Actinopterygii

Cheirolepis canadensis, from Parc national de Miguasha.


Belongs within: Gnathostomata.
Contains: Elonichthyiformes, Polypteriformes, Actinopteri.

The Actinopterygii contains the ray-finned fishes, in which the external fin is mostly composed of a ray-supported membrane. However, some basal members of this group (such as the modern Polypteridae) do retain lobate pectoral fins. Basal ray-finned fishes (including the living Polypteriformes, Acipenseriformes and Holostei) have a covering of bony ganoid scales, often diamond-shaped and non-overlapping. The basalmost actinopterygians include the Devonian Cheirolepiformes.

Synapomorphies (from Xu & Gao 2011): Extrascapular paired; single pair only of nasal bones; squamosal absent; dentary with enclosed mandibular canal; presupracleithrum present; caudal fin heterocercal, upper caudal fin rays short.

<==Actinopterygii
    |--+--Polypteriformes XG11
    |  `--+--Osorioichthys ZZ09
    |     `--+--Howqualepis ZZ09
    |        `--Actinopteri XG11
    `--Cheirolepiformes TT05
         |--Cheirolepis Agassiz 1835 XG11, P99 [Cheirolepidae]
         |    `--C. canadensis PL00
         |--Samarichthys [Karaunguriidae] TT05
         |    `--S. luxus Minikh 1990 TT05
         `--Boreolepis [Boreolepedidae] TT05
              `--B. tataricus Esin 1996 TT05

Actinopterygii incertae sedis:
  Amphistichus B02
    |--A. argenteus B02
    |--A. heermanni Girard 1854 DS89
    `--A. rhodoterus B78
  Stychopterus Z02
  Notagogus ferreri S02
  Propterus vidali S02
  Eutrigla gurnardus OC03
  Pseudocaranx dentex OC03
  Spectrunculus grandis OC03
  Latridopsis forsteri OC03
  Pachyrhizodus marathonensis (Etheridge 1905) GT02, F71 [=Ichthyodectes marathonensis F71]
  Tselfatia formosa GT02
  Ptychodus decurrens GT02
  Lepidotus notidanus BO02
  Vinctifer KM03
  Stratodus apicalis PSB03
  Synodontis victoriae G74
  Niwaella delicata T90
  Squalidus T90
    |--S. chankaensis T90
    |    |--S. c. chankaensis T90
    |    `--S. c. biwae T90
    |--S. gracilis T90
    `--S. japonicus T90
  Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846 I92
  Pseudogobio T90
    |--P. esocinus T90
    `--P. rivularis T90
  Rhyncopelates oxyrhynchus T90
  Leucopsarion petersi T90
  Hemibarbus T90
    |--H. barbus T90
    `--H. longirostris T90
  Biwa zezera T90
  Odonthestes bonariensis T90
  Pungtungia herzi T90
  Trachidermus fasciatus Heckel 1840 I92
  Ischikauia steenackeri T90
  Chirolophus nugator B96
  Haplopagrus guentheri B96
  Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus B96
  Sicyases sanguinus B96
  Pyrrhulina filamentosa B96
  Xenocharax spilurus B96
  Clinocottus B96
    |--C. analis B96
    `--C. globiceps B96
  Genyonemus lineatus B96
  Medialuna californiensis B96
  Tautagolabrus adspersus B96
  Oligocottus maculosus B96
  Xererpes fucorum B96
  Champsocephalus gunnari B96
  Mylopharyngodon piceus B96
  Salminus maxillosus B96
  Steindachnerella Eiglemann 1897 B78
  Neoclinus blanchardi B78
  Damalichthys vacca B78
  Pahaerodon furcatus B78
  Apomotis cyanellus D51
  Semicossyphus pulcher CH97
  Clevelandia ios CH97
  Lionurus carapinus CH97
  Usclasichthys Heyler 1977 P99
    `--*U. macrodens Heyler 1977 P99
  Gyrolepis Agassiz 1833 P99
  Crinodus lophodon CC98
  Zalembius rosaceus AFL84
  Leptatherina wallacei MG06
  Pseudogobius olorum MG06
  Boops boops BM03
  Symphodus mediterraneus BM03
  Eleginus navaga W81
  Horalabiosa joshuai AJ02
  Sillaginodes punctatus S45
  Temnodon saltator S45
  Limichthys polyactis HS01
  Parika scaber HS01
  Obliquichthys maryannae HS01
  Grahamina capito HS01
  Notolabrus celidotus HS01
  Atypichthys latus HS01
  Notoclinops segmentatus HS01
  Ruanoho whero HS01
  Trachylochismus melobesia HS01
  Upeneichthys lineatus HS01
  Hymenophysa curta USDI77
  Acanthorutilus handlirschi USDI77
  Moapa coriacea USDI77
  Probarbus jullieni USDI77
  Plagopterus argentissimus USDI77
  Brazilichthys macrognathus Cox & Hutchinson 1991 WO06
  Sargus PP89
    |--S. annularis D56
    |--S. rondeletii PP89
    |--S. salviani D56
    `--S. vulgaris D56
  Smaris alcedo PP89
  Corvina PP89
    |--C. chrysoleuca G66
    |--C. nigra PP89
    |--C. ronchus G66
    `--C. vermicularis G66
  Gymnocharacinus bergi Steindachner 1903 RGG06
  Gymnetrus banksii T66
  Neetroplus Günther 1866 G66
    `--*N. nematopus G66
  Chaetostomus aspidolepis G66
  Meletta G66
    |--M. libertatis G66
    |--M. petenensis G66
    `--M. thrissa G66
  Plagiogeneion rubiginosus P49
  Naxilepis gracilis ZZ09
  Tarrasiiformes B96
  Phanerorhynchiformes B96
  Elonichthyiformes TT05
  Pholidopleuriformes B96
  Luganoiiformes B96
  Oxygaster baccaila PP07
  Catla catla PP07
  Mystus PP07
    |--M. cavasius PP07
    `--M. vittatus PP07
  Gadusia chaptra PP07
  Poeciliops M68
    |--P. formosa M68
    |--P. latipinna M68
    `--P. sphenops M68
  Discordichthyidae [Discordichthyiformes] TT05
    |--Discordichthys spinifer (Minikh 1998) TT05
    `--Geryonichthys TT05
         |--G. burchardi Minikh 1998 TT05
         `--G. longus Minikh 1998 TT05
  Lampanyctodes hectoris H01
  Auchenoceros punctatus H01
  Pseudophycis bachus H01
  Grahamichthys radiata H01
  Austrophycis marginata H01
  Lepidorhynchus denticulatus H01
  Amphichthys cryptocentrus Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837 BC01
  Mimipiscis toombsi NE12
  Joturus pichardi R86
  Polysteganus caeruleopunctatus Klunzinger 1871 S63
  Elagatis bipinnulatus S65
  Eurynotoidiidae [Eurynotoidiiformes] TT05
    |--Eurynotoides nanus (von Eichwald 1861) TT05
    |--Kichkassia furcae (Minikh & Minikh 1986) TT05
    |--Isadia TT05
    |    |--I. aristoviensis Minikh 1990 TT05
    |    `--I. suchonensis Minikh 1986 TT05
    `--Lapkosubia TT05
         |--L. barbalepis (Minikh & Minikh 1990) TT05
         |--L. tokense Minikh 1995 TT05
         `--L. uranensis Minikh 1986 TT05
  Gonialosa manmina P61
  Pneumatophorus grex P61
  Edelia vittata L91

*Type species of generic name indicated

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