Actinopterygii

Cheirolepis canadensis, from Parc national de Miguasha.


Belongs within: Gnathostomata.
Contains: Elonichthyiformes, Scanilepiformes, Actinopteri.

The Actinopterygii contain the ray-finned fishes, in which the external fin is mostly composed of a ray-supported membrane. However, some basal members of this group (such as the modern Polypteridae) retain lobate pectoral fins. Basal ray-finned fishes (including the living Polypteriformes, Acipenseriformes and Holostei) have a covering of bony ganoid scales, often diamond-shaped and non-overlapping. Many fossil examples of these heavily armoured fishes have previously been classified in the Palaeoniscimorpha, now recognised as paraphyletic to more derived actinopteygians. The basalmost actinopterygians include the Devonian Cheirolepiformes which retained an appearance similar to related basal fishes in the Sarcopterygii and Acanthodii.

Synapomorphies (from Xu & Gao 2011): Extrascapular paired; single pair only of nasal bones; squamosal absent; dentary with enclosed mandibular canal; presupracleithrum present; caudal fin heterocercal, upper caudal fin rays short.

<==Actinopterygii [Palaeoniscimorpha]
    |--Meemannia Zhu, Yu et al. 2006 GX17, ZY06
    |    `--*M. eos Zhu, Yu et al. 2006 ZY06
    `--+--+--+--Osorioichthys marginis GX17
       |  |  `--Tegeolepis clarki GX17
       |  `--+--+--+--Donnrosenia schaefferi GX17
       |     |  |  `--Howqualepis rostridens GX17
       |     |  |--Mimipiscis GX17
       |     |  |    |--M. toombsi GX17
       |     |  |    `--+--M. bartrami GX17
       |     |  |       `--Gogosardina coatesi GX17
       |     |  `--+--Raynerius splendens GX17
       |     |     `--Moythomasia GX17
       |     |          |--M. durgaringa GX17
       |     |          |--M. lineata GX17
       |     |          |--M. nitida Gross 1953 P99
       |     |          `--M. perforata GX17
       |     `--+--+--Woodichthys bearsdeni GX17
       |        |  |--Melanecta anneae GX17
       |        |  |--Kentuckia GX17
       |        |  |    |--K. deani GX17
       |        |  |    `--K. hlavini GX17
       |        |  `--+--Mesopoma planti GX17
       |        |     `--+--Luederia kempi GX17
       |        |        |--Lawrenciella schaefferi GX17
       |        |        |--Kansasiella eatoni GX17
       |        |        |--Coccocephalichthys wildi GX17
       |        |        |--Boreosomus piveteaui GX17
       |        |        `--+--Pteronisculus GX17
       |        |           |    |--P. magnus DFC12
       |        |           |    `--P. stensioei FS10
       |        |           `--+--Kalops monophyrum GX17
       |        |              |--Cosmoptychius striatus GX17
       |        |              |--Beagiascus pulcherrimus GX17
       |        |              |--Aesopichthyidae PL00
       |        |              |    |--Aesopichthys Poplin & Lund 2000 GX17, PL00
       |        |              |    |    `--*A. erinaceus Poplin & Lund 2000 PL00
       |        |              |    `--Proceramala Poplin & Lund 2000 PL00
       |        |              |         `--*P. montanensis Poplin & Lund 2000 PL00
       |        |              `--+--Cyanorhis bergeraci GX17
       |        |                 `--+--Rhadinichthyidae PL00
       |        |                    `--Wendyichthys PL00
       |        |                         |--W. dicksoni PL00
       |        |                         `--W. lautreci PL00
       |        `--+--Australosomus kochi GX17
       |           `--+--+--Amphicentrum granulosum GX17
       |              |  `--+--Fouldenia ischiptera GX17
       |              |     `--Styracopterus fulcratus GX17
       |              `--+--Saurichthys [Saurichthyidae, Saurichthyiformes] GX17
       |                 |    |--S. madagascarensis GX17
       |                 |    `--S. parvidens F71
       |                 `--+--Scanilepiformes GX17
       |                    `--Actinopteri GX17
       `--Cheirolepiformes TT05
            |--Cheirolepis Agassiz 1835 XG11, P99 [Cheirolepidae]
            |    |--C. trailli GX17
            |    `--+--C. canadensis GX17
            |       `--C. schultzei GX17
            |--Samarichthys [Karaunguriidae] TT05
            |    `--S. luxus Minikh 1990 TT05
            `--Boreolepis [Boreolepedidae] TT05
                 `--B. tataricus Esin 1996 TT05

Actinopterygii incertae sedis:
  Amphistichus B02
    |--A. argenteus B02
    |--A. heermanni Girard 1854 DS89
    `--A. rhodoterus B78
  Eutrigla gurnardus OC03
  Pseudocaranx dentex OC03
  Spectrunculus grandis OC03
  Latridopsis forsteri OC03
  Pachyrhizodus marathonensis (Etheridge 1905) GT02, F71 [=Ichthyodectes marathonensis F71]
  Tselfatia formosa GT02
  Ptychodus decurrens GT02
  Lepidotus notidanus BO02
  Vinctifer KM03
  Stratodus apicalis PSB03
  Niwaella delicata T90
  Squalidus T90
    |--S. chankaensis T90
    |    |--S. c. chankaensis T90
    |    `--S. c. biwae T90
    |--S. gracilis T90
    `--S. japonicus T90
  Pseudogobio T90
    |--P. esocinus T90
    `--P. rivularis T90
  Leucopsarion petersi T90
  Hemibarbus T90
    |--H. barbus T90
    `--H. longirostris T90
  Biwa zezera T90
  Odonthestes bonariensis T90
  Pungtungia herzi T90
  Ischikauia steenackeri T90
  Chirolophus nugator B96
  Haplopagrus guentheri B96
  Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus B96
  Sicyases sanguinus B96
  Pyrrhulina filamentosa B96
  Xenocharax spilurus B96
  Clinocottus B96
    |--C. analis B96
    `--C. globiceps B96
  Genyonemus lineatus B96
  Medialuna californiensis B96
  Tautagolabrus adspersus B96
  Oligocottus maculosus B96
  Xererpes fucorum B96
  Mylopharyngodon piceus B96
  Salminus maxillosus B96
  Steindachnerella Eiglemann 1897 B78
  Neoclinus blanchardi B78
  Damalichthys vacca B78
  Pahaerodon furcatus B78
  Apomotis cyanellus D51
  Semicossyphus pulcher CH97
  Clevelandia ios CH97
  Lionurus carapinus CH97
  Usclasichthys Heyler 1977 P99
    `--*U. macrodens Heyler 1977 P99
  Gyrolepis Agassiz 1833 P99
  Crinodus lophodon CC98
  Zalembius rosaceus AFL84
  Leptatherina wallacei MG06
  Pseudogobius olorum MG06
  Symphodus mediterraneus BM03
  Eleginus navaga W81
  Horalabiosa joshuai AJ02
  Sillaginodes punctatus S45
  Temnodon saltator S45
  Limichthys polyactis HS01
  Parika scaber HS01
  Obliquichthys maryannae HS01
  Grahamina capito HS01
  Notolabrus celidotus HS01
  Notoclinops segmentatus HS01
  Ruanoho whero HS01
  Trachylochismus melobesia HS01
  Hymenophysa curta USDI77
  Acanthorutilus handlirschi USDI77
  Moapa coriacea USDI77
  Probarbus jullieni USDI77
  Plagopterus argentissimus USDI77
  Brazilichthys macrognathus Cox & Hutchinson 1991 WO06
  Sargus PP89
    |--S. annularis D56
    |--S. rondeletii PP89
    |--S. salviani D56
    `--S. vulgaris D56
  Smaris alcedo PP89
  Corvina PP89
    |--C. chrysoleuca G66
    |--C. nigra PP89
    |--C. ronchus G66
    `--C. vermicularis G66
  Gymnocharacinus bergi Steindachner 1903 RGG06
  Gymnetrus banksii T66
  Neetroplus Günther 1866 G66
    `--*N. nematopus G66
  Meletta G66
    |--M. libertatis G66
    |--M. petenensis G66
    `--M. thrissa G66
  Plagiogeneion rubiginosus P49
  Tarrasiiformes B96
  Phanerorhynchiformes B96
  Elonichthyiformes TT05
  Pholidopleuriformes B96
  Oxygaster baccaila PP07
  Catla catla PP07
  Mystus PP07
    |--M. cavasius PP07
    |--M. gulio CS77
    `--M. vittatus PP07
  Gadusia chaptra PP07
  Poeciliops M68
    |--P. formosa M68
    |--P. latipinna M68
    `--P. sphenops M68
  Discordichthyidae [Discordichthyiformes] TT05
    |--Discordichthys spinifer (Minikh 1998) TT05
    `--Geryonichthys TT05
         |--G. burchardi Minikh 1998 TT05
         `--G. longus Minikh 1998 TT05
  Auchenoceros punctatus H01
  Pseudophycis bachus H01
  Austrophycis marginata H01
  Lepidorhynchus denticulatus H01
  Amphichthys cryptocentrus Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837 BC01
  Joturus pichardi R86
  Polysteganus caeruleopunctatus Klunzinger 1871 S63
  Eurynotoidiidae [Eurynotoidiiformes] TT05
    |--Eurynotoides nanus (von Eichwald 1861) TT05
    |--Kichkassia furcae (Minikh & Minikh 1986) TT05
    |--Isadia TT05
    |    |--I. aristoviensis Minikh 1990 TT05
    |    `--I. suchonensis Minikh 1986 TT05
    `--Lapkosubia TT05
         |--L. barbalepis (Minikh & Minikh 1990) TT05
         |--L. tokense Minikh 1995 TT05
         `--L. uranensis Minikh 1986 TT05
  Gonialosa manmina P61
  Pneumatophorus grex P61
  Mollienisia F16b
    |--M. latipinna F15
    `--M. sphenops F16b
  Eupomotis F15
    |--E. gibbosus CS77
    `--E. holbrooki F15
  Harpe rufa F15
  Iridio F15
    |--I. bivittatus F15
    |--I. garnoti F16b
    |--I. kirschii F16b
    |--I. maculipinna [=Platyglossus maculipinna] F16b
    `--I. radiatus F15
  Hepatus Gronow 1765 [incl. Teuthis Linnaeus 1766, Theutis] JR10
    |--H. bahianus F15
    |--H. celebicus JR10
    |--H. coeruleus F16b
    |--H. elongatus JR10
    |--H. hepatus F15
    |--H. matoides JR10
    `--H. olivaceus JR10
  Glaridichthys uninotatus F15
  Vomer F16b
    |--V. setapinnis F16b
    `--V. spixii F15
  Bathystoma F16b
    |--B. rimator F15
    `--B. striatum F16b
  Conodon nobilis F15
  Priapichthys annectens F15
  Coptostomobarbus vittei CS77
  Lophopsetta maculata F16a
  Pygosteus pungitius F16a
  Lasiancistrus guacharote [=Ancistrus guacharote; incl. A. trinitatis Regan 1906] F16b
  Odontostilbe pulcher (Gill 1858) [=Poecilurichthys pulcher, Chirodon pulcher] F16b
  Stevardia altipinnis Gill 1858 (see below for synonymy) F16b
  Hoploerythrinus unitaeniatus [=Erythrinus unitaeniatus; incl. E. cinereus Gill 1858] F16b
  Seserinus paru F16b
  Petrometopon cruentatus F16b
    |--P. c. cruentatus F16b
    `--P. c. coronatus [=Serranus coronatus; incl. Epinephelus guttatus Boulenger 1895] F16b
  Eudulus auriga [=Serranus auriga] F16b
  Brachygenys F16b
    |--B. chrysargyreus (Günther 1859) [=Haemulon chrysargyreum] F16b
    `--B. rimator F16b
  Corvula subaequalis [incl. C. sanctaeluciae Jordan 1889] F16b
  Philypnus dormitor F16b
  Alphestes chloropterus [incl. Epinephelus afer Boulenger 1895] F16b
  Myriapristis jacobus F16b
  Angelichthys isabelita F16b
  Ophicephalus [Ophicephalidae] JR10
    |--O. maculatus JR10
    |--O. melanopterus JR10
    |--O. melanosomus JR10
    |--O. striatus JR10
    `--O. vagus Peters 1868 JR10
  Colocopus lambdurus Gill 1884 JR10
  Prontocanthus sahelalmae Davis 1887 [=Holosteus sahelalmae] P05
  Porocottus allisi SSE10
  Opisthocentrus ocellatus SSE10
  Davidijordania lacertina SSE10
  Cuneoganthus gerdineri GX17
  Krasnoyarichthys jesseni GX17
  Limnomis delayni GX17
  Novagonatodus kasantsevae GX17
  Stegotrachelus finlayi GX17

Stevardia altipinnis Gill 1858 [incl. Corynopoma riisei Gill 1858, C. riisii, Nematopoma searlesii Gill 1858, C. veedoni Gill 1858] F16b

*Type species of generic name indicated

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Last updated: 8 December 2018.

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