Gymnomyzinae

Placopsidella grandis, from the National Museum of Natural History.


Belongs within: Ephydroidea.

The Gymnomyzinae are a group of shore flies with pectinate aristae and small prescutellar acrostichal setae (Mathis 2010).

Characters (from Mathis 2010): Arista pectinate; reclinate fronto-orbital seta usually inserted slightly anterior to larger, proclinate fronto-orbital seta; median facial area and lower facial margin without setae; facial setae inserted in more or less vertical series, parallel with parafacial setae; prescutellar acrostichal setae small (about one-half to two-thirds length of posterior dorsocentral seta), inserted close together (distance between about one-half that between either prescutellar and posterior dorsocentral seta on the same side), behind or aligned with intra-alar seta.

<==Gymnomyzinae M10
    |--Ochthera Latreille 1802 L02 [Ochtherini M10]
    |    |--O. manicata [=Musca manicata] L02
    |    `--O. mantis [=Musca mantis] L02
    |--Hecamede [Hecamedini] M10
    |    |--H. albicans M10
    |    `--H. brasiliensis M10
    |--Atissini M10
    |    |--Ptilomyia mabelae M10
    |    `--Atissa M10
    |         |--A. atlantica M10
    |         `--A. pygmaea WMV87
    |--Gastropsini M10
    |    |--Beckeriella M10
    |    `--Gastrops M10
    |         |--G. nebulosus M10
    |         `--G. niger M10
    |--Discocerinini M10
    |    |--Discocerina obscurella M10
    |    |--Gymnoclasiopa M10
    |    |--Pectinifer aeneus M10
    |    |--Ditrichophora M10
    |    |--Polytrichophora agens M10
    |    |--Hydrochasma leucoproctum M10
    |    |--Lamproclasiopa M10
    |    `--Orasiopa mera M10
    |--Lipochaetini M10
    |    |--Glenanthe interior M10
    |    |--Paraglenanthe bahamensis M10, WMV87
    |    |--Lipochaeta M10
    |    |    |--L. ranica M10
    |    |    `--L. slossonae M10
    |    |--Diphuia M10
    |    |    |--D. anomala M10
    |    |    `--D. nitida M10
    |    `--Allotrichoma M10
    |         |--A. (Pseudohecamede) abdominale M10 [=Pseudohecamede abdominalis WMV87]
    |         `--A. simplex M10
    `--Gymnomyzini M10
         |--Cerometopum lacunosum M10
         |--Mosillus M10
         |    |--M. stegmaieri M10
         |    `--M. tibialis M10
         |--Athyroglossa M10
         |    |--A. glabra M10
         |    |--A. glaphyropus M10
         |    `--A. granulosa M10
         `--Placopsidella M10
              |--P. cynocephala M10
              |--P. grandis M10
              `--P. marquesana M10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[M10] Mathis, W. N. 2010. Ephydridae (shore flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1211–1233. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WMV87] Wirth, W. W., W. N. Mathis & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Ephydridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1027–1047. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Ephydrinae

Alkali flies Ephydra hians, copyright Judy Gallagher.


Belongs within: Ephydroidea.

The Ephydrinae are a group of shore flies with lateroclinate fronto-orbital setae, and a large, cavernous subcranial cavity (Mathis 2010).

Characters (from Mathis 2010): Fronto-orbital setae lateroclinate, usually conspicuous; median facial area and lower facial margin setose, the latter often with long setae (if not, costa short, extended to R4+5); insertions of facial series of setae convergent above; subcranial cavity large and cavernous.

<==Ephydrinae M10
    |  i. s.: Setacera pacifica WMV87
    |         Coenia palustris WMV87, WT11
    |         Paracoenia WMV87
    |           |--P. (Paracoenia) bisetosa WMV87
    |           `--P. (Thiomyia) quatei WMV87
    |         Calocoenia platypelta WMV87
    |         Philotelma alaskense WMV87
    |--Parydra [Parydrini] M10
    |    |--P. (Parydra) aquila WMV87
    |    |--P. fossarum M10
    |    |--P. nigripes M10
    |    `--P. (Chaetoapnaea) parasocia WMV87
    |--Scatellini M10
    |    |--Scatophila cribrata M10
    |    |--Limnellia huachuca M10
    |    |--Haloscatella muria [=Lamproscatella muria] M10
    |    |--Neoscatella vittithorax WMV87, M83
    |    `--Scatella M10
    |         |--S. marinensis M10
    |         |--S. stagnalis P09
    |         `--S. triseta WMV87
    |--Dagini M10
    |    |--Dagus rostratus M10
    |    |--Physemops nemorosus M10
    |    |--Brachydeutera M10
    |    |    |--B. argentata M10
    |    |    |--B. longipes M10
    |    |    `--B. neotropica M10
    |    `--Diedrops M10
    |         |--D. hitchcocki M10
    |         |--D. roldanorum M10
    |         `--D. steineri M10
    `--Ephydrini M10
         |--Dimecoenia spinosa M10
         |--Cirrula M10
         |    |--C. austrina M10
         |    `--C. gigantea WMV87
         `--Ephydra M10
              |  i. s.: E. buresi WMV87
              |         E. gracilis M10
              |         E. mexicana M10
              |         E. millibrae M10
              |         E. packardi M10
              |--E. (Ephydra) M10
              |    |--E. (E.) riparia M10
              |    `--E. (E.) subopaca WMV87
              |--E. (Halephydra) cinerea WMV87
              `--E. (Hydropyrus) hians M10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M10] Mathis, W. N. 2010. Ephydridae (shore flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1211–1233. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[WMV87] Wirth, W. W., W. N. Mathis & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Ephydridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1027–1047. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Calyptratae

Lesser house fly Fannia canicularis, copyright Rui Andrade.


Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Hippoboscidae, Muscidae, Anthomyiidae, Oestroidea.

The Calyptratae are a major clade of flies, most of which possess an enlarged lower calypter on the wing, that include many of the most family fly species. Phylogenetic analyses indicate a basal division between two major lineages, one containing the Hippoboscoidea and the other usually classified as the superfamilies Muscoidea and Oestroidea though the former may be paraphyletic to the latter. The Hippoboscoidea are a group of blood-sucking flies in which the female's vagina is enlarged to form a uterus in which larvae are retained until they can be 'laid' after reaching the pupal stage.

Characters (from Kutty et al. 2010): Pedicel bearing dorsolateral cleft or seam; lower fronto-orbital bristles present; proboscis with hyoid sclerite and labellar pseudotracheae forming prestomal teeth; thorax with complete transverse line; costa with subcostal break and two rows of alternating slender and robust setae; lower calypter often enlarged; abdominal spiracles 2–5 positioned in tergites.

<==Calyptratae [Calypterae, Calyptrata, Pupipara, Schizometopa]
    |  i. s.: Crosskeya gigas F92
    |         Dejeania bombylans (Fabr. 1798) (see below for synonymy) R01
    |         Paraphania diabolus [=Tachina diabolus] R01
    |         Orectocera R01
    |         Stenopteryx hirundinis R13
    |--Hippoboscoidea KP10
    |    |--Hippoboscidae KP10
    |    `--Glossina [Glossinidae, Glossinoidea] KP10
    |         |  i. s.: G. fusca A71
    |         |         G. fuscipleuris A71
    |         |         G. longipalpis A71
    |         |         G. longipennis A71
    |         |         G. medicorum A71
    |         |         G. oligocena GE05
    |         |         G. osborni GE05
    |         |         G. tabaniformis A71
    |         |         G. tachinoides A71
    |         |--G. brevipalpis KP10
    |         `--+--+--G. fuscipes KP10
    |            |  `--G. palpalis KP10
    |            `--+--+--G. austeni KP10
    |               |  `--G. pallidipes KP10
    |               `--+--G. morsitans KP10
    |                  |    |--G. m. morsitans A71
    |                  |    `--G. m. submorsitans A71
    |                  `--G. swynnertoni KP10
    `--Muscoidea KP10
         |  i. s.: Mormotomyia GE05 [Mormotomyiidae CM91]
         |           `--M. hirsuta GE05
         |--+--Muscidae KP10
         |  `--+--Anthomyiidae KP10
         |     `--Oestroidea KP10
         `--Fanniidae [Fanniinae] KP10
              |--Australofannia S10
              |--Piezura Rondani 1866 F92 [incl. Platycoenosia Strobl 1894 S10, F92]
              |--Euryomma Stein 1899 F92
              |    `--E. peregrinum S10
              `--Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 F92 [incl. Coelomyia Haliday 1845 S10, F92, Homalomyia S10]
                   |  i. s.: *F. scalaris (Fabricius 1794) [=Musca scalaris] F92
                   |         F. albitarsis CM91
                   |         F. anthracina S10
                   |         F. australis O98
                   |         F. barbata (Stein 1892) F92
                   |         F. benjamini S10
                   |         F. bisetosa Ringdahl 1926 F92
                   |         F. ciliata (Stein 1895) [=Homalomyia ciliata] F92
                   |         ‘Coelomyia’ ctenophora Fan 1974 F92
                   |         F. difficilis (Stein 1895) [=Homalomyia difficilis] F92
                   |         F. fuscula (Fallén 1825) [=Musca fuscula] F92
                   |         F. glaucescens (Zetterstedt 1845) [=Aricia glaucescens] F92
                   |         F. incisurata (Zetterstedt 1838) [=Anthomyza incisurata] F92
                   |         F. ipinensis Chillcott 1961 F92
                   |         F. kikowensis Ôuchi 1938 F92
                   |         F. kowarzi (Verrall 1892) [=Homalomyia kowarzi] F92
                   |         F. leucosticta (Meigen 1826) [=Anthomyia leucosticta] F92
                   |         F. minutipalpis (Stein 1895) [=Homalomyia minutipalpis] F92
                   |         *Coelomyia’ mollissima Haliday 1840 F92
                   |         F. nodulosa Ringdahl 1926 F92
                   |         F. prisca Stein 1918 F92
                   |         F. ringdahlana Collin 1939 F92
                   |         ‘Homalomyia’ serena K01
                   |         F. similis (Stein 1895) [=Homalomyia similis] F92
                   |         F. sociella (Zetterstedt 1845) [=Aricia sociella] F92
                   |         F. submonilis Ma 1981 F92
                   |         F. subpellucens (Zetterstedt 1845) HV87, F92 (see below for synonymy)
                   |         F. subscalaris Zimin 1945 F92
                   |--F. manicata (Meigen 1826) KP10, F92 [=Anthomyia manicata F92]
                   `--+--F. armata KP10
                      `--F. canicularis (Linnaeus 1761) KP10, F92 [=Musca canicularis F92]

Dejeania bombylans (Fabr. 1798) [=Stomoxys bombylans, Tachina bombylans; incl. D. capensis Rob. Desv. 1830, D. variabilis] R01

Fannia subpellucens (Zetterstedt 1845) HV87, F92 [=Aricia subpellucens F92, Coelomyia subpellucens F92]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HV87] Huckett, H. C., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Muscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1131. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R01] Ricardo, G. 1901. Notes on Diptera from South Africa (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 89–110.

[S10] Savage, J. 2010. Fanniidae (fanniid flies, latrine flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1277–1280. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Discomyzinae

Psilopa polita, copyright Christophe Quintin.


Belongs within: Ephydroidea.

The Discomyzinae are a group of shore flies with pectinate aristae and large prescutellar acrostichal bristles (Mathis 2010).

Characters (from Mathis 2010): Arista pectinate; reclinate fronto-orbital seta usually inserted behind larger proclinate fronto-orbital seta; median facial area and lower facial margin without setae; facial setae inserted in more or less vertical series, parallel with parafacial setae; prescutellar acrostichal setae large (subequal to posterior dorsocentral seta), inserted widely apart (distance between them subequal to that between either prescutellar and the posterior dorsocentral seta on the same side), usually in front of intra-alar seta.

<==Discomyzinae [Psilopinae] M10
    |  i. s.: Platygymnopa helicis WMV87
    |         Trimerinoides adfinis WMV87
    |         Trimerina madizans WMV87
    |         Pelignus salinus WMV87
    |         Nesopsilopa WMV87
    |         Diclasiopa lacteipennis WMV87
    |         Hecamedoides glaucellus WMV87
    |         Asmeringa lindsleyi WMV87
    |         Pelignellus subnudus WMV87
    |--Discomyzini M10
    |    |--Discomyza M10
    |    |--Clasiopella uncinata M10
    |    |--Mimapsilopa M10
    |    |    |--M. cressoni M10
    |    |    `--M. metatarsata M10
    |    |--Helaeomyia petrolei M10, WMV87
    |    |--Paratissa semilutea M10
    |    |--Guttipsilopa M10
    |    `--Rhysophora M10
    |         |--R. ardeoceras M10
    |         |--R. griseola M10
    |         `--R. robusta M10
    `--Psilopini M10
         |--Cressonomyia aciculata M10
         |--Peltopsilopa M10
         |--Ceropsilopa coquilletti M10
         |--Clanoneurum americanum M10, WMV87
         |--Leptopsilopa varipes M10
         `--Psilopa WT11
              |--P. flavida M10
              |--P. girschneri M10
              |--P. metallica M83
              |--P. petrolei WB37
              |--P. polita WT11
              `--P. pulchripes M10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M10] Mathis, W. N. 2010. Ephydridae (shore flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1211–1233. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WB37] Walton, W. R., & F. C. Bishopp. 1937. Dr. L. O. Howard and the Entomological Society of Washington. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (6): 121–132.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[WMV87] Wirth, W. W., W. N. Mathis & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Ephydridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1027–1047. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Streblidae

Trichobius joblingi, from Frank et al. (2014).


Belongs within: Hippoboscidae.
Contains: Nycteribiidae.

The Streblidae, bat flies, are a group of blood-feeding flies ectoparasitic on bats, including both winged and wingless forms.

Characters (from Dick & Miller 2010): Small, tan to light brown flies, body length 0.7–5.5 mm. Females generally slightly larger than males, sexual dimorphism in other non-reproductive structures rare. Head, body and legs generally densely hirsute with body form varying from strongly laterally compressed to dorsoventrally flattened to uncompressed. Eyes generally reduced. Ocelli absent. Head sometimes with ventral ctenidium. Thorax varied in shape, longitudinal median suture and transverse scutal suture various. Legs varied in length, thickness, setal form and chaetotaxy, ranging from short and stout to elongate. Tibiae without apical spurs; claws usually large and simple. Abdomen extensively membranous, corresponding to reduction or loss of sclerites. Macropterous, stenopterous, brachypterous or apterous.

<==Streblidae DM10
    |--+--Nycteribiidae KP10
    |  `--Brachytarsina [Brachytarsininae] KP10
    |       |--B. amboinensis CM91
    |       |--B. minuta CM70
    |       |--B. speiseri KP10
    |       `--B. uniformis CM91
    `--Trichobiinae DM10
         |  i. s.: Pseudostrebla WP87
         |         Eldunnia breviceps WP87, DM10
         |         Stizostrebla longirostris WP87, DM10
         |--+--Paratrichobius KP10
         |  |    |--P. americanus WP87
         |  |    `--P. longicrus DM10
         |  `--Megistopoda [Megistopodini] KP10
         |       |--M. aranea DM10
         |       `--M. proxima DM10
         `--Trichobius [Trichobiinae, Trichobiini] KP10
              |--T. caecus T81
              |--T. corynorhini BW09
              |--T. costalimai K06
              |--T. joblingi DM10
              |--T. longipes K06
              |--T. macrophylli WP87
              |--T. major WP87
              |--T. mixtus K06
              |--T. perspicillatus K06
              `--T. sphaeronotus DM10

Streblidae incertae sedis:
  Ascodipteron [Ascodipteridae, Ascodipterinae] DM10
    |--A. africanum A71
    |--A. rhinolophi WP87
    `--A. speiserianum WP87
  Aspidoptera DM10
    |--A. buscki K06
    `--A. phyllotomatis DM10
  Trichobioides perspicillatus DM10
  Speiseria ambigua DM10
  Streblinae [Streblini] DM10
    |--Anastrebla Wenzel 1966 WP87
    `--Strebla DM10 [incl. Euctenodes WP87]
         |--S. consocia DM10
         |--S. diaemi DM10
         |--S. galindoi DM10
         |--S. guajiro DM10
         |--S. hertigi DM10
         |--S. mirabilis DM10 [=Euctenodes mirabilis K06]
         `--S. wiedemanni DM10
  Mastoptera DM10
    |--M. guimaraesi DM10
    `--M. minuta DM10
  Joblingia schmidti DM10
  Nycterophiliinae WP87
    |--Phalconomus puliciformis WP87, DM10
    `--Nycterophilia DM10
         |--N. coxata WP87
         `--N. parnelli DM10
  Paradyschiria DM10
  Metelasmus DM10
    |--M. pseudopterus DM10
    `--M. wenzeli DM10
  Paraeuctenodes DM10
    |--P. longipes DM10
    `--P. similis DM10
  Neotrichobius DM10
    |--N. delicatus DM10
    `--N. stenopterus DM10
  Noctiliostrebla aitkeni DM10
  Exastinion clovisi DM10
  Anatrichobius scorzai DM10
  Synthesiostrebla amorphochili DM10
  Parastrebla handleyi DM10
  Megistapophysis mordax DM10
  Xenotrichobius DM10
  Raymondia minuta CM91
  Nycteriboscinae WP87
  Megastrebla O98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[DM10] Dick, C. W., & J. A. Miller. 2010. Streblidae (bat flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1249–1260. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[T81] Teskey, H. J. 1981. Key to families—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 125–147. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WP87] Wenzel, R. L., & B. V. Peterson. 1987. Streblidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1293–1301. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Hippoboscidae

Forest fly Hippobosca equina, copyright Janswart.


Belongs within: Calyptratae.
Contains: Streblidae.

The Hippoboscidae, louse flies, are a group of flattened, blood-sucking flies that live as parasites of birds and large mammals.

Characters (from Maa & Peterson 1987): Robust more or less dorsoventrally flattened flies, 1.5–12.0 mm long, usually dull with variable and poorly defined pale markings, and richly setose. Antenna and mouthparts highly specialized. Wing usually fully developed, rarely reduced or absent. Abdomen, particularly in female, mainly membranous. Aedeagus and gonopods of male simple, retracted into abdomen when at rest. Larva completing development in uterus of female. Head prognathous, rather broad and moderately flattened, with mouthparts displaced anteriorly so head is somewhat triangular in profile, and with its upper surface horizontal or descending forward; bristling light to moderate. Eyes separated in both sexes; eye large, usually horizontally elongate, rarely reduced, bare; ocelli often well-developed but sometimes vestigial or absent. Vertex well-developed, bearing ocellar triangle; inner vertical bristles long; outer vertical bristles absent; orbital bristles few to numerous. Frons large and well-developed, almost always with a soft wrinkled membranous median frontal vitta, sometimes bearing interfrontal setae or bristles, and with lateral sclerotised fronto-orbital plates that sometimes bear fronto-orbital setae or bristles; ptilinal fissure conspicuous; lunule usually large and conspicuous, shiny and bare, with a variably distinct suture separating it from face or sometimes fusing anteriorly, often imperceptibly, with facial sclerite. Face variable in size, sometimes produced at each anterolateral corner, and sometimes uniting with parafacial to surround and isolate antennal socket; face bare, but ridge enclosing anteroventral margin of antennal socket often bristled. Clypeus greatly reduced, membranous to lightly sclerotised. Antenna highly modified, immovable or with movement greatly restricted, lying in a deep single antennal socket or in paired sockets; scape usually small but usually recognizable, sometimes completely separated from lunule by a distinct suture and bearing stout setae, or more or less fused with lunule but recognisable by presence of one or more stout setae, or completely fused with lunule without external indication of its presence; pedicel constituting the largest of the antennal segments and enclosing the first flagellomere, rounded in shape, and with or without an antennal appendage; this appendage dorsally flattened, leaf-like, bearing numerous setae and bristles; dorsolateral longitudinal suture on pedicel usually distinct; arista protruding from pedicel, spatulate, bipectinate, or variously branching. Palpus one-segmented, nearly always well-developed, rarely reduced or vestigial, compressed laterally but with concave inner surface serving as sheath for labium, and usually heavily bristled; labium bulbous basally, with the remainder needlelike, and terminating in tiny labella with a double crown of prestomal teeth; labium retractable when not in use and concealed in subcranial cavity and by palpi. Thorax flattened, about one-third or less as high as width of scutum; lateral surface vertically flattened or concave, with dorsal margin variably folded dorsomedially so that part of upper lateral surface is dorsal in position; ventral surface or katepisternum broadened and flattened, widely separating each pair of coxae. Antepronotum reduced, more or less concealed; postpronotal lobes variably developed but sometimes with anterolateral angle strongly produced lobe-like on each side of base of head, and sometimes enclosing anterior spiracle; this spiracle usually conspicuous and more or less dorsally situated. Scutum large, divided behind midlength into a larger presutural areaand a smaller postsutural area by a transverse suture; transverse suture sometimes complete, or variably incomplete to faintly indicated laterally; median scutal suture also present, variably distinct and variably complete, sometimes meeting or even continuing posteriorly beyond transverse suture to near scutellum; bristling highly variable, with postpronotal, notopleural, supra-alar, postalar, pre- and post-sutural dorsocentral, and pre- and post-sutural acrostichal bristles appearing in various combinations and numbers, or sometimes absent. Scutellum usually large and well-developed, although sometimes small, varying from subtriangular to rectangular with parallel anterior and posterior margins; apical and discal bristles and setae few to numerous, rarely absent. Laterotergite of postnotum either gently or strongly raised as a convex process, and in turn sometimes bearing a digitiform process. Wing fully developed but sometimes falling off soon after emergence, reduced, or very rarely represented by a solid subcylindrical knob; membrane of wing often with microtrichia in varying patterns. Veins usually crowded toward anterior margin; distal part of posterior veins sometimes weak and not reaching wing margin; venation simple and nearly complete, or variously reduced; crossvein bm-cu absent or very faintly indicated. Alula, calypter, and halter present, rarely reduced or absent. Legs robust, moderately short, often strongly bristled; coxae short but greatly swollen, femora variously swollen, tibiae less swollen to somewhat flattened, and hind tibia sometimes with a slight swelling or depression in basal half. Tarsomeres short; first tarsomere sometimes more elongate than next three tarsomeres combined; apical tarsomere the largest. Tibiae and tarsi often with a longitudinal series of sensory pores and setae. Claws stout, simple or bifid, and with a prominent flattened heel-like base; empodia hairy or feathery; pulvilli paired and pad-like, often soft and elongate; claws, pulvilli, and apical lobes of certain tarsomeres of same leg sometimes aymmetric. Abdomen extensively membranous, particularly in female, with seven pairs of spiracles in both sexes; tergite 1 often represented by a pair of variably developed lateral plates in which or in front of which are located anterior spiracles on each side; these plates either free, or partly or entirely fused with tergite 2, thus forming syntergite 1+2; tergite 2 large, sometimes free but usually fused with tergite 1, sometimes with margins projecting somewhat ventrally and more often posteriorly as short to moderately long blunt or pointed processes; one or more paired or unpaired tergites sometimes following syntergite 1+2, identifiable by position of spiracles; tergite 6 and tergite 7 most frequently consisting of plates; tergite 8 membranous in female. Sternite 1 rarely absent, usually represented by heavily sclerotised plate with hind margin either transverse, convex, or concave, and sometimes with posterolateral margins projecting arm-like posteriorly; remaining ventral surface of abdomen membranous, often densely setose or bristled, sometimes with narrow bare strips denoting segmental limits; female sometimes with sternites 6 and 7 present as small variously sclerotised plates bearing one to several setae or bristles, with sternite 6 usually smaller and weaker than sternite 7; male sometimes with a pair of small or large sclerotised plates representing sternite 5, but sternites 6 and 7 membranous. Terminalia of female simple, but variable. Sometimes a tiny dorsomedial sclerite, probably representing the epiproct, present just anterior to and closely associated with cerci. Cerci sometimes present as small to moderately large flap-like setose structures or as slender setose ring-like structures, and sometimes separated dorsomedially by a tiny epiproct or fused dorsomedially; cerci not fused ventrally, but closely associated with hypoproct so that they appear to be fused. Sternite 8 often absent, but sometimes present as a U-shaped or subtriangular-shaped or transverse barlike sclerite just anterior to genital opening. Hypoproct small to large, simple to complex, membranous or sclerotised, and sometimes at least partly retractable internally; hypoproct usually consisting of a single structure, but in more complex forms seemingly composed of two or three united pieces with or without pale lines of apparent demarcation, and often with one or two variably developed raised ridges or rims. Two or three spermathecae present. Terminalia of male simple, retracted into abdomen when at rest and exserted for mating. Syntergosternite 7+8 variably developed from a slender weakly sclerotised half-ringlike sclerite to a broader saddle-like sclerite that may be variably excavated or emarginate dorsomedially along either anterior or posterior margin or both. Epandrium a narrow ring-like setose sclerite that may be continuous or narrowly separated dorsomedially into two halves, with ventral margin of each side often widening; surstyli sometimes present, in form of small setose lateroventral plates or larger lobes or flaps articulating with ventral margins of epandrium. Cerci fused, apparent externally as a flattened sclerotised rod-like or platelike sclerite; this sclerite setose distally, continuing anteriorly into genital pouch, and situated ventromedial to and articulating with epandrium; cerci sometimes greatly reduced and sometimes very lightly sclerotised or membranous, sometimes apparently absent. Sternite l0 sometimes present in form of short rod extending ventrally from anterior (internal) base of cerci to dorsal margin of base of aedeagus and gonopods. Hypandrium a relatively large trough-like heavily sclerotised plate fused with gonopods; gonopods elongate, subtriangular to digitiform, tubular, extending posteriorly on each side of aedeagus and exserted at same time as aedeagus during copulation, and usually beset with several microsetae and tubular sense organs; aedeagus rather large, sometimes rodlike and slender, or broader and cone-shaped with sclerotised dorsal rods and sometimes sclerotised laterally; aedeagal membrane usually with fine setae or spinules and sometimes with stouter spines; aedeagal apodeme well-developed, flattened and platelike, articulating with hypandrium; hypandrium and aedeagal apodeme enlarging and extending anteriorly with age of adult; aedeagal apodeme somewhat rod-like in newly emerged males but becoming sometimes more flattened and triangular in outline in old males. Egg elongate cylindrical, tapering anteriorly, blunter posteriorly, very slightly concave dorsally. Micropylar pores lying in funnel-shaped depression at anterior end. Larva with three instars developed. First instar maggot-like, with faint traces of segmentation, and with eight pairs (two thoracic, six abdominal) of rudimentary lateral spiracles; a nipple-like projection bearing mouth and a pair of minute papillae present anteriorly; anus and a pair of spiracles evident posteriorly, lying together on a spiracular plate; cephalopharyngeal skeleton and mandibles absent. Second instar similar to first, but with a plumper ellipsoidal shape. Third instar barrel-like; a transverse circular seam and a longitudinal semicircular seam (along which the adult breaks open and emerges from puparium) evident anteriorly, as well as functionless apertures of thoracic spiracles; a pair of plates or lobes present posteriorly, each bearing three spiracles or three curved series of spiracular pores, in addition to an anus; lateral abdominal spiracles completely lost. Puparium similar to third-instar larva, but with cuticle much more hardened and darkened. Circular and semicircular seams slightly more significant; polypneustic lobes at posterior end more protruding.

<==Hippoboscidae [Coriaceae, Olfersiini]
    |  i. s.: Stenepteryx hirundinis A71
    |         Ornithoica [Ornithoicinae] W10
    |           `--O. vicina W10
    |         Allobosca [Alloboscinae] W10
    |           `--A. crassipes W10
    |--Ornithomyinae [Ornithomyini] KP10
    |    |  i. s.: Austrolfersia CM91
    |    |         Myophthiria [=Myiophthiria] MP87
    |    |           `--M. fimbriata W10
    |    |         Stilbometopa impressa MP87
    |    |         Olfersia MP87
    |    |           |--O. bisulcata W10
    |    |           |--O. fumipennis W10
    |    |           `--O. spinifera W10
    |    |         Icosta MP87
    |    |           |--I. albipennis W10
    |    |           |--I. americana W10
    |    |           |--I. ardeae MP87
    |    |           `--I. hirsuta MP87
    |    |         Microlynchia pusilla MP87
    |    |--Ornithoctona erythrocephala KP10, W10
    |    `--+--Crataerina KP10
    |       |    |--C. hirundinis WT11
    |       |    |--C. pallida KP10
    |       |    `--C. seguyi W10
    |       `--Ornithomya Latreille 1802 KP10, L02 [=Ornithomyia MP87]
    |            |  i. s.: O. rottensis MP87
    |            |--O. biloba KP10
    |            `--+--+--O. fringillina KP10
    |               |  `--O. hirundini KP10
    |               `--+--*O. avicularia (Linnaeus 1758) L02, KP10, L58 [=Hippobosca avicularia L02]
    |                  `--+--O. anchineura KP10
    |                     `--O. chloropus KP10 [incl. O. lagopodis A71]
    `--+--+--+--Streblidae KP10
       |  |  `--Ortholfersia [Ortholfersiinae] W10
       |  |       |--O. macleayi CM91
       |  |       `--O. minuta KP10
       |  `--Hippobosca Linnaeus 1758 KP10, L58 [Hippoboscinae]
       |       |--H. camelina A71
       |       |--H. capensis A71
       |       |--H. equina Linnaeus 1758 L58
       |       |--H. fulva A71
       |       |--H. hirsuta A71
       |       |--H. hirundinis Linnaeus 1758 L58
       |       |--H. longipennis M81
       |       |--H. martinaglia A71
       |       |--H. rufipes Olfers 1816 R01 [incl. H. maculata R01, H. variegata A71, H. wahlenbergiana R01]
       |       |--H. sitiens Boisduval 1835 B35
       |       `--H. struthiornis A71
       `--+--Pseudolynchia KP10
          |    |--P. brunnea W10
          |    `--P. canariensis W10
          `--Lipopteninae [Melophaginae] MP87
               |--Neolipoptena ferrisi MP87
               `--Lipoptena KP10
                    |--+--L. depressa KP10
                    |  |    |--L. d. depressa MP87
                    |  |    `--L. d. pacifica MP87
                    |  `--L. mazamae KP10
                    `--+--L. cervi KP10
                       `--Melophagus Latreille 1802 KP10, L02
                            |--*M. ovinus (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Hippobosca ovina L02]
                            `--M. rupicaprinus A71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MP87] Maa, T. C., & B. V. Peterson. 1987. Hippoboscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1271–1281. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[R01] Ricardo, G. 1901. Notes on Diptera from South Africa (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 89–110.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[W10] Wood, D. M. 2010. Hippoboscidae (louse flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1241–1248. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Nycteribiidae

Female Basilia boardmani, copyright Matt Bertone.


Belongs within: Streblidae.

The Nycteribiidae, spider bat flies, are a group of flattened, flightless flies that live as blood-feeding ectoparasites of bats (Graciolli 2010).

Characters (from Graciolli 2010): Small light brown flies, body length 1.5–5.5 mm. Head small, laterally compressed, rounded, or flattened ventrally, folded back over the thorax during resting (non-feeding) periods. Eyes with one to four facets or absent. Ocelli absent. Thorax compressed dorsoventrally with few sclerotised plates and ridges. Mesonotum small, unsclerotised. Pleuron and insertion of legs displaced to dorsal surface. Scutellum absent. Thoracic ctenidium present on each side between fore- and midcoxae. Wings absent. Halter situated in grooves of metathoracic pleural plates. Femora and tibiae compressed laterally. Empodia absent. Thoracic sterna broad and flat sclerotised plates with oblique (inverted V-shaped) and median sutures. Female abdomen usually largely membranous. Male abdomen sclerotised with large clasperlike surstyli that fold anteriorly under apex of abdomen. Both sexes usually with abdominal ctenidium present at posterior margin of sternite 2.

<==Nycteribiidae G10
    |--Dipseliopoda setosa KP10
    `--+--Penicillidia KP10
       |    |--P. dufourii PW87
       |    |    |--P. d. dufourii PW87
       |    |    `--P. d. tainani PW87
       |    |--P. fulvida KP10
       |    `--P. (Eremoctenia) vandueseni PW87
       `--Nycteribiinae G10
            |--Hershkovitzia G10
            |    |--H. inaequalis G10
            |    `--H. primitiva G10
            |--Nycteribia Latreille 1802 L02
            |    |--*N. vespertilionis (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Pediculus vespertilionis L02]
            |    |--N. kolenatii A71
            |    |--N. latreillii KK54
            |    |--N. schmidlii KK54
            |    `--N. vexata KK54
            `--Basilia KP10 [incl. Pseudelytromyia Miranda-Ribeiro 1907 G10]
                 |--B. anomala G10
                 |--B. antrozoi G10
                 |--B. bathybothyra G10
                 |--B. boardmani KP10
                 |--B. corynorhini T81
                 |--B. costaricensis G10
                 |--B. falcozi CM91
                 |--B. ferrisi G10
                 |--B. ferruginea G10
                 |--B. flava G10
                 |--B. forcipata G10
                 |--B. handleyi G10
                 |--B. hispida G10
                 |--B. juquiensis G10
                 |--B. mimoni G10
                 |--B. myotis PW87
                 |--B. rugosa G10
                 |--B. speiseri G10
                 |--B. tiptoni G10
                 `--B. transversa G10

Nycteribiidae incertae sedis:
  Stylidia biarticulata A71
  Cyclopodia A71 [Cyclopodiinae G10]
    |--C. albertisii CM91
    |--C. australis CM91
    `--C. greeffi A71
  Archinycteribia O98 [Archynycteribiinae G10]
  Eucampsipoda hyrtlii MP87
  Leptocyclopodia O98
  Conotibia O98
  Phthiridium O98
  Stereomyia O98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G10] Graciolli, G. 2010. Nycteribiidae (bat flies, spider bat flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1261–1266. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[KK54] Klemmer, K., & H. E. Krampitz. 1954. Zur Kenntnis der Säugetierfauna Siziliens. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (3–4): 121–135.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[PW87] Peterson, B. V., & R. L. Wenzel. 1987. Nycteribiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1283–1291. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[T81] Teskey, H. J. 1981. Key to families—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 125–147. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Mydaeinae

Male Myospila meditabunda, copyright James K. Lindsey.


Belongs within: Muscidae.
Contains: Helina, Mydaea, Phaonia.

The Mydaeinae are a group of muscid flies with a bare anepimeron, long anterior presutural dorsocentral bristles, and rounded lower calypters; these features are shared with the subfamily Phaoniinae, and the phylogenetic analysis of calyptrate flies by Kutty et al. (2010) suggests that the two subfamilies are not reciprocally monophyletic.

<==Mydaeinae [Phaoniinae, Phaoniini] KP10
    |--+--Helina KP10
    |  `--+--Mydaea KP10
    |     `--+--Phaonia KP10
    |        `--Hebecnema Schnabl 1889 KP10, F92
    |             |--*H. umbratica (Meigen 1826) [=Anthomyia umbratica] F92
    |             |--H. affinis Malloch 1921 F92
    |             |--H. alba Hsue 1983 F92
    |             `--H. fumosa (Meigen 1826) [=Anthomyia fumosa] F92
    `--Myospila Rondani 1856 KP10, F92 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*M. meditabunda (Fabricius 1781) [=Musca meditabunda] F92
         |    |--M. m. meditabunda F92
         |    |--M. m. angustifrons Malloch 1922 F92
         |    `--M. m. brunettiana Enderlein 1927 F92
         |--M. argentata (Walker 1857) (see below for synonymy) F92
         |--M. bina (Wiedemann 1830) [=Anthomyia bina] F92
         |--M. effeminata F92
         |--M. femorata (Malloch 1935) [=Xenosina femorata] F92
         |--M. flavibasis (Malloch 1925) [=Xenosia flavibasis] F92
         |--M. fuscicoxa (Li 1980) [=Eumyiospila fuscicoxa] F92
         |--M. laevis (Stein 1900) (see below for synonymy) F92
         |--M. lasiophthalma (Emden 1965) [=Xenosina lasiophthalma] F92
         |--M. lauta (Stein 1918) [=Mydaea lauta] F92
         |--M. lenticeps (Thomson 1869) [=Anthomyia lenticeps] F92
         `--M. tenax (Stein 1918) [=Mydaea tenax] F92

Mydaeinae incertae sedis:
  Opsolasia Coquillett 1910 F92
    `--O. orichalcea HV87
  Lasiopelta Malloch 1928 [incl. Pandleburyia Malloch 1928] F92
    |--*L. orientalis Malloch 1928 F92
    `--L. longicornis (Stein 1915) [=Mydaea longicornis] F92
  Brontaeini F92
    |--Rhynchomydaea Malloch 1922 F92
    `--Brontaea Kowarz 1873 [incl. Anaclysta Brauer & Bergenstamm 1894, Gymnodia Robineau-Desvoidy 1863] F92
         |--*B. polystigma (Meigen 1826) [=Anthomyia polystigma] F92
         |--B. ascendens (Stein 1915) [=Limnophora ascendens; incl. Gymnodia spilogaster Séguy 1932] F92
         |--B. distincta (Stein 1909) [=Limnophora distincta] F92
         |--B. ezensis (Shinonaga & Kano 1972) F92
         |    |--B. e. ezensis F92
         |    `--B. e. latifronta Xue & Wang in Fan 1992 F92
         |--B. genurufa (Pand. 1899) F92
         |--B. genurufoidea Xue & Wang in Fan 1992 F92
         |--B. humilis (Zetterstedt 1860) [=Aricia humilis] F92
         |--B. lasiopa (Emden 19650 [=Gymnodia lasiopa] F92
         |--B. nigrogrisea (Karl 1939) (see below for synonymy) F92
         |--B. parascendens (Hennig 1952) F92
         |--B. sichuanensis Xue & Feng in Fan 1992 F92
         |--B. tonitrui (Wiedemann 1824) [=Anthomyia tonitrui; incl. B. tonitrui variegata (Stein 1903)] F92
         `--B. yunnanensis Xue & Chen in Fan 1992 F92
  Dichaetomyia Malloch 1921 F92
    |--*D. polita Malloch 1921 F92
    |--D. alterna (Stein 1915) [=Mydaea alterna] F92
    |--D. antennata (Stein 1918) [=Mydaea antennata] F92
    |--D. apicalis (Stein 1904) [=Spilogaster apicalis] F92
    |--D. aureomarginata Emden 1965 [=D. nubiana aureomarginata] F92
    |--D. bibax (Wiedemann 1830) [=Anthomyia bibax] F92
    |--D. femorata (Stein 1915) [=Mydaea femorata] F92
    |--D. flavipalpis (Stein 1915) [=Mydaea flavipalpis] F92
    |--D. flavocaudata Malloch 1925 F92
    |--D. keiseri Emden 1965 F92
    |--D. luteiventris (Rondani 1873) (see below for synonymy) F92
    |--D. monticola Emden 1965 F92
    |--D. pallicornis (Stein 1915) [=Mydaea pallicornis] F92
    |--D. pallitarsis (Stein 1909) [=Mydaea pallitarsis] F92
    |--D. pectinipes F92
    |--D. quadrata (Wiedemann 1824) [=Anthomyia quadrata] F92
    `--D. setifemur Malloch 1928 F92

Brontaea nigrogrisea (Karl 1939) [=Limnophora (Gymnodia) nigrogrisea; incl. Gymnodia interposita Emden 1965] F92

Dichaetomyia luteiventris (Rondani 1873) [=Anthomyia luteiventris; incl. D. lineata (Stein 1904), D. nubiana (Bigot 1885)] F92

Myospila Rondani 1856 KP10, F92 [incl. Eumyiospila Malloch 1926 F92, Helinella Malloch 1926 F92, Parapictia Pont 1968 F92, Sinomusina Séguy 1937 F92, Xenosia Malloch 1921 F92, Xenosina Malloch 1925 F92]

Myospila argentata (Walker 1857) [=Aricia argentata; incl. Eumydaea attenta Stein 1918, Spilogaster pellucida Stein 1928, Eumyiospila spinifemarata Malloch 1926] F92

Myospila laevis (Stein 1900) [=Spilogaster laevis; incl. S. arminervis Stein 1900, Xenosia scutellaris Malloch 1935, X. tarsalia Malloch 1935] F92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[HV87] Huckett, H. C., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Muscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1131. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

Coenosiinae

Spilogona surda, copyright JariF.


Belongs within: Muscidae.
Contains: Lispini, Limnophora, Coenosiini.

The Coenosiinae are a group of muscid flies with carnivorous larvae adapted for aquatic habitats.

<==Coenosiinae [Limnophorini, Lispinae] KP10
    |--+--Lispini KP10
    |  `--Limnophora KP10
    `--+--Coenosiini KP10
       `--+--Villeneuvia aestuum KP10
          `--Spilogona Schnabl 1911 KP10, F92 [incl. Mydaeina HV87]
               |--*S. carbonella (Zetterstedt 1845) [=Aricia carbonella, Limnophora (*Spilogona) carbonella] F92
               |--S. almqvistii (Holmgren 1880) [=Aricia almqvistii] F92
               |--S. caliginosa KP10
               |--S. costalis (Stein 1907) [=Limnophora costalis] F92
               |--S. dispar KP10
               |--S. leptocerci Mou in Fan 1992 F92
               |--S. litorea (Fallen 1823) [=Musca litorea] F92
               |    |--S. l. litorea F92
               |    `--S. l. yaluensis Ma & Wang in Fan 1992 F92
               |--S. littoralis Mou in Fan 1992 F92
               |--S. obscura HV87
               |--S. setigera (Stein 1907) [=Limnophora setigera] F92
               |--S. spinicosta (Stein 1907) [=Limnophora spinicosta] F92
               |--S. surda (Zetterstedt 1845) [=Aricia surda] F92
               `--S. taheensis Ma & Cui in Fan 1992 F92

Coenosiinae incertae sedis:
  Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 F92
    |--*G. maculata (Scopoli 1763) [=Musca maculata] F92
    |    |--G. m. maculata F92
    |    `--G. m. tienmushanensis Ôuchi 1939 F92
    |--G. idessa SV10
    |--G. mellina Stein 1909 F92
    |--G. paucimaculata Ôuchi 1938 [=Graphomyia paucimaculata] F92
    `--G. rufitibia Stein 1918 [=Graphomyia rufitibia] F92
  Heliographa Malloch 1921 F92
  Pseudolimnophora Strobl 1893 F92
  Neolimnophora Schnabl & Dziedzicki 1911 F92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[HV87] Huckett, H. C., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Muscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1131. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[SV10] Savage, J., & J. R. Vockeroth. 2010. Muscidae (house flies, stable flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1281–1295. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Anthomyiidae

Emmesomyia socia, copyright James K. Lindsey.


Belongs within: Calyptratae.
Contains: Myopinini, Hydrophoriini, Eutrichota, Scathophagidae, Mycophagini, Fucelliinae, Eglini, Hylemya, Phorbia, Pegomya, Anthomyia, Acyglossini.

The Anthomyiidae are a group of small to moderately sized flies that are commonly associated with flowers and may play a significant role as pollinators (Michelsen 2010).

Characters (from Michelsen 2010): Small to medium-sized muscoid flies, wing length 2.2–10 mm. Commonly strongly sexually dimorphic. Male abdomen usually slender and parallel-sided, cylindrical to strongly depressed with prominent U-shaped sternite 5. Ground colour of head, body and appendages often wholly or predominantly brownish-black, but shades of amber, orange-red or yellow occuring frequently, especially on frontal vitta, antenna, palpus, legs and abdomen. More or less intense layer of whitish-grey to dark brown pruinosity covering most body parts, often resulting in pattern of dark stripes, markings or bands on dorsum of thorax and abdomen; patterns often only clearly visible from certain angles of view. Pair of inclinate frontal setae usually present on frontal vitta of females and broad-fronted males. Katepisternal setae 0–2 + 1–3; meron bares, exceptionally with some irregular setulae, never with row of setae. Ventral tip of scutellum usually with ventral hairs or fine setae (occasionally absent). Basitarsus of hind leg with oustanding ventrobasal setula. M1 not strongly curved or angled forward on distal part; vein A1 usually traceable to margin of wing. Upper and lower calypters usually forming subequal, modest-sized lobes but exceptionally lower calypter strongly reduced.

<==Anthomyiidae [Anthomyinae, Anthomyiinae, Hylemyinae, Pegomyinae, Pegomyini] M10
    |--+--Myopinini KP10
    |  `--+--Hydrophoriini KP10
    |     `--Acridomyia Stackelberg 1929 [Acridomyiini] F92
    |          |--*A. sacharovi Stackelberg 1929 F92
    |          `--A. canadensis M81
    `--+--+--‘Hylemya’ variata KP10
       |  `--+--Eutrichota KP10
       |     `--Emmesomyia Malloch 1917 KP10, F92 [incl. Neopegomyia Malloch 1929 F92]
       |          |--‘Spilogaster’ socialis Stein 1898 [incl. *Emmesomyia unica Malloch 1917] F92
       |          |--E. dorsalis (Stein 1915) [=Pegomyia dorsalis] F92
       |          |--E. flavitarsis Suwa 1974 F92
       |          |--E. grisea (Robineau-Desvoidy 1830) [=Phorbia grisea] F92
       |          |--E. hasegawai Suwa 1979 F92
       |          |--E. kempi (Brunetti 1924) [=Pegomyia kempi] F92
       |          |--E. mjegastigmata Ma, Mou & Fan 1982 F92
       |          |--E. oriens Suwa 1974 F92
       |          |--E. ovata (Stein 1915) [=Pegomyia ovata] F92
       |          |--E. socia F92
       |          |    |--E. s. socia F92
       |          |    `--E. s. suwai Ge & Fan 1988 F92
       |          `--E. subvillica Fan, Ma & Mou 1982 F92
       `--+--+--Scathophagidae KP10
          |  `--+--Mycophagini KP10
          |     `--Hydromyza KP10
          |          |--H. confluens KP10
          |          `--H. livens KP10
          `--+--+--Fucelliinae KP10
             |  `--Eglini KP10
             `--+--Hylemyini F92
                |    |--Hylemya KP10
                |    |--Phorbia F92
                |    |--Heterostylodes Hennig 1967 [incl. Heterostylus Schnabl & Dziedicki 1911 non Faust 1890] F92
                |    |    |--*H. pratensis (Meigen 1826) [=Anthomyia pratensis] F92
                |    |    `--H. pilifera F92
                |    `--Sinohylemya Hsue 1980 F92
                |         |--*S. ctenocnema Hsue 1980 F92
                |         `--S. craspedodonta Hsue 1980 F92
                `--+--+--Pegomya KP10
                   |  `--Anthomyia KP10
                   `--+--Acyglossini KP10
                      `--Hyporitini F92
                           |--Hyporites Pokorny 1893 F92
                           |    |--*H. montana (Schiner 1862) [=Eriphia montana] F92
                           |    `--H. shakshain Suwa 1974 F92
                           `--Engyneura Stein 1907 F92
                                |--*E. setigera Stein 1907 F92
                                |--E. curvostylata Fan & Chen 1980 F92
                                |--E. gracilior Fan & Zhong 1980 F92
                                |--E. leptinostylata Fan, Van & Ma 1980 F92
                                `--E. pilipes Stein 1907 F92

Anthomyiidae incertae sedis:
  Protanthomyia minuta GE05
  Coenosopsia M10
    |--C. mexicana M10
    `--C. prima M10
  Prosalpia silvestris K01
  Hammomyia BM76
    |--H. grisea BM76
    `--H. sociata BM76
  Chortophila K01
    |--C. cilicrura K01
    |--C. cinerella [incl. C. pusilla] K01
    |--C. curvicauda K01
    |--C. discreta K01
    |--C. impudica K01
    |--C. lepida K01
    |--C. longula K01
    |--C. rupicapra R13
    `--C. sepia K01
  Phaonantho mallochi M10
  Taeniomyia [incl. Anthojuba] M10
  Myopinella Michelsen 2010 [=Myopella Malloch 1934 non Robineau-Desvoidy 1853] M10
    `--*M. appendiculata (Stein 1904) [=Myopina appendiculata, *Myopella appendiculata] M10
  Eremomyioides H87
  Macrophorbia houghi H87
  Anthomyiella pratincola H87
  Proboscimyia brevis H87
  Ganperdea H87
  Macateeia H87
    |--M. atra H87
    `--M. protuberans H87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H87] Huckett, H. C. 1987. Anthomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1099–1114. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M10] Michelsen, V. 2010. Anthomyiidae (anthomyiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1271–1276. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.