89
            |         C. strinatii Guignot 1958 S86
            |         C. subterraneus Gueorguiev 1978 S86
            `--+--C. haemorrhoidalis M01
               `--+--C. glyphicus M01
                  `--C. kalaharii M01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880. – IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5-72.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[M01] Miller, K. B. 2001. On the phylogeny of the Dytiscidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) with emphasis on the morphology of the female reproductive system. Insect Systematics and Evolution 32: 45-92.

[M03] Miller, K. B. 2003. The phylogeny of diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) and the evolution of sexual conflict. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 79: 359-388.

[R89] Régimbart, M. 1889. Enumération des Haliplidae, Dytiscidae et Gyrinidae recueillis par M.r le Prof. L. Balzan dans l'Amérique méridionale et description de quelques autres espèces voisines. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 256-268.

[RB02] Ribera, I., R. G. Beutel, M. Balke & A. P. Vogler. 2002. Discovery of Aspidytidae, a new family of aquatic Coleoptera. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 269: 2351-2356.

[S86] Spangler, P. J. 1986. Insecta: Coleoptera. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 622-631. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175-183.

Colymbetinae

Rhantus frontalis, photographed by Josef Dvořák.


Belongs within: Dytiscidae.

The Colymbetinae is a clade of diving beetles diagnosed by the presence of transverse rugae on the dorsal surface of the lateral margins of abdominal sternum two, and usually of unequal metatarsal claws in both sexes. The majority of species are included in a tribe Colymbetini, characterised by a female genital system with a separate bursa and vagina, with the bursa copulatrix long, slender and slightly twisted, and a large and broad spermathecal duct attaching near the base of the bursa (Miller 2001).

<==Colymbetinae
    |--Anisomeria [Anisomeriini] M01
    |--Carabdytes Balke, Hendrich & Wewalka 1992 [Carabdytini] M01
    |    `--*C. upin Balke, Hendrich & Wewalka 1992 M01
    `--Colymbetini M01
         |--Meladema coriacea M01
         |--Batrachomatus Clark 1863 LM87
         |    |--*B. wingi Clark 1863 LM87
         |    `--B. daemeli (Sharp 1882) [=Matus daemeli; incl. B. burnsi Mouchamps 1964] LM87
         `--Rhantus Dejean 1833 M01, LM87 [=Rantus LM87]
              |  i. s.: R. suturalis (Macleay 1825) LM87 (see below for synonymy)
              |         R. flavicollis G89
              |         R. impar Guignot 1956 LM87
              |         R. moreneri Falkenström 1937 LM87
              |         R. pulverosus F02
              |         R. simulans Régimbart 1908 LM87
              |--R. pseudopacificus M01
              `--+--R. calidus M01
                 `--+--+--R. atricolor M01
                    |  |--R. binotatus M03
                    |  |--R. frontalis M01
                    |  |--R. gutticollis Say 1834 M01, ZL74 [incl. R. hoppingi Wallis 1933 ZL74, R. mexicanus ZL74]
                    |  |--R. sericans M01
                    |  |--R. signatus M01
                    |  `--Hoperius planatus M01
                    `--+--Colymbetes Clairville 1806 M03, M01
                       |    |--C. densus M01
                       |    |--C. dolabatus CS77
                       |    |--C. exaratus M03
                       |    `--C. paykulli M03
                       `--+--R. (Nartus) M01
                          |    |--R. (N.) grapii M01
                          |    `--R. (N.) sinuatus M01, M03
                          `--Neoscutopterus M03
                               |--N. angustus M03
                               `--N. hornii M01

Rhantus suturalis (Macleay 1825) LM87 [=Colymbetes suturalis LM87; incl. R. australis Aubé 1836 LM87, C. pulverosus Stephens 1828 LM87, *R. pulverosus LM87, R. suturalis var. virgulatus C01]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[F02] Foord, M. 2002. Entomological Society conference field trip 2002. Weta 24: 37–38.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[M01] Miller, K. B. 2001. On the phylogeny of the Dytiscidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) with emphasis on the morphology of the female reproductive system. Insect Systematics and Evolution 32: 45–92.

[M03] Miller, K. B. 2003. The phylogeny of diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) and the evolution of sexual conflict. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 79: 359–388.

[ZL74] Zimmerman, J. R., & J. A. Ludwig. 1974. Multiple-discriminant analysis of geographical variation in the aquatic beetle, Rhantus gutticollis (Say) (Dytiscidae). Systematic Zoology 24 (1): 63–71.

Last updated: 25 May 2017.

Lecanoromycetidae

Map lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum, from fir0002.


Belongs within: Lecanoromycetes.
Contains: Psoraceae, Lecideaceae, Ectolechiaceae, Stereocaulaceae, Teloschistales, Physciaceae, Caliciaceae, Cladoniaceae, Bacidiaceae, Parmeliaceae, Lecanoraceae, Collematineae, Peltigerineae.

The Lecanoromycetidae are a large clade of mostly lichenised fungi. Most subclades form lichens in association with green algae; species that associate with cyanobacteria are found only in the clade Peltigerales (though most species of that clade are cyanobacteria-associates). Recent authors have divided the group between the orders Lecanorales, Peltigerales and Teloschistales, but the 'Lecanorales' are most likely paraphyletic with regard to the other two orders. This may lead to it being divided in the future between several subdivided orders such as the Caliciales, indicated by molecular analyses to include the families Caliciaceae and Physciaceae.

Characters (from Kirk et al. 2008): Thallus very varied. Ascomata almost always apothecial, flat to strongly cup-shaped, with or without a thalline margin, rarely mazaedial. Interascal tissue of paraphyses, usually branched and swollen at apices, often with a pigmented of J+ epithecium, rarely absent. Asci typically with single wall layer visible in light microscopy but thick-walled, almost always with conspicuous thick cap-like apical part, often with complex apical structures, often J+, rarely thin-walled and evanescent. Ascospores very varied. Mainly lichen-forming (with protococcoid green or cyanobacterial photobionts), some lichenicolous or saprobes (then especially on wood in xeric conditions).

Lecanoromycetidae [Cladoniineae, Lecanorales, Lecanorineae]
    |--Porpidiaceae ML04
    |    |--Amygdalaria EB03Outline
    |    |--Bellemerea EB03Outline
    |    |--Catarrhospora EB03Outline
    |    |--Clauzadea EB03Outline
    |    |--Farnoldia EB03Outline
    |    |--Immersaria EB03Outline
    |    |--Koerberiella EB03Outline
    |    |--Labyrintha EB03Outline
    |    |--Mycobilimbia EB03Outline
    |    |--Paraporpidia EB03Outline
    |    |--Poeltiaria EB03Outline
    |    |--Poeltidea EB03Outline
    |    |--Stephanocyclos EB03Outline
    |    |--Xenolecia EB03Outline
    |    `--Porpidia EB03Outline
    |         |--P. albocoerulescens ML04
    |         `--P. crustulata LS01
    `--+--+--Stereocaulaceae ML04
       |  `--+--Crocynia [Crocyniaceae] LK04
       |     |    |--C. lanuginosa F33
       |     |    `--C. pyxinoides LK04
       |     `--Sphaerophoraceae EB03Outline
       |          |--Austropeltum EB03Outline
       |          |--Bunodophoron EB03Outline
       |          |--Leifidium EB03Outline
       |          |--Neophyllis Wilson 1891 [=Phyllis Wilson 1889 (nom. illeg.)] WA02
       |          |    |--*N. melacarpa (Wilson) Wilson 1891 (see below for synonymy) WA02
       |          |    `--N. pachyphylla (Müller) Gotth. Schneid. 1979 [=Psora pachyphylla Müller 1887] WA02
       |          `--Sphaerophorus ML04
       |               |--S. compressus D03
       |               |--S. globosus ML04
       |               `--S. tener D03
       `--+--+--+--Teloschistales ML04
          |  |  `--Caliciales ML04
          |  |       |--Physciaceae ML04
          |  |       `--Caliciaceae ML04
          |  `--+--Sporostatia LK04
          |     |    |--S. polyspora LK04
          |     |    `--S. testudinea LK04
          |     `--Rhizocarpaceae ML04
          |          |--Catolechia EB03Outline
          |          |--Epilichen EB03Outline
          |          |--Poeltinula EB03Outline
          |          `--Rhizocarpon ML04
          |               |--R. disporum (Nägeli) Müller 1853 [=Lecidea dispora Nägeli ex Hepp 1853] FC03
          |               |--R. geminatum Körb. 1855 (see below for synonymy) FC03
          |               |--R. geographicum F33
          |               `--R. lecanorinum C74
          `--+--+--+--Cladoniaceae JK06
             |  |  `--Bacidiaceae JK06
             |  `--+--Parmeliaceae JK06
             |     `--+--Lecanoraceae JK06
             |        `--Mycoblastus [Mycoblastaceae] JK06
             |             `--M. sanguinarius JK06
             `--Peltigerales ML04
                  |  i. s.: Coccocarpiaceae ML04
                  |           |--Peltularia EB03Outline
                  |           |--Spilonema EB03Outline
                  |           |--Steinera glaucella ML04
                  |           `--Coccocarpia ML04
                  |                |--C. palmicola J87
                  |                `--C. pellita J87
                  |--Collematineae ML04
                  `--Peltigerineae ML04

Lecanoromycetidae incertae sedis:
  Anzia [Anziaceae] EB03Outline
  Arthrorhaphis [Arthroraphidaceae] EB03Outline
  Biatorella [Biatorellaceae] EB03Outline
  Dactylospora [Dactylosporaceae] EB03Outline
  Gypsoplaca [Gypsoplacaceae] EB03Outline
  Haematomma [Haematommataceae] EB03Outline
    `--H. coccineum T59
         |--H. c. var. coccineum T59
         `--H. c. var. porphyrium T59
  Loxospora [Loxosporaceae] EB03Outline
  Miltidea [Miltideaceae] EB03Outline
  Ophioparma [Ophioparmaceae] EB03Outline
  Pachyascus [Pachyascaceae] EB03Outline
  Cetradonia Wei & Ahti 2002 [Cetradoniaceae] WA02
    `--*C. linearis (Evans) Wei & Ahti 2002 (see below for synonymy) WA02
  Arctomiaceae EB03Outline
    |--Arctomia EB03Outline
    `--Wawea EB03Outline
  Megalariaceae EB03Outline
    |--Megalaria EB03Outline
    `--Tasmidella EB03Outline
  Candelariaceae EB03Outline
    |--Candelariella vitellina EB03Outline, C74
    |--Candelina EB03Outline
    |--Clarouxia EB03Outline
    `--Placomaronea EB03Outline
  Ramalinaceae EB03Outline
    |--Cenozosia EB03Outline
    |--Ramalinopsis EB03Outline
    |--Vermilacinia EB03Outline
    `--Ramalina S03
         |--R. lacera HP03
         |--R. peruviana J87
         `--R. shinanoana Kashiwadani 1986 S03
  Micareaceae EB03Outline
    |--Helocarpon EB03Outline
    |--Micarea EB03Outline
    |--Psilolechia EB03Outline
    `--Roccellinastrum EB03Outline
  Psoraceae EB03Outline
  Catillariaceae EB03Outline
    |--Austrolecia EB03Outline
    |--Halecania EB03Outline
    |--Placolecis EB03Outline
    |--Sporastatia EB03Outline
    |--Toninia EB03Outline
    |    |--T. physaroides M08
    |    `--T. sedifolia EB03Notes
    `--Xanthopsorella EB03Outline
  Pilocarpaceae EB03Outline
    |--Bapalmuia EB03Outline
    |--Felhanera EB03Outline
    |--Felhaneropsis EB03Outline
    |--Lobaca EB03Outline
    |--Byssolecania EB03Outline [incl. Dothiomyces E99]
    |    `--B. fumosonigricans [incl. *Dothiomyces xouepiae] E99
    `--Byssoloma EB03Outline [incl. Crocicreomyces E99]
         `--‘*Crocicreomyces’ guttiferae E99
  Lecideaceae EB03Outline
  Brigantiaeaceae EB03Outline
    |--Argopsis EB03Outline
    `--Brigantiaea EB03Outline
  Ectolechiaceae EB03Outline
  Psathyrophlyctis [Phlyctidaceae] EB03Outline
  Vezdaea [Vezdaeaceae] EB03Outline
  Auriculora EB03Outline
  Bartletiella EB03Outline
  Botryolepraria EB03Outline
  Bouvetiella EB03Outline
  Buelliastrum EB03Outline
  Corticifraga EB03Outline
  Corticiruptor EB03Outline
  Eschatogonia EB03Outline
  Haploloma EB03Outline
  Myxobilimbia EB03Outline
  Nimisiostella EB03Outline
  Notolecidea EB03Outline
  Piccolia EB03Outline
  Podotara EB03Outline
  Psorotichiella EB03Outline
  Ravenelula EB03Outline
  Sporacestra EB03Outline
  Stenhammarella EB03Outline
  Timdalia EB03Outline

*Cetradonia linearis (Evans) Wei & Ahti 2002 [=Cladonia linearis Evans 1947, Gymnoderma lineare (Evans) Yoshimura & Sharp 1968] WA02

*Neophyllis melacarpa (Wilson) Wilson 1891 [=Phyllis melacarpa Wilson 1891, Gymnoderma melacarpum (Wilson) Yoshimura 1973; incl. Psora dactylophylla Müller 1893, Lecidea dactylophylla (Müller) Zahlbr. 1925, Phyllopsora melanocarpa Müller 1895] WA02

Rhizocarpon geminatum Körb. 1855 [incl. Lecidea atro-alba var. concreta Acharius 1808 (nom. rej.), Catillaria concreta (Acharius) Massalongo 1852, L. confervoides var. concreta (Acharius) Schaerer 1828, Rhizocarpon concretum (Acharius) Elenkin 1904] FC03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440–2755. Myconet 2: 1–41.

[EB03Notes] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, T. Laessøe & G. Rambold (eds.) 2003. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 3580–3623. Myconet 9: 91–103.

[EB03Outline] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota—2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In: Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9 sect. 4 pt 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

[FC03] Fryday, A. M., & B. J. Coppins. 2003. (1578) Proposal to reject the name Lecidea atro-alba var. concreta Ach. (lichenized Ascomycota, Rhizocarpaceae). Taxon 52: 351.

[HP03] Hauck, M., A. Paul, S. Gross & M. Raubuch. 2003. Manganese toxicity in epiphytic lichens: chlorophyll degradation and interaction with iron and phosphorus. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49: 181–191.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818–822.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, D. W. Minter & J. A. Stalpers (eds) 2008. Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LS01] Lumbsch, H. T., I. Schmitt, H. Döring & M. Wedin. 2001. Molecular systematics supports the recognition of an additional order of Ascomycota: the Agyriales. Mycological Research 105 (1): 16–23.

[LK04] Lutzoni, F., F. Kauff, C. J. Cox, D. McLaughlin, G. Celio, B. Dentinger, M. Padamsee, D. Hibbett, T. Y. James, E. Baloch, M. Grube, V. Reeb, V. Hofstetter, C. Schoch, A. E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, J. Spatafora, D. Johnson, S. Hambleton, M. Crockett, R. Shoemaker, G.-H. Sung, R. Lücking, T. Lumbsch, K. O'Donnell, M. Binder, P. Diederich, D. Ertz, C. Gueidan, K. Hansen, R. C. Harris, K. Hosaka, Y.-W. Lim, B. Matheny, H. Nishida, D. Pfister, J. Rogers, A. Rossman, I. Schmitt, H. Sipman, J. Stone, J. Sugiyama, R. Yahr & R. Vilgalys. 2004. Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits. American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1446–1480.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[ML04] Miadlikowska, J., & F. Lutzoni. 2004. Phylogenetic classification of peltigeralean fungi (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) based on ribosomal RNA small and large subunits. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 449–464.

[S03] Sinha, G. P. 2003. Additions to the lichen flora of India from Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1–4): 221–224.

[T59] Travé, J. 1959. Sur le genre Niphocepheus Balogh 1943. Les Niphocepheidae, famille nouvelle (acariens, oribates). Acarologia 1 (4): 475–498.

[WA02] Wei, J.-C., & T. Ahti. 2002. Cetradonia, a new genus in the new family Cetradoniaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota). Lichenologist 34 (1): 19–31.

Fungi

Culture of Basidiobolus ranarum, from the University of Adelaide.


Belongs within: Opisthokonta.
Contains: Trichoconis, Microsporidia, Neocallimastigaceae, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiales, Entomophthorales, Meromycetidae, Mortierellaceae, Mucorales, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota.

The Fungi are a large clade of often filamentous heterotrophic organisms, with vegetative and/or spore cell walls of chitin and β-glucan, and lacking phagocytosis (Cavalier-Smith 1998). Basal members of the fungi retain ciliate zoospores, but many lineages (including all macroscopic fungi) have lost cilia in all stages of the life cycle. Earlier authors divided fungi other than the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota between Chytridiomycota (ciliate at some stage in the life cycle) and Zygomycota (lacking cilia at all times), but these are not phylogenetically coherent groups in these senses, with the loss of cilia having occurred multiple times (James et al. 2006). Rozella allomycis, an intracellular parasite of other fungi previously included within the 'chytridiomycetes', has been identified as a potential close relative of the Microsporidia, a group of intracellular parasites of animals (James et al. 2006).

Fungi (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Rozella Cornu 1872 JK06, AS12 [Cryptomycota, Rozellida]
    |  |    `--R. allomycis JK06
    |  `--Microsporidia JK06
    `--+--+--Neocallimastigaceae JK06
       |  `--Chytridiomycota JK06
       `--+--Blastocladiales JK06
          `--+--+--+--Entomophthorales JK06
             |  |  `--+--Olpidium brassicae JK06
             |  |     `--Basidiobolus [Basidiobolales, Bolomycetes] JK06
             |  |          |--B. haptosporus LK04
             |  |          `--B. ranarum JK06
             |  `--Meromycetidae JK06
             `--+--Mucormycotina [Mucoromycetidae] JK06
                |    |--Mortierellaceae JK06
                |    `--+--Mucorales JK06
                |       `--Endogone Link 1809 JK06, AS12 [Endogonaceae, Endogonales]
                |            `--E. pisiformis JK06
                `--Symbiomycota LK04
                     |--Glomeromycota JK06
                     `--Dikarya [Dikaryomycota, Neomycota] JK06
                          |  i. s.: Dendropleella Munk 1953 B01
                          |           `--D. hirta B01
                          |--Ascomycota JK06
                          `--Basidiomycota JK06

Fungi incertae sedis:
  Hormonema dematioides KS01
  Metarhizium anisopliae CM07
    |--M. a. var. anisopliae H04
    `--M. a. var. acridum H04
  Tolypocladium M-RL01
  Thermomyces lanuginosus BY03
  Dilophospora alopecuri L02a
  Harposporium anguillulae L02b
  Drechmeria coniospora KH02
  Paecilomyces KH02
    |--P. lilacinus KH02
    `--P. marquandii KH02
  Xanthophyllomyces dendorous BJ03
  Phaffia rhodozyma SM03
  Syncephalis depressa SM03
  Amblyosporium botrytis NU03
  Eccrinales C-S98
  Acontium velatum PHK96
  Microsporum PHK96
    |--M. audouinii PHK96
    `--M. canis PHK96
  Drechslera sorokiniana PHK96
  Pityrosporum PHK96
    |--P. orbiculare PHK96
    `--P. ovale PHK96
  Epidermophyton floccosum PHK96
  Madurella mycetomatis PHK96
  Cephalosporium DP72
    |--C. acremonium PHK96
    `--C. macrosporum Rivolta 1873 DP72
  Gymnopilus dilepis P88
  Lasiodiplodia theobromae RS99
  Metasphaeria typhoides RS99
  Entomophaga CM07
    |--E. aulicae SSW01
    |--E. batkoi CM07
    |--E. maimaiga SS96
    `--E. praxibuli SS96
  Cystopage KH02
  Capniomyces stellatus SSW01
  Circinomucor circinelloides SSW01
  Eryniopsis ptycopterae SSW01
  Furculomyces boomerangus SSW01
  Genistelloides hibernus SSW01
  Pandora SSW01
    |--P. neoaphidis SSW01
    `--P. phalangicida CM07
  Strongwellsea castrans SSW01
  Zoophthora radicans [incl. Z. culisetae] SSW01
  Nomuraea atypicola B90
  Atractilina Dearness & Bartholomew 1924 DP72
    |--A. parasitica (Winter) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    `--A. asterinae (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis asterinae Hansford 1942] DP72
  Redbia Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--*R. pucciniicola Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Paratrichoconis Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--*P. chinensis (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis chinensis Hansford 1948] DP72
  Vermispora Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--*V. grandispora Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Tuberculispora Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--*T. jamaicensis Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Acrostaurus Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--*A. turneri Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  *Monosporiella meliolicola (Spegazzini) Spegazzini 1918 [=Monosporium meliolicola Spegazzini 1910] DP72
  Trichoconis DP72
  Scolecobasidium pusillum Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Calcarisporium DP72
    |--C. echinosporum Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--C. setiphilum Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Domingoella Petrak & Ciferri 1932 DP72
    `--*D. asterinarum Petrak & Ciferri 1932 DP72
  Spermosporella DP72
    |--*S. aggregata Deighton 1969 DP72
    `--S. pulvinata Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Triposporina DP72
    |--T. aphanopaga Drechsler 1937 DP72
    |--T. quadridens Drechsler 1962 DP72
    `--T. uredinicola Höhnel 1912 DP72
  Spermatoloncha maticola Spegazzini 1908 DP72
  Cylindrocarpon DP72
    |--C. didymum (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--C. luteoviride Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--C. macrosporum (Spegazzini) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--C. orthosporum DP72
    |--C. tenue DP72
    `--C. ugandense Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Phaeotrichoconis crotalariae (Salam & Rao) Subramanian 1956 [=Trichoconis crotalariae] DP72
  Botryodiplodia theobromae DP72
  Phaeophragmeriella englerulae DP72
  Eriomycopsis Spegazzini 1910 DP72
    |--*E. bonplandi Spegazzini 1910 [=E. bomplandi] DP72
    |--E. acrophioglossa Ciferri 1954 DP72
    |--E. biseptata Chevaugeon 1956 DP72
    |--‘Dactylaria’ domina-gregem Ciferri 1955 DP72
    |--E. flagellata Hansford 1942 DP72
    |--E. fusarioides (Stevens) Ciferri 1954 [=Trichothecium fusarioides Stevens 1917] DP72
    |--E. meliolinae Hansford 1947 DP72
    |--E. minuta Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--E. paraensis Batista & Peres 1965 DP72
  Acremoniula sarcinellae [incl. Domingoella pycnopeltarum] DP72
  Arthrobotryum DP72
    |--*A. stilboideum DP72
    `--A. ugandense Hansford 1943 DP72
  Sympodiophora Arnold 1970 DP72
    |--*S. stereicola Arnold 1970 DP72
    |--S. didyma Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--S. meliolae (Stevens) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--S. mycophila (Tubaki) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Dactylaria mycophila Tubaki 1955] DP72
    |--S. pulchella Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--S. tenuis (Sydow) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--S. varanasiensis Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--S. venezuelensis Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Melanographium citri DP72
  Dothidiella derridis DP72
  Exosporium stilbaceum DP72
  Titaea doidgeae DP72
  Dimerina parasitica DP72
  Didymopsis Saccardo & Marchal 1885 DP72
    |--*D. perexigua Saccardo & Marchal 1885 DP72
    |--D. congoensis DP72
    |--D. helvellae [=Didymaria helvellae] DP72
    |--D. locustanae DP72
    |--D. phyllogena DP72
    |--D. radicivora DP72
    `--D. spicata DP72
  Cephalosporiopsis Peyronel 1916 [incl. Cephalodiplosporium Kamyschko 1961] DP72
    |--*C. alpina (Peyronel) Peyronel 1916 [=Cephalothecium alpinum] DP72
    |--C. asterinicola DP72
    |--C. carnivora DP72
    |--‘*Cephalodiplosporium’ elegans Kamyschko 1961 DP72
    |--C. imperfecta DP72
    `--C. parasitica DP72
  Phyllosticta M27
    |--P. castanopsis D2003
    |--P. dearnessii M27
    |--P. ruborum M27
    `--P. variabilis Peck 1884 M27
  Hymenostilbe verrucosa CM07
  Engyodonthium aranearum CM07
  Ceratiopsis de Wildeman 1896 FT93
  Pyrgidium Nylander 1867 FT93
  Ramilina americana AB-E04
  Hamaspora acutissima M27
  Pestalozzia M27
    |--P. antennaeformis Murray 1927 M27
    `--P. longiseta M27
  Coryneum M27
    |--C. foliicolum M27
    |--C. microstictum M27
    `--C. ruborum M27
  Hirneola auricula-judae A27
  Caldariomyces fumago HS98
  Polystictus velutinus B30
  Neuropogon trachycarpus D1903
  Cladina J87
    |--C. confusa J87
    |--C. rangiferina J87
    |    |--C. r. ssp. rangiferina J87
    |    `--C. r. ssp. abbayesii J87
    `--C. subtenuis J87
  Fistulariella inflata J87
  Favolus cucullatus J87
  Paneolus campanulatus J87
  Pestalotiopsis versicolor RH91
  Illosporium carneum M60
  Cetraria M60
    |--C. aculeata M08
    `--C. islandica M60
         |--C. i. var. islandica M60
         `--C. i. var. tenuifolia M60
  Microcyclus ulei BSA97
  Thielaviopsis basicola AGS93
  Piromonas Liebetanz 1910 HAJ00
  Hagenia crinalis H04

Atractilina parasitica (Winter) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Arthrosporium parasiticum Winter 1886, Arthrobotryum parasiticum (Winter) Hansford 1943; incl. Eriomycopsis bosqueiae Hansford 1942, *Atractilina callicarpae Dearness & Bartholomew 1924, Arthrobotryum caudatum Sydow & Sydow in de Wildeman 1909, Arthrobotryum deightonii Hansford 1946, Arthrobotryum dieffenbachiae Stevens 1918, Podosporium pallidum Patouillard in Seaver & Chardon 1926, Isariopsis penicillata Ellis & Everhart 1895, Phaeoisariopsis penicillata (Ellis & Everhart) Jong & Morris 1968, Arthrobotryum tecomae Hennings 1904] DP72

Cylindrocarpon macrosporum (Spegazzini) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Cephalothecium macrosporum Spegazzini 1886, Cephalosporium microsporum (l. c.); incl. Cephalosporiopsis asterinicola Batista & Nascimento 1956, Cephalosporiopsis parasitica Hansford 1943, Didymopsis phyllachorae Sydow 1939] DP72

Cylindrocarpon didymum [incl. Hyalopus macrosporus Mańka & Gierczak 1963 non Cephalothecium macrosporum Spegazzini 1886] DP72

Fungi [Amastigomycota, Archemycota, Carpomycetes, Dictyomycotina, Entomycetidae, Eomycota, Eozygomycetia, Eumycetes, Eumycophyta, Eumycota, Glomomycetes, Inophyta, Melanomycotina, Mycetalia, Mycota, Mykophyta, Neozygomycetia, Opisthomastigomycota, Pedomycetidae, Spizomycetidae, Uniflagellatae, Zoomycetes, Zygomycetes, Zygomycota, Zygomycotina]

Sympodiophora meliolae (Stevens) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Acremonium meliolae Stevens 1918, A. meliola] DP72

Sympodiophora tenuis (Sydow) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis tenuis Sydow 1927, Ramularia tenuis (Sydow) Toro in Seaver & Chardon 1932 non Davis 1924] DP72

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429-493.

[AB-E04] Agapow, P.-M., O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds, K. A. Crandall, J. L. Gittleman, G. M. Mace, J. C. Marshall & A. Purvis. 2004. The impact of species concept on biodiversity studies. Quarterly Review of Biology 79 (2): 161-179.

[AGS93] Ahl Goy, P., H. Signer, R. Reist, R. Aichholz, W. Blum, E. Schmidt & H. Kessmann. 1993. Accumulation of scopoletin is associated with the high disease resistance of the hybrid Nicotiana glutinosa × Nicotiana debneyi. Planta 191: 200-206.

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[B01] Barr, M. E. 2001. Montagnulaceae, a new family in the Pleosporales, and lectotypification of Didymosphaerella. Mycotaxon 77: 193-200.

[BY03] Baumgartner, M., A. Yapi, R. Gröbner-Ferreira & K. O. Stetter. 2003. Cultivation and properties of Echinamoeba thermarum n. sp., an extremely thermophilic amoeba thriving in hot springs. Extremophiles 7: 267-274.

[BJ03] Berry, A., D. Janssens, M. Hümbelin, J. P. M. Jore, B. Hoste, I. Cleenwerck, M. Vancanneyt, W. Bretzel, A. F. Mayer, R. Lopez-Ulibarri, B. Shanmugam, J. Swings & L. Pasamontes. 2003. Paracoccus zeaxanthinifaciens sp. nov., a zeaxanthin-producing bacterium. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 231-238.

[B90] Bishop, L. 1990. Entomophagous fungi as mortality agents of ballooning spiderlings. Journal of Arachnology 18: 237-238.

[B30] Bose, S. R. 1930. The biology of wood-rotting fungi. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 33.

[BSA97] Breton, F., C. Sanier & J. d’Auzac. 1997. Scopoletin production and degradation in relation to resistance of Hevea brasiliensis to Corynespora cassiicola. Journal of Plant Physiology 151: 595-602.

[C-S98] Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203-266.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones (R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet, eds) pp. 339-373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[D2003] David, J. C. 2003. Orthographic conundrums: The problem of –opsis and –botrys. Taxon 52: 603-608.

[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1-110.

[D1903] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899-1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HS98] Hara, I., & T. Sakurai. 1998. Isolation and characterization of vanadium bromoperoxidase from a marine macroalga, Ecklonia stolonifera. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 72: 23-28.

[HAJ00] Ho, Y. W., N. Abdullah & S. Jalaludin. 2000. The diversity and taxonomy of anaerobic gut fungi. Fungal Diversity 4: 37-51.

[H04] Hunter, D. M. 2004. Advances in the control of locusts (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in eastern Australia: from crop protection to preventive control. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 293-303.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818-822.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KH02] Kerry, B. R., & W. M. Hominick. 2002. Biological control. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 483-509. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[KS01] Kirschner, R., J. P. Sampaio, M. Gadanho, M. Weiß & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. Cuniculitrema polymorpha (Tremellales, gen. nov. and sp. nov.), a heterobasidiomycete vectored by bark beetles, which is the teleomorph of Sterigmatosporidium polymorphum. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 80: 149-161.

[L02a] Lee, D. L. 2002a. Cuticle, moulting and exsheathment. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 171-209. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02b] Lee, D. L. 2002b. Behaviour. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 369-387. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[LK04] Lutzoni, F., F. Kauff, C. J. Cox, D. McLaughlin, G. Celio, B. Dentinger, M. Padamsee, D. Hibbett, T. Y. James, E. Baloch, M. Grube, V. Reeb, V. Hofstetter, C. Schoch, A. E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, J. Spatafora, D. Johnson, S. Hambleton, M. Crockett, R. Shoemaker, G.-H. Sung, R. Lücking, T. Lumbsch, K. O'Donnell, M. Binder, P. Diederich, D. Ertz, C. Gueidan, K. Hansen, R. C. Harris, K. Hosaka, Y.-W. Lim, B. Matheny, H. Nishida, D. Pfister, J. Rogers, A. Rossman, I. Schmitt, H. Sipman, J. Stone, J. Sugiyama, R. Yahr & R. Vilgalys. 2004. Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits. American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1446-1480.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289-348.

[M-RL01] Meyer-Rochow, V. B., & A. R. Liddle. 2001. Some ecological and ethological observations on Hendea myersi cavernicola (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Opiliones), a seeing troglobite. Natura Croatica 10 (3): 133-140.

[M27] Murray, B. J. 1927. Four fungi on the endemic species of Rubus in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 218-225.

[M60] Murray, J. 1960. Studies on New Zealand lichens. Part III.—The family Peltigeraceae. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 381-399.

[NU03] Nagao, H., S. Udagawa, N. L. Bougher, A. Suzuki & I. C. Tommerup. 2003. The genus Thecotheus (Pezizales) in Australia: T. urinamans sp. nov. from urea-treated jarrah (Eucalyptus marginatus) forest. Mycologia 95 (4): 688-693.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RH91] Ramani, N., & M. A. Haq. 1991. Potential of Meristacarus degradatus and Xylobates rhomboides (Acari: Oribatei) in the degradation of higher plant materials. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 411-415. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

[SM03] Saldarriaga, J. F., M. L. McEwan, N. M. Fast, F. J. R. Taylor & P. J. Keeling. 2003. Multiple protein phylogenies show that Oxyrrhis marina and Perkinsus marinus are early branches of the dinoflagellate lineage. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 355-365.

[SSW01] Schüßler, A., D. Schwarzott & C. Walker. 2001. A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: Phylogeny and evolution. Mycological Research 105 (12): 1413-1421.

[SS96] Simberloff, D., & P. Stilling. 1996. How risky is biological control? Ecology 77 (7): 1965-1974.

Cladoniaceae

British soldiers Cladonia cristatella, photographed by Zen Sutherland.


Belongs within: Lecanoromycetidae.

The Cladoniaceae is a family of lichenised fungi, especially abundant in cold climates. Species of Cladonia are among the primary food sources for grazers such as reindeer in tundra regions. Ascomata are borne at the top of vertical podetia, which may also contain symbiotic algae (as in Cladonia) or not (as in Gymnoderma).

Characters (from Cannon & Kirk 2007): Thallus usually dimorphic, composed of an evanescent to persistent, crustose, foliose or squamulose primary thallus lacking rhizoids and a more or less vertical, usually branched, solid or hollow secondary thallus bearing the ascomata. Soredia sometimes present. Ascomata apothecial, entire to lobate, without a fully differentiated margin, often brightly coloured, sometimes proliferating. Interascal tissue of sparsely branched and anastomosed paraphyses. Asci cylindric-clavate, thickened at apex,with J+ apical cap and usually a J+ gelatinous outer layer. Ascospores usually aseptate and hyaline. Cephalodia sometimes present. Anamorphs coelomycetous, pycnidial, with simple more or less filiform spermatial conidia. Lichenised with green algae.

<==Cladoniaceae
    |--Pycnothelia papillaria EB03, E99
    |--Calathaspis EB03
    |--Heteromyces EB03
    |--Metus EB03
    |--Myelorrhiza EB03
    |--Ramalea EB03
    |--Sphaerophoropsis EB03
    |--Thysanothecium EB03
    |--Cladia [Cladiaceae] EB03
    |    `--C. aggregata E99
    |--Pilophorus (Tuck.) Fries 1858 [=Stereocaulon sect. Pilophoron Tuck. 1848] F33
    |    |--P. acicularis E99
    |    |--P. cereolus (Acharius) Fries 1874 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    `--P. robustus Fries 1857 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |--Gymnoderma Nylander 1860 (nom. cons.) EB03, WA02
    |    |--*G. coccocarpum Nylander 1860 (see below for synonymy) WA02
    |    |--G. insulare Yoshimura & Sharp 1968 WA02
    |    `--‘Heterodea’ madagascarea Nylander 1888 WA02
    `--Cladonia F33
         |--C. alcicornis [incl. C. foliacea] F33
         |--C. arbuscula HP03
         |    |--C. a. ssp. arbuscula HP03
         |    `--C. a. ssp. mitis HP03
         |--C. bacillaris F33
         |--C. bellidiflora E99
         |--C. caespititia F33
         |--C. caroliniana JK06
         |--C. ceratophylla J87
         |--C. cervicornis M08
         |--C. coccifera F33
         |--C. coniocraea M08
         |--C. convoluta M08
         |--C. cornucopiae H04
         |--C. cristatella PHK96
         |--C. degenerans F33
         |--C. didyma J87
         |    |--C. d. var. didyma J87
         |    `--C. d. var. vulcanica J87
         |--C. digitata F33
         |--C. endiviaefolia C74
         |--C. fimbriata H04
         |--C. floerkeana F33 [=C. macilenta ssp. floerkeana M08]
         |--C. furcata F33
         |--C. gracilis F33
         |--C. leptophylla F33
         |--C. merochlorophaea J87
         |--C. multipartita J87
         |--C. papillaria F33
         |--C. perfoliata H04
         |--C. pleurota M08
         |--C. pycnoclada D03
         |--C. pyxidata F33
         |    |--C. p. ssp. pyxidata M08
         |    |--C. p. ssp. chlorophaea M08
         |    `--C. p. ssp. pocillum M08
         |--C. ramulosa J87
         |--C. rangiformis M08
         |--C. retipora H04
         |--C. spiculata J87
         |--C. squamosa J87
         |    |--C. s. var. squamosa J87
         |    `--C. s. var. subsquamosa J87
         |--C. subcervicornis E99
         |--C. subradiata J87
         |--C. subulata M08
         |--C. symphycarpa M08
         |--C. verticillata H04
         `--C. yunnana WA02

*Gymnoderma coccocarpum Nylander 1860 [=Cladonia coccocarpa (Nylander) Evans 1860; incl. C. botryocephala Hepp in Zollinger 1854] WA02

Pilophorus cereolus (Acharius) Fries 1874 [=Lichen cereolus Acharius 1798, Pilophoron cereolus, Stereocaulon cereolus (Acharius) Acharius 1803; incl. S. cereolinum Acharius 1814, S. paschale var. cereolinum (Acharius) Schaerer 1833, S. fibula Tuck 1848] F33

Pilophorus robustus Fries 1857 [=Pilophoron robustum, Pilophorus cereolus f. robustus (Fries) Tuck. 1882; incl. Pilophoron polycarpum Tuck. 1858] F33

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Cannon, P. F., & P. M. Kirk. 2007. Fungal Families of the World. CABI.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440–2755. Myconet 2: 1–41.

[EB03] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota—2003. Myconet 9: 1–89.

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In: Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9 sect. 4 pt 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HP03] Hauck, M., A. Paul, S. Gross & M. Raubuch. 2003. Manganese toxicity in epiphytic lichens: chlorophyll degradation and interaction with iron and phosphorus. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49: 181–191.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818–822.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[WA02] Wei, J.-C., & T. Ahti. 2002. Cetradonia, a new genus in the new family Cetradoniaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota). Lichenologist 34 (1): 19–31.

Stereocaulaceae

Stereocaulon ramulosum, photographed by Andrea Ugarte.


Belongs within: Lecanoromycetidae.
Contains: Stereocaulon botryosum.

The Stereocaulaceae is a family of lichenised fungi found in temperate parts of the world. Members of the Stereocaulaceae are characterised by pseudopodetia, stem-like structures growing from vegetative granular stages of the thallus, and cephalodia containing symbiotic cyanobacteria, with green algae in the main body of the lichen (Myllys et al. 2005).

<==Stereocaulaceae
    |--Muhria EB03Outline
    |--Lepraria [incl. Leproloma] EB03Notes
    |    `--‘Lichen’ membranaceus [=Leproloma membranaceum] E99
    `--Stereocaulon Schreber 1791 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |--S. alpinum (Mudd) Laurer ex Funck 1827 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |  i. s.: S. a. f. adpressum Magnusson 1926 F33
         |    |         S. a. f. pulvinarium Sav. 1923 F33
         |    |         S. a. f. walamoense (Nylander) Frey 1933 [=S. tomentosum f. walamoense Nylander 1860] F33
         |    |--S. a. var. alpinum F33
         |    |--S. a. var. erectum Frey 1933 F33
         |    `--S. a. var. gracilentum (Fries) Magnusson 1926 [=S. paschale var. gracilentum Fries 1858] F33
         |--S. botryophorum F33
         |--S. botryosum Acharius 1810 F33
         |--S. capitellatum Magnusson 1926 F33
         |--S. carinthiacum Frey 1933 F33
         |--S. condensatum Hoffmann 1796 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |--S. c. f. condensatum F33
         |    |--S. c. f. acaulon (Nylander) Magnusson 1926 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |--S. c. f. condyloideum (Nylander) Magnusson 1926 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |--S. c. f. crustaceum F33
         |    `--S. c. f. septentrionale Magnusson 1926 F33
         |--S. condyloideum Acharius 1803 F33
         |--S. coralloides Fries 1817 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |  i. s.: S. c. f. expansum Magnusson 1926 F33
         |    |         S. c. f. pumilum Nylander ex Harmand 1907 F33
         |    |         S. c. f. subbotryosum Frey 1933 F33
         |    |--S. c. var. coralloides F33
         |    |--S. c. var. flabellatum Frey 1933 F33
         |    |--S. c. var. occidentale Magnusson 1926 F33
         |    `--S. c. var. pygmaeum Frey 1933 F33
         |--S. cornutum F33
         |--S. delisei Bory ex Duby 1830 [=S. coralloides var. delisei (Bory) Boistel 1903] F33
         |--S. denudatum Floerke 1819 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |  i. s.: S. d. f. capitatum Flot. ex Körb. 1855 F33
         |    |         S. d. f. digitatum Laurer 1831 F33
         |    |         S. d. f. tenue Laurer 1831 F33
         |    |         S. d. f. validum Laurer 1831 F33
         |    |--S. d. var. denudatum F33
         |    |--S. d. var. depressum Magnusson 1926 F33
         |    |--S. d. var. umbonatum (Wallroth) Vainio 1888 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    `--S. d. var. umbricolum Frey 1933 F33
         |--S. evolutoides (Magnusson) Frey 1933 [=S. paschale var. evolutoides Magnusson 1926] F33
         |--S. evolutum Graewe 1865 [incl. S. evolutum var. typicum Fries 1870] F33
         |    |--S. e. f. evolutum F33
         |    `--S. e. f. planum Magnusson 1926 F33
         |--S. farinaceum Magnusson 1926 F33
         |--S. glareosum (Savicz) Magnusson 1926 [=S. tomentosum f. glareosum Savicz 1914] F33
         |--S. grande (Magnusson) Frey 1933 [=S. paschale var. grande Magnusson 1926] F33
         |--S. incrustatum Flk. 1819 [=S. tomentosum var. incrustatum (Flk.) Schaerer 1833] F33
         |    |  i. s.: S. i. f. gracilis Frey 1933 F33
         |    |--S. i. var. incrustatum F33
         |    `--S. i. var. abduanum (Anzi) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |--S. leprocephalum F33
         |--S. microscopicum (Villars) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |--S. myriocarpum F33
         |--S. paschale (Linnaeus) Hoffmann 1796 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |  i. s.: S. p. f. subcrustosum Fries 1831 F33
         |    |         S. p. f. thyrsoideum (Schaerer) Rabh. 1845 [=S. thyrsoideum Schaerer 1833] F33
         |    |         S. p. f. velutinum Frey 1933 F33
         |    |--S. p. var. paschale F33
         |    |--S. p. var. conglomeratum Fries 1824 F33
         |    `--S. p. var. serpens Fries 1871 F33
         |--S. pileatum Acharius 1810 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |--S. p. f. pileatum F33
         |    |--S. p. f. macrum Magnusson 1926 F33
         |    |--S. p. f. ramificans Magnusson 1926 F33
         |    |--S. p. f. sessile Magnusson 1926 F33
         |    `--S. p. f. sorediiferum Nylander 1895 F33
         |--S. ramulosum LS01
         |    |--S. r. var. ramulosum D03
         |    `--S. r. var. implexum D03
         |--S. rivulorum Magnusson 1926 F33
         |--S. saxatile Magnusson 1926 F33
         |--S. saxonicum Bachmann 1927 F33
         |--S. spissum Nylander ex Hue 1887-1888 F33
         |    |  i. s.: S. s. f. dactylinum Frey 1933 F33
         |    |         S. s. f. granuliferum Frey 1933 F33
         |    |--S. s. var. spissum F33
         |    `--S. s. var. laxum Frey 1933 F33
         |--S. subcoralloides (Nylander) Nylander 1874 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |--S. subintricans Nylander 1875 F33
         |--S. taeniarum E99 [=S. paschale f. taeniarum Magnusson 1926 F33]
         |--S. tomentosum Fries 1824 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |  i. s.: S. t. f. incisocrenatum Schaerer 1850 F33
         |    |         S. t. f. leptothamnium Frey 1933 F33
         |    |         S. t. f. truncatum Frey 1933 F33
         |    |--S. t. var. tomentosum F33
         |    |--S. t. var. alpestre Flotow 1836 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |--S. t. var. compactum Frey 1933 F33
         |    `--S. t. var. hercynicum Frey 1933 F33
         |--S. tyroliense (Nylander) Lettau 1918 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |--S. t. var. tyroliense F33
         |    `--S. t. var. lapponum Magnusson 1926 F33
         |--S. vesuvianum E99 [=S. denudatum var. vesuvianum Laurer ex Hepp 1853 F33]
         `--S. wrightii F33

Stereocaulon Schreber 1791 [=Patellaria sect. Stereocaulon (Schreber) Wallroth 1831; incl. S. sect. Cereolus Körb. 1855, Chlorocaulon Clements 1909, S. sect. Chondrocaulon Fries 1857, S. sect. Eustereocaulon Körb. 1855, Leprocaulon Nylander ex Lamy 1878, S. sect. Phyllocaulon Tuck. 1882, S. sect. Prostereocaulon Riddle 1910, Stereocladium Nylander 1875] F33

Stereocaulon alpinum (Mudd) Laurer ex Funck 1827 [=S. paschale var. alpinum Mudd 1861; incl. S. alpinum var. botryosum (Acharius) Laurer ex Fries 1831, S. paschale f. ramuliferum Nylander 1866, S. tomentosum var. alpinum f. verrucosum Fries 1858] F33

Stereocaulon condensatum Hoffmann 1796 [=Cereolus condensatus (Hoffmann) Boistel 1903, Lichen condensatus (Hoffmann) Acharius 1798; incl. Patellaria pileata var. thamnodes Wallroth 1831] F33

Stereocaulon condensatum f. acaulon (Nylander) Magnusson 1926 [=S. acaulon Nylander 1876, S. condensatum var. acaulon (Nylander) Oliv. 1897] F33

Stereocaulon condensatum f. condyloideum (Nylander) Magnusson 1926 [=S. condensatum var. condyloideum Nylander 1861, Cereolus condensatus var. condyloides (Nylander) Boistel 1903] F33

Stereocaulon coralloides Fries 1817 [incl. S. corallinum Laurer ex Fries 1831, S. paschale var. corallinum (Laurer) Schaerer 1833, S. dactylophyllum Floerke 1819, S. coralloides var. dactylophyllum (Floerke) Fries 1858, S. paschale var. dactylophyllum (Floerke) Branth & Rostr. 1869, S. dactylophyllum f. major Sommerf. 1826, S. roesleri Hochstetter ex Frey 1933 (n. n.)] F33

Stereocaulon denudatum Floerke 1819 [=Baeomyces denudatus (Floerke) Hepp 1824, S. paschale var. denudatum (Floerke) Schaerer 1833; incl. S. denudatum var. commune Fries 1871, S. denudatum var. genuinum Fries 1870, S. denudatum var. validum Rabh. 1845] F33

Stereocaulon denudatum
var. umbonatum (Wallroth) Vainio 1888 [=Patellaria paschalis var. umbonata Wallroth 1831; incl. S. denudatum f. pulvinatum (Schaerer) Magnusson 1926] F33

Stereocaulon incrustatum var. abduanum (Anzi) Frey 1933 [=S. abduanum Anzi 1864, S. tomentosum var. abduanum (Anzi) Olivier 1907] F33

Stereocaulon microscopicum (Villars) Frey 1933 [=Lichen microscopicus Villars 1789; incl. Li. nanus Acharius 1798, Baeomyces nanum (Acharius) Hepp 1824, Leprocaulon nanum (Acharius) Nylander ex Lamy 1878, Stereocaulon nanum (Acharius) Acharius 1803, Lichen quisquiliaris Leers 1775, S. quisquiliare (Leers) Hoffmann 1796] F33

Stereocaulon paschale (Linnaeus) Hoffmann 1796 [=Lichen paschalis Linnaeus 1753, Baeomyces paschalis (Linnaeus) Wahlenberg 1812, Cladonia paschalis (Linnaeus) Baumgarten 1790; incl. Stereocaulon paschale f. typicum D. R. 1926] F33

Stereocaulon pileatum Acharius 1810 [=Cereolus pileatus (Acharius) Boistel 1903, S. cereolinum var. pileatum (Acharius) Fries 1857] F33

Stereocaulon subcoralloides
(Nylander) Nylander 1874 [=S. paschale f. subcoralloides Nylander 1861; incl. S. coralloides var. conglomeratum Fries 1858] F33

Stereocaulon tomentosum Fries 1824 [=S. paschale var. tomentosum (Fries) Duby 1830; incl. S. tomentosum var. campestre Körb. 1855] F33

Stereocaulon tomentosum var. alpestre Flotow 1836 [=S. alpinum var. alpestre (Flotow) Fries 1858; incl. S. tomentosum var. granulosum Schaerer 1850] F33

Stereocaulon tyroliense (Nylander) Lettau 1918 [=Stereocladium tyroliense Nylander 1875, Stereocaulon alpinum var. tyroliense (Nylander) Arnold 1877, Stereocaulon tomentosum var. tyroliense (Nylander) Olivier 1907] F33

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[EB03Notes] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, T. Laessøe & G. Rambold (eds.) 2003. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 3580-3623. Myconet 9: 91-103.

[EB03Outline] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota – 2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9) sect. 4, part 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

[LS01] Lumbsch, H. T., I. Schmitt, H. Döring & M. Wedin. 2001. Molecular systematics supports the recognition of an additional order of Ascomycota: The Agyriales. Mycological Research 105 (1): 16-23.

Myllys, L., F. Högnabba, K. Lohtander, A. Thell, S. Stenroos & J. Hyvönen. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of Stereocaulaceae based on simultaneous analysis of beta-tubulin, GAPDH and SSU rDNA sequences. Taxon 54 (3): 605-618.