Locustellidae

Savi's warbler Locustella luscinioides, copyright Ron Knight.


Belongs within: Sylviida.

The Locustellidae, grass warblers and grassbirds, are a group of slender, brownish birds with usually long tails found around the Old World. They are supported as a clade by molecular analyses (Jetz et al. 2012). Locustellids are secretive birds, often living concealed among tall grasses (hence the vernacular name). Members include the bush warblers of the genus Bradypterus, smaller species found in warm regions of Africa and Asia.

Locustellidae [Megaluridae, Megalurinae]
    |--Robsonius OF19
    |    |--R. rabori OF19
    |    `--R. sorsogonensis JT12
    `--+--Locustella Kaup 1829 OF19, B94 [Locustellinae]
       |    |--+--+--L. amnicola BKB15
       |    |  |  `--L. fasciolata JT12
       |    |  `--+--L. pryeri (Seebohm 1884) JT12, I92 [=Megalurus pryeri BKB15]
       |    |     `--+--L. certhiola BKB15
       |    |        |    |--L. c. certhiola VP89
       |    |        |    `--L. c. rubescens VP89
       |    |        `--+--L. ochotensis JT12
       |    |           `--L. pleskei Taczanowski 1889 JT12, I92 [=L. ochotensis pleskei I92]
       |    `--+--‘Megalurus’ gramineus (Gould 1845) BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy) WS48
       |       |    |--M. g. gramineus M03
       |       |    `--M. g. goulburni M03
       |       `--+--+--L. lanceolata BKB15
       |          |  `--+--L. fluviatilis BKB15
       |          |     `--L. luscinioides JF06
       |          `--+--+--‘Bradypterus’ luteoventris BKB15
       |             |  `--+--‘Bradypterus’ tacsanowskius BKB15
       |             |     `--+--‘Bradypterus’ major BKB15
       |             |        `--L. naevia BKB15
       |             `--+--+--‘Bradypterus’ castaneus BKB15
       |                |  `--‘Bradypterus’ caudatus JT12
       |                `--+--+--‘Bradypterus’ alishanensis BKB15
       |                   |  `--+--‘Bradypterus’ mandelli BKB15
       |                   |     `--‘Bradypterus’ montis BKB15
       |                   `--+--‘Bradypterus’ davidi BKB15
       |                      `--+--‘Bradypterus’ kashmirensisi BKB15
       |                         `--‘Bradypterus’ thoracicus BKB15
       `--+--+--+--Cincloramphus Gould 1838 BKB15, B94 [incl. Ptenoedus Cabanis 1851 B94; Ptenoedinae]
          |  |  |    `--C. cruralis (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) WS48 (see below for synonymy)
          |  |  `--‘Megalurus’ timoriensis Wallace 1863 BKB15, WS48
          |  |       |--M. t. timoriensis WS48
          |  |       `--M. t. alisteri Mathews 1912 WS48
          |  `--+--Eremiornis carteri Noreth 1900 BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
          |     `--Bowdleria Rothschild 1896 [Bowdleriinae] CC10
          |          |--*B. punctata (Quoy & Gaimard in Dumont d’Urville 1830) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
          |          |    |--B. p. punctata [incl. Sphenoeacus fulvus Gray 1862, B. fulva, Megalurus fulvus] CC10
          |          |    |--B. p. caudata (Buller 1894) [=Sphenoeacus caudatus] CC10
          |          |    |--B. p. stewartiana Oliver 1930 (see below for synonymy) CC10
          |          |    |--B. p. vealeae Kemp 1912 CC10
          |          |    `--B. p. wilsoni Stead 1936 CC10
          |          `--B. rufescens (Buller 1869) (see below for synonymy) CC10
          `--+--+--‘Cincloramphus’ mathewsi Ireland 1911 BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
             |  `--Megalurus Horsfield 1821 OF19, B94
             |       |--M. albolimbatus JT12
             |       `--M. palustris BKB15
             |            |--M. p. palustris GC09
             |            `--M. p. toklao GC09
             `--+--Schoenicola BKB15
                |    |--S. brevirostris JT12
                |    `--S. platyurus JT12
                `--Bradypterus Swainson 1837 BKB15, B94 [Bradypterinae]
                     |  i. s.: B. accentor JT12
                     |         B. alfredi JT12
                     |         B. grandis JT12
                     |         B. palliseri JT12
                     |         B. seebohmi JT12
                     |         B. timorensis JT12
                     |--+--B. bangwaensis BKB15
                     |  `--+--B. cinnamomeus BKB15
                     |     `--+--B. lopezi BKB15
                     |        `--B. mariae BKB15
                     `--+--+--Dromaeocercus brunneus BKB15
                        |  `--B. sylvaticus BKB15
                        `--+--+--B. tongensis BKB15 [=B. baboecala tongensis AE06]
                           |  `--B. transvaalensis BKB15 [=B. baboecala transvaalensis AE06]
                           `--+--B. carpalis BKB15
                              |--B. graueri BKB15
                              `--+--B. baboecala BKB15
                                 `--B. barratti BKB15

*Bowdleria punctata (Quoy & Gaimard in Dumont d’Urville 1830) CC10 [=Synallaxis punctata CC10, Megalurus punctatus BKB15, Sphenoeacus punctatus CC10]

Bowdleria punctata stewartiana Oliver 1930 [=B. punctata stewartiae; incl. B. punctata insularis Stead 1936] CC10

Bowdleria rufescens (Buller 1869) [=Sphenoeacus rufescens, B. punctata rufescens, Megalurus rufescens] CC10

Cincloramphus cruralis (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) WS48 [=Megalurus cruralis WS48; incl. C. cantillans R87, C. cruralis clelandi Mathews 1912 WS48, C. cruralis rogersi Mathews 1912 WS48]

Cincloramphus’ mathewsi Ireland 1911 BKB15, WS48 [=C. rufescens mathewsi WS48; incl. C. mathewsi alisteri Mathews 1912 WS48, Anthus rufescens Vigors & Horsfield 1827 (preoc.) WS48, Ptenoedus rufescens R66, C. mathewsi subalisteri Mathews 1912 WS48]

Eremiornis carteri Noreth 1900 BKB15, WS48 [incl. E. c. assimilis Montague 1913 WS48, E. c. rogersi Mathews 1913 WS48]

Megalurus gramineus (Gould 1845) BKB15, WS48 [=Sphenoeacus gramineus WS48; incl. M. striatus Milligan 1903 WS48, M. gramineus thomasi Mathews 1912 WS48]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AE06] Alström, P., P. G. P. Ericson, U. Olsson & P. Sundberg. 2006. Phylogeny and classification of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38: 381–397.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[GC09] Gelang, M., A. Cibois, E. Pasquet, U. Olsson, P. Alström & P. G. P. Ericson. 2009. Phylogeny of babblers (Aves, Passeriformes): major lineages, family limits and classification. Zoologica Scripta 38: 225–236.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[OF19] Oliveros, C. H., D. J. Field, D. T. Ksepka, F. K. Barker, A. Aleixo, M. J. Andersen, P. Alström, B. W. Benz, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, G. A. Bravo, R. T. Brumfield, R. T. Chesser, S. Claramunt, J. Cracraft, A. M. Cuervo, E. P. Derryberry, T. C. Glenn, M. G. Harvey, P. A. Hosner, L. Joseph, R. T. Kimball, A. L. Mack, C. M. Miskelly, A. T. Peterson, M. B. Robbins, F. H. Sheldon, L. F. Silveira, B. T. Smith, N. D. White, R. G. Moyle & B. C. Faircloth. 2019. Earth history and the passerine superradiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (16): 7916–7925.

[R66] Ramsay, E. P. 1866. Remarks upon the new species of Atrichia and on A. clamosa of the west coast. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 439–440.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. List of Western Australian birds collected by Mr. Cairn, and Mr. W. H. Boyer-Bower, at Derby and its vicinity, with remarks on the species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1085–1100.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Saxicola

European stonechat Saxicola rubicola, copyright Alun Williams.


Belongs within: Muscicapidae.

Saxicola, the stonechats, is a genus of small birds found in Eurasia and Africa with a straight bill longer than the middle toe, long tarsi, long compressed claws, and white or rufous coloration at the base of the tail.

<==Saxicola Bechstein 1803 M02 [incl. Pratincola Koch 1816 B94; Pratincolinae]
    |  i. s.: ‘Pratincola’ atrata B66
    |         S. axillaris JF06
    |         S. borbonica Sch66
    |         S. hemprichii Sch66
    |         ‘Pratincola’ indica Sch66
    |         S. macrorhynchus JT12
    |         S. pastor Sch66
    |         S. picata Blyth 1847 CC10
    |         ‘Motacilla’ sybilla Sch66 [=Pratincola sibylla Scl66]
    |--+--S. gutturalis JT12
    |  `--+--S. ferreus BKB15
    |     `--S. jerdoni JT12
    `--+--S. rubetra BKB15
       `--+--+--S. caprata BKB15 [=Pratincola caprata S89]
          |  `--S. insignis JT12
          `--+--S. torquata (Linnaeus 1766) BKB15, S05 [=Muscicapa torquata M02, S. torquatus S05]
             |    |--S. t. torquata S05
             |    |--S. t. albofasciatus Rüppell 1840 [=S. albofasciata] S05
             |    `--S. t. stejnegeri VP89
             `--+--S. leucurus BKB15
                `--+--S. tectes BKB15
                   `--+--S. maura (Pall. 1776) BKB15, M01 [=Motacilla maura M01, Pratincola maura M01]
                      `--+--S. dacotiae BKB15
                         `--S. rubicola BKB15 [=Motacilla rubicola Sch66]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B66] Bulger, G. E. 1866. List of birds observed at Wellington, Neilgherry Hills, about 6000 feet above the level of the sea, during the months of April and May, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 568–571.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[Sch66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[Scl66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Report on birds collected at Windvogelberg, South Africa, by Capt. G. E. Bulger, C. M. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 21–23.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Passerida

Asian fairy bluebird Irena puella, copyright Jason Thompson.


Belongs within: Passerides.
Contains: Nectariniidae, Dicaeidae, Chloropsis, Ploceidae, Viduidae, Estrildidae, Prunella, Passeridae, Motacillidae, Fringillidae, Emberizoidea.

The Passerida (used here in the restricted sense of Oliveros et al., 2019, equivalent to the Passeroidea of other authors) is a clade of passerine birds recognised by molecular analyses. The core of the Passeroidea is the nine-primaried oscines, a group of passerines characterised by the possession of nine rather than ten primary wing feathers. The nine-primaried oscines also include a large proportion of the granivorous passerines. Also included in the Passerida are basal families such as the Irenidae, Nectariniidae and Promeropidae. The Promeropidae are a small African family including the long-tailed, nectarivorous sugarbirds of the genus Promerops.

Passerida [Passeroidea, Tanagridae] OF19
    |--Promeropidae BKB15
    |    |--Promerops Brisson 1760 JT12, B94 [incl. Ptiloturus Swainson 1836 B94; Promeropinae, Ptiloturidae]
    |    |    |--*P. cafer B94
    |    |    `--P. gurneyi JT12
    |    `--+--+--Arcanator orostruthus JF06
    |       |  `--Kakamega poliothorax BKB15
    |       `--Modulatrix JT12
    |            |--M. orostruthus JT12
    |            `--M. stictigula JT12
    `--+--+--Nectariniidae JT12
       |  `--Dicaeidae BKB15
       `--+--+--Chloropsis OF19
          |  `--Irena Horsfield 1821 JT12, B94 [Irenidae]
          |       |--I. cyanogaster L03
          |       |    |--I. c. cyanogaster L03
          |       |    `--I. c. ellae Steere 1890 L03
          |       `--I. puella JT12
          `--+--Peucedramus Henshaw 1875 BKB15, B94 [Peucedramidae, Peucedraminae]
             |    `--P. taeniatus KJL00
             `--+--Urocynchramus Przewalski 1876 B94 [Urocynchramidae OF19, Urocynchraminae]
                |    `--U. pylzowi JT12
                `--+--+--Ploceidae OF19
                   |  `--+--Viduidae BKB15
                   |     `--Estrildidae JT12
                   `--+--Prunella OF19
                      `--+--Passeridae OF19
                         `--+--Motacillidae OF19
                            `--+--Fringillidae OF19
                               `--Emberizoidea OF19

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[KJL00] Klicka, J., K. P. Johnson & S. M. Lanyon. 2000. New World nine-primaried oscine relationships: constructing a mitochondrial DNA framework. Auk 117: 321–336.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1–156.

[OF19] Oliveros, C. H., D. J. Field, D. T. Ksepka, F. K. Barker, A. Aleixo, M. J. Andersen, P. Alström, B. W. Benz, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, G. A. Bravo, R. T. Brumfield, R. T. Chesser, S. Claramunt, J. Cracraft, A. M. Cuervo, E. P. Derryberry, T. C. Glenn, M. G. Harvey, P. A. Hosner, L. Joseph, R. T. Kimball, A. L. Mack, C. M. Miskelly, A. T. Peterson, M. B. Robbins, F. H. Sheldon, L. F. Silveira, B. T. Smith, N. D. White, R. G. Moyle & B. C. Faircloth. 2019. Earth history and the passerine superradiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (16): 7916–7925.

Anthus

American pipit Anthus rubescens, copyright Jonathan Hornung.


Belongs within: Motacillidae.

Anthus, the pipits, is a cosmopolitan genus of streaked and mottled brown, slender birds with thin bills, medium to long tails, and relatively long legs with elongated hind claws.

<==Anthus Bechstein 1805 CC10
    |--+--+--A. furcatus JF06
    |  |  `--+--A. lutescens BKB15
    |  |     |    |--A. l. lutescens L03
    |  |     |    `--A. l. parvus Lawrence 1865 [=A. (Notiocorys) parvus] L03
    |  |     `--A. spragueii BKB15
    |  `--+--+--A. antarcticus JF06
    |     |  `--A. correndera JT12
    |     `--+--A. bogotensis JF06
    |        |    |--A. b. bogotensis L03
    |        |    `--A. b. meridae Zimmer 1953 L03
    |        `--A. hellmayri Hartert in Hartert & Venturi 1909 BKB15, L03
    `--+--A. gustavi JT12
       `--+--+--A. hodgsoni JT12
          |  `--A. trivialis (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, L03 (see below for synonymy)
          `--+--A. cervinus (Pallas 1811) JT12, L03 [=Motacilla cervina M02; incl. A. anadyrensis Allen 1905 L03]
             `--+--A. roseatus JF06
                `--+--A. rubescens JT12
                   `--+--*A. pratensis (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, JT12, L03 (see below for synonymy)
                      `--+--A. petrosus (Montagu 1798) JT12, L03 [incl. A. spinoletta kleinschmidti Hartert 1905 L03]
                         `--A. spinoletta (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, L03
                              |--A. s. spinoletta [incl. A. hiemalis Brehm 1831, A. aquaticus major Brehm 1856] L03
                              |--A. s. coutelli Audouin in Savigny 1828 [incl. A. orientalis Brehm 1855] L03
                              `--A. s. japonicus SA82 [=A. rubescens japonicus VP89]

Anthus incertae sedis:
  A. australis Vieillot 1818 CC10 [=A. novaeseelandiae australis WS48]
    |--A. a. australis (see below for synonymy) L03
    |--A. a. bilbali Mathews 1912 L03
    |--A. a. bistriatus (Swainson 1837) [incl. Australanthus australis flindersi Mathews 1923] L03
    `--A. a. rogersi Mathews 1913 L03
  A. bosniaskii Pycraft 1909 M02
  A. chacoensis Zimmer 1952 [=A. chii chacoensis] L03
  A. chloris Lichtenstein 1842 [incl. A. angolensis Bocage 1870] L03
  A. gutturalis JT12
  A. hoeschi JT12
  A. littoralis Brehm 1823 L03
  A. maculatus Hodgs. 1844 M01
  A. malayensis W66
  A. nattereri JT12
  A. nilghiriensis JT12
  A. pallidiventris JT12
  0--A. sylvanus JF06
  `--+--A. hoesci JF06
     `--+--A. crenatus JF06
        `--A. lineiventris JF06

Anthus australis australis Vieillot 1818 [incl. A. australis adelaidensis Mathews 1912, A. australis hartogi Mathews in Carter & Mathews 1917, A. australis montebelli Montague 1913, A. australis queenslandica Mathews 1912, A. australis subaustralis Mathews 1912, A. novaeseelandiae subaustralis, A. australis subrufus Mathews 1912, A. australis tribulationis Mathews 1912] L03

*Anthus pratensis (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, JT12, L03 [=Alauda pratensis CC10; incl. An. alaudarius Brehm 1841 L03, An. lichtensteinii Brehm 1824 L03, An. limicola Brehm 1841 L03, An. pratensis minor Brehm 1856 L03, An. montanellus Brehm 1824 L03, An. musicus Brehm 1831 L03]

Anthus similis hararensis Neumann 1906 [=A. nicholsoni hararensis; incl. A. nicholsoni longirostris Neumann 1905 non A. obscurus longirostris Brehm 1856, A. similis neumannianus Collin & Hartert 1927] L03

Anthus trivialis (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, L03 [=Alauda trivialis M01; incl. A. herbarum Brehm 1831 L03, A. arboreus luteigularis Brehm 1856 L03, A. arboreus saxorum Brehm 1856 L03]

Anthus vaalensis neumanni Meinertzhagen 1920 [=A. leucophrys neumanni, A. leucophrys angolensis Neumann 1906 non A. angolensis Bocage 1870] L03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1–156.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[SA82] Sibley, C. G., & J. E. Ahlquist. 1982. The relationships of the Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepaninini) as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Auk 99: 130–140.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Carduelis

European goldfinch Carduelis carduelis, copyright Francis C. Franklin.


Belongs within: Carduelinae.

Carduelis is a western Palaearctic genus of finches including the goldfinch C. carduelis and related species. Other species previously assigned to this genus should be placed elsewhere due to the polyphyly of Carduelis as previously recognised.

<==Carduelis Brisson 1760 CC10
    |--*C. carduelis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Fringilla carduelis] CC10
    |    |--C. c. carduelis CC10
    |    |--C. c. britannica (Hartert 1903) [=Acanthis carduelis britannica] CC10
    |    `--C. c. parva L81
    |--C. atriceps JT12
    |--C. citrinella JT12
    |--C. corsicana JT12
    |--C. dominicensis JT12
    |--C. elegans Stephens 1826 CC10
    |--C. johannis JT12
    |--C. monguilloti JT12
    `--C. yemenensis JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

Pyrrhula

Male bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula, copyright NTNU, Faculty of Natural Sciences.


Belongs within: Carduelinae.

Pyrrhula, the bullfinches, is an Eurasian genus of finches with a relatively short, swollen bill, black wings and tail, and an orange or red breast in the male.

<==Pyrrhula Brisson 1760 [Pyrrhulinae] M02
    |--+--P. leucogenis BKB15
    |  `--P. nipalensis JT12
    `--+--+--P. aurantiaca BKB15
       |  `--+--P. erythaca JT12
       |     `--P. erythrocephala JT12
       `--+--P. murina BKB15 [=P. pyrrhula murina USDI77]
          `--P. pyrrhula (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
               |--P. p. pyrrhula CC10
               |--P. p. cassinii WBSJ82
               |--P. p. pileata MacGillivray 1837 CC10
               `--P. p. rosacea WBSJ82

Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 [=Loxia pyrrhula CC10; incl. P. europoea Vieillot 1816 CC10, P. rubicilla Pallas 1811 CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

Cardinalidae

Male painted bunting Passerina ciris ciris, copyright Don Faulkner.


Belongs within: Emberizoidea.
Contains: Habia, Piranga, Cardinalis, Cyanocompsa.

The Cardinalidae are a group of finch-like birds with more or less heavy, conical bills found in North and South America, the males of which are often brightly coloured (Orenstein & Brewer 2011).

Cardinalidae [Cardinalinae, Cardinalini, Richmondeninae]
    |  i. s.: Pitylus Cuvier 1829 [Pitylinae] B94
    |--+--Granatellus BKB15
    |  |    |--G. pelzelni JT12
    |  |    `--+--G. sallaei JT12
    |  |       `--G. venustus JT12
    |  `--Pheucticus Reichenbach 1850 BKB15, B94 [Pheucticinae]
    |       |  i. s.: P. chrysogaster (Lesson 1832) [=Pitylus chrysogaster] OB11
    |       |           |--P. c. chrysogaster OB11
    |       |           `--P. c. laubmanni Hellmayr & Seilern 1915 OB11
    |       |         P. chrysopeplus (Vigors 1832) [=Coccothraustes chrysopeplus] OB11
    |       |           |--P. c. chrysopeplus [incl. P. chrysopeplus rarissimus] OB11
    |       |           |--P. c. aurantiacus Salvin & Godman 1891 OB11
    |       |           `--P. c. dilutus van Rossem 1934 OB11
    |       |         P. tibialis Lawrence 1867 OB11
    |       |--P. ludovicianus (Linnaeus 1766) BKB15, H11 [=Loxia ludoviciana OB11, Hedymeles ludovicianus OB11]
    |       `--+--P. aureoventris (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye 1837) BKB15, OB11 [=Pitylus aureoventris OB11]
    |          |    |--P. a. aureoventris OB11
    |          |    |--P. a. crissalis Sclater & Salvin 1877 OB11
    |          |    |--P. a. meridensis Riley 1905 OB11
    |          |    |--P. a. terminalis Chapman 1919 OB11
    |          |    `--P. a. uropygialis Sclater & Salvin 1871 OB11
    |          `--P. melanocephalus (Swainson 1827) BKB15, OB11 (see below for synonymy)
    |               |--P. m. melanocephalus [incl. P. melanocephalus rostratus] OB11
    |               `--P. m. maculatus (Audubon 1837) OB11
    `--+--+--Habia BKB15
       |  `--+--Piranga JT12
       |     `--+--Cardinalis BKB15
       |        `--+--+--Rhodothraupis Ridgway 1898 JT12, OB11
       |           |  |    `--R. celaeno (Deppe 1830) [=Tanagra celaeno] OB11
       |           |  `--Periporphyrus Reichenbach 1850 JT12, OB11
       |           |       `--P. erythromelas (Gmelin 1789) [=Loxia erythromelas] OB11
       |           `--Caryothraustes Reichenbach 1850 JT12, OB11
       |                |--C. canadensis (Linnaeus 1766) [=Loxia canadensis] OB11
       |                |    |--C. c. canadensis OB11
       |                |    |--C. c. brasiliensis Cabanis 1851 H11
       |                |    |--C. c. frontalis (Hellmayr 1905) OB11
       |                |    `--C. c. simulans Nelson 1912 [=C. poliogaster simulans] OB111
       |                `--C. poliogaster (du Bus de Gisignies 1847) [=Pitylus poliogaster] OB11
       |                     |--C. p. poliogaster OB11
       |                     `--C. p. scapularis (Ridgway 1888) OB11
       `--+--Spiza Bonaparte 1824 BKB15, B94 [Spizinae]
          |    `--S. americana (Gmelin 1789) [=Emberiza americana; incl. E. townsendi] OB11
          `--+--Cyanocompsa JT12
             `--Passerina Vieillot 1816 JT12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                  |  i. s.: ‘Guiraca’ cyanoides SS66
                  |--P. cyanea (Linnaeus 1766) JT12, OB11 [=Tanagra cyanea OB11]
                  `--+--+--P. amoena (Say 1822) JT12, OB11 [=Emberiza amoena OB11]
                     |  `--P. caerulea (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, OB11 [=Loxia caerulea OB11, Guiraca caerulea JF06]
                     |       |--P. c. caerulea [incl. P. caerulea mesophila] OB11
                     |       |--P. c. chiapensis (Nelson 1898) OB11
                     |       |--P. c. deltarhyncha (van Rossem 1938) OB11
                     |       |--P. c. eurhyncha (Coues 1874) OB11
                     |       |--P. c. interfusa (Dwight & Griscom 1927) OB11
                     |       |--P. c. lazula (Lesson 1842) OB11 [=Guiraca caerulea lazula FS55]
                     |       `--P. s. salicaria (Grinnell 1911) OB11
                     `--+--P. rositae (Lawrence 1874) JT12, OB11 [=Cyanospiza rositae OB11]
                        `--+--P. leclancherii Lafresnaye 1840 JT12, OB11
                           |    |--P. l. leclancherii OB11
                           |    `--P. l. grandior Griscom 1934 OB11
                           `--+--P. ciris (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, OB11 [=Emberiza ciris OB11]
                              |    |--P. c. ciris OB11
                              |    `--P. c. pallidior Mearns 1911 OB11
                              `--P. versicolor (Bonaparte 1838) JT12, OB11 [=Spiza versicolor OB11
                                   |--P. v. versicolor OB11
                                   |--P. v. dickeyae van Rossem 1934 OB11
                                   |--P. v. pulchra Ridgway 1887 OB11
                                   `--P. v. purpurascens Griscom 1930 OB11

Passerina Vieillot 1816 JT12, B94 [incl. Coccoborus Swainson 1837 B94, Cyanospiza Baird 1858 B94, Guiraca Swainson 1827 B94; Coccoborinae, Cyanospizinae, Guiracinae]

Pheucticus melanocephalus (Swainson 1827) BKB15, OB11 [=Guiraca melanocephalus OB11, Hedymeles melanocephalus RS72]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[H11] Hilty, S. L. 2011. Family Thraupidae (tanagers). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 46–329. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[RS72] Rising, J. D., & F. W. Schueler. 1972. How stable is binomial nomenclature? Systematic Zoology 21 (4): 438–439.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. On some additions to the catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Ucayali. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 566–567.

Phaethontiformes

Red-billed tropicbird Phaethon aethereus mesonauta, copyright Dominic Sherony.


Belongs within: Aequorlitornithes.

The Phaethontiformes include the modern tropicbirds (Phaethon) and their fossil relatives. Tropicbirds are pelagic plunge-diving birds with predominantly white plumage, much reduced legs and the central two tail feathers extended into an elongate train. Three living species are recognised, with the white-tailed tropicbird Phaethon lepturus having a yellow bill in contrast to the red bill of the red-biled tropicbird P. aethereus and red-tailed tropicbird P. rubricauda.

The fossil record of Phaethontidae potentially goes back to the Palaeogene, with the Prophaethontidae recorded from the Palaeocene of North America and the Eocene of Europe. Prophaethontids appear likely to have been better divers and swimmers than their living relatives (Mayr 2009).

Characters (from Olson 1985): Procoracoid foramen present; well-developed pectoral crest; scapula with poorly developed acromion process.

Phaethontiformes [Phaethontes]
    |  i. s.: Proplegadis Harrison & Walker 1971 M09, M02
    |           `--*P. fisheri Harrison & Walker 1971 M02
    |--Prophaethontidae CC10
    |    |--Lithoptila abdounensis Bourdon et al. 2005 M09
    |    |--Zhylgaia aestiflua Nessov 1988 M09
    |    `--Prophaeton Andrews 1899 M02
    |         `--*P. shrubsolei Andrews 1899 M02
    `--Phaethontidae JT12
         |--Phaethusavis pelagicus Bourdon et al. 2008 M09
         |--Heliadornis Olson 1985 M02
         |    |--*H. ashbyi Olson 1985 M02
         |    `--H. paratethydicus Mlíkovský 1997 M02
         `--Phaethon Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy) CC10
              |  i. s.: P. candidus [incl. P. flavirostris] S66
              |         P. demersus Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--P. lepturus Daudin in Buffon 1802 BKB15, CC10 [incl. *Lepturus edwardsii CC10]
              |    |--P. l. lepturus CC10
              |    |--P. l. ascensionis (Mathews 1915) CC10
              |    |--P. l. catesbyi Brandt 1838 CC10
              |    |--P. l. dorotheae Mathews 1913 [=*Leptophaethon lepturus dorotheae] CC10
              |    |--P. l. europae Le Corre & Jouventin 1999 CC10
              |    `--P. l. fulvus Brandt 1838 CC10
              `--+--*P. aethereus Linnaeus 1758 CC10, BKB15, CS77
                 |    |--P. a. aethereus CS77
                 |    |--P. a. indicus Hume 1876 CS77
                 |    `--P. a. mesonauta Peters 1930 CS77
                 `--P. rubricauda Boddaert 1783 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)

Phaethon Linnaeus 1758 [=Phaeton Linnaeus 1766; incl. Leptophaethon Mathews 1913, Lepturus Reichenbach 1853 non Brisson 1760, Phoenicurus Bonaparte 1857 nec Forster 1817 nec Rudolphi 1819, Scaeophaethon Mathews 1913] CC10

Phaethon rubricauda
Boddaert 1783 BKB15, CC10 [=Phaeton rubricauda CC10, Phaethon rubricaudus CC10, *Phoenicurus rubricauda CC10; incl. Phaethon rubricauda erubescens Rothschild 1900 non Phaeton erubescens Gray 1844 CC10, Phaethon novaehollandiae Brandt 1840 CC10, Phaethon rubricauda novaehollandiae CC10, Scaeophaethon rubricauda novaehollandiae CC10, Phaeton phoenicuros Gmelin 1789 CC10, Phaeton phoenicurus CC10, Scaeophaethon rubricauda roseotincta Mathews 1926 CC10, Phaethon rubricauda roseotincta CC10, Phaethon rubricauda westralis Mathews 1912 WS48, *Scaeophaethon westralis CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

Olson, S. L. 1985. A new genus of tropicbird (Pelecaniformes: Phaethontidae) from the Middle Miocene Calvert Formation of Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 98 (4): 851-855.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Procellariidae

Grey petrel Procellaria cinerea, copyright JJ Harrison.


Belongs within: Procellariiformes.
Contains: Pterodroma, Puffinus.

The Procellariidae, petrels and related forms, are a group of medium-sized to huge seabirds found primarily in cooler waters of the world, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. They have historically been divided between two subfamilies, the Fulmarinae and Procellariinae, based on the fused or unfused condition respectively of the lachrymal bone in the skull, but recent phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the 'fulmarines' are paraphyletic with regard to the 'procellariines'. A position within the Procellariidae has also been indicated for the diving petrels of the genus Pelecanoides, small, stocky birds with short wings and widely placed, powerful legs that have often been placed in their own family.

Within the family, the more mobile, 'procellariine'-type bill is found in members of the genera Procellaria and Puffinus. The petrels of the genus Procellaria have more strongly hooked bills than the shearwaters of the genus Puffinus. Other members of the Procellariidae include the prions of the genus Pachyptila, small grey petrels that primarily feed on zooplankton. The giant petrels of the genus Macronectes are the largest members of the family and are aggressive predators as well as scavengers on other vertebrates in the southern oceans. The fulmars of the genus Fulmarus are whitish-grey birds whose two species inhabit the northern (F. glacialis) and southern (F. glacialoides) polar regions.

Characters (from Cramp & Simmons 1977): Body more or less ovate. Wings long and narrow; eleven primaries: p10 longest, p11 minute; 20–29 secondaries, short, diastataxic. Tail short, usually twelve feathers (occasionally 14 or 16). Bill heavy, sometimes more slender or broad; hooked at tip; horny sheath divided into plates; nostrils in dorsal tubes. Legs set far back, bird crouching on tarsi when on land, gait shuffling except in Macronectes. Tarsus laterally flattened, round in Pterodroma; lower part of tibia bare; three anterior toes webbed, hind toe rudimentary, elevated; nails sharp and curved. Oil gland feathered. Aftershaft small. Peculiar musky odour. Sexes similar in plumage; mostly black or grey above and white below or all dark. One moult per year, primaries moulting descendantly. Young semi-altricial and nidicolous, development slow; two downs, both long and fluffy, juvenile feathers growing immediately under second down. Juvenile usually like adult.

<==Procellariidae [Fulmaridae, Fulmarinae, Procellariinae, Wagellidae]
    |  i. s.: Argyrodyptes Ameghino 1905 S72
    |           `--*A. microtarsus Ameghino 1905 S72
    |         Prion Lacépède 1799 (n. d.) [=Priamphus Rafinesque 1815] CC10
    |         Eopuffinus kazachstanensis Nessov 1986 U93
    |--+--Halobaena Bonaparte 1856 BKB15, CC10 [=Zaprium Coues 1875 CC10]
    |  |    `--*H. caerulea (Gmelin 1789) (see below for synonymy) CC10
    |  `--Pachyptila Illiger 1811 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |  i. s.: P. belcheri (Mathews 1912) (see below for synonymy) CC10
    |       |         P. crassirostris (Mathews 1912) (see below for synonymy) CC10
    |       |           |--P. c. crassirostris (see below for synonymy) CC10
    |       |           |--P. c. flemingi Tennyson & Bartle 2005 CC10
    |       |           `--P. c. pyramidalis Fleming 1939 [=P. (Pseudoprion) eatoni pyramidalis] CC10
    |       |         P. salax Olson 1985 B93
    |       |--P. turtur (Kuhl 1820) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |       `--+--P. vittata (Forster 1777) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |          `--+--P. desolata (Gmelin 1789) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |             `--P. salvini (Mathews 1912) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |                  |--P. s. salvini (see below for synonymy) CC10
    |                  `--P. s. macgillivrayi (Mathews 1912) CC10
    `--+--+--Lugensa Mathews 1942 CC10 [incl. Aphrodroma Olson 2000 BKB15, CC10]
       |  |    `--L. brevirostris (Lesson 1833) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |  `--+--+--Thalassoica Reichenbach 1853 BKB15, CC10 [=Aeipetes Forbes 1882 CC10, Thalassoeca Salvin 1896 CC10]
       |     |  |    `--*T. antarctica (Gmelin 1789) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |     |  `--Pagodroma Bonaparte 1856 JT12, CC10 [Pagodromidae]
       |     |       `--*P. nivea (Forster 1777) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |     |            |--P. n. nivea (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |     |            `--P. n. major (Schlegel 1863) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |     `--+--Daption Stephens in Shaw 1826 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       |        |    `--*D. capense (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |        |         |--D. c. capense [incl. Procellaria naevia Bonaparte 1857, P. pardela Oken 1816] CC10
       |        |         `--D. c. australe Mathews 1913 [=D. capensis australis] CC10
       |        `--+--Macronectes Richmond 1905 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       |           |    |--*M. giganteus (Gmelin 1789) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       |           |    `--M. halli Mathews 1912 [=M. giganteus halli] CC10
       |           `--Fulmarus Stephens in Shaw 1826 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       |                |--*F. glacialis (Linnaeus 1761) CC10, CS77 (see below for synonymy)
       |                |    |--F. g. glacialis [incl. F. glacialis auduboni Bonaparte 1857] CS77
       |                |    `--F. g. rodgersii Cassin 1862 CS77
       |                `--F. glacialoides (Smith 1840) (see below for synonymy) CC10
       `--+--+--Pterodroma BKB15
          |  `--Pelecanoides Lacépède 1799 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
          |       |  i. s.: P. cymatotrypetes Olson 1984 U93
          |       |         P. miokuaka Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2007 CC10
          |       |--P. garnotii JT12 [=*Puffinuria garnotii CC10]
          |       `--+--*P. urinatrix (Gmelin 1789) CC10, JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
          |          |    |--P. u. urinatrix (see below for synonymy) CC10
          |          |    |--P. u. berard (Gaimard 1823) (see below for synonymy) CC10
          |          |    |--P. u. chathamensis Murphy & Harper 1916 [=P. urinator chathamensis] CC10
          |          |    |--P. u. coppingeri Mathews 1912 CC10
          |          |    |--P. u. dacunhae Nicoll 1906 CC10
          |          |    `--P. u. exsul Salvin 1896 [=P. urinator exsul] CC10
          |          `--+--P. georgicus Murphy & Harper 1916 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
          |             `--P. magellani JT12 [=Puffinuria garnotii magellani CC10, Pe. (*Porthmornis) magellani CC10]
          `--+--+--Puffinus BKB15
             |  `--Pseudobulweria Mathews 1936 JT12, CC10
             |       |--*P. macgillivrayi (Gray 1859) CC10, CS77 [=Thalassidroma (Bulweria) macgillivrayi CC10]
             |       |--P. aterrima JT12 [=Pterodroma aterrima BKB15]
             |       |--P. becki JT12 [=P. rostrata becki CC10]
             |       `--P. rostrata (Peale 1848) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             |            |--P. r. rostrata CC10
             |            `--P. r. trouessarti CC10
             `--+--Bulweria Bonaparte 1843 BKB15, CC10 [Bulweriidae]
                |    |--*B. bulwerii (Jardine & Selby 1828) (see below for synonymy) CC10
                |    |--B. bifax HSS13
                |    `--B. fallax Jouanin 1955 CS77
                `--Procellaria Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                     |  i. s.: P. atlantica Gould 1844 [=Fulmarus atlanticus] CC10
                     |         P. fregata Linnaeus 1766 (n. d.) [=Fregetta fregata] CC10
                     |         P. fuliginosa Gmelin 1789 (n. d.) [=Oestrelata fuliginosa] CC10
                     |         P. ‘grisea’ Kuhl 1820 (n. d.) non Gmelin 1789 (see below for synonymy) CC10
                     |         P. incerta Schlegel 1863 [=Oestrelata incerta] CC10
                     |         P. lugens Kuhl 1820 (n. d.) CC10
                     |         P. melanopus Gmelin 1789 (n. d.) CC10
                     |         P. munda Kuhl 1820 (nom. rej.) [=Nectris munda] CC10
                     |         P. nigra Pallas 1769 (n. d.) CC10
                     |         P. velox Kuhl 1820 (n. d.) CC10
                     |--P. westlandica Falla 1946 BKB15, CC10 [=P. parkinsoni westlandica CC10]
                     `--+--P. cinerea Gmelin 1789 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                        `--+--P. parkinsoni Gray 1862 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                           `--+--*P. aequinoctialis Linnaeus 1758 CC10, BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                              `--P. conspicillata Gould 1844 JT12, CC10 [=P. aequinoctialis conspicillata CC10]

*Bulweria bulwerii (Jardine & Selby 1828) [=Procellaria bulwerii, Aestrelata bulweri, Thalassidroma bulweri; incl. Procellaria anjinho Heineken 1829, Bulweria bulweri pacifica Mathews & Iredale 1915] CC10

Daption Stephens in Shaw 1826 JT12, CC10 [=Calopetes Sundevall 1873 CC10, Petrella Mathews 1914 CC10; Daptionidae]

*Daption capense (Linnaeus 1758) [=Procellaria capensis, *Calopetes capensis, Daption capenses (l. c.), Fulmarus (Daption) capensis, *Petrella capensis; incl. Procellaria puncata Ellman 1861] CC10

Fulmarus Stephens in Shaw 1826 JT12, CC10 [=Halohippus Billberg 1828 CC10, Rhantistes Kaup 1829 CC10, Wagellus Gray 1840 CC10; incl. Priocella Hombron & Jacquinot 1844 CC10]

*Fulmarus glacialis (Linnaeys 1761) CC10, CS77 [=Procellaria glacialis CC10, *Halohippus glacialis CC10, *Rhantistes glacialis CC10, *Wagellus glacialis CC10]

Fulmarus glacialoides (Smith 1840) [=Procellaria glacialoides, F. (Priocella) glacialoides, Priocella antarctica glacialoides, Thalassoeca glacialoides, Thalassoica glacialoides, Procellaria smithi Schlegel 1863; incl. Priocella antarctica addenda Mathews 1915, Fulmarus antarcticus Stephens in Shaw 1826 non Pro. antarctica Gmelin 1789, Pri. antarctica, *Pri. garnotii Jacquinot & Pucheran in Dumont d’Urville 1844, Procellaria garnotii, Thalassoica glacialoides polaris Bonaparte 1857, Procellaria tenuirostris Audubon 1839 non Temminck 1835, Fulmarus tenuirostris, Priocella tenuirostris, Thalassoeca tenuirostris, Thalassoica glacialoides tenuirostris] CC10

*Halobaena caerulea (Gmelin 1789) [=Procellaria caerulea, Fulmarus (Halobaena) caeruleus, Halobaena coerulea (l. c.), Pachyptila caerulea, Prion caerulea, Procellaria coerulea (l. c.), *Zaprium caeruleum; incl. Procellaria forsteri Smith 1840 non Latham 1790, Halobaena murphyi Brooks 1917, H. caerulea murphyi, Procellaria similis Forster in Lichtenstein 1844, H. caerulea victoriae Mathews 1916] CC10

Lugensa brevirostris (Lesson 1833) [=Procellaria brevirostris, Aphrodroma brevirostris, Bulweria brevirostris, Oestrelata brevirostris, Pterodroma brevirostris; incl. O. kidderi Coues 1875, *Aphrodroma kidderi, Pterodroma kidderi, Pt. lugens Mathews 1936, Bulweria lugens, *Lugensa lugens, Pt. kidderi okahia Mathews 1935, Lugensa lugens okahia, Pt. lugens okahia, Fulmarus (Cookilaria) unicolor Gray 1871, Procellaria unicolor, Rhantistes unicolor Bonaparte 1856, Pterodrome (l. c.) whitlocki Mathews 1946] CC10

Macronectes Richmond 1905 JT12, CC10 [=Ossifraga Hombron & Jacquinot 1844 non Wood 1835 CC10; Macronectidae]

*Macronectes giganteus (Gmelin 1789) [=Procellaria gigantea, Fulmarus (*Ossifraga) giganteus, *Ossifraga gigantea, Procellaria gigas (l. c.); incl. O. alba Potts 1874, Macronectes giganteus albus, Procellaria brasilia Kuhl 1820, M. giganteus dovei Mathews 1916, M. giganteus forsteri Mathews 1912, Procellaria maxima fusca Mathews 1933, P. ossifraga Forster in Lichtenstein 1844, Macronectes giganteus solanderi Mathews 1912, M. giganteus wilsoni Mathews 1912] CC10

Pachyptila Illiger 1811 BKB15, CC10 [incl. Attaprion Mathews 1933 CC10, Fulmariprion Mathews 1912 CC10, Heteroprion Mathews 1912 CC10, Prion Lesson 1828 non Lacépède 1799 CC10, Pseudoprion Coues 1866 CC10, Salviprion Mathews in Mathews & Hallstrom 1943 CC10; Pachyptilidae, Pachyptilinae]

Pachyptila belcheri (Mathews 1912) [=*Heteroprion belcheri; incl. H. belcheri falklandicus Mathews 1939, Pachyptila belcheri falklandica, H. belcheri lalfa Mathews 1939, Pa. (Heteroprion) belcheri orientalis Falla 1937, H. belcheri serventyi Mathews 1935, Pseudoprion turtur solanderi Mathews 1912, Procellaria turtur Mathews 1912 non Kuhl 1820] CC10

Pachyptila crassirostris (Mathews 1912) [=Pseudoprion turtur crassirostris, *Fulmariprion crassirostris] CC10

Pachyptila crassirostris crassirostris (Mathews 1912) [=P. (Pseudoprion) eatoni crassirostris; incl. Fulmariprion crassirostris antipodes Mathews & Hallstrom 1943] CC10

Pachyptila desolata (Gmelin 1789) JT12, CC10 [=Procellaria desolata CC10, Aestrelata desolata CC10, *Attaprion desolatus CC10, Daption desolatum CC10, Heteroprion desolatus CC10, Prion (Pseudoprion) desolata CC10, Prion desolatus CC10; incl. Heteroprion desolatus alexanderi Mathews & Iredale 1921 CC10, H. desolatus alter Mathews 1912 CC10, Pachyptila (Heteroprion) desolata alter CC10, Pa. desolata altera CC10, Pa. banksi Smith 1840 CC10, Attaprion descolatus banksi CC10, Pa. (Heteroprion) desolata banksi CC10, Heteroprion desolatus banksi CC10, Prion (Pseudoprion) banksii CC10, Procellaria banksii CC10, Prion dispar Bianchi 1913 CC10, Heteroprion desolatus dispar Iredlae 1938, Procellaria fasciata Bonnaterre 1791 CC10, H. desolatus georgia Mathews 1932 CC10, Attaprion desolatus georgia CC10, Pachyptila desolata georgia CC10, Pa. vittata georgicus Mathews 1933 CC10, Heteroprion desolatus heardi Mathews 1942 CC10, H. desolatus macquariensis Mathews 1912 CC10, Attaprion descolatus macquariensis CC10, H. desolatus mattingleyi Mathews 1912 CC10, A. desolatus mattingleyi CC10, H. desolatus peringueyi Mathews 1912 CC10, Prion rossi Bonaparte 1857 CC10]

Pachyptila salvini (Mathews 1912) JT12, CC10 [=Prion vittatus salvini CC10, Pa. (*Salviprion) salvini CC10]

Pachyptila salvini salvini (Mathews 1912) [=P. vittata salvini; incl. Heteroprion desolatus crozeti Mathews 1932, P. salvini crozeti, P. vittata crozeti, P. gouldi maui Mathews 1937, P. salvini muriwai Mathews & Hallstrom 1943, P. salvini whittelli Mathews 1938] CC10

Pachyptila turtur (Kuhl 1820) JT12, CC10 [=Procellaria turtur CC10, Prion (*Pseudoprion) turtur CC10; incl. Prion ariel Bonaparte 1857 CC10, Pachyptila ariel CC10, Procellaria ariel CC10, Pseudoprion ariel CC10, Ps. turtur armiger Mathews & Hallstrom 1943 CC10, Ps. turtur benchi Mathews & Hallstrom 1943 CC10, Prion brevirostris Gould 1855 CC10, Ps. turtur brevirostris CC10, Ps. turtur dertrum Mathews 1938 CC10, Ps. turtur eatoni Mathews 1912 CC10, Fulmariprion crassirostris eatoni CC10, Pachyptila (Pseudoprion) crassirostris eatoni CC10, Pa. turtur fallai Oliver 1930 CC10, Heteroprion belcheri fallai CC10, Pa. (Pseudoprion) turtur fallai CC10, Pseudoprion turtur huttoni Mathews 1912 CC10, Pa. (Pseudoprion) turtur huttoni CC10, Ps. turtur mangarei Mathews & Hallstrom 1943 CC10, Ps. turtur nova Mathews 1916 CC10, Ps. turtur oliveri Mathews 1932 CC10, Ps. turtur steadi Mathews 1932 CC10, Pachyptila turtur subantarctica Oliver 1955 CC10, Halobaena typica Bonaparte 1857 CC10]

Pachyptila vittata (Forster 1777) JT12, CC10 [=Procellaria vittata CC10, Pachyptila vittatus (l. c.) CC10, *Prion vittata CC10, *Prion vittatus CC10; incl. Prion australis Potts 1873 CC10, Pachyptila vittata balaena Mathews 1938 CC10, Procellaria forsteri Latham 1790 CC10, *Pa. forsteri CC10, Prion vittatus gouldi Mathews 1912 CC10, Pa. vittata gouldi CC10, Prion vittatus keyteli Mathews 1912 CC10, Pa. vittata keyteli CC10, Prion lamellirostris Bonaparte 1856 CC10, Procellaria latirostris Bonnaterre 1791 CC10, Pro. longirostris (l. c.) CC10, Prion magnirostris Gould 1862 CC10, Prion vittatus missus Mathews 1912 CC10, Pachyptila vittata missa CC10, Pa. vittata missus (l. c.) CC10]

*Pagodroma nivea (Forster 1777) [=Procellaria nivea, Daption niveum, Fulmarus (Pagrodroma) niveus, Thalassoica nivea] CC10

Pagodroma nivea major (Schlegel 1863) [=Procellaria nivea major non Pr. major Faber 1822; incl. Pa. confusa Mathews 1912] CC10

Pagodroma nivea nivea (Forster 1777) [incl. Pa. nivea alba Mathews 1928, Procellaria candida Peale 1848, Pa. nivea candida, Pa. nivea falklandica Mathews 1926, Procellaria nivea minor Schlegel 1863, Pa. nivea minor, Pa. novegeorgica Pagenstecher 1885, Pa. nivea novaegeorgica, Pa. nivea novageorgica, Pa. nivea pealei Mathews 1928] CC10

Pelecanoides Lacépède 1799 BKB15, CC10 [=Haladroma Illiger 1811 CC10, Halodroma Cuvier 1817 CC10, Onocralus Rafinesque 1815 CC10; incl. Pelagodyptes Murphy & Harper 1921 CC10, Porthmornis Murphy & Harper 1921 CC10, Puffinuria Lesson 1828 CC10; Haladromidae, Pelecanoidi, Pelecanoididae]

Pelecanoides georgicus Murphy & Harper 1916 JT12, CC10 [=Pele. georgica CC10, *Pelagodyptes georgicus CC10, Pele. urinatrix georgica CC10; incl. Pela. georgicus novus Mathews 1935 CC10]

*Pelecanoides urinatrix (Gmelin 1789) CC10, JT12, CC10 [=Procellaria urinatrix CC10, *Haladroma urinatrix CC10, *Halodroma urinatrix CC10, *Onocralus urinatrix CC10, Pelecanoides urinator CC10, Puffinuria urinatrix CC10]

Pelecanoides urinatrix berard (Gaimard 1823) [=Procellaria berard, Halodroma berardi (l. c.), Pelecanoides berardi (l. c.)] CC10

Pelecanoides urinatrix urinatrix (Gmelin 1789) [incl. Pe. urinatrix belcheri Mathews 1912, Procellaria tridactyla Forster in Lichtenstein 1844 non Pr. tridactyla Kuhl 1820, Pr. tridactylae Kuhl 1820] CC10

Procellaria Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, CC10 [=Cymatobolus Heine & Reichenow 1890 CC10, Cymbatobolus Checklist Committee 1990 CC10, Cymotobolus Mathews 1936 CC10, Majaqueus Reichenbach 1853 CC10; incl. Adamastor Bonarparte 1856 CC10, Priofinus Hombron & Jacquinot 18454 CC10]

*Procellaria aequinoctialis Linnaeus 1758 CC10, BKB15, CC10 [=*Cymatobolus aequinoctialis CC10, Fulmarus (*Majaqueus) aequinoctialis CC10, Puffinus aequinoctialis CC10; incl. Procellaria aequinoctialis brabournei Mathews 1912 CC10, Majaqueus fuliginosa Bonaparte 1856 CC10, Pr. fuliginosa Shaw in White 1790 non Gmelin 1789 CC10, Pr. aequinoctialis mixta Mathews 1912 CC10, Pr. nigra Forster in Lichtenstein 1844 non Pallas 1769 CC10, Pr. aequinoctialis steadi Mathews 1912 CC10]

Procellaria cinerea Gmelin 1789 BKB15, CC10 [=Cookilaria cinerea CC10, Adamastor cinerea (l. c.) CC10, A. cinereus CC10, *Priofinus cinereus CC10, Puffinus cinereus CC10; incl. Procellaria adamastor Schlegel 1863 CC10, Priofinus cinereus dydimus Mathews 1916 CC10, Pro. gelida Gmelin 1789 CC10, Adamastor gelidus CC10, Daption gelidum CC10, Fulmarus gelidus CC10, Rhantistes gelida CC10, Procellaria haesitata Forster in Lichtenstein 1844 CC10, *Adamastor haesitatus CC10, Aestrelata haesitata CC10, Procellaria melanura Bonnaterre 1791 CC10, Priofinus melanurus CC10, Pro. pallipes Mathews 1912 CC10, Adamastor typus Bonaparte 1857 CC10]

Procellaria ‘grisea’ Kuhl 1820 (n. d.) non Gmelin 1789 [=Aestrelata grisea, Fulmarus (Cookilaria) griseus] CC10

Procellaria parkinsoni Gray 1862 BKB15, CC10 [=Fulmarus (Majaqueus) parkinsoni CC10; incl. P. fuliginosa Gray 1862 nec Gmelin 1789 nec Shaw in White 1790 nec Forster in Lichtenstein 1844 CC10] CC10

Pseudobulweria rostrata (Peale 1848) CC10 [=Procellaria rostrata CC10, Aestrelata desolata rostrata CC10, Bulweria rostrata CC10, Oestrelata rostrata CC10, Pterodroma rostrata BKB15, Rhantistes rostrata CC10]

*Thalassoica antarctica (Gmelin 1789) [=Procellaria antarctica, *Aeipetes antarctica, Daption antarcticum, Fulmarus (Priocella) antarcticus, Priocella antarctica, *Thalassoeca antarctica; incl. Procellaria lugubris Tschudi 1856 non Bonaparte 1845] CC10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[S72] Simpson, G. G. 1972. Conspectus of Patagonian fossil penguins. American Museum Novitates 2488: 1–37.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.