European oyster Ostrea edulis, photographed by Peter Dyrynda.

Belongs within: Ostreoidea.

The Ostreinae are a group of oysters that first appeared in the Lower Cretaceous. Members of the genera Crassostrea and Ostrea are economically significant. Ostrea species retain their eggs and incubate developing larvae within the inhalant mantle chamber of the parent, whereas Crassostrea species eject eggs into the water column to be fertilised and develop externally (Stenzel 1971).

Characters (from Stenzel 1971): Nonincubatory or incubatory. Promyal passage present in nonincubatory and absent in incubatory genera. Chomata present or absent; without pustules on interior surface along valve margins which generally are devoid of plications but rarely irregularly plicate so that very little, if any, conformity is present among individuals.

    |--Praeexogyra KC02
    |    |--*P. acuminata KC02
    |    `--P. hebridica [=Ostrea hebridica] KC02
    |--Crassostrea Sacco 1897 KC02 [incl. Saxostrea Iredale 1936 P61]
    |    |--*C. virginica (Gmelin 1791) P61, SS07 [=Ostrea virginica P61]
    |    |--C. angulata KC02
    |    |--C. cusseta KC02
    |    |--C. gigas (Thunberg 1793) HJ08
    |    |--C. glomerata (Gould 1850) CH97, DL77 [=Saccostrea glomerata DL77]
    |    |--C. kawauchidensis KC02
    |    |--C. ryosekiensis KC02
    |    |--C. sikamea CG99
    |    |--C. soleniscus KC02
    |    |--C. tetoriensis Komatsu, Chinzei et al. 2002 KC02
    |    `--C. yoshimoensis KC02
    `--Ostrea Linnaeus 1758 F27a
         |--*O. edulis Linnaeus 1758 P61, HJ08
         |--O. angasi (Sowerby 1871) HJ08
         |--O. arenicola F27a
         |--O. beloiti K79
         |--O. bentonensis K79
         |--O. boucheroni KC02
         |--O. cerata Sowerby 1871 H09
         |--O. charlottae Finlay 1928 P61
         |--O. clotbeyi G92
         |--O. cloti G92
         |--O. corrugata F27a
         |--O. cortex Conrad 1857 W77
         |--O. cristagalli (Linnaeus 1758) [=Mytilus cristagalli] H09
         |--O. cucullata Born 1778 H09
         |--O. curvirostris KC02
         |--O. dichotoma F27a
         |--O. edwilsoni Stoyanov 1949 KC02
         |--O. elegans G92
         |--O. engelmanni W77
         |--O. ephippiu Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. flavicans Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. folium Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. fraasi G92
         |--O. gibba Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. glabra Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. glomerata F27a
         |--O. hatcheri S46
         |--O. heffordi Finlay 1928 P61
         |--O. imbricata Lamarck 1819 H09
         |--O. incurva Nilsson 1827 F27b
         |--O. ingens H86
         |--O. jacobaea Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. lutaria HS01
         |--O. mackayi A27
         |--O. manubriata F27a
         |--O. minuta Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. mordax F27a
         |--O. nelsoniana H86
         |--O. nigromarginata Sowerby 1871 H09
         |--O. nodosa Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. obliterata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. opercularis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. orbicularis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. pellucens Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. pesfelis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. plica Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. prudentia White 1877 W77
         |--O. pusio Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. radula Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. reili G92
         |--O. reniformis F27a
         |--O. sanguinea Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. semiaurita Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. stintina BBB-S95
         |--O. striatula Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. strigilecula White 1877 W77
         |--O. tatei F27a
         |--O. tuberculata Lamarck 1804 H09
         |--O. varia Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--O. wegmanniana KC02
         |--O. wollastoni Finlay 1927 [=O. incurva Hutton 1873 non Nilsson 1827] F27b
         `--O. wullerstorfii H86

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[DL77] Dinamani, P., & P. A. Lenz. 1977. Some aspects of spatfall of the New Zealand rock oyster during 1974. Veliger 20 (1): 17–26.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G92] Gingerich, P. D. 1992. Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: stratigraphy, age, and paleoenvironments. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 30: i–ix, 1–84.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[KC02] Komatsu, T., K. Chinzei, M. S. Zakhera & H. Matsuoka. 2002. Jurassic soft-bottom oyster Crassostrea from Japan. Palaeontology 45 (6): 1037–1048.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S46] Simpson, G. G. 1946. Fossil penguins. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 87 (1): 1–99.

Stenzel, H. B. 1971. Oysters. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Mollusca 6. Bivalvia vol. 3. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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