New Zealand horse mussel Atrina zelandica from Ryan Photographic.

Belongs within: Pteriomorphia.
Contains: Malleidae, Pterioidea, Ostreoidea.

The Pterioida contains three major lineages of living bivalves, the Pinnidae, Pterioidea and Ostreoidea, supported as a monophylum by molecular analyses (Giribet & Wheeler 2002). Members of the clade tend to have elongate shells, equivalve in Pinnidae but inaequivalve in Pterioidea and Ostreoidea, attached to their substrate by a byssus in Pinnidae and Pterioidea and cemented in Ostreoidea. It is possible that the equivalve Pinnidae are secondarily so, as they have been suggested to be descended from the inaequivalve Palaeozoic Pterineidae (Carter 2004).

Pterioids and stem pinnids have a duplivincular ligament with multiple low-angle ligament groves in the shell each anchoring a separate calcified fibrous sublayer, but modern pinnids have reduced the ligament to a single sublayer. The Devonian Palaeopinna is morphologically intermediate between Pterineidae and Pinnidae but its hinge and ligament structure remains unknown (Carter 2004). The nacreous component of the shell in modern pinnids is reduced, and the outer layer of the shell itself can flex to open and close the shell.

The early Palaeozoic Rhombopteriidae had a rhomboidal, near-equivalve shell without a distinct byssal notch. The Ordovician to Permian Pterineidae were similar in appearance to the modern Pteriidae. The Ambonychiacea, an Ordovician to Jurassic group somewhat intermediate in appearance between the Pteriidae and the mussels of the Mytilidae, may also belong here; some Carboniferous and Permian members of the ambonychiacean family Myalinidae were found in fresh and brackish waters.

    |--Rhombopteris F71 [Rhombopteriidae C04]
    |    `--R. obliqua Sherrard 1959 F71
    `--+--+--Pterioidea C04
       |  `--Ostreoidea C04
       |--Pterineidae C04
       |    |--Pteronitella Billings 1874 C04
       |    |--Leptodesma Hall 1883 C04
       |    |    |--L. inflatum Dun 1878 F71
       |    |    `--L. (Leiopteria) lunulata (Phillips 1836) ZP86
       |    `--Pterinea pumila M87
       `--+--Palaeopinna Hall 1883 C04
          `--Pinnidae [Pinnoidea] C04
               |--Streptopinna saccata (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
               |--Pteronites M’Coy in M’Coy & Griffith 1844 [incl. Aviculopinna Meek 1864] C04
               |    |--P. americana (Meek 1867) [=Aviculopinna americana] C04
               |    |--P. pittmani Etheridge 1894 F71
               |    `--P. tanipteroides Etheridge 1907 F71
               |--Atrina Gray 1840 P61
               |    |--*A. nigra (Dillwyn 1817) P61, H09 [=Pinna nigra P61]
               |    |--A. distans [=Pinna distans] F27a
               |    |--A. lata [=Pinna lata] F27a
               |    |--A. pectinata (Linnaeus 1767) BW09
               |    |--A. rigida (Lightfoot 1786) C04
               |    |--A. senticosa [=Pinna senticosa] F27a
               |    |--A. tateana Hedley 1924 [=Pinna semicostata Tate 1886 non Conrad 1837] F27b
               |    |--A. vexillum (Born 1778) BW09
               |    `--A. zelandica (Gray 1835) [=Pinna zelandica] F27a
               `--Pinna Linnaeus 1758 S98
                    |--*P. rudis Linnaeus 1758 S98
                    |--P. assimilis Reeve 1858 H09
                    |--P. bicolor Gmelin 1791 BW09
                    |--P. carnea CH97
                    |--P. digitiformis Linnaeus 1758 L58
                    |--P. freneixae Zinsmeister & Macellari 1988 S98
                    |--P. fumata Reeve 1858 H09
                    |--P. lobata Linnaeus 1758 L58
                    |--P. muricata Linnaeus 1758 BW09
                    |--P. neozelanica H86
                    |--P. nobilis Linnaeus 1758 L58
                    |--P. pennacea Linnaeus 1758 L58
                    |--P. peracuta W77
                    |--P. petrina White 1874 W77
                    |--P. renauxiana W77
                    |--P. rotundata Linnaeus 1758 L58
                    |--P. saccata Linnaeus 1758 L58
                    |--P. semicostata Conrad 1837 F27b
                    |--P. serrata Sowerby 1825 H09
                    |--P. stutchburii Reeve 1858 H09
                    `--P. vexillum Born 1778 H09

Pterioida incertae sedis:
  Ambonychiacea G88
    |  i. s.: Ambonychia poststriata Etheridge 1891 F71
    `--Myalinidae G88
         |--Septimyalina Newell 1942 W60
         |    `--S. perattenuata (Meek & Hayden 1858) C04
         |--Atomodesma Beyrich 1864 W60
         |    `--A. mitchelli (M’Coy 1847) [=Inoceramus mitchelli, Aphanaia mitchelli] F71
         `--Myalina de Koninck 1844 W77
              |--M. recurvirostris W77
              `--M. swallovi W77
  Malleidae MG-H11

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C04] Carter, J. G. 2004. Evolutionary implications of a duplivincular ligament in the Carboniferous pinnid Pteronites (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia). Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 235–240.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M87] Mitchell, J. 1887. Notes on the geology of Bowning, N.S.W. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1193–1204.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[W60] Waterhouse, J. B. 1960. Some Carnian pelecypods from New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 425–442.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[ZP86] Zhang, R., & J. Pojeta Jr. 1986. New bivalves from the Datang Stage, Lower Carboniferous, Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Paleontology 60 (3): 669–679.

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