Iridomyrmex

Black tyrant ants Iridomyrmex anceps or I. rufoniger attacking a caterpillar, from Brisbane Insects.


Belongs within: Dolichoderinae.

Iridomyrmex, the meat ants, is a genus of often aggressive, generalist carnivorous and scavenging ants.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Eyes placed relatively high on sides of head capsule, about the mid-point; anterior margin of clypeus usually with central protuberance (rarely absent); palpal formula 6, 4.

<==Iridomyrmex Mayr 1862 B03
    |--*I. detectus B03
    |--I. agilis H09
    |--I. anceps (Roger 1863) [=Formica anceps] B03
    |    |--I. a. anceps E14
    |    `--I. a. papuanus [incl. I. a. papuana var. neocaledonica Emery 1914] E14
    |--I. bicknelli H09
    |    |--I. b. bicknelli H09
    |    `--I. b. brunneus [incl. I. gracilis minor] H09
    |--I. calvus Emery 1914 E14
    |--I. chasei H09
    |    |--I. c. chasei H09
    |    |--I. c. concolor H09
    |    `--I. c. yalgooensis H09
    |--I. conifer Forel 1902 K09
    |--I. discors H09 [incl. I. discors var. exilior S36]
    |--I. dromus H09
    |--I. exsanguis H09
    |--I. gracilis H09
    |    |--I. g. gracilis H09
    |    |--I. g. fusciventris H09
    |    `--I. g. spurcus H09
    |--I. greensladei H09
    |--I. hartmeyeri H09
    |--I. hesperus H09
    |--I. humilis H79
    |--I. iniquus WW90
    |--I. innocens [incl. I. argutus, I. occiduus] H09
    |--I. laevigatus Emery 1894 B03
    |--I. lividus H09
    |--I. mattiroloi H09
    |    |--I. m. mattiroloi H09
    |    |--I. m. continentis H09
    |    `--I. m. splendens H09
    |--I. nitidiceps E14
    |--I. notialis H09
    |--I. obsidianus Emery 1914 E14
    |--I. prismatis H09
    |--I. purpureus H09
    |--I. reburrus H09
    |--I. rufoniger H09
    |    |--I. r. rufoniger H09
    |    |--I. r. domesticus H09
    |    `--I. r. suchieri H09
    |--I. setoconus H09
    |--I. sommeri For. 1902 [=I. glaber sommeri; incl. I. glaber sommeri var. janthina Emery 1914] E14
    |--I. spodipilus H09
    |--I. turbineus H09
    `--I. viridaeneus H09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV, pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: Aspects of defense and integration. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds) pp. 345–374. Academic Press: London.

Kejval, Z. 2009. Taxonomic revision of the genus Chileanthicus Werner (Coleoptera: Anthicidae). Zootaxa 2180: 1–82.

[S36] Solomon, M. E. 1936. Description and life-history of a new Western Australian psyllid. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 22: 41–48.

Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

Stigmacros

Stigmacros aemula, copyright Will Ericson/antweb.org.


Belongs within: Formicinae.

Stigmacros is a genus of small, generalist predatory ants endemic to Australia that are found in leaf litter or arboreally (Heterick 2009).

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Antenna with 10 segments; palps long (palpal formula 6, 4); propodeum with one or more pairs of spines, teeth or protuberances, often including pair over propodeal spiracle; petiolar node often with pair of spines or lateral processes.

<==Stigmacros H09
    |  i. s.: S. aciculata H09
    |         S. armstrongi H09
    |         S. brooksi H09
    |         S. castanea H09
    |         S. clarki H09
    |         S. clivispina H09
    |         S. extreminigra H09
    |         S. ferruginea H09
    |         S. flava H09
    |         S. glauerti H09
    |         S. occidentalis H09
    |         S. rectangularis H09
    |         S. reticulata H09
    |         S. termitoxena H09
    |--S. (Stigmacros) pusilla H09
    |--S. (Campostigmacros) H09
    |    |--S. (C.) aemula H09
    |    |--S. (C.) anthracina H09
    |    |--S. (C.) brachytera H09
    |    |--S. (C.) elegans H09
    |    |--S. (C.) epinotalis H09
    |    |--S. (C.) flavinodis H09
    |    |--S. (C.) pilosella H09
    |    `--S. (C.) stanleyi H09
    |--S. (Hagiostigmacros) spinosa H09
    `--S. (Pseudostigmacros) inermis H09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

Colobognatha

Head of Siphonophora barberi, from Chamberlin (1922).


Belongs within: Helminthomorpha.

The Colobognatha are a clade of millipedes characterised by the presence of elongate, sucking mouthparts. They are divided between three orders, among which the Platydesmida have the pleurites fused to the tergites (Sierwald et al. 2003) and a well-defined median longitudinal suture along the metaterga (Hoffman 1990). The Polyzoniida and Siphonophorida can be distinguished by the presence (Polyzoniida) or absence (Siphonophorida) of ocelli.

Synapomorphies (from Sierwald et al. 2003): Mouthparts elongate, with gnathochilarial palps absent; adult males with ninth leg modified into an accessory gonopod, tenth leg into a functional gonopod; adults curl protectively around eggs; first larval instar with four leg pairs.

<==Colobognatha [Typhlogena]
    |--Platydesmida SS03
    |    |--Platydesmus Lucas 1843 [Platydesmidae] K54b
    |    |    |--P. lankesteri Brölemann 1905 K54b
    |    |    `--P. marmoreus Pocock 1903 K54b
    |    `--Andrognathidae H90
    |         |--Andrognathus H90
    |         |--Ischnocybe H90
    |         |--Mitocybe H90
    |         |--Gosodesmus H90
    |         `--Brachycybe lecontii H90
    `--+--Polyzoniida [Ommatophora, Polyzoniidea] SS03
       |    |  i. s.: Petaserpes Cope 1870 W05
       |    |--Siphonotus [Siphonotidae] H90
       |    |    `--S. purpureus [=Rhinotus purpureus] H90
       |    |--Hirudisomatidae H90
       |    |    |--Euzonium H90
       |    |    |--Hypozonium H90
       |    |    `--Octoglena H90
       |    `--Polyzoniidae H90
       |         |--Bdellozonium H90
       |         |--Buzonium H90
       |         |--Calzonium H90
       |         |--Pizonium H90
       |         |--Polyzonium Brandt 1837 W05
       |         |    `--P. germanicum RS10
       |         `--Angarozonium Shelley 1998 MG00
       |              `--A. amurense (Gerstfeldt 1859) (see below for synonymy) MG00
       `--Siphonophorida SS03
            |--Siphonorhinidae H90
            |    |--Illacme plenipes H90, GE05
            |    `--Siphonorhinus H90
            `--Siphonophoridae H90
                 |--Siphonacme H90
                 `--Siphonophora Newport 1845 K54a
                      |--S. andecola Kraus 1954 K54a
                      |--S. barberi K54b
                      |--S. gracilicornis K54a
                      |--S. lafloridae Kraus 1955 K55
                      |--S. porcullae Kraus 1954 K54a
                      |--S. progressor K54b
                      |--S. sabachana K54b
                      `--S. trifini Kraus 1954 K54b

Angarozonium amurense (Gerstfeldt 1859) [=Platydesmus amurensis, Polyzonium amurense; incl. Po. cyathiferum Mikhaljova 1981] MG00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[K54a] Kraus, O. 1954a. Myriapoden aus Peru, II. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 17–55.

[K54b] Kraus, O. 1954b. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5–6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[MG00] Mikhaljova, E. V., & S. I. Golovatch. 2000. A review of the millipede fauna of Siberia (Diplopoda). Arthropoda Selecta 9: 103–118.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[SS03] Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley & J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 87–99.

[W05] Wilson, H. M. 2005. Zosterogrammida, a new order of millipedes from the Middle Silurian of Scotland and the Upper Carboniferous of Euramerica. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1101–1110.

Last updated: 25 May 2017.

Spirostreptidae

Spirostreptus ibanda, copyright Gey-stern.


Belongs within: Eugnatha.

The Spirostreptidae is a family of often large millipedes.

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Stipes of gnathochilarium widely separated by large central mentum, but lingual lamellae in contact, not separated by mentum or promentum; lateral ends of collum with several parallel engraved striations; sterna, pleura and terga coalesced into rigid cylindrical rings, with pleural sclerites completely coalesced with lower ends of terga, no suture line remaining; segment 3 without legs.

<==Spirostreptidae [Spirostreptidea]
    |  i. s.: Charactopygus frequens H02
    |         Orthoporus C90
    |           |--O. cobanus L62
    |           |--O. flavior C90
    |           |--O. kiemi Loomis 1962 L62
    |           |--O. luchicolens L62
    |           |--O. ornatus C90
    |           `--O. paxillicauda Loomis 1962 L62
    `--Spirostreptinae K55
         |--Spirostreptus ibanda H02
         |--Epistreptus K55
         |    |--E. (Epistreptus) K55
         |    |    |--*E. (E.) oscenus Silvestri 1897 K55
         |    |    `--E. (E.) silvestrii Kraus 1955 K55
         |    `--E. (Microtrullius) vagans (Chamberlin 1922) (see below for synonymy) K54
         `--Scaphiostreptus [incl. Andineptus Chamberlin 1941] K55
              |  i. s.: S. rugiceps K54
              `--S. (Scaphiostreptus) K55
                   |--S. (S.) absconsus (Chamberlin 1922) [=Orthoporus absconsus] K54
                   |--S. (S.) apheles (Chamberlin 1941) [=Andineptus apheles] K55
                   |--S. (S.) broelemanni (Verhoeff 1941) K55
                   |--S. (S.) delectus (Chamberlin 1941) [=Andineptus delectus] K55
                   |--S. (S.) huallagae Kraus 1955 K55
                   |--S. (S.) perditus (Chamberlin 1941) [=Andineptus perditus] K55
                   |--S. (S.) pongus (Chamberlin 1941) [=Andineptus pongus] K55
                   `--S. (S.) salvadoricus Kraus 1954 K54

Epistreptus (Microtrullius) vagans (Chamberlin 1922) [=Gymnostreptus vagans; incl. G. pacificus Chamberlin 1922, Epistreptus (Microtrullius) pacificus] K54

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835-860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[H02] Hunt, D. J. 2002. The African Rhigonematoidea (Nematoda: Rhigonematida). 1. Trachyglossus quintus gen. n., sp. n. (Xustrostomatidae fam. n.) with redescription of Rhigonema multipapillatum (Skrjabin, 1916) and designation of a neotype. Nematology 4: 671–686.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5-6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3-4): 173–200.

[L62] Loomis, H. F. 1962. Two unusual Central American spirostreptid milliped species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 47–52.

Eugnatha

Gathering of Epinannolene, copyright Karl Questel.


Belongs within: Helminthomorpha.
Contains: Chordeumatida, Polydesmida, Spirobolida, Julida, Spirostreptidae.

The Eugnatha are a clade within the millipedes characterised by modification of the eighth pair of legs in adult males into a pair of functional gonopods, and the fusion of the pleurites to the tergites. Major clades within the Eugnatha include the Nematophora, characterised by the possession of spinnerets, and molar cusps on the mandibles (Sierwald et al. 2003).

<==Eugnatha
    |--Nematophora SS03
    |    |--Stemmiulida [Monocheta] WA04
    |    `--Coelocheta SS03
    |         |--Chordeumatida WA04
    |         `--Callipodida WA04
    |              |--Abacion magnum H00
    |              |--Delophon H90
    |              |--Tetracion H90
    |              |--Texophon H90
    |              |--Tynomma H90
    |              |--Diactis H90
    |              |--Heptium H90
    |              |--Colactis H90
    |              `--Apfelbeckia Verhoeff 1896 H00
    |                   `--A. hessei Verhoeff 1929 UO05
    `--+--Polydesmida WA04
       `--Juliformia [Juloidea] SS03
            |--+--Spirobolida SS03
            |  `--Julida SS03
            `--Spirostreptida SS03
                 |--Spirostreptidae H90
                 |--Epinannolenidea H90
                 |    |--Choctella [Choctellidae] H90
                 |    |    `--C. cummingsi H90
                 |    `--Epinannolene K55
                 |         |--E. alticola (Silvestri 1898) K55
                 |         |--E. bifasciata (Silvestri 1898) K54
                 |         |--E. cylidricaulis Kraus 1954 K54
                 |         `--E. flagellosa Kraus 1955 K55
                 `--Cambalidea H00
                      |  i. s.: Protosilvestria Handschin 1944 H00
                      |--Cambalopsidae H90
                      |    |--Plusioglyphiulus SGS04
                      |    `--Cambalopsis nordquisti A27
                      `--Cambalidae [Leioderidae, Nannolenidae] H90
                           |--Cambala hubrichti H00
                           |--Agastrophus B13
                           |--Hypocambala B13
                           |--Nannolene H90
                           |--Paiteya H90
                           |--Titsona H90
                           |    |--*T. sima C62
                           |    `--T. tida Chamberlin 1962 C62
                           |--Buwatia H90
                           |--Platydere H90
                           |--Pharodere H90
                           |--Endere H90
                           |--Leiodere H90
                           |--Odachurus H90
                           |--Alakene H90
                           |--Doilene H90
                           |--Tigolene H90
                           |--Amastigogonus Brölemann 1913 B13
                           |    `--*A. tasmanianus Brölemann 1913 B13
                           `--Dimerogonus Attems 1903 B13
                                `--*D. orophilus B13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Attems, C. 1927. Myriopoden von Ambon und anderen Inseln der Banda-See. Zoologische Mededeelingen 10: 61–70.

[B13] Brölemann, H. W. 1913. The Myriapoda in the Australian Museum. Part ii. Diplopoda. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (6): 77–158, pls 14–18.

[C62] Chamberlin, R. V. 1962. Millipeds from the Nevada Test Area. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 53–56.

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl): 19–35.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus Peru, II. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 17–55.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[SGS04] Schwendinger, P. J., G. Giribet & H. Steiner. 2004. A remarkable new cave-dwelling Stylocellus (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from peninsular Malaysia, with a discussion on taxonomic characters in the family Stylocellidae. Journal of Natural History 38: 1421–1435.

[SS03] Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley & J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 87–99.

[UO05] Ubick, D., & R. Ozimec. 2005. On the harvestman genus Lola Kratochvíl (Opiliones: Laniatores). Natura Croatica 14 (3): 161–174.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169–184.

Last updated: 25 May 2017.

Scolopendromorpha

Cryptops hortensis, copyright Tom Murray.


Belongs within: Myriapoda.

The Scolopendromorpha are a group of often large centipedes, bearing either 21 or 23 pairs of legs. Members of the family Scolopendridae bear four ocelli on either side of the head whereas species of Cryptopidae are eyeless (Mundel 1990).

See also: Giant centipedes (that aren't all giants).

<==Scolopendromorpha
    |--Cryptopidae E06
    |    |--Otocryptops [Scolopocryptopinae] K54
    |    |    |--O. ferrugineus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Scolopendra ferruginea] K54
    |    |    `--O. melanostomus A27
    |    |--Newportia [Dinocryptopinae] K55
    |    |    |--N. fuhrmanni Ribaut 1914 K55
    |    |    |--N. ignorata Kraus 1955 K55
    |    |    |--N. monticola Pocock 1890 K55
    |    |    |--N. simoni Brölemann 1898 K55
    |    |    `--N. stolli (Pocock 1896) [=Scolopendrides stolli] K54
    |    `--Cryptops Leach 1815 E06
    |         |  i. s.: C. anomalans Newport 1844 BFM03
    |         |         C. zelandicus M59
    |         |--*C. (Cryptops) hortensis (Donovan 1810) [=Scolopendra hortensis] E06
    |         `--C. (Trigonocryptops Verhoeff 1906) E06
    |              |--C. (*T.) gigas Kraepelin 1903 E06
    |              |--C. (T.) camoowealensis Edgecombe 2006 E06
    |              |--C. (T.) loveridgei Lawrence 1953 [incl. C. bokumensis Kraus 1958] E06
    |              |--C. (T.) roeplainsensis Edgecombe 2005 E06
    |              |--C. (T.) spinipes Pocock 1891 E06
    |              `--C. (T.) troglobius Matic et al. 1977 E06
    `--Scolopendridae GEW01
         |--Otostigminae [Otostigmidae] K54
         |    |--Rhysida K54
         |    |    |--R. nuda (Newport 1845) [=Branchiostoma nudum] K54
         |    |    `--R. subinermis A27
         |    |--Otostigmus A27
         |    |    |--O. astenus A27
         |    |    |--O. loriae A27
         |    |    `--O. politum Karsch 1881 A01
         |    `--Ethmostigmus MC13
         |         |--E. cribrifer A27
         |         |--E. curtipes MC13
         |         `--E. platycephalus A27
         `--Scolopendrinae T13
              |--Arthrorhabdus paucispinus MC13
              |--Cormocephalus T13
              |    |--C. hartmeyeri MG06
              |    |--C. rubriceps DGH93
              |    |--C. strigosus Kraepelin 1908 T13
              |    `--C. turneri MC13
              `--Scolopendra Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--S. cingulata GR98
                   |--S. coleoptrata Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--S. electrica Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--S. forficata Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--S. gigantea Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |    |--S. g. gigantea K55
                   |    `--S. g. weyrauchi Bücherl 1950 K55
                   |--S. heros MH96
                   |--S. laeta MC13
                   |--S. marina Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--S. morsitans Linnaeus 1758 T13
                   |--S. occidentalis Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--S. phosphorea Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--S. polymorpha RS10
                   |--S. subspinipes Leach 1815 SB12
                   |--S. viridicornis K55
                   `--S. viridis Say 1821 K54

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A01] Attems, C. 1901. Myriopodák [Myriopoden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 275–310. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[A27] Attems, C. 1927. Myriopoden von Ambon und anderen Inseln der Banda-See. Zoologische Mededeelingen 10: 61–70.

[BFM03] Bonato, L., D. Foddai & A. Minelli. 2003. Evolutionary trends and patterns in centipede segment number based on a cladistic analysis of Mecistocephalidae (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha). Systematic Entomology 28: 539–579.

[DGH93] Daugherty, C. H., G. W. Gibbs & R. A. Hitchmough. 1993. Mega-island or micro-continent? New Zealand and its fauna. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8 (12): 437–442.

[E06] Edgecombe, G. D. 2006. A troglobitic cryptopid centipede (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha) from western Queensland. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 193–198.

[GEW01] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe & W. C. Wheeler. 2001. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413: 157–161.

[GR98] Giribet, G., & C. Ribera. 1998. The position of arthropods in the animal kingdom: a search for a reliable outgroup for internal arthropod phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9: 481-488.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5-6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3-4): 173–200.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[M59] Morgan, F. D. 1959. The ecology and external morphology of Stolotermes ruficeps Brauer (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae). Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 155–195.

Mundel, P. 1990. Chilopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 819–833. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[SB12] Smith, M. J., C. R. J. Boland, D. Maple & B. Tiernan. 2012. The Christmas Island blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae): a survey protocol and an assessment of factors that relate to occupancy and detection. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 40–44.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

Last updated: 5 November 2017.

Neoatractosomatoidea

Gonopods of Fagina silvatica, from Mauriès (2003).


Belongs within: Chordeumatida.

The Neoatractosomatoidea is a group of chordeumatidan millipedes found mostly in souther Europe, characterised by the males having flagella on the anterior gonopods only, with no flagella on the posterior gonopods (Mauriès 2003).

See also: The importance of genitalia.

<==Neoatractosomatoidea
    |--Cyrnosoma Mauriès 1969 [Cyrnosomatidae] M03
    |    `--‘Neoatractosoma’ strandi Attems 1927 M03
    `--Neoatractosomatidae M03
         |--Trimerophorinae M03
         |    |--Osellasoma Mauriès 1985 [Osellasomatini] M03
         |    `--Trimerophorini M03
         |         |--Pseudocraspedosoma Silvestri 1898 (see below for synonymy) M03
         |         |--Mesotrimeron Verhoeff 1912 M03
         |         |--Trimerophorella Verhoeff 1902 M03
         |         |--Microbrachysoma Verhoeff 1897 [Microbrachysomatinae, Microbrachysomatini] M03
         |         |    `--*M. alpestre Verhoeff 1897 M03
         |         `--Epirosomella Strasser 1976 M03
         |              `--E. loebli Strasser 1976 M03
         `--Neoatractosomatinae M03
              |--Neoatractosoma Silvestri 1898 [Neoatractosomatini] M03
              `--Faginini [Faginidae] M03
                   |--Fagina Attems 1904 M03
                   |    `--*F. silvatica (Attems 1904) [=Heterolatzelia (Fagina) silvatica] M03
                   |--Paeonisoma Verhoeff 1932 M03
                   |    `--*P. faucium Verhoeff 1932 M03
                   `--Schizmohetera Mršić 1987 M03
                        |--*S. sketi Mršić 1987 M03
                        |--S. curcici Makarov 2001 M03
                        `--S. olympica Mauriès 2003 M03

Pseudocraspedosoma Silvestri 1898 [incl. Brentomeron Verhoeff 1934, Trimerophoron Rothenbühler 1900] M03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[M03] Mauriès, J.-P. 2003. Schizmohetera olympica sp. n. from Greece, with a reclassification of the superfamily Neoatractosomatoidea (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida). Arthropoda Selecta 12: 9-16.

Chordeumatida

Specimen belonging to the Australeuma mauriesi group, from Tasmanian Multipedes.


Belongs within: Eugnatha.
Contains: Neoatractosomatoidea, Cleidogonoidea, Metopidiotrichinae, Conotylidae.

The Chordeumatida are a group of relatively short, bristly millipedes.

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Body with 26–30 segments in adults; ocelli usually present; gnathochilarium with short basal mentum and elongate lingual lamellae; ozopores absent; metaterga with well-defined median longitudinal suture; sterna not firmly attached to adjoining sternites but more or less flexibly articulated by connective tissue; males with coxal sacs in ninth and tenth pairs of legs only; gonopods composed of both pairs of legs of seventh segment.

<==Chordeumatida [Chordeumida]
    |--Chordeumatidea S03b
    |    |  i. s.: Chordeumella [Chordeumatidae] M03
    |    |           `--C. broelemanni (Verhoeff 1897) M03
    |    `--Cleidogonoidea H90
    |--Striariidea S03b
    |    |--Caseyidae [Caseyoidea] S03b
    |    |    |--Caseya H90
    |    |    |--Opiona H90
    |    |    |--Placerna H90
    |    |    |--Vasingtona H90
    |    |    |--Zantona H90
    |    |    `--Underwoodia H90
    |    `--Striarioidea S03b
    |         |--Apterourus Loomis 1966 [Apterouridae] S03b
    |         |    |--*A. horizontalis Loomis 1966 S03b
    |         |    `--A. serratus Shear 2003 S03b
    |         `--+--Rhiscosomides H90 [Rhiscosomididae S03b]
    |            `--Striariidae S03b
    |                 |--Vaferia H90
    |                 `--Speostriaria H90
    |--Brannerioidea [Craspedosmatidea] SL03
    |    |--Niponiosoma [Niponiosomatidae] SH98
    |    |--Trachygonidae SL03
    |    |--Heterolatzeliidae SL03
    |    |--Chaemosomatidae SL03
    |    |--Microlympia Shear & Leonard 2003 [Microlympiidae] SL03
    |    |    `--*M. echina Shear & Leonard 2003 SL03
    |    |--Branneria Bollman 1893 [Branneriidae] S03a
    |    |    |--*B. carinata (Bollman 1888) [=Craspedosoma carinata] S03a
    |    |    `--B. bonoculus Shear 2003 S03a
    |    |--Tingupidae SL03
    |    |    |--Tingupa Chamberlin 1910 SL03
    |    |    |    `--T. pallida SH98
    |    |    |--Buotus Chamberlin 1940 SL03
    |    |    |    `--B. carolinus SH98
    |    |    `--Blancosoma Shear & Hubbard 1998 SL03
    |    |         `--*B. scaturgo Shear & Hubbard 1998 SH98
    |    `--Kashmireumatidae S02b
    |         |--Kashmireuma S02b
    |         |    |--K. nepalensis S02b
    |         |    |--K. nielseni S02b
    |         |    `--K. schawallari S02b
    |         `--Vieteuma Golovatch 1984 S02b
    |              |--*V. topali S02b
    |              |--V. hubeiensis Mauriés & Nguyen-Duy Jaquemin 1997 S02b
    |              `--V. longi Shear 2002 S02b
    `--Heterochordeumatoidea [Heterochordeumatidea] S03b
         |--Heterochordeumatidae S02a
         |--Metopidiotrichidae [Metopidiothricidae] S02a
         |    |--Schedotrigona Silvestri 1903 [Schedotrigonidae, Schedotrigoninae] S02a
         |    |--Metopidiotrichinae S02a
         |    `--Neocambrisomatinae [Neocambrisomatidae] S02a
         |         |--Neocambrisoma Mauriès 1987 S02a
         |         |--Nesiothrix Shear & Mesibov 1997 S02a
         |         |--Nipponothrix Shear & Tanabe 1994 S02a
         |         `--Australeuma Golovatch 1987 S02a
         |              `--A. mauriesi Shear & Mesibov 1997 S02a
         |--Megalotylidae S02b
         |    |--Megalotyla S02b
         |    `--Nepalella Shear 1987 S02b
         |         |--N. birmanica S02b
         |         |--N. caeca Shear 1999 S02b
         |         |--N. griswoldi Shear 2002 S02b
         |         |--N. kavanaughi Shear 2002 S02b
         |         |--N. magna Shear 2002 S02b
         |         `--N. pianma Shear 2002 S02b
         |--Adrityla [Adritylidae] H90
         `--Conotylidae H90

Chordeumatida incertae sedis:
  Diplomaragna [Diplomaragnidae] S03a
  Neoatractosomatoidea M03
  Mastigophorophylloidea M03
    |--Mastigophorophyllidae M03
    |--Hoffmaneumatidae M03
    `--Altajellidae M03
  Anthroleucosomatidae [Antroleucosomatoidea] M03
    |--Krueperia nivale Verhoeff 1900 M03
    `--Anamastigona M03
         |--A. bilselii Verhoeff 1940 M03
         |--A. hauseri Strasser 1974 M03
         |--A. matsakisi Mauriès & Karamaouna 1984 M03
         |--A. mediterranea Curčić, Makarov & Lymberakis 2001 M03
         |--A. penicillata Attems 1902 M03
         `--A. pentelonica (Verhoeff 1925) M03
  Nanogona Cook 1895 H00
  Urochordeuma [Urochordeumatidae] H90

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl): 19-35.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835-860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[M03] Mauriès, J.-P. 2003. Schizmohetera olympica sp. n. from Greece, with a reclassification of the superfamily Neoatractosomatoidea (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida). Arthropoda Selecta 12: 9-16.

[S02a] Shear, W. A. 2002a. The millipede genus Metopidiothrix Attems (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Metopidiotrichidae). Invertebrate Systematics 16: 849-892.

[S02b] Shear, W. A. 2002b. Five new chordeumatidan millipeds from China: New species of Vieteuma (Kashmireumatidae) and Nepalella (Megalotylidae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 53 (6): 63-72..

[S03a] Shear, W. A. 2003a. Branneria bonoculus, n. sp., a second species in the North American milliped family Branneriidae (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Brannerioidea). Zootaxa 233: 1-7.

[S03b] Shear, W. A. 2003b. A second species of the rare milliped family Apterouridae (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Striarioidea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 116 (2): 509-514.

[SH98] Shear, W. A. & D. A. Hubbard, Jr. 1998. Cave millipeds of the United States. IV. A new genus and species from a high altitude cave in Colorado (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Tingupidae). Myriapodologica 5 (8): 85-94.

[SL03] Shear, W. A., & W. P. Leonard. 2003. Microlympiidae, a new milliped family from North America, and Microlympia echina, new genus and species (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Brannerioidea). Zootaxa 243: 1-11.

Spirobolida

Spirobolus sp., from here.


Belongs within: Eugnatha.
Contains: Rhinocricidae, Dinematocricus.

The Spirobolida are a group of cylindrical millipedes with distinct pleural sclerites.

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Body of adults with more than twenty segments; ocellaria basically rounded to round-oval, no transverse suture evident between them; gnathochilarium rectangular with triangular mentum and small distal lingual lamellae; sterna, pleura and terga coalesced into rigid cylindrical rings, but remain distinguished by presence of articular sutures; pair of legs present on segment 3; gonopods composed of both pairs of legs of seventh segment.

<==Spirobolida [Anocheta, Spirobolidea]
    |--Pachybolidae H02
    |--Rhinocricidae B13
    |--Floridobolus [Floridobolidae] H90
    |    `--F. penneri H90
    |--Xyloiulidae WA04
    |    |--Plagioscetus lateralis WA04
    |    `--Xyloiulus [incl. Xylobius] WA04
    |         `--X. moniliformis (Woodward 1905) H00
    |--Trigoniulidae K54
    |    |--Trigoniulus B13
    |    |    |--T. burnetticus Attems in Semon 1898 B13
    |    |    |--T. comma Attems in Semon 1898 B13
    |    |    `--T. targionii Silvestri 1897 B13
    |    `--Allopocockia Brölemann 1914 [incl. Arolus Chamberlin 1922] K54
    |         |--*A. tylopus (Pocock 1908) K54
    |         |--A. atricula K54
    |         |--A. purulana K54
    |         `--A. rotunda Kraus 1954 K54
    |--Atopetholidae H90
    |    |--Eurelus soleatus H90
    |    |--Atopetholus californicus H90
    |    |--Watichelus H90
    |    |--Arinolus H90
    |    |    |--A. citrinus C62
    |    |    |--A. michelbacheri C62
    |    |    |--A. nevadae Chamberlin 1962 C62
    |    |    `--A. sequens Chamberlin 1962 C62
    |    |--Piedolus H90
    |    |--Anelus H90
    |    |--Centrelus H90
    |    |--Comanchelus H90
    |    |--Toltecolus H90
    |    |--Uvaldia H90
    |    `--Orthichelus michelbacheri (Verhoeff 1938) (see below for synonymy) C62
    `--Spirobolidae K54
         |--*Epitrigoniulus cruentatus (Brölemann 1902) [=Spirobolellus cruentatus] B13
         |--Paraspirobolus Brölemann 1901 B13
         |--Dinematocricus B13
         |--Chicobolus H90
         |--Hiltonius H90
         |--Tylobolus H90
         |--Eucentrolobus Pocock 1903 B13
         |    |--*E. tumulus B13
         |    `--E. maindroni [=Acanthiulus maindroni] B13
         |--Pseudospirobolellus Carl 1912 B13
         |    `--*P. bulbiferus (Attems 1907) [=Spirobolellus bulbiferus] B13
         |--Acanthiulus Gervais 1844 [incl. Polybunolobus Pocock 1893] B13
         |    |--*A. blainvillei (Le Guillou 1841) (see below for synonymy) B13
         |    `--A. murrayi Pocock 1893 [=*Polybunolobus murrayi] B13
         |--Spirobolellus Pocock 1894 B13
         |    |--*S. chrysodirus Pocock 1894 B13
         |    `--S. rainbowi Brölemann 1913 B13
         |--Narceus H90
         |    |--N. americanus RS10
         |    `--N. annularus NS03
         |--Oxobolus Chamberlin 1922 K54
         |    |--O. distinctus Kraus 1954 K54
         |    |--O. mundus Chamberlin 1953 K54
         |    `--O. santanus Chamberlin 1953 K54
         |--Spirostrophus Saussure & Zehntner 1902 B13
         |    |--*S. naresi B13
         |    |--S. digitulus Brölemann 1913 B13
         |    `--S. rubripes B13
         `--Spirobolus B13
              |--S. adipatus B13
              |--S. caelatus B13
              |--S. coeruleolimbatus B13
              |--S. colubrinus B13
              |--S. costatus B13
              |--S. decoratus B13
              |--S. detornatus B13
              |--S. fenicheli Daday 1893 B13
              |--S. lugubris B13
              |--S. pictus B13
              |--S. signifer B13
              `--S. vogesi B13

*Acanthiulus blainvillei (Le Guillou 1841) [=Julus blainvillei, Crigoniulus blainvillei; incl. Spirobolus dentatus Daday 1893] B13

Orthichelus michelbacheri (Verhoeff 1938) [=Onychelus michelbacheri, Atopetholus michelbacheri; incl. On. phanus Chamberlin 1941, Orthichelus phanus] C62

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B13] Brölemann, H. W. 1913. The Myriapoda in the Australian Museum. Part ii. Diplopoda. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (6): 77-158, plates XIV-XVIII.

[C62] Chamberlin, R. V. 1962. Millipeds from the Nevada Test Area. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 53-56.

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl): 19-35.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835-860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[H02] Hunt, D. J. 2002. The African Rhigonematoidea (Nematoda: Rhigonematida). 1. Trachyglossus quintus gen. n., sp. n. (Xustrostomatidae fam. n.) with redescription of Rhigonema multipapillatum (Skrjabin, 1916) and designation of a neotype. Nematology 4: 671-686.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5-6): 293-349.

[NS03] Nardi, F., G. Spinsanti, J. L. Boore, A. Carapelli, R. Dallai & F. Frati. 2003. Hexapod origins: Monophyletic or paraphyletic? Science 299: 1887-1889.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079-1083.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169-184.

Pentazonia

?Epicyliosoma sp., copyright Imbala.


Belongs within: Diplopoda.

The Pentazonia is a clade including the pill millipedes and related taxa. Members of this clade are united by the presence of telopods and divided sternites (Sierwald et al 2003).

<==Pentazonia [Opisthandria]
    |--Glomeridesmida [Limacomorpha] SS03
    `--Oniscomorpha SS03
         |--Glomerida [Plesiocerata] RHV04
         |    |  i. s.: Corsikomeris remyi Verhoeff 1943 RHV04
         |    `--Glomeridae H90
         |         |--Glomeris L89
         |         |    |--G. connexa L89
         |         |    |--G. inferorum Latzel 1889 L89
         |         |    |--G. marginata KAA-W00
         |         |    `--G. pustulata Latreille 1804 TKM93
         |         |--Onomeris underwoodi H90
         |         `--Glomeroides H90
         |--Amynilyspedida RHV04
         |    |  i. s.: Paraglomeris carbonaria Schlechtendal 1912 RHV04
         |    |--+--Glomeropsis Fritsch 1899 RHV04
         |    |  |--Archiscudderia Fritsch 1899 RHV04
         |    |  `--Palaeosphaeridium Peach 1914 RHV04
         |    `--Amynilyspes Scudder 1882 [Acroglomeridae, Amynilyspedidae] RHV04
         |         |--*A. wortheni Scudder 1882 RHV04
         |         |--A. crescens Fritsch 1899 RHV04
         |         |--A. fatimae Racheboeuf, Hannibal & Vannier 2004 RHV04
         |         `--A. typicus Fritsch 1899 RHV04
         `--Sphaerotheriida RHV04
              |--Sphaeropoeus [Sphaeropoeidae] B13
              `--Sphaerotheriidae MH08
                   |--Cycliosomella furcipatum [=Sechelliosoma furcipatum] H02
                   |--Arthrosphaera brandti Humbert 1865 RHV04
                   |--Procyliosoma Silvestri 1917 MH08
                   |--Cynotelopus Jeekel 1986 MH08
                   |    `--C. notabilis Jeekel 1986 MH08
                   |--Sphaerotherium MH08
                   |    |--S. convexum Koch 1847 MH08
                   |    `--S. libidinosum B13
                   |--Epicyliosoma Silvestri 1917 MH08
                   |    |  i. s.: E. penrithense (Brölemann 1913) MH08
                   |    |         E. sennae (Silvestri 1898) MH08
                   |    |--E. (Epicyliosoma) MH08
                   |    |    |--*E. (E.) albertisii (Silvestri 1895) [=Zephronia albertisii] MH08
                   |    |    `--E. (E.) sarahae Moir & Harvey 2008 MH08
                   |    `--E. (Paracyliosoma Verhoeff 1928) MH08
                   `--Cyliosoma Pocock 1895 B13
                        |--*C. angulatum (Butler 1878) [=Sphaerotherium angulatum] B13
                        |--C. delacyi (White 1859) [=Zephronia delacyi] B13
                        |--C. leiosomum [=Sphaerotherium leiosomum] B13
                        |--C. penrithensis Brölemann 1913 B13
                        |--C. queenslandiae Brölemann 1913 B13
                        |--C. sennae Silvestri 1898 B13
                        |--C. striolatum Pocock 1895 B13
                        |--C. targionii Silvestri 1898 B13
                        `--C. unicolor Silvestri 1897 B13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B13] Brölemann, H. W. 1913. The Myriapoda in the Australian Museum. Part ii. Diplopoda. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (6): 77-158, plates XIV-XVIII.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835-860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[H02] Hunt, D. J. 2002. The African Rhigonematoidea (Nematoda: Rhigonematida). 1. Trachyglossus quintus gen. n., sp. n. (Xustrostomatidae fam. n.) with redescription of Rhigonema multipapillatum (Skrjabin, 1916) and designation of a neotype. Nematology 4: 671-686.

[KAA-W00] Kheirallah, A.-M., A.-N. H. Aly & N. Y. Abdel-Wahed. 2000. Anamorphosis and life-history of the millipede Nopoiulus kochii (Gervais, 1847), new for Egypt. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 159-168.

[L89] Latzel, R. 1889. Sopra alenni miriapodi cavernicoli italiani, raccolti dai Sign. A. Vacca e R. Barberi. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 360-362.

[MH08] Moir, M. L., & M. S. Harvey. 2008. Discovery of the pill millipede genus Epicyliosoma (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Sphaerotheriidae) in Western Australia, with the description of a new species. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (2): 113-119.

[RHV04] Racheboeuf, P. R., J. T. Hannibal & J. Vannier. 2004. A new species of the diplopod Amynilyspes (Oniscomorpha) from the Stephanian Lagerstätte of Montceau-les-Mines, France. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 221-229.

[SS03] Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley & J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 87-99.

[TKM93] Thaler, K., B. Knoflach & E. Meyer. 1993. Fragmenta faunistica Tirolensia—X. Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80: 311-325.

Prostanthera

Pink-flowered variety of round-leaved mintbush Prostanthera rotundifolia, copyright Brian Walters.


Belongs within: Lamiaceae.

Prostanthera, mintbush, is a genus of often strongly-scented shrubs endemic to Australia.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Shrubs or undershrubs, mostly strongly scented, with opposite leaves which sometimes appear clustered; flowers usually solitary and axillary with two narrow bracteoles on peduncle. Calyx usually campanulate, two-lipped, about ten-nerved, the lips entire or the lower one slightly notched; corolla-tube short, dilated into a broad two-lipped limb, the upper lip erect, broadly two-lobed and more or less hooded, the lower lip spreading, three-lobed, the middle lobe larger and usually obtusely notched; stamens 4, in pairs; anthers two-celled, usually with two linear appendages penicillate at summit and attached to back of cells, the upper part of each appendage adnate to the cell, the lower part of one appendage often protruding like a short spur below the base of the cell, the other appendage remaining very short; style long and slender, often curved, the two terminal lobes sometimes minute; nutlets reticulate-rugose.

<==Prostanthera
    |  i. s.: P. althoferi G04
    |         P. grylloana G04
    |         P. lasianthos BR65
    |--P. sect. Euprostanthera R65
    |    |--P. baxteri BR65
    |    |    |--P. b. var. baxteri BR65
    |    |    |--P. b. var. crassifolia BR65
    |    |    `--P. b. var. sericea BR65
    |    |--P. behriana BR65
    |    |--P. eurybioides BR65
    |    |--P. nudula Black ex Robertson 1965 R65
    |    |--P. rotundifolia BR65
    |    |--P. spinosa BR65
    |    |--P. striatiflora BR65
    |    `--P. wilkieana BR65
    `--P. sect. Klanderia BR65
         |--P. aspalathoides Cunn 1836 [incl. P. coccinea Mueller 1856] BR65
         |--P. calycina BR65
         |--P. chlorantha BR65
         |--P. microphylla [=Cryphia microphylla] BR65
         `--P. serpyllifolia [=Cryphia serpyllifolia] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[R65] Robertson, E. L. 1965. Diagnoses to new taxa. In Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae (Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson) pp. 946. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

Elsholtzieae

Northern horsebalm Collinsonia canadensis, copyright Michael Hough.


Belongs within: Lamiaceae.

The Elsholtzieae are a group of herbs and shrubs with an asymmetric floral disc and globose nutlets (Harley et al. 2004).

Characters (from Harley et al. 2004): Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs. Stems often four-angled. Leaves opposite, usually petiolate. Inflorescence usually an often secund raceme-like thyrse or panicle of 1(-3)-flowered cymes in the axils of usually much reduced bracts, sometimes conspicuous, broad, imbricate, often venose, bracteoles usually absent. Calyx ± 10-lobed, five-nerved (3/2), often more or less actinomorphic at anthesis, usually accrescent in fruit and usually becoming more distinctly two-lipped, corolla ± 2-lipped, 4-5-lobed (1-2/3), lobes usually with short, scarcely spreading lobes, posterior lip 1-2-lobed, anterior lip 3-lobed, corolla-tube often short. Stamens 4 or 2 by reduction, often exserted, weakly didynamous, divergent, filaments glabrous, anthers 2-thecous, thecae parallel to divergent, separate or apically confluent. Style with two usually equal, subulate stigma-lobes. Disc asymmetrical with anterior lobe elongate. Nutlets usually globose, sometimes reduced to one by abortion, smooth, reticulate or foveolate, abscission-scar very small, often circular.

<==Elsholtzieae
    |--Elsholtzia O88
    |    |--E. densa O88
    |    |--E. eriostachya O88
    |    |--E. fruticosa O88
    |    `--E. strobilifera O88
    `--Collinsonia Linnaeus 1753 [incl. Keiskea Miquel 1865] HPR03
         |--*C. canadensis HPR03
         |--C. australis (Wu & Li) Harley in Harley, Paton & Ryding 2003 [=Keiskea australis Wu & Li 1977] HPR03
         |--C. elsholtzioides (Merr.) Harley in Harley, Paton & Ryding 2003 [=Keiskea elsholtzioides Merr. 1937] HPR03
         |--C. glandulosa (Wu) Harley in Harley, Paton & Ryding 2003 [=Keiskea glandulosa Wu 1965] HPR03
         |--C. japonica (Miquel) Harley in Harley, Paton & Ryding 2003 [=*Keiskea japonica Miquel 1865] HPR03
         |--C. macrobracteata (Masam.) Harley in Harley, Paton & Ryding 2003 [=Keiskea macrobracteata Masam. 1940] HPR03
         |--C. sinensis (Diels) Harley in Harley, Paton & Ryding 2003 [=Keiskea sinensis Diels 1924] HPR03
         `--C. szechuanensis (Wu) Harley in Harley, Paton & Ryding 2003 [=Keiskea szechuanensis Wu 1965] HPR03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Harley, R. M., S. Atkins, A. L. Budantsev, P. D. Cantino, B. J. Conn, R. Grayer, M. M. Harley, R. de Kok, T. Krestovskaja, R. Morales, A. J. Paton, O. Ryding & T. Upson. 2004. Labiatae. In: Kadereit, J. W. (ed.) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants vol. 7. Flowering plants. Dicotyledons. Lamiales (except Acanthaceae, including Avicenniaceae) pp. 167-275. Springer.

[HPR03] Harley, R. M., A. J. Paton & O. Ryding. 2003. New synonymy and taxonomic changes in the Labiatae. Kew Bulletin 58: 485-489.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.