The giant waterlily Victoria cruziana, from here.

Belongs within: Angiospermae.

The Nymphaeales are the waterlilies, a clade of aquatic flowering plants with surface-floating leaves (though the genus Cabomba produces both submerged and floating leaves). Recent phylogenetic analyses of flowering plants indicate that the Nymphaeales form one of the most basal branches within this group, and definitive fossil representatives date back to the Upper Cretaceous (Gandolfo et al. 2004).

<==Nymphaeales [Nymphaeanae]
    |--Cabombaceae [Hydropeltidales] GNC04
    |    |--Cabomba [Cabomboideae] GNC04
    |    `--Brasenia [Hydropeltoideae] GNC04
    |         `--B. schreberi SR07
    `--Nymphaeaceae GNC04
         |  i. s.: Nymphaeites rhoenensis S02
         |         Nelumbium luteum C55, D59
         |--Nuphar [Nupharoideae] GNC04
         |    |--N. advena SR07
         |    |--N. lutea SR07
         |    |--N. polysepalum WF02
         |    `--N. variegata DS04
         `--+--Hydrostemma C95 [Barclayaceae, Barclayoideae GNC04]
            |    `--H. motleyi (Hooker) Mabberley 1982 (see below for synonymy) C95
            `--Nymphaeoideae T00
                 |--Ondinea GNC04
                 `--+--Microvictoria Nixon, Gandolfo & Crepet in Gandolfo, Nixon & Crepet 2004 GNC04
                    |    `--*M. svitkoana Nixon, Gandolfo & Crepet in Gandolfo, Nixon & Crepet 2004 GNC04
                    |--Euryaloideae T00
                    |    |--Victoria cruziana GNC04, DS04
                    |    `--Euryale ferox J89
                    `--Nymphaea GNC04
                         |--N. alba BBO01
                         |--N. ampla C55
                         |--N. capensis P88
                         |--N. elleniae Jacobs 1992 C95
                         |--N. gigantea C95
                         |--N. immutabilis Jacobs 1992 C95
                         |--N. lotus P88
                         |--N. macrosperma Merr. & Perry 1942 [incl. N. dictyophlebia Merr. & Perry 1942] C95
                         |--N. nouchali Burm. f. 1768 C95
                         |--N. odorata Aiton 1789 CD07
                         |--N. pubescens Willdenow 1797 C95
                         |--N. stellata P88
                         `--N. violacea Lehn. 1843 [=N. gigantea var. violacea (Lehn.) Conard 1905] C95

Hydrostemma motleyi (Hooker) Mabberley 1982 [=Barclaya motleyi Hooker 1860; incl. B. motleyi f. membranacea Royen 1962] C95

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BBO01] Begerow, D., R. Bauer & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. Muribasidiospora: Microstromatales or Exobasidiales? Mycological Research 105 (7): 798-810.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Nymphaeaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 (B. J. Conn, ed.) pp. 192-202. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London. (reprinted 1967. Atheneum: New York; 1968. Penguin Books: London)

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[GNC04] Gandolfo, M. A., K. C. Nixon & W. L. Crepet. 2004. Cretaceous flowers of Nymphaeaceae and implications for complex insect entrapment pollination mechanisms in early angiosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (21): 8056-8060.

[J89] Jacoby, M. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVII. – List of the phytophagous Coleoptera obtained by Signor L. Fea at Burmah and Tenasserim, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 147-237.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312-315.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WF02] Williams, J. H., & W. E. Friedman. 2002. Identification of diploid endosperm in an early angiosperm lineage. Nature 415: 522-526.

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