Reconstruction of Rhombopteria mira, from Stanley (1972).

Belongs within: Pteriomorphia.
Contains: Malleidae, Ambonychioidea, Inoceramus, Platyceramus, Mytiloides, Pterineidae, Pinnidae, Pterioidea, Ostreoidea.

The Pterioida are a clade of three major lineages of living bivalves, the Pinnidae, Pterioidea and Ostreoidea, supported as a monophylum by molecular analyses (Giribet & Wheeler 2002). Members of the clade tend to have elongate shells, equivalve in Pinnidae but inaequivalve in Pterioidea and Ostreoidea, attached to their substrate by a byssus in Pinnidae and Pterioidea and cemented in Ostreoidea. It is possible that the equivalve Pinnidae are secondarily so as they have been suggested to be descended from the inaequivalve Palaeozoic Pterineidae (Carter 2004).

Pterioids and stem pinnids have a duplivincular ligament with multiple low-angle ligament groves in the shell each anchoring a separate calcified fibrous sublayer but modern pinnids have reduced the ligament to a single sublayer. The Devonian Palaeopinna is morphologically intermediate between Pterineidae and Pinnidae but its hinge and ligament structure remains unknown (Carter 2004). This genus had an elongate shell ornamented with radial costellae, with small, terminal beaks, a truncate anterior margin and broad, posterior region bearing acute, compressed wing.

The early Palaeozoic Rhombopteria had a rhomboidal, near-equivalve shell without a distinct byssal notch. This genus has been suggested as an ancestor of both the remaining Pterioida and the related Pectinida though it overlapped in time with some members of the Pterineidae. Other fossil pterioids include the Inoceramidae, a Late Permian and Mesozoic group with concentrically lamellose or plicate shells that occasionally grew to enormous size. The ligament area typically bore numerous regularly arranged ligament pits with curved sides. The Jurassic Retroceramus resembled the Inoceramidae but its equivalve shell contrasts with the inequivalve shells of many inoceramids. The Permian Atomodesma, another inoceramid-like genus, had an inequivalve shell with a duplivincular ligament.

<==Pterioida [Pteriida]
    |--Rhombopteria SB93 [Rhombopteriidae C04]
    |    |--R. mira (Barrande 1881) SB93
    |    `--R. obliqua Sherrard 1959 F71
    `--+--Pterineidae C04
       |--+--Palaeopinna Hall 1883 C04
       |  `--Pinnidae C04
       `--+--Pterioidea C04
          `--Ostreoidea C04

Pterioida incertae sedis:
  Malleidae MG-H11
  Ambonychioidea G88
  Liebea [Kolymiidae] JB12
    |--L. hausmanni G31
    |--L. indica G31
    `--L. sinensis G31
  Atomodesmidae SB93
    |--Atomodesma Beyrich 1864 W60
    |    |--A. mitchelli (M’Coy 1847) [=Inoceramus mitchelli, Aphanaia mitchelli] F71
    |    `--A. variabile Wanner 1922 SB93
    `--Aphanaia SB93
         |--A. gigantea F71
         `--A. tivertonensis Waterhouse 1979 SB93
  Inoceramidae SB93
    |--Inoceramus B59
    |--Birostrina K79
    |--Magadiceramus subquadratus K79
    |--Platyceramus K79
    |--Permoceramus brownei Waterhouse 1970 SB93
    |--Tenuipteria K79
    |    |--T. argentea (Conrad 1858) SB93
    |    |--T. fibrosus K79
    |    `--T. tegulatus K79
    |--Cladoceramus K79
    |    |--C. cordiformis K79
    |    |--C. japonicus K79
    |    `--C. undulatoplicatus K79
    |--Sphenoceramus K79
    |    |--S. lingua K79
    |    |--S. lobatus K79
    |    |--S. pachti K79
    |    `--S. steenstrupi K79
    `--Mytiloides K79
  Alatoconchidae SB93
    |--Shikamaia SB93
    |    |--S. (Alatoconcha) vampyra (Termier et al. 1973) SB93
    |    `--S. (Tanchintongia) perakensis (Runnegar & Gobbett 1975) SB93
    `--Saikraconcha SB93
         |--S. (Dereconcha) kamparensis Yancey & Boyd 1983 SB93
         |--S. ogulineci (Kochansky-Devidé 1978) SB93
         `--S. tunisiensis Yancey & Boyd 1983 SB93
  Eurydesma Morris 1845 W60 [Eurydesmidae SB93
    |--E. alisulcatum Waterhouse 1987 SB93
    |--E. cordatum (see below for synonymy) F71
    |    |--E. c. cordatum SB93
    |    `--E. c. truncatum Waterhouse 1987 SB93
    |--E. hobartense F71
    `--E. playfordi JB12
  Pergamidiidae SB93
    |--Oretia coxi Marwick 1953 SB93
    |--Semuridia dorsetensis (Cox 1926) SB93
    |--Pergamidea Bittner 1891 W60
    |    `--P. eumena [incl. P. attalea Bittner 1891] W60
    `--Manticula Waterhouse 1960 SB93, W60 [=Maoria Wilckens 1927 non Castelnau 1867 W60]
         `--‘Mytilus’ trechmanni Waterhouse 1960 (see below for synonymy) W60
  Monopteria Meek & Worthen 1866 W77 [Monopteriidae SB93]
    |--M. longa G31
    |--M. longispina Meek & Worthen 1866 SB93 [=Gervillia longispina W77]
    `--M. marian White 1874 W77
  Umburra [Umburridae] SB93
    `--U. cinefacta Johnston 1991 SB93
  Kochia [Kochiidae] SB93
    |--K. alata Maurer 1902 SB93
    `--K. capuliformis (Koch 1881) SB93
  Lithiotidae SB93
    |--Lithiotis problematica Gümbel 1874 SB93
    `--Cochlearites loppianus (Tausch 1890) SB93
  Cassianellidae SB93
    |--Cassianella crassispinosus Chronic 1949 SB93
    `--Septihoernesia SB93
         |--S. johannisaustriae (Klipstein 1845) SB93
         `--S. subglobosa SB93
  Datta [Dattidae] SB93
    `--D. oscillaris Healey 1908 SB83
  Retroceramus [Retroceramidae] SB93
    |--R. everesti (Oppel 1865) SB93
    |--R. foliiormis Pokhialainen 1969 SB93
    |--R. levis Koskelkina 1969 SB93
    |--R. marwicki E01
    `--R. subtilis SB93
  Pulvinites [Pulvinitidae] SB93
    `--P. (Hypotrema) liasicus Damborenea 1987 SB93

Eurydesma cordatum [incl. E. elliptica Dana 1849, E. globosa Dana 1849, E. cordatum var. ovale Etheridge & Dun 1910, E. cordatum var. sacculum Dana 1849] F71

‘Mytilus’ trechmanni Waterhouse 1960 [incl. Myt. mirabilis Trechmann 1918 non Gervillea mirabilis Lepsius 1878, Myt. problematicus Zittel 1864 non Schlotheim 1820, *Manticula problematica, Myalina (*Maoria) problematica] W60

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B59] Boreham, A. U. E. 1959. Cretaceous fossils from the Chatham Islands. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 119–125.

[C04] Carter, J. G. 2004. Evolutionary implications of a duplivincular ligament in the Carboniferous pinnid Pteronites (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia). Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 235–240.

[E01] Eagle, M. K. 2001. A new species of Cottreauaster (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) from the Middle Jurassic of New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 93–100.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W60] Waterhouse, J. B. 1960. Some Carnian pelecypods from New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 425–442.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

Last updated: 6 March 2022.

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