Laevicardium oblongum, copyright Elektrofisch.

Belongs within: Heterodonta.
Contains: Nemocardium, Orthocardiinae, Cardiinae, Tridacninae.

The Cardiidae are a family of heterodont bivalves that first appeared in the Late Triassic. As well as the cockles that have generally been assigned to this family, it also includes the giant clams (Tridacninae) that were previously treated as a separate family. Both the Tridacninae and another subfamily, the Fraginae, contain endosymbiotic zooxanthellae in their mantle. Shells of Cardiidae are often variously ornamented; Trachycardium has the ribs ornamented with spines, whereas Laevicardiinae have rib ornamentation of looped threads or small nodes.

Synapomorphies (from Schneider 1995): Moderate ventral and lateral ridges present on foot; simple eyes present; distinctive shape of anterior and posterior cardinal teeth.

<==Cardiidae [Cardiacea, Cardioidea]
    |--Pleurocardiinae S02
    |    |--Pleuriocardia S02
    |    `--Incacardium S02
    |--Trachycardium [Trachycardiinae] S02
    |    |  i. s.: T. serrulata (Deshayes 1855) [=Cardium serrulatum, Europicardium serrulatum] S02
    |    |--T. (Acrosterigma) Dall 1900 S02
    |    |    |--T. (*A.) dalli (Heilprin 1887) [=Cardium dalli] S02
    |    |    |--‘Acrosterigma’ alternatum (Sowerby 1841) BW09
    |    |    |--‘Acrosterigma’ dupuchense W08
    |    |    |--‘Acrosterigma’ marielae Wilson & Stevenson 1977 MG-H11
    |    |    |--‘Acrosterigma’ mendanaense (Sowerby 1896) BW09
    |    |    `--‘Acrosterigma’ orbitum (Broderip & Sowerby 1833) BW09
    |    `--T. (Regozara) Iredale 1936 S02
    |         `--T. (*R.) olivifer (Iredale 1936) S02
    |--Laevicardiinae S02
    |    |--Fulvia S02
    |    |--*Protocardia hillanum [=Cardium hillanum] F27
    |    |--Nemocardium S02
    |    `--Laevicardium Swainson 1840 KS02
    |         |  i. s.: L. brazieri Etheridge in Jack & Etheridge 1892 [=Cardium brazieri] F71
    |         |         L. corpulentum KS02
    |         |         L. flavum (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) BD86
    |         |         L. ishidoensis KS02
    |         |--*L. (Laevicardium) oblongum (Gmelin 1791) [=Cardium oblongum] KS02
    |         |    |--L. o. oblongum F05
    |         |    `--L. o. castanea Vidal 2005 F05
    |         `--L. (Megalaevicardium) Kanjilal & Srinivasan 2002 KS02
    |              `--L. (*M.) hutbayensis Kanjilal & Srinivasan 2002 KS02
    `--+--+--+--Austrocardium S02
       |  |  `--Indocardium S02
       |  `--Profraginae S02
       |       |--Profragum S02
       |       `--+--Ethmocardium S02
       |          `--+--Criocardium S02
       |             `--Granocardium kuemmeli (Weller 1907) S02
       `--+--*Perucardia brueggeni Olsson 1944 S02
          `--+--Orthocardiinae S02
             `--+--Sawkinsia matleyi Cox 1941 S02
                `--+--Cardiinae S02
                   `--+--Plagiocardium granulosum (Lamarck 1805) S02
                      |--Maoricardium S02
                      |--Tridacninae S02
                      |--Clinocardium [Clinocardiinae] S02
                      |    |--C. californiensis GAS03
                      |    `--C. nuttallii S02
                      |--Lymnocardiinae [Lymnocardiidae] S02
                      |    |--Inaequicostata S02
                      |    |--Kubanocardium S02
                      |    `--Obsoletiforma S02
                      `--Fraginae S02
                           |--Papillicardium S02
                           |--Ctenocardia S02
                           |--Fragum BW09
                           |    |--F. carinatum W08
                           |    |--F. fragum (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
                           |    `--F. unedo GW02
                           `--Microfragum S02
                                |--‘Cardium’ ebaranum Yokoyama 1927 [=Afrocardium ebaranum] S02
                                |--M. erugatum (Tate 1889) GW02, S02 [=Cardium erugatum S02, Afrocardium erugatum S02]
                                `--‘Cardium’ sueziense Issel 1869 [=Loxocardium sueziense] S02

Cardiidae incertae sedis:
  Goniocardium S02
  Avicularium S02
  Byssocardium S02
  Trapezicardium Kanjilal & Srinivasan 2002 [Trapezicardiinae] KS02
    `--*T. laiensis Kanjilal & Srinivasan 2002 KS02
  Parvicardium GW02
    |--P. exiguum GW02
    |--P. minimum GO06
    `--P. pinnulatum GW02
  Corculum cardissum (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
  Frigidocardium eos (Kuroda 1929) MG-H11
  Hemicardium cardissa H04
  Lahillia Cossmann 1899 [Lahilliinae] S98
    |--*L. angulata (Philippi 1887) [=Amathusia angulata] S98
    |--L. larseni (Sharman & Newton 1897) S98
    `--L. neozelanica Marshall & Murdoch 1923 [=L. (Lahilleona) neozelanica] S98
  Monodacna caspia Eichw. 1841 S01
  Didacna trigonoides [=Cardium trigonoides] S01
  Lophocardium annettae (Dall 1889) PP78

Laevicardium flavum (Linnaeus 1758) [=Cardium flavum, Trachycardium flavum, Vasticardium flavum; incl. T. hawaiiensis Dall, Bartsch & Rehder 1938, Cardium orbita Broderip & Sowerby 1833, C. pectiniforme Born 1780, C. rugosum Lamarck 1819] BD86

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[KS02] Kanjilal, S., & M. S. Srinivasan. 2002. New bivalves from the Miocene of Little Andaman Island, Bay of Bengal. Journal of the Geological Society of India 60: 527–536.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

Schneider, J. A. 1995. Phytogeny of the Cardiidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia): Protocardiinae, Laevicardiinae, Lahilliinae, Tulongocardiinae subfam. n. and Pleuriocardiinae subfam. n. Zoologica Scripta 24 (4): 321-346.

[S02] Schneider, J. A. 2002. Phylogeny of cardiid bivalves (cockles and giant clams): revision of the Cardiinae and the importance of fossils in explaining disjunct biogeographical distributions. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 321–369.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[S01] Sturany, R. 1901. Csigák és kagylók [Mollusken]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 69–74. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[W08] Wilson, B. 2008. Background information on Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 1–9.

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