Unicalcarida

Alder wood wasp Xiphydria camelus, copyright Manuel Valdueza.


Belongs within: Holometabola.
Contains: Apocrita, Siricoidea.

The Unicalcarida are a major clade of wasps characterised by the reduction of the posterior protibial spur. Within this clade, the Vespina are united by a number of synapomorphies including loss of thoracic legs in the larvae, reduction of the larval antenna to a single segment, and accomodation of the adult mesocoxae into metepisternal depressions (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Members of the Vespina are ancestrally parasitic as larvae.

Unicalcarida PK17
    |  i. s.: Daohugoa Rasnitsyn & Zhang 2004 [Daohugoidae] RZ04
    |           `--*D. tobiasi Rasnitsyn & Zhang 2004 RZ04
    |--Vespina [Ephialtitoidea, Euhymenoptera, Evaniales, Evaniomorpha, Parasitica] BD17
    |    |  i. s.: Foenus G20
    |    |           |--F. assectator L02
    |    |           `--F. jaculator G20
    |    |         Karatavitidae R02
    |    |         Ephialtitidae R02
    |    |           |--Stephanogaster magna GE05
    |    |           |--Karataus kourios Sharkey in Darling & Sharkey 1990 RJ93
    |    |           |--Cratephialtites kourios GE05
    |    |           `--Sippelipterus liasinus Zessin 1985 RJ93
    |    |         Mesomutilla aptera Zhang 1985 RJ93
    |    |--Apocrita PK17
    |    `--Orussoidea [Idiogastra] PK17
    |         |--Paroryssidae [Parorysidae] GE05
    |         `--Orussidae HR11
    |              |--Mesorussus taimyrensis GE05
    |              |--Minyorussus luzzii GE05
    |              |--Guiglia sericata N91
    |              |--Orussobaius wilsoni N91, R70
    |              |--Orussonia N91
    |              `--Orussus Latreille 1802 L02
    |                   |--*O. coronatus Latreille 1802 L02
    |                   |--O. abietinus HR11
    |                   |--O. minutus BD17
    |                   |--O. occidentalis HR11
    |                   `--O. unicolor PK17
    `--+--Cephoidea BD17
       |    |--Sepulcidae GE05
       |    `--Cephidae HR11
       |         |--Mesocephus sibiricus Z02
       |         |--Hartigia Schioedte 1838 HR11, L59
       |         |    `--H. trimaculata HR11
       |         |--Janus Stephens 1835 RD77, BR05
       |         |    `--J. integer [incl. J. flaviventris] RD77
       |         `--Cephus Latreille 1802 L02
       |              |--*C. pygmaeus [=Sirex pygmaeus] L02
       |              |--C. cinctus [incl. C. occidentalis] RD77
       |              |--C. flavicornis Lucas 1849 E12
       |              `--C. spinipes PK17
       `--+--Siricoidea BD17
          `--Xiphydriidae [Xiphydrioidea] BD17
               |--Derycyrtinae N91
               |    |--Austrocyrta australiensis N91
               |    `--Derecyrta circularis HR11
               `--Xiphydriinae N91
                    |--Rhysacephala N91
                    `--Xiphydria Latreille 1802 L02
                         |--*X. camelus [=Sirex camelus] L02
                         |--X. abdominalis [incl. X. attenuata] S96
                         |--X. champlaini S96
                         |--X. maculata S96
                         |--X. mellipes S96
                         |--X. prolongata HR11
                         |--X. scafa S96
                         `--X. tibialis S96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L59] Lopes, H. de S. 1959. A revision of Australian Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Studia Ent. 2 (1–4): 33–67.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 242–254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RZ04] Rasnitsyn, A. P., & H. Zhang. 2004. A new family, Daohugoidae fam. n., of siricomorph hymenopteran (Hymenoptera=Vespida) from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou in Inner Mongolia (China). Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society, St. Petersburg 75 (1): 12–16.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Aulacidae (Hymenoptera) in the mid-Atlantic states, with a key to species of eastern North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 274–291.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Apocrita

Ceraphron sp., copyright Pierre Bornand.


Belongs within: Unicalcarida.
Contains: Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea, Aculeata, Megalyridae, Evanioidea.

The Apocrita are a clade of wasps characterised by the development of a narrow waist between the first and second abdominal segments with the first abdominal segment being incorporated into the mesosoma as the propodeum (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Molecular analysis supports recognition of a major clade of parasitoid forms, including the Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Ceraphronoidea, as the sister taxon of the remaining members (Peters et al. 2017). The Ceraphronoidea are minute wasps characterised by two protibial spurs, an enlarged second metasomal segment, and fore wings with the costal and subcostal + radial veins fused into a bar running along the anterior margin (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Other members of the clade include the Trigonalidae, hyperparasitoid wasps within caterpillars or sawfly larvae whose females lay their eggs within incisions in leaves where they are ingested by the primary host when feeding (Naumann 1991).

<==Apocrita [Clistogastra, Ichneumonides, Proctotrupii, Terebrantes] PK17
    |--Parasitoida PK17
    |    |--Proctotrupomorpha PK17
    |    `--+--Ichneumonoidea PK17
    |       `--+--Stigmaphronidae GE05
    |          |    |--Aphrostigmon vitimense Rasnitsyn 1991 RJ93
    |          |    `--Stigmaphron orphne RJ93
    |          `--Ceraphronoidea PK17
    |               |  i. s.: Libanophron astarte PK17
    |               |--Megaspilidae GE05
    |               |    |--Lagynodes Forster 1841 GM79 [Lagynodinae N91]
    |               |    `--Megaspilinae N91
    |               |         |--Megaspilus luscipennis MH11
    |               |         |--Conostigmus lazaros N91, PP19
    |               |         `--Dendrocerus carpenteri N91, M83
    |               `--Ceraphronidae [Calliceratidae] GE05
    |                    |--Lygocerus A71
    |                    |--Aphanogmus A71
    |                    `--Ceraphron Jurine 1807 GM79
    |                         |--C. achilles Dodd 1914 GM79
    |                         |--C. bispinosus MH11
    |                         |--C. javensis Girault 1917 G17
    |                         `--C. sulcatum [=Sparasion (Ceraphron) sulcatum] G20
    `--+--+--Aculeata PK17
       |  `--+--Megalyridae HR11
       |     `--Trigonalidae [Archiglossata, Ichneumomimidae, Trigonaloidea, Trigonalyidae] HR11
       |          |--Mimelogonalos N91
       |          |--Orthogonalys pulchella HR11
       |          |--Pseudogonalos hahnii PK17
       |          |--Darbigonalus capitatus Rasnitsyn 1986 RJ93
       |          |--Lycogaster pullata [incl. L. pullata nevadensis] S96
       |          |--Bareogonalos canadensis S96
       |          |--Trigonalys maculatus RD77
       |          |--Poecilogonalos thwaitesii RD77
       |          `--Taeniogonalos HR11
       |               |--T. gundlachii [incl. Poecilogonalos costalis] S96
       |               `--T. venatoria R70
       `--+--Evanioidea PK17
          `--Stephanoidea H02
               |--Eostephanites Hong 2002 [Eostephanitidae] H02
               |    `--*E. tenuis Hong 2002 H02
               `--Stephanidae HR11
                    |  i. s.: Megischus HR11
                    |           |--M. basalis Aguiar 2005 A05
                    |           `--M. furcatus (Lepeletier & Serville 1825) [incl. M. annulator Brullé 1846] A05
                    |         Protostephanus ashmeadi A05
                    |         Electrostephanus A05
                    |           |--E. brevicornis A05
                    |           `--E. neovenatus A05
                    |         Hemistephanus A05
                    |--Stephanus PK17 [Stephaninae GE05]
                    |    |--S. coronator B35 (see below for synonymy)
                    |    `--S. serrator PK17
                    `--Schlettererinae GE05
                         |--Archaeostephanus corae GE05
                         `--Schlettererius cinctipes N91

Stephanus coronator B35 [=Bracon (Stephanus) coronatus G20, Ichneumon coronatus L02, Pimpla coronator B35]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A05] Aguiar, A. P. 2005. A new and unusual species of Stephanidae (Hymenoptera), with a discussion on its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 1–6.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59–71).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS One 6 (11): e27023.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PP19] Palencia, L., E. Peñalver, C. E. Prieto & F. J. Poyato-Ariza. 2019. First fossil harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) from Spain and notes on the fossil record of Opiliones. Palaeontologica Electronica 22.1.5A: 1–18.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) in the eastern United States: seasonal flight activity, distribution, hosts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 109–118.

Bossiaea

Bossiaea rhombifolia, copyright John Tann.


Belongs within: Mirbelieae.

Bossiaea is an Australian genus of leguminous shrubs with stems modified into terete or flattened cladodes, and bearing flowers with stamens fused into a sheath split on the upper side.

<==Bossiaea
    |--B. aquifolium M06
    |    |--B. a. ssp. aquifolium M06
    |    `--B. a. ssp. laidlawiana M06
    |--B. armitii M87
    |--B. barrettiorum LK14
    |--B. bossiaeoides B12
    |--B. buxifolia C08
    |--B. carinalis B00
    |--B. cordigera CP13
    |--B. ensata H87b
    |--B. eriocarpa RL05
    |--B. foliosa M87
    |--B. heterophylla G75
    |--B. kiamensis M87
    |--B. linophylla RL05
    |--B. microphylla C08
    |--B. ornata RL05
    |--B. praetermissa GK00
    |--B. preissii G04b
    |--B. rhombifolia MB08
    |    |--B. r. var. rhombifolia MB08
    |    `--B. r. var. concolor Maiden & Betche 1908 MB08
    |--B. rufa GK00
    |--B. scortechinii C08
    `--B. stephensonii von Mueller 1887 M87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MB08] Maiden, J. H., & E. Betche. 1908. Notes from the Botanic Gardens, Sydney. No. 13. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 304–319.

[M06] McCaw, W. L. 2006. Asplenium aethiopicum recolonises karri forest following timber harvesting and burning. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (3): 119–122.

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

Aulaciformes

Aulacus striatus, copyright Jesper Lund.


Belongs within: Evanioidea.
Contains: Gasteruption.

The Aulaciformes are a clade of parasitoid or larval predatory wasps characterised by the absence of the jugal lobe in the hind wing, fusion of the first and second metasomal terga, sexually dimorphic antennal segmentation, and elongate propleuron, and rigid attachment of the pronotum and mesepisternum (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Aulaciformes GE05
    |--Manlaya R02 [Baissidae GE05, Manlayinae]
    |    `--M. laevinota Rasnitsyn 1986 RJ93
    `--+--Aulacidae GE05
       |    |--Pristaulacus S96
       |    |    |--P. bilobatus S96
       |    |    |--P. canadensis S96
       |    |    |--P. fasciatus S96
       |    |    |--P. flavicrurus S96
       |    |    |--P. niger S96
       |    |    |--P. resutorivorus S96
       |    |    |--P. rufitarsis S96
       |    |    |--P. stigmaterus S96
       |    |    |--P. strangaliae HR11
       |    |    `--P. violaceus S96
       |    |--Aulacostethus apicalis R70
       |    |--Xuaulacites Hong 2002 H02
       |    |    `--*X. fushunensis Hong 2002 H02
       |    `--Aulacus R70
       |         |--A. aneurus S96
       |         |--A. brevicaudus S96
       |         |--A. burquei PK17
       |         |--A. digitalis S96
       |         |--A. dispilis S96
       |         |--A. fusicornis R70
       |         |--A. impolitus Smith 1991 S96
       |         |--A. lovei S96
       |         |--A. pallipes S96
       |         |--A. schiffi Smith 1996 S96
       |         `--A. striatus A71
       `--Gasteruptiidae [Gasteruptionidae, Kotujellidae] GE05
            |  i. s.: Tillywhimia R02
            |         Odontofoenus R70
            |--Kojutellitinae GE05
            |--Gasteruption N91
            `--Hyptiogastrinae GE05
                 |--Hyptiogaster thoracicus (Guérin-Méneville 1844) [=Foenus thoracicus] P57
                 |--Crassifoenus N91
                 |--Aulacofoenus N91
                 `--Eufoenus N91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P57] Pasteels, J. J. 1957. Revision du genre Gasteruption (Hymenoptera, Evanoidea, Gasteruptionidae). Espèces australiennes. Mémoires, Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, sér. 2, 56: 1–125.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 242–254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Aulacidae (Hymenoptera) in the mid-Atlantic states, with a key to species of eastern North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 274–291.

Nepoidea

Lethocerus delpontei, copyright Wolfram Sondermann.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Nepoidea are a group of aquatic bugs in which the fore wing venation is reticulate and the eighth abdominal tergum is modified into a pair of respiratory processes.

<==Nepoidea
    |--Nepidae GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Curicta Im92
    |    |--Ranatrinae CGW91
    |    |    |--Austronepa angusta CGW91, WEE74
    |    |    |--Goondnomdanepa CGW91
    |    |    |--Cercotmetus CGW91
    |    |    `--Ranatra CGW91
    |    |         |--R. australiensis G75
    |    |         |--R. dispar CGW91
    |    |         |--R. linearis CS77
    |    |         `--R. quadridentata RD77
    |    `--Nepinae G75
    |         |--Laccotrephes tristis G75
    |         `--Nepa Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |              |--N. atra Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |              |--N. cimicoides Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |              |--N. cinerea Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |              |--N. fusca Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |              |--N. grandis Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |              |--N. linearis Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |              `--N. rubra Linnaeus 1758 L58
    `--Belostomatidae GE05
         |  i. s.: Mesobelostomum deperditum S02
         |         Odrowasicoris polonicus S02
         |         Iberonepa romerali GE05, S02
         |         Lethonectes GE05
         |         Tarsabedus GE05
         |         Nettelstedtia GE05
         |         Mesonepa GE05
         |         Scarabeides GE05
         |         Stygeonepa GE05
         |         Lethopterus GE05
         |         Hydrocyrius columbiae Spinola 1850 [incl. Belostoma capitatum Guerin-Meneville 1856] M62
         |         Sphaerodema eques G75
         |         Zaitha flumineum RD77
         |--Belostomatinae CGW91
         |    |--Diplonychus CGW91
         |    |    |--D. eques CGW91
         |    |    `--D. rusticus [=Sphaerodema rusticum] CGW91
         |    `--Belostoma testaceopallidum G20
         `--Lethocerus [Lethocerinae] CGW91
              |--L. annulipes (Herrich-Schäffer 1848) (see below for synonymy) M62
              |--L. colossicus M62
              |--L. delpontei M62
              |--L. deyrollei (Vuillefroy 1864) Iw92
              |--L. distinctifemur G75
              |--‘Belostoma’ distinctum Dufour 1863 M62
              |--L. grandis RD77
              |--L. (Benacus) griseus (Say 1832) [incl. B. angustatum Guerin-Meneville 1856] M62
              |--L. indicus WEE70
              |--L. insulanus CGW91
              |--‘Belostoma’ litigiosum Dufour 1863 M62
              |--L. medius (Guerin-Meneville 1856) [=Belostoma medium; incl. B. curtum Guerin-Meneville 1856] M62
              |--‘Belostoma’ obscurum Dufour 1863 M62
              `--L. turgaicus S02

Lethocerus annulipes (Herrich-Schäffer 1848) [=Belostoma annulipes; incl. B. mayri Montandon 1896, B. ruficeps Dufour 1863, B. signoreti Dufour 1863] M62

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M62] Menke, A. S. 1962. Notes on species of Lethocerus Mayr and Hydrocyrius Spinola described by Guerin-Meneville, L. Dufour, A. L. Montandon, and G. A. W. Herrich-Schäffer (Belostomatidae; Hemiptera). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 61–66.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WEE74] Woodward, T. E., V. F. Eastop & J. W. Evans. 1974. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 52–57. Melbourne University Press.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

Tessaratomidae

Lychee stink bug Tessaratoma papillosa, copyright Ian Jacobs.


Belongs within: Pentatomoidea.

The Tessaratomidae are a group of tropical shield bugs with the spiracles of abdominal segment 2 fully exposed and removed from the posterior margins of the metapleura, and lacking reticulate veins on the hemelytral membrane (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Tessaratomidae SS02
    |  i. s.: Agapophyta bipunctata G76, B35
    |         Lyramorpha rosea SDT88
    |         Musgraveia sulciventris G75
    |         Peltocopta crassiventris C91
    |         Stilida indecora CGW91
    |--Thalma [Thalminae] G75
    |    `--T. biguttata G75
    |--Oncomerinae SS02
    |    |--Oncomeris C91
    |    `--Erga Walker 1868 G75
    |         `--E. longitudinalis (Westwood 1837) [=Rhaphigaster longitudinalis; incl. *E. roseoflua Walker 1868] G75
    `--Tessaratominae SS02
         |--Malgassus [Prionogastrini] SS02
         |--Pycanum rubens G75
         `--Tessaratoma SS02
              |--T. flavicorne Boisduval 1835 B35
              |--T. javanica SDT88
              `--T. papillosa SS02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[G76] Gross, G. F. 1976. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part II. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[SDT88] Schaefer, C. W., W. R. Dolling & S. Tachikawa. 1988. The shieldbug genus Parastrachia and its position within the Pentatomoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 93: 283–311.

[SS02] Sweet, M. H., & C. W. Schaefer. 2002. Parastrachiinae (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) raised to family level. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95: 441-448.

Scutelleridae

Green shield-backed bug Coleotichus costatus, from Brisbane Insects.


Belongs within: Pentatomoidea.

The Scutelleridae, jewel bugs, are a group of mostly shiny and/or brightly coloured shield bugs with a very large scutellum mostly covering the abdomen dorsally, and a hamus (spur-vein) present in the basal cell of the hind wing (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Scutelleridae
    |  i. s.: Philia D14
    |           |--P. elegans (Montrouz. 1861) [=Callidea elegans] D14
    |           `--P. senator C70
    |         Chrysocoris sexmaculatus (Leach 1815) [=Scutellera sexmaculata] D14
    |         Peocilocoris B14
    |         Cantao parentum WEE70
    |         Odontoscelis fuliginosa RD77, H01
    |--Tetyra Fabricius 1803 [incl. Macraulax Dallas 1851; Tetyrinae] G75
    |    `--T. bipunctatus (Herrich Schaeffer 1839) [=Pachycoris bipunctatus, *Macraulax bipunctatus] G75
    |--Aphylum Bergroth 1906 RD77, G75 [Aphylidae, Aphylinae G75]
    |    |--*A. syntheticum Bergroth 1906 G75
    |    `--A. bergrothi G75
    |--Odontotarsinae G75
    |    |--Odontotarsus RD77
    |    |--Eurygaster G75
    |    |    |--E. integriceps RD77
    |    |    |--E. maura [incl. E. maura var. picta] H01
    |    |    `--E. nigrocucullatus G75
    |    `--Morbora Distant 1899 G75
    |         |--*M. australis Distant 1899 G75
    |         |--M. hirtula Bergroth 1904 G75
    |         `--M. schoutedeni Bergroth 1904 G75
    |--Elvisurinae G75
    |    |--Elvisura G75
    |    |--Solenostethium G75
    |    |--Solenotichus Martin 1897 G75
    |    |    `--S. circuliferus (Walker 1867) [=Sphaerocoris circuliferus; incl. *So. brevipes] G75
    |    |--Austrotichus Gross 1975 G75
    |    |    `--*A. rugosus Gross 1975 G75
    |    `--Coleotichus White 1839 G75
    |         |  i. s.: C. nigrovarius Walker & Schouteden 1905 K08
    |         |         C. sordidus Walker & Schouteden 1904 K08
    |         |--C. (Coleotichus) G75
    |         |    |--*C. (C.) costatus (Fabricius 1787) [=Cimex costatus] G75
    |         |    `--C. (C.) blackburni G75
    |         `--C. (Paracoleotichus) discrepans G75
    `--Scutellerinae G75
         |--Scutiphora pedicellata CGW91
         |--Lampromicra senator CGW91, C91
         |--Tectocoris G75
         |    |--T. diophthalmus Kirk 1908 CGW91, D14
         |    `--T. ‘lineola’ (Fabr. 1781) G75, D14 (see below for synonymy) D14
         |--Calliphara Germar 1839 G75
         |    |--*C. nobilis (Linnaeus 1763) G75 [=Cimex nobilis G75, Pentatoma nobilis L02]
         |    |--C. imperialis CGW91
         |    `--C. praslinia (Guérin 1830) [=Scutellera praslinia] G75
         |--Scutellera B35
         |    |--S. cyanipoda Boisduval 1835 B35
         |    |--S. pagana [=Tetyra pagana] B35
         |    `--S. tongae Boisduval 1835 B35
         `--Choerocoris Dallas 1851 G75
              |--*C. paganus (Fabricius 1775) [=Cimex paganus] G75
              `--C. variegatus G75
                   |--C. v. variegatus G75
                   `--C. v. similis Distant 1899 G75

Tectocoris ‘lineola’ (Fabr. 1781) [=Cimex lineola non Linnaeus 1758; incl. T. lineola var. banksi Don 1805, T. lineola var. cyanipes Fabr. 1803, T. lineola var. obliquus Walk. 1867, T. lineola var. tongae Boisd. 1832] D14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C70] CSIRO. 1970. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne University Press.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

Myrocharia

Aednus sp., from here.


Belongs within: Pentatominae.

The Myrocharia are an Old World group of shield bugs with the head flattish, the lateral margins of the head and sometimes also of the pronotum expanded, and the thoracic sterna usually sulcate (Gross 1975).

<==Myrocharia [Dorpiaria, Myrocheinae] G75
    |--Myrochea G75
    |--Laprius G75
    |--Paramecocoris G75
    |--Ennius G75
    |--Erachteus G75
    |--Cocalus G75
    |--Aednus G75
    |--Dorpius G75
    |--Hippota G75
    |--Praetestatus G75
    `--Valescus G75

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

Tarisini

Deroploopsis brevicornutus, copyright South Australian Museum.


Belongs within: Pentatominae.

The Tarisini are a group of shield bugs in which the scutellum is often enlarged but always leaves most of the lateral margins of the hemelytra exposed (Gross 1975).

Characters (from Gross 1975, as 'Tarisa group'): Head broad, juga not surpassing apex of anteclypeus. Scutellum variable in size, usually broad and elongate, reaching to or almost to apex of abdomen, apex broadly rounded, rarely triangular and shorter with more acuminate apex; lateral margins of hemelytra at least mostly exposed. Sterna sulcate, prosternal sulcus with elevated sharp margins (if these are lower and blunter then scutellum always enlarged).

<==Tarisini [Graphostomatini, Tarisinae] G75
    |--Tarisa G75
    |--Putonia G75
    |--Dandinus Distant 1904 G75
    |    `--*D. crassus Distant 1904 G75
    |--Testrica Walker 1867 G75
    |    |--*T. antica Walker 1867 G75
    |    `--T. bubala Stål 1876 G75
    |--Propetestrica Musgrave 1930 G75
    |    |--*P. trimaculata Musgrave 1930 G75
    |    `--P. angulata Musgrave 1930 G75
    |--Protestrica Schouteden 1905 G75
    |    |--*P. rudis (Germar 1839) [=Podops rudis, Testrica rudis] G75
    |    |--P. montana Gross 1975 G75
    |    |--P. stali (Schouteden 1905) [=Testrica stali] G75
    |    `--P. subpunctata G75
    `--Deroploopsis Schouteden 1905 G75
         |--*D. curvicornis (Stål 1876) [=Deroploa curvicornis] G75
         |--D. bidentatus Musgrave 1930 G75
         |--D. brevicornutus Musgrave 1930 G75
         `--D. trispinosus Musgrave 1930 G75

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

Diemeniini

Brown stink bug Oncocoris apicalis, from Brisbane Insects.


Belongs within: Pentatominae.

The Diemeniini are an Australasian group of shield bugs characterised by the presence of a series of stridulatory ridges ventrolaterally on the anterior segments of the abdomen.

Characters (from Gross 1976, as 'Diemenia group'): Medium-sized, 5–14 mm in length, elongate-oval in shape, dorsal surface usually strongly punctate. Antennae four- or five-segmented; juga frequently surpassing apex of anteclypeus, may be reflexed laterally, often produced into small lobe or process in front of eye. Abdomen with strigose vittae forming curved line laterally on segments 2, 3 and/or 4. Posterior outline of male pygophore mostly complex; clasper may be Y-shaped, thin and elongate, or flattened and rather plate-like; phallosoma heavily or only moderately sclerotised; thecal shield absent; conjunctiva bilobed with additional median and ventral lobes sometimes present; median penial plates small and laminate, or forming funnel-like sheath around vesica, or absent; vesica short and robust.

<==Diemeniini [Diemeninae]
    |--Caridophthalmus G76
    |--Aplerotus Dallas 1851 G76
    |    `--*A. maculatus Dallas 1851 G76
    |--Boocoris Gross 1976 G76
    |    `--*B. bufiformis Gross 1976 G76
    |--Gilippus Stål 1867 G76
    |    `--*G. hostilis Haglund 1868 G76
    |--Pseudoncocoris Gross 1976 G76
    |    `--*P. southcotti Gross 1976 G76
    |--Alphenor Stål 1867 G76
    |    |--*A. cuspidatus Stål 1869 [incl. Myappena capito Distant 1910] G76
    |    `--A. victoriensis Gross 1976 G76
    |--Kalkadoona Distant 1910 [incl. Stelgidophora Bergroth 1912] G76
    |    |--K. pallida (Van Duzee 1905) (see below for synonymy) G76
    |    |--K. confinis (Dallas 1851) [=Dictyotus confinis] G76
    |    |--K. cooperi Gross 1976 G76
    |    `--K. enchylaenae Gross 1976 G76
    |--Diemenia Spinola 1850 G76
    |    |--D. rubromarginata (Guérin-Méneville 1830) [=Platycoris rubromarginatus] G76
    |    |    |--D. r. rubromarginata G76
    |    |    `--*D. r. deyrollei Spinola 1850 [incl. Platycoris affinis, P. distinctus] G76
    |    `--D. immarginata [=Platycoris immarginatus] G76
    |--Niarius Stål 1867 G76
    |    |--*N. umbrosus (Stål 1865) [=Platycoris umbrosus] G76
    |    |--N. haglundi Montandon 1903 G76
    |    |--N. illuminatus Distant 1881 [incl. N. tryoni Bergroth 1905] G76
    |    |--N. ooldeae Gross 1976 G76
    |    `--N. venosus G76
    `--Oncocoris Mayr 1866 G76
         |--*O. punctatus Mayr 1866 G76
         |--O. apicalis (Dallas 1851) [=Dictyotus apicalis] G76
         |--O. desertus Bergroth 1916 G76
         |--O. discoideus (Dallas 1851) [=Dictyotus discoideus] G75
         |--O. favillaceus (Walker 1867) [=Tarba favillacea, Dictyotus favillaceus] G75
         |--O. geniculatus (Dallas 1851) G76 (see below for synonymy)
         |--O. lineatus G76
         |--O. semimarginatus (Westwood 1837) [=Pentatoma semimarginata, Dictyotus semimarginatus] G75
         |--O. similis (Dallas 1851) [=Dictyotus similis] G76
         |--O. transversus (Carpenter 1891) [=Dictyotus transversus] G75
         |--O. truncatellus (Walker 1868) [=Eysarcoris truncatellus, Dictyotus truncatellus] G75
         `--O. ventralis (Walker 1867) [=Mormidea ventralis, Dictyotus ventralis] G75

Kalkadoona pallida (Van Duzee 1905) [=Dictyotus pallidus, *Stelgidophora pallida; incl. *K. centromaculata Distant 1910] G76

Oncocoris geniculatus (Dallas 1851) G76 [=Dictyotus geniculatus G76; incl. O. dimidiatus G76, D. lineatus Walker 1867 G75]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[G76] Gross, G. F. 1976. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part II. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

Rhyacophiloidea

Rhyacophila sp., copyright Hectonichus.


Belongs within: Trichoptera.
Contains: Hydrobiosinae.

The Rhyacophiloidea are a group of caddisflies in which the larvae are mostly carnivorous and use bottom crevices as retreats, only producing silk immediately before pupation. The larval antenna bears two basiconic sensillae with a single trichoid sensilla between them (Ivanov & Sukatsheva 2002).

<==Rhyacophiloidea
    |--Hydrobiosidae GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Palaeohydrobiosis siberambra RJ93
    |    |--Hydrobiosinae N83
    |    `--Apsilochoreminae N83
    |         |--Bachorema Mosely 1953 N83
    |         |--Allochorema Mosely 1953 N83
    |         |    |--*A. tasmanicum Mosely 1953 [=A. tasmanica] N83
    |         |    `--A. reclivatum Neboiss 1962 N83
    |         `--Apsilochorema Ulmer 1907 N83
    |              |--*A. indicum (Ulmer 1905) [=Psilochorema indicum] N83
    |              |--A. gisbum (Mosely 1953) [=Bachorema gisba, A. gisba] N83
    |              |--A. obliquum (Mosely 1953) [=Bachorema obliqua, A. obliqua] N83
    |              `--A. urdalum Neboiss 1962 N83
    `--Rhyacophilidae GE05
         |--Cailloma RD77
         `--Rhyacophila Pictet 1834 [Rhyacophilinae] BZ-M04
              |--R. aquitanica BZ-M04
              |--R. atrata R38
              |--R. denticulata [=R. fasciata denticulata] BZ-M04
              |--R. dorsalis (Curtis 1834) BZ-M04
              |--R. evoluta McLachlan 1879 BZ-M04
              |--R. fasciata Hagen 1859 BZ-M04
              |--R. fuscula RD77
              |--R. gemona Ross 1938 R38
              |--R. intermedia McLachlan 1868 BZ-M04
              |--R. kaltatica IS02
              |--R. laevis Pictet 1834 BZ-M04
              |--R. meridionalis Pictet 1865 BZ-M04
              |--R. mocsaryi Klapálek 1898 BZ-M04
              |    |--R. m. mocsaryi BZ-M04
              |    `--R. m. tredosensis BZ-M04
              |--R. munda McLachlan 1862 BZ-M04
              |--R. nevada Schmid 1952 BZ-M04
              |--R. norcuta Ross 1938 R38
              |--R. occidentalis McLachlan 1879 BZ-M04
              |--R. pascoei McLachlan 1879 BZ-M04
              |--R. pellisa Ross 1938 R38
              |--R. relicta McLachlan 1879 BZ-M04
              |--R. rotunda R38
              |--R. septentrionalis A99
              |--R. tristis Pictet 1834 BZ-M04
              `--R. valuma R38

Nomen nudum: Rhyacophila fonticola BZ-M04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (transl. 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[BZ-M04] Bonada, N., C. Zamora-Muñoz, M. Rieradevall & N. Prat. 2004. Trichoptera (Insecta) collected in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula: taxonomic remarks and notes on ecology. Graellsia 60 (1): 41–69.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[IS02] Ivanov, V. D., & I. D. Sukatsheva. 2002. Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813. The caddisflies (=Phryganeida Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 199–220. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[N83] Neboiss, A. 1983. Checklist and bibliography of the Australian caddis-flies (Trichoptera). Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication 5: 1–132.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[R38] Ross, H. H. 1938. Descriptions of new North American Trichoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (5): 117–124.

Hydrobiosinae

Austrochorema nama, copyright Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.


Belongs within: Rhyacophiloidea.

The Hydrobiosinae are a group of caddisflies in which the larvae possess a heavily sclerotised prosternum and enlarged, chelate forelegs with a distal process on the femur articulating with the combined tibia, tarsus and claw.

<==Hydrobiosinae N83
    |--Anachorema Mosely 1953 N83
    |--Notiobiosis Banks 1939 N83
    |--Allobiosis Mosely 1953 N83
    |    `--*A. erratica Mosely 1953 N83
    |--Ipsebiosis Neboiss 1977 N83
    |    `--*I. spicula Neboiss 1977 N83
    |--Koetonga Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    `--*K. clivicola Neboiss 1962 N83
    |--Megogata Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    `--*M. necopina Neboiss 1962 N83
    |--Hydrobiosis McLachlan 1868 N83
    |    |--H. lindsayi C88
    |    `--H. parumbripennis PC66
    |--Ptychobiosis Neboiss 1977 N83
    |    |--*P. nigrita (Banks 1939) [=Notiobiosis nigrita, Taschorema nigritum; incl. T. nigra Mosely 1953] N83
    |    `--P. rieki (Neboiss 1962) [=Taschorema rieki] N83
    |--Tanjilana Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    |--*T. akroreia Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    `--T. zothecula Neboiss 1962 N83
    |--Moruya Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    |--*M. charadra Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    |--M. opora Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    `--M. tasmanica (Jacquemart 1965) [=Psyllobetina tasmanica] N83
    |--Psyllobetina Banks 1939 N83
    |    |--*P. plutonis Banks 1939 N83
    |    |--P. attunga Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    |--P. cumberlandica Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    |--P. locula Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    `--P. perkinsi Neboiss 1962 N83
    |--Ethochorema Neboiss 1977 N83
    |    |--*E. nesydrion (Neboiss 1962) [=Taschorema nesydrion] N83
    |    |--E. brunneum (Mosely 1953) [=Taschorema brunnea, T. brunneum] N83
    |    |--E. hesperium (Neboiss 1962) [=Taschorema hesperium] N83
    |    |--E. kelion Neboiss 1977 N83
    |    |--E. ochraceum (Mosely 1953) [=Taschorema ochracea, T. ochraceum] N83
    |    |--E. secutum Neboiss 1977 N83
    |    `--E. turbidum (Neboiss 1962) [=Taschorema turbidum] N83
    |--Taschorema Mosely 1936 N83
    |    |--*T. asmanum Mosely 1936 [=T. asmana] N83
    |    |--T. apobamum Neboiss 1977 N83
    |    |--T. evansi Mosely 1953 N83
    |    |--T. ferulum Neboiss 1977 N83
    |    |--T. kimminsi Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    |--T. pallescens (Banks 1939) [=Notiobiosis pallescens] N83
    |    |--T. pedunculatum Jacquemart 1965 [=T. pedunculata] N83
    |    |--T. rugulum Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    `--T. viridarium Neboiss 1962 N83
    |--Ulmerochorema Mosely 1953 N83
    |    |--*U. stigma (Ulmer 1916) [=Hydrobiosis stigma, Notiobiosis stigma] N83
    |    |--U. breve (Mosely 1953) [=Anachorema brevis] N83
    |    |--U. lentum Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    |--U. luxaturum Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    |--U. membrum Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    |--U. onychion Neboiss 1977 N83
    |    |--U. rubiconum Neboiss 1962 N83
    |    |--U. seona (Mosely 1953) [=Anachorema seona] N83
    |    `--U. tasmanicum (Mosely 1953) [=Anachorema tasmanica] N83
    `--Austrochorema Mosely 1953 N83
         |--*A. wentum Mosely 1953 [=A. wenta] N83
         |--A. alpinum Neboiss 1962 N83
         |--A. complexa Jacquemart 1965 N83
         |--A. concubium Neboiss 1962 N83
         |--A. crinitum Neboiss 1977 N83
         |--A. evansi (Mosely 1953) [=Anachorema evansi] N83
         |--A. lepnevae Jacquemart 1965 N83
         |--A. nama Neboiss 1962 N83
         |--A. patulum Neboiss 1962 N83
         |--A. pegidion Neboiss 1962 N83
         `--A. spinosum Neboiss 1962 N83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C88] Craw, R. 1988. Continuing the synthesis between panbiogeography, phylogenetic systematics and geology as illustrated by empirical studies on the biogeography of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Systematic Zoology 37 (3): 291–310.

[N83] Neboiss, A. 1983. Checklist and bibliography of the Australian caddis-flies (Trichoptera). Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication 5: 1–132.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

Orthotrichiini

Orthotrichia sp., copyright Tom Murray.


Belongs within: Hydroptilidae.

The Orthotrichiini are a cosmopolitan group of caddisflies whose larvae possess flattened, tapering mandibles and a broad, flat labium.

<==Orthotrichiini BZ-M04
    |--Ithytrichia Eaton 1873 BZ-M04
    `--Orthotrichia Eaton 1873 BZ-M04
         |--*O. angustella (McLachlan 1865) [=Hydroptila angustella] N83
         |--O. aberrans Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. aculeata Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. adornata Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. alveata Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. armata Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. atraseta Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. bellicosa Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. bishopi Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. bullata Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. capillata Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. exigua Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. gracilis Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. inornata Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. kholoensis Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. morula Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. orbostensis Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. paranga Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. rostrata Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. scutata Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. stipa Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. suteri Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. tortuosa Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. turrita Wells 1979 N83
         |--O. tyleri Wells 1979 N83
         `--O. zonata (Neboiss 1977) [=Targatrichia zonata] N83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BZ-M04] Bonada, N., C. Zamora-Muñoz, M. Rieradevall & N. Prat. 2004. Trichoptera (Insecta) collected in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula: taxonomic remarks and notes on ecology. Graellsia 60 (1): 41–69.

[N83] Neboiss, A. 1983. Checklist and bibliography of the Australian caddis-flies (Trichoptera). Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication 5: 1–132.