Anthomyzidae

Anthomyza gracilis, copyright Aleksandrs Balodis.


Belongs within: Heleomyzidae.

The Anthomyzidae are a group of small, usually slender flies that are mostly found in damp habitats (Barber & Roháček 2010).

Characters (from Barber & Roháček 2010): Small (body length 1.1–3.4 mm), usually slender flies, ranging in colour from yellow to black, shiny to distinctly microtomentose; wings usually long, narrow, sometimes marked, or brachypterous. Head sometimes distinctly elongate; antenna short with pedicel not swollen or caplike, first flagellomere turned downward, arista pubescent to pectinate. One or three reclinate fronto-orbital setae with short setulae anteriorly on fronto-orbital plates and usually on frons. Ocellar and vertical setae always present; postocellar setae short, convergent, exceptionally absent. Fore femur usually with pronounced posteroventral ctenidial spine; sometimes fore tibia and some tarsomeres black, contrasting with pale femur. Mid tibia with distinct ventroapical seta. Hind femur in male usually with posteroventral row of shortened, thickened setae. Vein R1 of wing with distinctive preapical kink. Male genitalia characterised by phallapodeme with robust ventral modified phallic guide (fulcrum) connected with hypandrium and by distiphallus bifid apically (composed of membranous saccus and slender sclerotised filum). Female tergite 7 entire or medially split (rarely desclerotised or missing), sometimes fusing with sternite 7 in various ways.

<==Anthomyzidae
    |  i. s.: Melananthomyza V87
    |         Waterhouseia V87
    |--Protanthomyza [Protanthomyzinae] BR10
    `--Anthomyzinae BR10
         |--Typhamyza BR10
         |--Paranthomyza BR10
         |--Anagnota BR10
         |--Fungomyza BR10
         |--Grimalantha BR10
         |--Margdalops BR10
         |--Epischnomyia BR10
         |--Receptrixa BR10
         |--Zealantha BR10
         |--Ischnomyia BR10
         |--Apterosepsis BR10
         |--Santhomyza Roháček 1984 BR10
         |--Amygdalops BR10
         |    |--A. simplicior Rohácek 2004 F05
         |    `--A. thomasseti O98
         |--Chamaebosca BR10
         |    |--C. cursor BR10
         |    `--C. microptera BR10
         |--Mumetopia BR10
         |    |--M. nigrimana BR10
         |    |--M. occipitalis BR10
         |    `--M. terminalis BR10
         |--Stiphrosoma BR10
         |    |--S. lucipetum BR10
         |    |--S. pullum BR10
         |    `--S. sororium BR10
         `--Anthomyza Fallén 1810 C-T92
              |--A. albimana (Meigen 1830) C-T92
              |--A. collini Andersson 1976 C-T92
              |--A. gracilis V87
              `--A. sabulosa V87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR10] Barber, K. N., & J. Roháček. 2010. Anthomyzidae (anthomyzid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1073–1081. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[C-T92] Carles-Tolrá, M. 1992. New and interesting records of Diptera Acalyptrata from Spain. Part I: Acartophthalmidae, Opomyzidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Carnidae, Tethinidae, Milichiidae and Cryptochetidae. Bull. Annls Soc. R. Belge Ent. 128: 343–353.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[V87] Vockeroth, J. R. 1987. Anthomyzidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 887–890. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Tetanocerini

Tetanocera ferruginea, copyright Aleksandrs Balodis.


Belongs within: Sciomyzidae.

The Tetanocerini are a group of snail-killing flies whose larvae are active predators of terrestrial or aquatic mollusks. Adults are characterised by a head with an antero-dorsally projecting profile, a pedicel subequal to or twice the length of the first flagellomere, and absence of a proepisternal seta (Marinoni & Knutson 2010).

<==Tetanocerini [Tetanocerinae] MK10
    |--Limnia unguicornis K87, K01
    |--Sepedoninus MK10
    |--Sepedonella nana MK10
    |--Euthycera arcuata MK10
    |--Tetanoceroides MK10
    |--Anticheta testacea K87
    |--Poecilographa decora K87
    |--Dictyacium ambiguum K87
    |--Pherbecta limenitis K87
    |--Trypetoptera canadensis K87
    |--Hedria mixta K87
    |--Thecomyia MK10
    |    |--T. chrysacra MK10
    |    `--T. longicornis MK10
    |--Sepedomerus MK10
    |    |--S. bipuncticeps MK10
    |    `--S. macropus MK10
    |--Elgiva K87
    |    |--E. rufa K01
    |    `--E. solicita K87
    |--Hoplodictya MK10
    |    |--H. setosa K87
    |    `--H. spinicornis MK10
    |--Teutoniomyia MK10
    |    |--T. costaricensis MK10
    |    `--T. plaumanni MK10
    |--Guatemalia MK10
    |    |--G. nigritarsis MK10
    |    `--G. straminata MK10
    |--Sepedonea MK10
    |    |--S. guatemalana MK10
    |    |--S. isthmi MK10
    |    `--S. lagoa MK10
    |--Protodictya MK10
    |    |--P. brasiliensis MK10
    |    |--P. iguassu MK10
    |    `--P. nubilipennis MK10
    |--Dictya MK10
    |    |--D. bergi MK10
    |    |--D. expansa K87
    |    |--D. guatemalana MK10
    |    |--D. matthewsi K87
    |    `--D. umbrarum MK10
    |--Sepedon [Sepedoninae] MK10
    |    |--S. armipes S68
    |    |--S. fuscipennis M90
    |    |--S. knutsoni MK10
    |    |--S. relictus K87
    |    |--S. rufipes [=Oscinis (Sepedon) rufipes] G20
    |    |--S. spinipes K87
    |    |    |--S. s. spinipes K87
    |    |    `--S. s. americana K87
    |    |--S. tenuicornis K87
    |    `--S. tenuipes S68
    `--Tetanocera WT11
         |--T. algira Macquart 1847 E12
         |--T. ferruginea WT11
         |--T. griseicollis K87
         |--T. marginata [=Oscinis (Tetanocera) marginata] G20
         |--T. montana K87
         |--T. phyllophora K87
         |--T. plebeja K87
         |--T. plumosa MK10
         |--T. punctulata K01
         |--T. reticulata K01
         |--T. spreta MK10
         |--T. unipunctata Macquart 1847 E12
         |--T. valida K87
         `--T. vittigera K01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K87] Knutson, L. V. 1987. Sciomyzidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 927–940. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[MK10] Marinoni, L., & L. Knutson. 2010. Sciomyzidae (snail-killing flies, marsh flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1017–1024. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[S68] Steyskal, G. C. 1968. The number and kind of characters needed for significant numerical taxonomy. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 474–477.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Trigonometopini

Tetroxyrhina sauteri, from Shi et al. (2017).


Belongs within: Lauxaniidae.

The Trigonometopini are a group of lauxaniid flies with an elongate head bearing broad, setose fronto-orbital plates (Papp 2007).

Characters (from Papp 2007): Body yellow, ochre, seldom dark. Head elongated, usually longer than high. Broad, setose fronto-orbital plates present. Anterior orbital seta reclinate, inclinate or absent. Ocellar setae mostly absent or minute, seldom strong. Postocellars normal, minute or absent. Cheek and gena usually without a separate row of setae. Facial keel distinct or not developed. Scape with or without a strong ventroapical seta. First flagellomere various: short and rounded or long with sharp apex. Thorax more or less elongated. Posthumeral setae present or absent. 0–1 + 2–3 dorsocentral pairs. One or two pairs of katepisternals. Acrostichals absent, two-seriate, four-seriate or present in two, not well-ordered rows. Wings clear or with diffuse brown spots. Stronger costal fringe restricted to a short proximal part of the R2+3–R4+5 section, or this section is completely free of stronger fringe. Abdomen never much flattened. Tergite 7 (“protandrium”) fused to epandrium, at least centrally. Tergite 6 ocassionally also fused to tergite 7 centrally. Male genitalia surprisingly uniform: no surstylus or distinct surstylar lobe on epandrium (that is mostly rounded apically). Dorsal wall of male genital pouch membranous, rarely a distinct, sclerotised, supragenital (subepandrial) sclerite present. Gonites mostly fused (at least partly) to hypandrium. Phallapodeme (aedeagal apodeme) usually short, rod-like in ventral view, sometimes forming a lamella sitting on thicker ventral lath. Ejaculatory apodeme significant. Phallus (aedeagus) wholly membranous. Female genitalia with three spermathecae.

<==Trigonometopini P07
    |--Kerteszomyia Malloch 1929 P07
    |    `--*K. maculifrons (Malloch 1929) [=Trigonometopus maculifrons] P07
    |--Neotrigonometopus Malloch 1928 P07
    |    |--*N. fuscifrons (Malloch 1926) [=Trigonometopus fuscifrons] P07
    |    |--N. albibasis (Malloch 1928) [=Trigonometopus (Neotrigonometopus) albibasis] P07
    |    `--N. breviceps (Hennig 1948) P07
    |--Trigonometopsis Malloch 1925 P07
    |    |--*T. binotata (Thomson 1869) [=Oxyrhina binotata] P07
    |    |--T. abnormis Shatalkin 1999 P07
    |    `--T. punctipennis Malloch 1929 P07
    |--Trigonometopus Macquart 1835 P08
    |    |--*T. frontalis (Meigen 1830) [=Tetanocera frontalis] P07
    |    |--T. canus De Meijere 1916 P07
    |    |--T. eborifacies Shatalkin 1997 P07
    |    `--T. vittatus S87
    |--Protrigonometopus Hendel 1938 P07
    |    |--*P. maculifrons Hendel 1938 P07
    |    |--P. ornatus Papp 2007 P07
    |    |--P. sexlituris (Shatalkin 1992) [=Sapromyxa sexlituris] P07
    |    `--P. shatalkini Papp 2007 P07
    |--Shaltalkinella Papp 2007 P07
    |    |--*S. marginata Papp 2007 P07
    |    |--S. deceptor (Malloch 1927) [=Sapromyza deceptor] P07
    |    |--S. okinawanus (Shatalkin 1998) [=Protrigonometopus okinawanus, Trigonometopsis okinawanus] P07
    |    |--S. punctipennis Papp 2007 P07
    |    |--S. ronkayi Papp 2007 P07
    |    `--S. thailandica Papp 2007 P07
    |--Luzonomyza Malloch 1929 P07
    |    |--*L. bakeri (Bezzi 1913) [=Trigonometopus bakeri] P07
    |    |--L. japonica (Sasakawa 2002) [=Trigonometopus (Luzonomyia) japonica] P07
    |    |--L. nigripalpis (Shatalkin 1997) [=Trigonometopus (Tetroxyrhina) nigripalpis] P07
    |    |--L. pseudoforficula Papp 2007 P07
    |    |--L. sasakawai Papp 2007 P07
    |    |--L. sinica Shatalkin 1998 P07
    |    `--L. vietnamensis Papp 2007 P07
    |--Maquilingia Malloch 1929 P07
    |    |--*M. hirticeps Malloch 1929 P07
    |    |--M. biroi Papp 2007 P07
    |    |--M. facialis Malloch 1929 P07
    |    |--M. malaita Curran 1936 P07
    |    |--M. matema Curran 1936 P07
    |    |--M. serristylis Sasakawa 2003 P07
    |    `--M. thaii Papp 2007 P07
    |--Diplochasma Knab 1914 P08
    |    |--D. (Diplochasma) P08
    |    |    |--*D. (D.) monochaeta (Hendel 1909) [=Trigonometopus monochaeta] P08
    |    |    `--D. (D.) australis Papp 2007 P07
    |    `--D. (Sauteromyia Malloch 1927) P08
    |         |--D. (*S.) alboapicata (Malloch 1927) [=*Sauteromyia alboapicata] P08
    |         |--D. (S.) albomarginata Papp 2008 P08
    |         |--D. (S.) aphaniosignata Papp 2008 P08
    |         |--D. (S.) clara Papp 2008 P08
    |         |--D. (S.) occidentalis Papp 2008 P08
    |         |--D. (S.) punctata Papp 2008 P08
    |         |--D. (S.) shewelli Papp 2008 P08
    |         |--D. (S.) stuckenbergi Papp 2008 P08
    |         `--D. (S.) variegata Papp 2008 P08
    `--Tetroxyrhina Hendel 1938 P07
         |--*T. submaculipennis (Malloch 1927) [=Trigonometopus submaculipennis] P07
         |--T. albiseta (Bezzi 1913) [=Trigonometopus albiseta] P07
         |--T. alboapicalis (Shatalkin 1997) [=Trigonometopus alboapicalis] P07
         |--T. brevicornis (De Meijere 1911) [=Trigonometopus brevicornis] P07
         |--T. brunneicosta (Malloch 1927) [=Trigonometopus brunneicosta] P07
         |--T. cuneata (Shatalkin 1997) [=Trigonometopus cuneatus] P07
         |--T. forficula (Shatalkin 1997) [=Trigonometopus forficula] P07
         |--T. gressitti (Sasakawa 2002) [=Trigonometopus gressitti] P07
         |--T. interrupta (Sasakawa 2005) [=Luzonomyza (Tetroxyrhina) interrupta] P07
         |--T. peregovitsi Papp 2007 P07
         |--T. sauteri (Hendel 1912) [=Trigonometopus sauteri, Diplochasma sauteri] P08
         |--T. tinctipennis (De Meijere 1924) [=Trigonometopus tinctipennis] P07
         `--T. zeylanica (Senior-White 1921) [=Trigonometopus zeylanicus] P07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[P07] Papp, L. 2007. A review of the Old World Trigonometopini Becker (Diptera: Lauxaniidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 129–169.

[P08] Papp, L. 2008. Afrotropical species of the genus Diplochasma, subgenus Sauteromyia (Diptera: Lauxaniidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 307–330.

[S87] Shewell, G. E. 1987. Lauxaniidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 951–964. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Pallopteridae

Palloptera umbellatarum, copyright Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Schizophora.

The Pallopteridae, flutter flies, are a group of medium-sized flies whose larvae (where known) are found within flower head and stems and under bark of plants, at least some being predators of burrowing insect larvae (McAlpine 1987).

Characters (from McAlpine 1987): Medium-sized flies, 3-5 mm long, grayish or yellowish, usually with brownish-marked wings and simple legs. Head scarcely as broad as thorax, usually higher than long. Frons broader than high, usually of same width in both sexes, always yellowish at least on anterior half; interfrontal area finely setulose or bare; orbital plate usually weakly differentiated, reaching only slightly below level of anterior ocellus; a single reclinate or lateroreclinate orbital bristle present; ocellar and inner and outer vertical bristles strong; postocellar bristles present but weaker, slightly divergent; lunule linear, unexposed, without setulae. Face somewhat sunken, gently convex, always yellowish, usually with a weak median carina, without hairs or bristles; parafacial linear to moderately broad, without hairs or bristles. Clypeus moderately large; oral vibrissae absent; cheek almost linear to about half height of eye in width; series of fine subvibrissal setulae present, among which are two outstanding distantly separated genal bristles. Compound eye usually nearly round, bare, unpatterned. Antenna short; scape very short, with few fine setulae; pedicel notched on apicodorsal margin, with one bristle and a row of fine setulae along apical margins; first flagellomere usually slightly longer than broad; arista almost bare to shortly plumose. Proboscis short, with well-developed labella; palpus usually moderately large, rarely strongly enlarged. Thorax blackish to yellowish in background color, usually pruinose, sometimes polished, occasionally patterned in black and yellow, with yellowish or blackish setulae or bristles or some combination of them. Scutum moderately strongly arched; scutellum usually with convex disc; prescutellum undeveloped; subscutellum moderately well-developed. Prosternum rather narrow, free from proepisternum. Chaetotaxy one of postpronotal and one presutural intra-alar bristle, one presutural and three postsutural dorsocentral bristles, one or two prescutellar acrostichal and two supra-alar bristles, one postsutural intra-alar bristle, one lateral and one subapical scutellar bristle, and two notopleural bristles present; one strong to weakproepisternal bristle present; one weak proepimeral bristle present or absent; anepisternum setulose or bare, with or without one or more strong bristles posteriorly; katepisternum with one bristle and numerous setulae; anepimeron bare; prosternum usually with a few fine setulae; metasternal area bare. Wing moderately long, usually rather narrow but with well-developed anal angle and alula, and variously patterned with brown spots to almost entirely hyaline; cell sc always darkened. C with costagial, humeral, and subcostal weakenings or breaks, and ending rather abruptly just beyond insertion of R4+5; Sc complete; base of R bare, with R1 ending well beyond insertion of Sc but far before middle of wing; cells bm and dm present and separated by crossvein bm-cu; crossvein r-m joining cell dm at or near midpoint; crossvein dm-cu nearly parallel to crossvein r-m, always closer than its own length to wing margin; cell cup convexly closed; A1 reaching or nearly reaching wing margin at least as a fold. Alula large. Upper calypter moderately large, with fringe of longish silky hairs; lower calypter linear. Halter entirely whitish. Legs fairly slender. Fore femur with a row of posterodorsal and posteroventral bristles; mid femur usually with one preapical dorsal, one or two anterodorsal, and one anteroventral bristle. Tibiae usually yellowish, usually without preapical dorsal bristles; mid tibia with a fairly strong apicoventral bristle. Tarsi slender, frequently mainly yellowish. Abdomen subcylindrical, dark brown to yellow, seldom patterned. Male usually with five pairs of spiracles in membrane (six pairs in Eurygnathomyia). Tergite 6 usually absent; sternite 6 asymmetric, shifted into left side of abdomen. Syntergosternite 7+8 large, setulose dorsally. Epandrium large, with rather globose sides. Surstylus often absent or indistinguishably fused with lateral margins of epandrium, occasionally well-developed. Hypandrium small, with large median hypandrial apodeme; gonopod small, finely setulose, weakly sclerotized and lobe-like or divided and complex; paramere usually extremely reduced and finely setulose, rarely absent or strongly developed; aedeagus long, finely to coarsely setulose or almost bare, frequently with an enlarged complicated apical glans; epiphallus absent or present; aedeagal apodeme rod-like; ejaculatory apodeme heavily sclerotised, usually rather large. Sternite 10 sometimes with paired stout spines at anterior margin. Cerci small and lobelike or large and elongate. Female with sternite 7 and tergite 7 fused laterally to form stout oviscape and enclosing seventh pair of abdominal spiracles. Ovipositor shaft-like, with cerci fused to form apical point. Two or three sclerotized spermathecae present. Larva with cephalopharyngeal skeleton consisting of paired simple mandibles and dental sclerites, parastomal bars, and a hypopharyngeal sclerite that is clearly separated from pale tentoropharyngeal sclerite. Anterior spiracles fan-shaped, each with five or six papillae. Creeping spines present only anteroventrally on seven or eight abdominal segments. Terminal abdominal segment bluntly rounded posteriorly, without tubercles, but with stump-like projections bearing spiracles.

<==Pallopteridae M87
    |  i. s.: Hypsomyia goilala O98
    |--Eurygnathomyia [Eurygnathomyiinae] M87
    |    `--E. bicolor M87
    `--Pallopterinae M87
         |--Temnosira subarcuata M87
         |--Neomaorina M87
         |--Glaesolonchaea electrica M87
         |--Toxoneura superba M87
         |--Sciochthis M87
         |--Aenigmatomyia M87
         |--Heloparia M87
         |--Homaroides M87
         |--Pseudopyrgota M87
         |--Pallopterites electrica M87
         |--Morgea M87
         |    |--M. freidbergi P92
         |    `--M. mcalpinei M87
         `--Palloptera M87
              |--P. claripennis M87
              |--P. scutellata M87
              |--P. superba M81
              `--P. umbellatarum WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M87] McAlpine, J. F. 1987. Pallopteridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 839–843. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Corthylini

Yellow-banded timber beetle Monarthrum fasciatum, copyright Katja Schulz.


Belongs within: Curculionidae.
Contains: Conophthorus, Pityophthorus, Corthylus.

The Corthylini are a cosmopolitan group of bark beetles (not found in Australia) characterised by emarginate eyes, a strongly flattened antennal club, and relatively slender tibiae. Members may be divided on the grounds of feeding habits between the phloeophagous Pityophthorina and the xylomycetophagous Corthylina, though the two subtribes are less clearly distinct morphologically. Phloeophagous species dominate in temperate regions whereas xylomycetophagous species are predominantly tropical (Wood 1986).

Characters (from Wood 1986): Frons usually dimorphic, either or both sexes feebly to strongly modified in sculpture and ornamentation; eye emarginate; scape usually elongate, rarely strongly flattened, funicle 1- to 5-segmented, club strongly flattened, sutures present or obsolete, frequently 1 and/or 2 septate; when present, sutures on posterior face little if any displaced toward apex; anterior slope of pronotum usually asperate, anterior margin frequently armed, lateral and basal margins frequently marked by a fine, raised line; procoxae contiguous, tibiae rather slender, their lateral margins rarely armed by more than four socketed teeth; metepisternal spine obsolete, replaced by small, transverse groove, thus making it possible for elytra in locked position to cover at least posterior two-thirds of metepisternum; vestiture usually hairlike, scales rarely present.

Corthylini [Amphicranidae, Araptidae, Corthyli, Pityophthoridae]
    |--Pityophthorina W86
    |    |  i. s.: Dacnophthorus Wood 1975 W86
    |    |           `--*D. clematis [=Gnathophthorus clematis] W86
    |    |         Mimiocurus Schedl 1957 [incl. Micracidendron Schedl 1957, Mimiophthorus Schedl 1957] W86
    |    |           |--*M. acuminatus W86
    |    |           |--M. montanus [=Brachydendrulus montanus, *Mimiophthorus montanus] W86
    |    |           `--*Micracidendron’ montanum non Brachydendrulus montanus W86
    |    |         Styphlosoma Blandoford 1904 W86
    |    |           `--*S. granulatum W86
    |    |         Phloeoterus Wood 1984 W86
    |    |           `--*P. burserae W86
    |    |         Araptus Eichhoff 1872 (see below for synonymy) W86
    |    |           |--*A. rufopalliatus W86
    |    |           |--A. argentiniae [=Breviophthorus argentiniae, *Gnathoborus argentiniae] W86
    |    |           |--A. costaricensis W86
    |    |           |--A. eggersi [=*Brachydendrulus eggersi] W86
    |    |           |--A. hymeneae [=*Neodryocoetes hymenaeae] W86
    |    |           |--A. laevigatus [=Pityophthorus laevigatus, *Neopityophthorus laevigatus] W86
    |    |           |--A. limax [=*Sphenoceros limax; incl. *Hypertensus reitteri (n. n.)] W86
    |    |           |--A. novateutonicus [=*Gnathocranus novateutonicus] W86
    |    |           `--A. volastos [=*Thamnophthorus volastos] W86
    |    |         Spermophthorus Costa Lima 1929 W86
    |    |           `--*S. apuleiae W86
    |    |         Pityoborus Blackman 1922 W86
    |    |           `--*P. comatus [=Crypturgus comatus] W86
    |    |         Pityotrichus Wood 1962 [=Pityophilus Blackman 1928 (preoc.)] W86
    |    |           `--*P. barbatus [=*Pityophilus barbatus] W86
    |    |         Gnatholeptus Blackman 1943 W86
    |    |           `--G. shannoni [=Pityophthorus shannoni; incl. *Gnatholeptus mandibularis]
    |    |         Pityodendron Schedl 1953 W86
    |    |           `--*P. madagascarensis W86
    |    |         Sauroptilius Browne 1970 W86
    |    |           `--*S. sauropterus [=Xyleborus sauropterus] W86
    |    |         Phelloterus Wood 1971 W86
    |    |           `--*P. tersus W86
    |    |--Pseudopityophthorus Swaine 1918 CG05, W86
    |    |    |--*P. minutissimus [=Crypturgus minutissimus] W86
    |    |    `--P. pubipennis CG05
    |    |--Dendroterus Blandford 1904 CG05, W86 [incl. Plesiophthorus Schedl 1940 W86, Xylochilus Schedl 1956 W86]
    |    |    |--*D. mexicanus W86
    |    |    |--D. perspectus [=*Plesiophthorus perspectus] W86
    |    |    |--D. sallaei [incl. *Xylochilus insularis] W86
    |    |    `--D. striatus CG05
    |    `--+--Conophthorus CG05
    |       `--Pityophthorus CG05
    `--Corthylina W86
         |--Gnatharus Wood & Yin 1986 W86
         |    `--*G. tibetensis W86
         |--Glochinocerus Blandford 1904 W86
         |    `--*G. retusipennis W86
         |--Brachyspartus Ferrari 1867 [=Thylurcos Schedl 1939] W86
         |    `--*B. moritzi [=*Thylurcos moritzi] W86
         |--Microcorthylus Ferrari 1867 W86
         |    `--*M. parvulus W86
         |--Corthycyclon Schedl 1951 W86
         |    `--*C. ustum W86
         |--Corthylocurus Wood 1966 W86
         |    `--*C. barbatus [=Brachyspartus barbatus] W86
         |--Metacorthylus Blandford 1904 W86
         |    |--*M. nigripennis W86
         |    `--M. velutinus [=*Paracorthylus velutinus] W86
         |--Amphicranus Erichson 1836 [incl. Piezorhopalus Guerin-Meneville 1838, Steganocranus Eichhoff 1878] W86
         |    |--*A. thoracicus [incl. *Piezorhopalus nitidulus] W86
         |    `--A. dohrni [=*Steganocranus dohrni] W86
         |--Tricolus Blandford 1905 [incl. Pterocyclonoides Schedl 1970] W86
         |    |--*T. ovicollis W86
         |    |--T. octodentatus [=*Pterocyclonoides octodentatus] W86
         |    `--T. peltatus W86
         |--Gnathotrichus Eichhoff 1869 (see below for synonymy) W86
         |    |--G. materiarius (see below for synonymy) W86
         |    |--G. pilosus (Leconte 1868) W86, B38 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--G. primus [=*Prognathotrichus primus] W86
         |    |--‘Ancyloderes’ saltoni Blackman 1938 B38
         |    `--‘Cryphalus’ sulcatus [=*Gnathotrichoides sulcatus] W86
         |--Gnathotrupes Schedl 1951 (see below for synonymy) W86
         |    |--*G. bolivianus W86
         |    |--G. caliculus [=*Gnathocortus caliculus] W86
         |    |--G. impressus [=*Gnathoglochinus impressus] W86
         |    |--G. nothofagi [=*Gnathomimus nothofagi] W86
         |    `--G. terebratus [=*Gnathotrypanus terebratus] W86
         |--Monarthrum Kirsch 1866 (see below for synonymy) W86
         |    |--*M. chapuisi W86
         |    |--M. cincinnatum [=*Trypocranus cincinnatus] W86
         |    |--M. comatum [=*Eupteroxylon comatum] W86
         |    |--M. cristatum [=*Cosmocorynus cristatus] W86
         |    |--M. fasciatum W86 [=Bostrichus fasciatus W86, *Corthylomimus fasciatus W86, Pterocyclon fasciatum G38]
         |    |--M. ingens [=*Phthorius ingens] W86
         |    |--M. laterale [=*Pterocyclon laterale] W86
         |    `--M. rufipes [=*Anchonocerus rufipes] W86
         `--Corthylus W86

Araptus Eichhoff 1872 [incl. Brachydendrulus Schedl 1951, Gnathoborus Schedl 1970, Gnathocranus Schedl 1951, Hypertensus Hagedorn in Schedl 1950 (n. n.), Neodryocoetes Eggers 1933, Neopityophthorus Schedl 1938, Sphenoceros Schedl 1939, Thamnophthorus Schedl 1938] W86

Gnathotrichus Eichhoff 1869 [incl. Ancyloderes Blackman 1938, Gnathotrichoides Blackman 1931, Paraxyleborus Hoffmann 1942, Prognathotrichus Bright 1972] W86

Gnathotrichus materiarius [=Tomicus materiarius; incl. *G. corthyloides, Xyleborus duprezi, *Paraxyleborus duprezi] W86

Gnathotrichus pilosus (Leconte 1868) W86, B38 [=Cryphalus pilosus W86, *Ancyloderes pilosus W86, Cryphalus pilosulus Leconte 1868 B38, Pityophthorus pilosulus B38, Pseudopityophthorus pilosulus B38]

Gnathotrupes Schedl 1951 [incl. Gnathocortus Schedl 1975, Gnathoglochinus Schedl 1975, Gnathomimus Schedl 1975, Gnathotrypanus Wood 1968] W86

Monarthrum Kirsch 1866 [incl. Anchonocerus Eichhoff 1878, Corthylomimus Ferrari 1867, Cosmocorynus Ferrari 1867, Eupteroxylon Eggers 1936, Phthorius Eichhoff 1878, Pterocyclon Eichhoff 1869, Trypocranus Eichhoff 1878] W86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B38] Blackman, M. W. 1938. Ancyloderes, a new genus of Scolytidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (7): 204–206.

[CG05] Cognato, A. I., N. E. Gillette, R. C. Bolaños & F. A. H. Sperling. 2005. Mitochondrial phylogeny of pine cone beetles (Scolytinae, Conophthorus) and their affiliation with geographic area and host. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 494–508.

[G38] Gurney, A. B. 1938. Minutes of the 489th regular meeting of the Entomological Society of Washington. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (4): 111–114.

[W86] Wood, S. L. 1986. A reclassification of the genera of Scolytidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 10: 1–126.

Ochnaceae

Ochna serrulata, copyright Bernard Dupont.


Belongs within: Malpighiales.

The Ochnaceae are a pantropical group of relatively small trees bearing flowers with deciduous petals (Kanis 1978).

Characters (from Kanis 1978): Small to medium-sized trees. Leaves alternate, stipulate, simple. Inflorescences lateral and/or terminal, thyrsoid or paniculate, with many bracts at base; pedicels jointed. Flowers regular, bisexual or polygamous; sepals 5, free or more or less joined at base, imbricate, persistent; petals 5, free, contorted, deciduous; staminodes absent or 5–many; stamens 10 or 5; ovary superior, either of five free carpels with one ovule each or three fused carpels with many ovules; styles fused. Fruit either of drupelets or a many-seeded capsule.

<==Ochnaceae
    |  i. s.: Indovethia H03
    |         Schuurmansiella H03
    |         Schuurmansia K78
    |           |--S. elegans Bl. 1850 [incl. S. parviflora Ridl. 1916] K78
    |           `--S. henningsii Sch. 1888 (see below for synonymy) K78
    |         Brackenridgea forbesii Tiegh. 1902 K78
    |         Gomphia salicifolia JK80
    |         Ouratea valerii OV97
    |--Luxemburgia XR12
    `--+--+--Cespedesia macrophylla XR12, OV97
       |  `--Sauvagesia [Sauvagesioideae] XR12
       |       `--S. erecta C55
       `--Ochnoideae T00
            |--Lophira alata XR12, FGN07
            `--+--Elvasia XR12
               `--Ochna XR12
                    |--O. mossambicensis WM09
                    |--O. multiflora JK80
                    |--O. natalitia JK80
                    `--O. serrulata B00

Schuurmansia henningsii Sch. 1888 [incl. S. bamleri Sch. & Laut. 1901, S. coriacea Smith 1941, S. crassinervia Gilg 1925, S. gilgiana Laut. 1905, S. grandiflora Smith 1941, S. bamleri var. longifolia Laut. 1905, S. longifolia (Laut.) Gilg 1925, S. lophiroides Gilg 1925, S. microcarpa Capit. 1910, S. montana Smith 1941, S. oreophila Gilg 1925, S. rauwolfioides Hallier f. 1913, S. schlechteri Gilg 1925] K78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313–338.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[JK80] John, J., & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241–248.

[K78] Kanis, A. 1978. Ochnaceae. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 216–221. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[OV97] Ochoa, R., C. Vargas, D. E. Walter & B. M. OConnor. 1997. Two new species of the genus Ceratotarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae). International Journal of Acarology 23 (3): 177–183.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

Linum

Linum alpinum, copyright Ibex73.


Belongs within: Linaceae.

Linum, the flaxes, is a genus of herbaceous plants found in warmer regions of the world, of which the common flax L. usitatissimum is widely grown as a source of fibre.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual or perennial. Stem 5–90 cm. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, erect, glabrous or hairy; margins entire or gland-toothed. Inflorescence a raceme or cyme. Flower with sepals 5, margins generally translucent; petals 5, 8–25 mm; stamens 5; staminodes 5 or absent; ovary chambers 10, styles 5, free or not, stigmas wider than styles (spheric or more or less elongate) or as wide as styles (more or less linear). Fruit 5–10 mm. Seeds 10, generally gelatinous when wet.

Linum Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |--L. alpinum D37
    |--L. austriacum D37
    |--L. bienne [incl. L. angustifolium] H93
    |--L. catharticum G88
    |--L. corymbulosum PT98
    |--L. flavum T08
    |--L. gallicum C06
    |--L. humile C55b
    |--L. lewisii H93
    |    |--L. l. var. lewisii H93
    |    `--L. l. var. alpicola H93
    |--L. marginale Cunn. ex Hook. 1848 C06
    |--L. monogynum Forst. f. 1786 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--L. perenne D37
    |--L. puberulum H93
    |--L. strictum PT98
    |    |--L. s. ssp. strictum PT98
    |    `--L. s. ssp. spicatum PT98
    |--L. trigynum Linnaeus 1753 PL04
    |--L. uninerve H09
    `--L. usitatissimum PT01

Linum monogynum Forst. f. 1786 [incl. L. monogynum var. chathamica Ckn. 1902, L. monogynum var. diffusum Sol. ex Hook. f. 1852, L. monogymnum var grandiflorum Sol. ex Hook. f. 1852] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[G88] Grubb, P. J. 1988. The uncoupling of disturbance and recruitment, two kinds of seed bank, and persistence of plant populations at the regional and local scales. Annales Zoologici Fennici 25: 23–26.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[T08] Turner, F. 1908. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 290–291.

Erythroxylaceae

Wild cocaine Erythroxylum cuneatum, copyright Loupok.


Belongs within: Malpighiales.

The Erythroxylaceae are a pantropical group of trees and shrubs with simple, alternate leaves and flowers with ligulate appendages (Conn & Kerenga 1995).

Characters (from Conn & Kerenga 1995): Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate. Inflorescences terminal, axillary, solitary or in up to twenty-flowered clusters. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic. Calyx and corolla pentamerous. Petals with ligulate appendage. Stamens 5 + 5, united basally to form a small tube, ovary 1–3-locular, only one ovule developed. Fruit a drupe. Seed more or less endospermous; embryo erect, with cotyledons flat to plano-convex.

<==Erythroxylaceae CK95
    |--Nectaropetalum CK95
    |--Aneulophus CK95
    |--Pinacopodium CK95
    `--Erythroxylum LS08
         |  i. s.: E. areolatum XR12
         |         E. bangii LS08
         |         E. coca CK95
         |         E. ellipticum LK14
         |         E. novogranatense CK95
         |         E. polygonoides LS08
         |         E. obtusifolium VM03
         |--E. (sect. Archerythroxylum) nummularia LS08
         |--E. sect. Coelocarpus CK95
         |    |--E. cuneatum (Miq.) Kurz 1874 CK95
         |    `--E. ecarinatum Burck 1893 (see below for synonymy) CK95
         `--E. sect. Rhabdophyllum LS08
              |--E. bezerrae LS08
              |--E. longisetulosum Loiola & de Sales 2008 LS08
              |--E. tianguanum LS08
              `--E. timothei Loiola & de Sales 2008 LS08

Erythroxylum ecarinatum Burck 1893 [incl. E. ecarinatum var. ledermannii Schulz 1924, E. salomonense White 1950] CK95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CK95] Conn, B. J., & K. Kerenga. 1995. Erythroxylaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 56–60. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[LS08] Loiola, M. I. B., & M. F. de Sales. 2008. Two new species of Erythroxylum sect. Rhabdophyllum (Erythroxylaceae) from north-eastern Brazil. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 655–659.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[VM03] Viswanathan, M. B., & U. Manikandan. 2003. A new species of Balsaminaceae, Impatiens tirunelvelica, from peninsular India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 189–194.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

Picrodendraceae

Shrubby-spurge Tetracoccus dioicus, copyright Stan Shebs.


Belongs within: Malpighiales.

The Picrodendraceae are a pantropical group of trees and shrubs bearing characteristic spiny pollen.

Characters (from Flora of Victoria): Trees or shrubs, lacking latex, monoecious or dioecious. Leaves usually alternate (rarely opposite or whorled), simple to palmate, petiolate; stipules present or absent. Inflorescences axillary, cymose, racemose, spicate or paniculate, bracteate. Flowers regular, unisexual, pedicellate; sepals 3–8, free; petals absent. Male flowers with 3–12 usually free sepals and 3–30 stamens, their filaments free or connate. Female flowers with as many sepals as males, ovary superior, 2–5- (usually 3-) locular, ovules 2 per locule, nectary disc often present below ovary, annular or lobed; styles undivided or bifid, solitary or 1 per locule. Fruit capsular, rarely a drupe. Seeds 1 or 2 per locule, often carunculate.

<==Picrodendraceae [Oldfieldioideae]
    |  i. s.: Hymenocardia T00
    |         Picrodendron T00
    |         Oldfieldia YY22
    |         Malvacipollis diversus XR12
    |         Piranhea GA97
    |--Podocalyx loranthoides XR12
    `--+--+--Androstachys XR12
       |  `--Tetracoccus XR12
       |       |--T. dioicus H93
       |       |--T. hallii H93
       |       `--T. ilicifolius H93
       `--+--Petalostigma XR12
          |    |--P. pubescens LK14
          |    |--P. quadriloculare LK14
          |    `--P. triloculare H90
          `--+--Dissiliaria XR12
             `--+--Austrobuxus swainii XR12, H90
                `--+--Stachystemon DL07
                   `--Micrantheum XR12
                        |--M. ericoides H90
                        `--M. hexandrum H90

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[GA97] Gillespie, L. J., & W. S. Armbruster. 1997. A contribution to the Guianan flora: Dalechampia, Haematostemon, Omphalea, Pera, Plukenetia, and Tragia (Euphorbiaceae) with notes on subfamily Acalyphoideae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 86: 1–48.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Chrysobalanales

Hirtella rugosa, copyright Smithsonian Institution.


Belongs within: Malpighiales.

The Chrysobalanales (or Chrysobalanaceae sensu lato) have historically been recognised as a pantropical group of trees, shrubs and lianas with simple, entire leaves and obliquely monosymmetric flowers.

<==Chrysobalanales
    |  i. s.: Hunga H03
    |--+--Trigoniaceae XR12
    |  |    |--Humbertodendron T00
    |  |    |--Trigoniastrum XR12
    |  |    `--Trigonia Aubl. 1775 KC01
    |  `--Dichapetalaceae XR12
    |       |--Dichapetalum zenkeri XR12
    |       |--Stephanopodium T00
    |       `--Tapura ivorense CBH93
    `--+--Euphronia [Euphroniaceae] XR12
       |    `--E. guianensis XR12
       `--Chrysobalanaceae XR12
            |  i. s.: Couepia longipendula K06
            |         Parinari nonda LK14
            |         Maranthes corymbosa B00
            |--Atuna racemosa XR12, WM09
            `--+--Chrysobalanus icaco XR12
               `--+--Licania ternatensis XR12, SWK87
                  `--Hirtella XR12
                       |--H. bicornis WM09
                       `--H. rugosa SWK87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

Teuthida

Giant squid Architeuthis dux, copyright NTNU Vitenskapsmuseet.


Belongs within: Neocoleoidea.
Contains: Loliginidae, Spirulida, Onychoteuthidae, Ommastrephidae, Histioteuthidae.

The Teuthida, squids, are a group of elongate-bodied cephalopods with the shell reduced to an internal, feather- or rod-shaped, gladius, and with ten circum-oral appendages including two contractile tentacles.

Teuthida [Oegopsida] MG-H11
    |--Cranchiidae MG-H11
    |    |--Cranchia scabra Leach 1817 GO06, MG-H11
    |    |--Liocranchia MG-H11
    |    |--Megalocranchia Pfeiffer 1884 P61
    |    |    |--*M. maxima P61
    |    |    `--M. pardus Berry 1916 P61
    |    |--Teuthowenia Chun 1910 P61
    |    |    |--*T. megalops P61
    |    |    `--T. antarctica Chun 1910 P61
    |    `--Pyrgopsis de Rochebrune 1884 P61
    |         |--*P. rhynchophora P61
    |         `--P. pacificus (Issel 1908) P61
    `--+--Loliginidae GO06
       `--+--+--Spirulida GO06
          |  `--+--Onychoteuthidae GO06
          |     `--Ommastrephidae GO06
          `--+--Histioteuthidae GO06
             `--+--Lepidoteuthis GO06 [Lepidoteuthididae YVD98]
                |    `--L. grimaldii GO06
                `--Architeuthis Steenstrup 1857 GO06, P61 [Architeuthidae]
                     |--*A. dux P61
                     |--A. kirki Robson 1887 P61
                     |--A. longimanus Kirk 1888 P61
                     |--A. stockii Kirk 1882 P61
                     `--A. verrilli Kirk 1882 P61

Teuthida incertae sedis:
  Chiroteuthididae YVD98
    |--Chiroteuthis veranyi H04
    |--Asperoteuthis YVD98
    `--Grimalditeuthis YVD98
  Mastigoteuthis [Mastigoteuthidae] MG-H11
    |--M. cordiiformis Chun 1908 MG-H11
    |--M. inermis YVD98
    --M. magna YVD98
  Chtenopterygidae YVD98
  Bathyteuthididae YVD98
  Enoploteuthidae YVD98
    |--Enoploteuthis MG-H11
    `--Pterygioteuthis Fischer 1895 P61
         `--*P. giardi Fischer 1895 P61
  Gonatidae YVD98
    |--Gonatus fabricii W81
    `--Gonatopsis YVD98
  Thysanoteuthididae YVD98
  Jobiniteuthis [Jobiniteuthididae] YVD98
    `--J. portieri YVD98
  Octopoteuthididae YVD98
  Neoteuthididae YVD98
  Lycoteuthididae YVD98
  Pyroteuthididae YVD98
  Ancistrocheiridae YVD98
  Glochinomorpha [Glochinomorphidae] D93
    `--G. stifeli Gordon 1971 D93
  Plesioteuthididae [Prototeuthina] D93
    |--Maioteuthis maestrichtensis (Binkhorst van den Binkhorst 1862) D93
    `--Paraplesioteuthis D93
         |--P. hastata (Münster 1843) D93
         `--P. sagitata (Münster 1843) D93
  Mesoteuthina D93
    |--Palaeololiginidae D93
    |    |--Teudopsis glevensis (Smithe 1877) D93
    |    `--Parateudopsis libanotica (Naef 1922) D93
    `--Trachyteuthididae D93
         |--Actinosepia canadensis Whiteaves 1897 D93
         `--Trachyteuthis D93
              |--T. hastiformis M79
              `--T. palmeri (Schevill 1950) D93
  Muensterellidae [Kelaenina] D93
    |--Muensterella scutellaris (Münster 1843) D93
    |--Calaenoteuthis incerta Naef 1922 D93
    `--Tusoteuthis longa Logan 1898 D93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D93] Doyle, P. 1993. Mollusca: Cephalopoda (Coleoidea). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 229–236. Chapman & Hall: London.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2–A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

[YVD98] Young, R. E., M. Vecchione & D. T. Donovan. 1998. The evolution of coleoid cephalopods and their present biodiversity and ecology. South African Journal of Marine Science 20: 393–420.

Lepetelloidea

Tectisumen clypidellaeformis, from here.


Belongs within: Vetigastropoda.

The Lepetelloidea are a group of limpets found in deep-sea environments, characterised by an undivided shell muscle and a gill comprising a row of leaflets.

<==Lepetelloidea BR17
    |--Bathyphytophilus Moskalev 1978 [Bathyphytophilidae] BR05
    |    `--*B. caribaeus Moskalev 1978 BR17
    |--Caymanabyssia Moskalev 1976 [Caymanabyssiidae, Caymanabyssiinae] BR05
    |    `--*C. spina Moskalev 1976 BR17
    |--Osteopelta Marshall 1987 [Osteopeltidae] BR05
    |    `--*O. mirabilis Marshall 1987 BR17
    |--Pyropelta McLean & Haszprunar 1987 [Pyropeltidae] BR05
    |    `--*P. musaica McLean & Haszprunar 1987 BR17
    |--Cocculinella Thiele 1909 [Cocculinellidae] BR05
    |    `--*C. minutissima (Smith 1904) [=Acmaea minutissima] KC60
    |--Addisoniidae [Addisonioidea] BR05
    |    |--Helicopelta Marshall 1996 [Helicopeltinae] BR05
    |    |    `--*H. rostricola Marshall 1996 BR17
    |    `--Addisonia Dall 1882 [Addisoniinae] BR05
    |         |--*A. paradoxa Dall 1882 KC60
    |         |--A. enodis Simone 1996 S11
    |         `--A. excentrica PP64
    |--Pseudococculinidae BR05
    |    |--Copulabyssia riosi Leal & Simone 2000 S11
    |    |--Kaiparapelta singularis Marshall 1986 TTE93
    |    |--Pseudococculina Schepman 1908 BR05
    |    |    |--*P. rugosoplicata Schepman 1908 [=Cocculina (*Pseudococculina) rugosoplicata] KC60
    |    |    `--P. rimula Simone & Cunha 2003 S11
    |    `--Notocrater Finlay 1927 BR05, KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--*N. craticulata (Suter 1908) [=Cocculina craticulata] KC60
    |         |--N. maxwelli Marshall 1986 TTE93
    |         `--N. tasmanica (Pilsbry 1895) F27a (see below for synonymy)
    `--Lepetellidae [Lepetellinae] BR05
         |--Sablea minuta Allen 1970 TTE93
         |--Lepetella Verrill 1880 BR05 [=Leptella (l. c.) nec Hall & Clarke 1892 nec Reuter 1894 nec Enderlein 1901 M-WW65]
         |    `--*L. tubicola Verrill & Smith 1880 BR17
         |--Tecticrater Dell 1956 KC60
         |    |--*T. compressa (Suter 1908) P61 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--T. cervae (Fleming 1948) P61
         |    |--T. finlayi (Powell 1937) P61
         |    `--T. subcompressa (Powell 1937) P61
         `--Tectisumen Finlay 1927 KC60
              |--*T. clypidellaeformis (Suter 1908) P61 (see below for synonymy)
              |--T. coercita [=Cocculinella coercita] F27a
              |--T. mayi Finlay 1927 F27a
              `--T. tasmanica (May 1919) P95, F27b (see below for synonymy)

Notocrater Finlay 1927 BR05, KC60 [incl. Coccopygia Dall 1889 non Reichenbach 1862 KC60, Dallia Jeffreys 1883 non Bean 1878 KC60]

Notocrater tasmanica (Pilsbry 1895) F27a [=Acmaea tasmanica F27b, Cocculina tasmanica F27a, Cocculinella tasmanica F27b]

*Tecticrater compressa (Suter 1908) P61 [=Cocculina compressa KC60, Lepetella (*Tecticrater) compressa KC60, Tectisumen compressa F27a]

*Tectisumen clypidellaeformis (Suter 1908) P61 [=Cocculina clypidellaeformis P61, Lepetella (*Tectisumen) clypidellaeformis KC60]

Tectisumen tasmanica (May 1919) P95, F27b [=Cocculinella tasmanica non Acmaea tasmanica Pilsbry 1895 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.) F27a, Cocculina mayi Finlay 1923 F27b]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[M-WW65] Muir-Wood, H., & A. Williams. 1965. Strophomenida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H361–H521. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P95] Ponder, W. F. 1995. Book review: Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Parts 1 and 2. Molluscan Research 16: 97–102.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.