Eriophyoidea

Phyllocoptes fructiphilus, from the USDA, Agricultural Research Service.


Belongs within: Prostigmata.
Contains: Eriophyes, Aceria.

The Eriophyoidea are a highly diverse group of phytophagous mites with a worm-ike body form and only two pairs of legs, with the hind pairs lost. They feed by inserting their cheliceral stylets into plant cells and sucking out the cell contents. A distinct prodorsal shield is present at the front of the body; this may carry multiple setae in members of the family Phytoptidae, but carries at most one or often often no setae in the Diptilomiopidae and Eriophyidae (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Soft-bodied or armoured dorsally, annulate, worm-like. Gnathosoma with an open dorsomedian infracapitular gutter that ensheaths 7-9 stylet-like structures, flanked by simple, weakly four-segmented palpi; cheliceral shafts stylet-like (imperceptibly split into fixed and movable parts apically), accompanied by a pair of auxiliary stylets, an unpaired oral stylet (the labrum), and a lateral pair of guide-like structures that sometimes end in freely projecting stylet-like apices; cheliceral bases not enlarged, not forming a stylophore; without stigmata and tracheae. Prodorsum covered by a prodorsal shield bearing maximally 5, minimally 0, simple setae, none of which is inserted in bothridia; prodorsum usually lacking eyes, or rarely with a pair of smooth, somewhat convex, eyelike areas laterally. Opisthosoma wither vermiform, with numerous narrow small annuli differentiated little from dorsum to venter, or fusiform, with dorsal annuli consolidated into a series of fewer, thicker, less flexible 'tergites', delineated laterally from more numerous narrow ventral annuli; opisthosoma lacking all cupules (lyrifissures), with setation reduced to maximally seven pairs of setae, of which 3-4 pairs displaced ventrolaterally to resemble ventral setae; caudally, opisthosoma terminating with adhesive structure flanked dorsally by pair of elongate caudal setae. Genital opening transverse, positioned more or less closely behind legs II; genital opening exposed in male but covered by an anteriorly hinged flap in female. With only two pairs of anteriorly inserted legs, lacking pairs III-IV; legs lacking true (paired) claws, but with a well-developed, unpaired empodial featherclaw. Leg setation reduced to maximum of six setae each, none bothridial; tarsi I-II consistently with a solenidion, which is usually inserted dorsodistally and often claw-like in form. Three active postembryonic instars: larva, nymph and adult.

Eriophyoidea [Phytoptina, Tetrapodili]
    |  i. s.: Anthocoptes helianthella WL09
    |         Acathrix WL09
    |         Boczekella WL09
    |         Dialox WL09
    |         Acrinotus WL09
    |--Diptilomiopidae [Diptiliomiopini, Rhyncaphytoptidae] K09a
    |    |--Catarhinus tricholaenae WL09
    |    |--Cheiracus sulcatus WL09
    |    |--Rhynacus kraussi W99
    |    |--Diptilomiopus Nalepa 1917 H98
    |    |    |--D. camarae W99
    |    |    `--D. davisi Keifer 1969 H98
    |    |--Diptacus Keifer 1951 H98
    |    |    |--D. gigantorhynchus (Nalepa 1892) [=Phyllocoptes gigantorhynchus] H98
    |    |    `--D. hederiphagus K09a, LA01
    |    `--Rhyncaphytoptus Keifer 1939 H98
    |         |--R. ficifoliae Keifer 1939 H98
    |         |--R. negundivagrans O01
    |         `--R. ulmivagrans O01
    |--Phytoptidae [Sierraphytoptinae] WL09
    |    |  i. s.: Phytoptus Dujardin 1851 [incl. Phytocoptella Newkirk & Keifer 1971] H98
    |    |           |--P. avellanae Nalepa 1890 [=Eriophyes avellanae, Phytocoptella avellanae] H98
    |    |           |--P. hedericola WL09
    |    |           |--P. leucothonius WL09
    |    |           `--P. terminalis G91
    |    |         Retracarus WL09
    |    |           |--R. elaeis WL09
    |    |           `--R. johnstoni WL09
    |    `--Nalepellinae WL09
    |         |--Pentasetacus WP99 [Pentasetacini WL09]
    |         |    `--P. araucariae WP99
    |         |--Nalepella [Nalepellini] WL09
    |         |    |--N. haarlovi WL09
    |         |    `--N. tsugifoliae WL09
    |         `--Trisetacus [Trisetacini WL09]
    |              |--T. kirghisorum Shevchenko 1962 NF01
    |              |--T. pini WL09
    |              `--T. quadrisetus WL09
    `--Eriophyidae Z91
         |  i. s.: Phyllocoptruta Keifer 1938 H98
         |           |--P. musae Keifer 1955 H98
         |           |--P. oleivora (Ashmead 1879) (see below for synonymy) H98
         |           `--P. seringueirae MF07
         |         Tegolophus Keifer 1961 H98
         |           |--T. australis Keifer 1964 H98
         |           |--T. brunneus MF07
         |           |--T. myersi FYP07
         |           `--T. perseaflorae MF07
         |         Colomerus Newkirk & Keifer 1971 H98
         |           `--C. vitis (Pagenstecher 1857) [=Phytoptus vitis, Eriophyes vitis] H98
         |         Calepitrimerus Keifer 1938 H98
         |           `--C. vitis (Nalepa 1905) [=Phyllocoptes vitis, Epitrimerus vitis] H98
         |         Epitremerus coactus BC01
         |         Acaphylla Keifer 1943 H98
         |           |--A. steinwedeni Keifer 1943 H98
         |           `--A. theae (Watt & Mann 1903) [=Phytoptus theae] H98
         |         Tegonatus convolvuli G91
         |         Aleacarus sacchari G91
         |         Cecidophyopsis Keifer 1959 H98
         |           |--C. ribis (Westwood 1869) [=Phytoptus ribis] H98
         |           `--C. vermiformis WL09
         |         Paraphytoptus G91
         |           |--P. chrysanthemi G91
         |           `--P. magdalenae W99
         |         Aculops Keifer 1966 H98
         |           |--A. bassiae Keifer 1971 H98
         |           |--A. fockeui [incl. A. cornutus] WL09
         |           |--A. fuchsia NMF07
         |           |--A. keiferi Southcott & Lange 1971 H98
         |           |--A. lycopersici (Tryon 1917) (see below for synonymy) H98
         |           |--A. pelekassi WL09
         |           `--A. toxicophagus BC01
         |         Platyphytoptus NF01
         |           |--P. pineae Castagnoli 1973 NF01
         |           `--P. sabinianae Keifer 1938 NF01
         |         Abacarus Keifer 1944 H98
         |           |--A. gossypii G91
         |           |--A. hystrix (Nalepa 1896) [=Callyntrotus hystrix] H98
         |           `--A. sacchari MF07
         |         Acalitus MB91
         |           |--A. adoratus BC01
         |           |--A. essigi MB91
         |           |--A. gossypii G91
         |           `--A. stenaspis NMF07
         |         Calacarus Keifer 1940 H98
         |           |--C. carinatus (Green 1890) [=Typhlodromus carinatus] H98
         |           |--C. citrifolii YM91
         |           |--C. flagelliseta MF07
         |           |--C. heveae MF07
         |           `--C. lantanae W99
         |         Aculus Keifer 1959 H98
         |           |--A. comatus K09b
         |           |--A. copallina Keifer 1959 S69
         |           |--A. cornutus MB91
         |           |--A. fockeui (Nalepa & Trouessart 1891) (see below for synonymy) H98
         |           |--A. hyperici (Liro 1943) [=Phyllocoptes hyperici, Vasates hyperici] H98
         |           |--A. robiniae WP99
         |           |--A. schlechtendali (Nalepa 1891) [=Phyllocoptes schlechtendali] H98
         |           `--A. uleae L91
         |         Vasates MB91
         |           |--V. aceriscrumena O01
         |           |--V. allotrichus MB91
         |           |--V. euphorbiae BC01
         |           |--V. fockeui MB91
         |           |--V. quadripedes O01
         |           `--V. robiniae MB91
         |         Metaculus mangiferae WL09
         |         Epitrimerus Nalepa 1898 H98
         |           |--E. calami Keifer 1969 H98
         |           `--E. taraxaci WL09
         |         Floracarus perrepae WL09
         |         Cysaberoptus kenyae MF07
         |         Amrineus cocofolius MF07
         |         Neocalacarus mangiferae MF07
         |         Notegonotus guavae MF07
         |         Notostrix MF07
         |           |--N. attenuata MF07
         |           |--N. jamaicae MF07
         |           `--N. nasutiformes MF07
         |         Rhombacus Keifer 1965 H98
         |           |--R. asclepiadii Keifer 1969 H98
         |           |--R. eucalypti MF07
         |           |--R. morrisi Keifer 1965 H98
         |           `--R. rheumella Keifer 1970 H98
         |         Shevtchenkella MF07
         |           |--S. petiolula MF07
         |           `--S. stefneseri W99
         |         Spinacus pagonis MF07
         |         Tegonotus mangiferae MF07
         |         Tetra MF07
         |         Acadicrus Keifer 1965 H98
         |           |--A. bifurcatus Keifer 1965 H98
         |           |--A. eucalypti (Gurney 1924) [=Eriophyes eucalypti] H98
         |           `--A. mergiferus Keifer 1965 [incl. A. viminalis Keifer 1965 (n. n.)] H98
         |         Acalox Keifer 1975 H98
         |           `--A. ptychocarpi Keifer 1975 H98
         |         Acerimina Keifer 1957 H98
         |           `--A. cedrelae Keifer 1957 [=A. cedreli (l. c.)] H98
         |         Anothopoda Keifer 1959 H98
         |           `--A. johnstoni Keifer 1959 H98
         |         Colopodacus Keifer 1960 H98
         |           `--C. glochidionis Keifer 1969 H98
         |         Cosetacus Keifer 1966 H98
         |           `--C. camelliae (Keifer 1945) [=Aceria camelliae] H98
         |         Ectomerus Newkirk & Keifer 1975 H98
         |           `--E. anysis (Keifer 1970) [=Stenacis anysis] H98
         |--Ashieldophyinae WL09
         |--Aberoptinae WL09
         |--Cecidophyes [Cecidophyinae] WL09
         |    `--C. rouhollahi WL09
         |--Eriophyinae WL09
         |    |--Eriophyes WL09
         |    `--Aceria L91
         `--Phyllocoptes Nalepa 1887 H98 [Phyllocoptinae WL09]
              |--P. abaenus Keifer 1940 H98
              |--P. euphorbiae BC01
              |--P. fructiphilus BC01
              |--P. gracilis BC01
              `--P. lantanae W99

Fossil gall: Phytoptus antiquus von Heyden 1860 DB11

Aculops lycopersici (Tryon 1917) [=Phyllocoptes lycopersici, Aculus lycopersici, Vasates lycopersici] H98

Aculus fockeui (Nalepa & Trouessart 1891) [=Phyllocoptes fockeui; incl. P. cornutus Banks 1905, Aculus cornutus] H98

Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead 1879) [=Typhlodromus oleivorus, Phyllocoptes oleivorus, Phyllocoptruta oleivorus, Typhlodromus oiliioorus] H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BC01] Briese, D. T., & J. M. Cullen. 2001. The use and usefulness of mites in biological control of weeds. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 453–463. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[DB11] Dunlop, J. A., & S. J. Braddy. 2011. Cteniza bavincourti and the nomenclature of arachnid-related trace fossils. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 250–257.

[FYP07] Faber, B. A., W. L. Yee & P. A. Phillips. 2007. Effect of abamectin treatments for avocado thrips (Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara [Thysanoptera: Thripidae]) on persea mite (Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker and Abbatiello [Acari: Tetranychidae]) and avocado bud mite (Tegolophus myresi Keifer [Acari: Eriophyidae]) populations and on their associated damage to leaves and fruit of avocado (Persea americana). In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 521–527. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[G91] Gupta, S. K. 1991. The mites of agricultural importance in India with remarks on their economic status. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 509–522. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[K09a] Krantz, G. W. 2009a. Form and function. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 5–53. Texas Tech University Press.

[K09b] Krantz, G. W. 2009b. Habits and habitats. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 64–82. Texas Tech University Press.

[L91] Lillo, E. de. 1991. Preliminary observations of ovoviviparity in the gall-forming mite, Aceria caulobius (Nal.) (Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae). In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 223–229. Chapman & Hall: London.

[LA01] Lillo, E. de, & P. Aldini. 2001. Functional morphology of some leg sense organs in Pediculaster mesembrinae (Acari: Siteroptidae) and Phytoptus avellanae (Acari: Phytoptidae). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 217–225. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[MB91] Michalska, K., & J. Boczek. 1991. Sexual behavior of males attracted to quiescent deutonymphs in the Eriophyoidea (Acari). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 549–553. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[MF07] Moraes, G. J. de, & C. H. W. Flechtmann. 2007. Phytophagous mites of tropical crops in eastern South America. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 279–288. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[NF01] Návia, D., & C. H. W. Flechtmann. 2001. Platyphytoptus pineae Castagnoli, an eriophyid mite described from Pinus pinae L. in Italy, present in central Brazil. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 392–393. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[NMF07] Navia, D., G. J. de Moraes & C. H. W. Flechtmann. 2007. Phytophagous mites as invasive alien species: quarantine procedures. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 307–316. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[O01] Ozman, S. K. 2001. The life history and population development of Rhyncaphytoptus negundivagrans Farkas (Acari: Diptilomiopidae). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 352–354. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[W99] Walter, D. E. 1999. Cryptic inhabitants of a noxious weed: mites (Arachnida: Acari) on Lantana camara L. invading forests in Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology 38: 197–200.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[YM91] Yaninek, J. S., & G. J. de Moraes. 1991. A synopsis of classical biological control of mites in agriculture. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 133–149. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Z91] Zemek, R. 1991. Development of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on a diet of the black currant gall mite Cecidophyopsis ribis (Westw.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) and the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 697–702. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

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