Potamididae


Live individual of Telescopium telescopium, photographed by Ria Tan.


Belongs within: Cerithiimorpha.

The Potamididae, horn snails, are a family of gastropods inhabiting brackish habitats such as among mangroves or on mud flats. They possess high-spired shells with a flaring aperture bearing an anterior siphon and medial sinus on the outer lip.

<==Potamididae [Potamidinae]
    |--Mesohalina R89
    |--Gantechinobathra JB12
    |--Echinobathra vicina (Verneuil & Lorrière 1868) TTE93
    |--Ptychopotamides TTE93
    |--Eotympanotonus TTE93
    |--Telescopium Montfort 1810 [Telescopiidae] BR05
    |    |--T. telescopium (Linnaeus 1758) WG71 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--T. fuscum F66
    |--Pirenella Gray 1847 BD86, O27
    |    |--P. cailliaudi (Potiez & Michaud 1838) [incl. P. conica] BD86
    |    `--P. cyclus (Dall 1919) [=Potamides (Pirenella) cyclus] O27
    |--Terebralia Swainson 1840 WG71
    |    |--T. bidentata (Defrance in Grateloup 1840) GK02
    |    |--T. semistriatus W08
    |    `--T. sulcata Bruguière 1792 WG71
    |--Potamides Brongniart 1810 BR05
    |    |--*P. (Potamides) lamarckii Brongniart 1810 BR17
    |    `--P. (Liocerithium Tryon 1887) O27
    |         `--P. (L.) sculptum (Sowerby 1855) [=Cerithium sculptum] O27
    |--Tympanotonos Schumacher 1817 (see below for synonymy) PB27
    |    |--T. fuscatus (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) PB27
    |    |--T. cingulatus (Gmelin 1791) PB27 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--‘Potamis’ ebeninus C64
    |    `--T. margaritaceus (Brocchi 1814) GK02
    `--Cerithidea Swainson 1840 [Cerithideidae, Cerithideinae] BR17
         |--*C. lineolata (Gray 1833) [=Melania lineolata] BR17
         |--C. californica Haldeman 1840 O27
         |--C. cingulata G88
         |--C. cornea G88
         |--C. costata (da Costa 1778) S11
         |    |--C. c. costata BC01
         |    `--C. c. beattyi Bequaert 1942 [incl. C. costata f. barbudaensis Usticke 1969] BC01
         |--C. decollata O27
         |--C. kieneri (Hombr. & Jacq. 1853) [=Cerithium kieneri] H09
         |--C. largillierti (Philippi 1848) [=Cerithium largillierti] H09
         |--C. mazatlanica [incl. C. albonodosa] C64
         |--C. montagnei C64
         |--C. obtusa C60
         |--C. quadrata G88
         |--C. sacrata [incl. C. fuscata Gould 1856, Potamis pullatus Gould 1855, C. pullata] C64
         `--C. valida (Adams 1852) [incl. Potamides meta Li 1930] BC01

Telescopium telescopium (Linnaeus 1758) WG71 [=Trochus telescopium BR17, Pyrazus telescopium H09, *Telescopium indicator Montfort 1810 BR17]

Tympanotonos Schumacher 1817 [=Tympanotomus (l. c.), Tympanotonus Agassiz 1846, Tympanostoma (l. c.); incl. Potamis Sowerby 1839] PB27

Tympanotonos cingulatus (Gmelin 1791) PB27 [=Murex cingulatus PB27, Potamides (Tympanotonos) cingulatus PB27, Pyrazus cingulatus H09]

Tympanotonos fuscatus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex fuscatus, Potamides (Tympanotomus [l. c.]) fuscatus, Potamides (Tympanotonos) fuscatus; incl. Nerita aculeata Müller 1774, Murex fluviatilis Gmelin 1791, *Tympanotonos fluviatilis Schumacher 1817, Cerithium muricatum Bruguière 1792, Potamides fuscatus var. muricatus, *Potamis muricatus, Tympanotonos owenii Reeve 1866, Potamides (Tympanotomus [l. c.]) oweni, Murex radula Linnaeus 1758, Potamides (Tympanotomus) fuscatus var. radula, M. terebella Gmelin 1791] PB27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[GK02] Gründel, J., & T. Kowalke. 2002. Palaeorissoinidae, a new family of marine and brackish water Rissooidea (Gastropoda, Littorinimorpha). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 226 (1): 43–57.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt. 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[R89] Reid, D. G. 1989. Systematic revision of the Recent species of Peasiella Nevill, 1885 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae), with notes on the fossil species. Nautilus 103 (2): 43–69.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W08] Wilson, B. 2008. Background information on Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 1–9.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Last updated: 18 May 2021.

Batillariidae


Hercules Club mud whelks Pyrazus ebeninus on sea-grass bed. Photo from here.


Belongs within: Cerithiimorpha.

The Batillariidae are a family of high-spired marine gastropods found within the tide zone in mud and muddy sand. Members have a flaring outer lip on the aperture.

<==Batillariidae
    |--Granulolabium GK02 [Tiaracerithiinae BR05]
    |    |  i. s.: G. plicatum (Basterot 1825) GK02
    |    `--G. (Tiaracerithium Sacco 1895) GK02, BR05
    |         `--‘Cerithium’ thiarella Grateloup 1832 BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Batillaria Benson 1842 [Batillariinae] BR05
    |    |--*B. zonalis (Bruguière 1792) [=Cerithium zonale] BR17
    |    |--B. attramentaria CG99
    |    |--B. australis OC03
    |    |--B. cumingi ZLK11
    |    |--B. (Vicinocerithium) inopinata (Deshayes 1864) TTE93
    |    `--B. minima (Gmelin 1791) S11
    `--Pyrazus Montfort 1810 [Pyrazidae] BR05
         |--*P. baudini Montfort 1810 BR17
         |--P. ebeninus Bruguière 1792 WG71
         |--P. herculeus (Martyn 1784) [=Clava herculea] H09
         |--P. incisus C64
         |--P. layardi (Adams 1855) [=Cerithium layardi] H09
         |--P. palustris (Linnaeus 1767) [=Strombus palustris] H09
         |--P. scalariformis TTE93
         |--P. semistriatus F66
         `--P. sulcatus (Born 1778) [=Murex sulcatus] H09

‘Cerithium’ thiarella Grateloup 1832 BR17 [=C. pseudotiarella d’Orbigny 1852 BR17, Granulolabium (*Tiaracerithium) pseudotiarella GK02, BR17]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[GK02] Gründel, J., & T. Kowalke. 2002. Palaeorissoinidae, a new family of marine and brackish water Rissooidea (Gastropoda, Littorinimorpha). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 226 (1): 43–57.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[OC03] Olson, P. D., T. H. Cribb, V. V. Tkach, R. A. Bray & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda). International Journal for Parasitology 33: 733-755.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Last updated: 18 May 2021.

Pseudorthoceratidae


Pyritised specimen of Pseudorthoceras knoxense. Photo from here.


Belongs within: Micelinoceratida.
Contains: Spyroceras.

The Pseudorthoceratidae were a Lower Silurian to Permian family of 'orthocerid' cephalopods. The relationship of this family to the remaining orthocerids is doubtful.

Characters (from Sweet 1964): Cyrtochoanitic orthocones and longiconic cyrtocones; endosiphuncular annuli developing into continuous parietal endosiphuncular lining, each deposit extending forward or backward from its place of origin to join the next.

<==Pseudorthoceratidae [Mooreoceratidae, Shikhanoceratidae]
    |--Pseudactinoceratinae [Macroloxoceratinae, Pseudactinoceratidae] S64
    |    |--Pseudactinoceras Schindewolf 1943 S64
    |    |    `--*P. promiscuum Schindewolf 1943 S64
    |    |--Bergoceras Flower 1939 S64
    |    |    `--*B. antelope (deKoninck 1880) [=Cyrtoceras antelope] S64
    |    |--Campyloceras M’Coy 1844 S64
    |    |    `--*C. unguis (Phillips 1836) [=Orthoceras unguis] S64
    |    |--Eusthenoceras Foord 1898 S64
    |    |    `--*E. hulli (deKoninck 1881) [=Cyrtoceras hulli] S64
    |    |--Macroloxoceras Flower 1957 S64
    |    |    `--*M. magnum Flower 1957 S64
    |    `--Paraloxoceras Flower 1939 S64
    |         `--*P. konincki Flower 1939 S64
    |--Cayutoceratinae S64
    |    |--Cayutoceras Flower 1939 S64
    |    |    `--*C. casteri Flower 1939 S64
    |    |--Arpaoceras Zhuravleva 1962 S64
    |    |    `--*A. raphaeli Zhuravleva 1962 S64
    |    |--Bradfordoceras Flower & Caster 1935 S64
    |    |    `--*B. transversum Flower & Caster 1935 S64
    |    |--Buchanoceras Teichert & Glenister 1952 S64
    |    |    `--*B. graviventrum Teichert & Glenister 1952 S64
    |    |--Dnestroceras Zhuravleva 1961 S64
    |    |    `--*D. incertum Zhuravleva 1961 S64
    |    |--Metastromatoceras Zhuravleva 1957 S64
    |    |    `--*M. formosum Zhuravleva 1957 S64
    |    `--Stromatoceras Teichert & Glenister 1953 [=Stromotoceras (l. c.)] S64
    |         `--*S. eximium Teichert & Glenister 1953 S64
    |--Pseudorthoceratinae S64
    |    |--Eifeloceras Foerste 1929 S64
    |    |    `--*E. kayseri Foerste 1929 S64
    |    |--Neocycloceras Flower & Caster 1935 S64
    |    |    `--*N. obliquum Flower & Caster 1935 S64
    |    |--Pseudocyrtoceras Schindewolf 1943 S64
    |    |    `--*P. acus (deKoninck 1880) [=Cyrtoceras acus] S64
    |    |--Simorthoceras Shimanskiy 1954 S64
    |    |    `--*S. gracile Shimanskiy 1954 S64
    |    |--Uralorthoceras Shimanskiy 1951 S64
    |    |    `--*U. tzwetaevae Shimanskiy 1951 S64
    |    |--Pseudorthoceras Girty 1911 S64
    |    |    |--*P. knoxense (McChesney 1859) [=Orthoceras knoxense] S64
    |    |    `--P. seminolense Girty 1911 P68
    |    `--Mooreoceras Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 S64
    |         |--*M. normale Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 S64
    |         |--M. crebriliratum P68
    |         `--M. giganteum P68
    `--Spyroceratinae [Dolorthoceratinae, Spyroceratidae] S64
         |--Spyroceras S64
         |--Allanoceras Barskov 1959 S64
         |    `--*A. inusitatum Barskov 1959 S64
         |--Anastomoceras Flower 1939 S64
         |    `--*A. mirabile Flower 1939 S64
         |--Cryptorthoceras Flower 1939 S64
         |    `--*C. productum Flower 1939 S64
         |--Cyrtospyroceras Flower 1938 S64
         |    `--*C. reimanni Flower 1938 S64
         |--Diagoceras Flower 1936 S64
         |    `--*D. aptum (Hall 1876) [=Orthoceras aptum] S64
         |--Eridites Zhuravleva 1961 S64
         |    `--*E. astrovae Zhuravleva 1961 S64
         |--Euloxoceras Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 S64
         |    `--*E. greenei Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 S64
         |--Fusicoceras Flower 1939 S64
         |    `--*F. eriense Flower 1939 S64
         |--Geisonoceroides Flower 1939 S64
         |    `--*G. woodae Flower 1939 S64
         |--Gordonoceras Teichert & Glenister 1953 S64
         |    `--*G. bondi Teichert & Glenister 1953 S64
         |--Lopingoceras Shimanskiy 1962 S64
         |    `--*L. lopingense (Stoyanow 1909) [=Orthoceras lopingense] S64
         |--Mitorthoceras Gordon 1960 S64
         |    `--*M. perfilosum Gordon 1960 S64
         |--Palmeroceras Flower 1936 S64
         |    `--*P. fustis (Hall 1879) [=Orthoceras fustis] S64
         |--Petryoceras Flower 1939 S64
         |    `--*P. thyestes (Hall 1879) [=Orthoceras thyestes] S64
         |--Pseudocycloceras Barskov 1959 S64
         |    `--*P. karanglense Barskov 1959 S64
         |--Shikhanoceras Shimanskiy 1954 S64
         |    `--*S. sphaerophorum Shimanskiy 1954 S64
         |--Tripteroceroides Miller & Furnish 1940 S64
         |    `--*T. knighti Miller & Furnish 1940 S64
         |--Cyrtothoracoceras Turner 1954 S64
         |    |--*C. tuberculatum (M’Coy 1844) [=Cyrtoceras tuberculatum] S64
         |    `--C. wrighti S64
         |--Reticycloceras Gordon 1960 S64
         |    |--*R. croneisi Gordon 1960 S64
         |    `--‘Orthocera sulcata’ Fleming 1815 non Modeer 1797 [=Cycloceras sulcatum] S64
         |--Sceptrites Flower 1939 S64
         |    |--*S. sceptrum (Hall 1888) [=Orthoceras sceptrum] S64
         |    |--S. claviformis Flower 1939 P68
         |    `--S. obliquus Flower 1939 P68
         |--Adnatoceras Flower 1939 [=Adnathoceras (l. c.)] S64
         |    |--*A. spissum (Hall 1879) [=Orthoceras spissum] S64
         |    |--A. alaskense Gordon 1957 P68
         |    |--A. cooperi Flower 1939 P68
         |    `--A. naplense S64
         `--Dolorthoceras Miller 1931 S64
              |--*D. circulare Miller 1931 S64
              |--D. crebriliratum P68
              |--D. exile S64
              |--D. medium Gordon 1957 P68
              |--D. revertum S64
              |--D. sociale TM64
              `--D. solitarium Flower 1939 P68

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1-198.

[S64] Sweet, W. C. 1964. Nautiloidea – Orthocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K216-K261. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[TM64] Teichert, C., & R. C. Moore. 1964. Introduction. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K2-K4. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

Thiaridae

Spiny marsh snail Thiara amarula, copyright Joop Trausel and Frans Slieker.


Belongs within: Cerithiimorpha.

The Thiaridae are a cosmopolitan family of freshwater caenogastropods. In the past, pretty much all lake-dwelling cerithioids have been treated as Thiaridae (or as Melaniidae, an older but invalid name for the same family) but this larger Thiaridae is now regarded as polyphyletic. Similarly, many unrelated freshwater gastropods with high-spired shells have historically been included in the genus Melania, an objective junior synonym of the genus Thiara.

<==Thiaridae [Melaniidae]
    |--Stomatopsis Stache 1871 BR05 [Stomatopsidae, Stomatopsinae BR17]
    |    `--*S. cosinensis Stache 1871 BR17
    `--Thiarinae BR17
         |--Melanoides BR17
         `--Thiara Röding 1798 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
              |  i. s.: ‘Melania’ abbreviata Defrance 1823 F27
              |         ‘Melania’ abendanoni B50
              |         ‘Melania’ bulbosa C64
              |         ‘Melania’ corporosa [=M. (Striatella) corporosa] PB27
              |         ‘Melania’ decollata Reeve 1859 PB27
              |         ‘Melania’ ebenina PB27
              |         ‘Melania’ exigua C64
              |         ‘Melania’ fasciolata F66
              |         ‘Melania’ ferrea Reeve 1859 PB27
              |         ‘Melania’ gemmifera B50
              |         ‘Melania’ hongkongensis PB27
              |         ‘Melania’ insulaesacrae B50
              |         ‘Melania’ lalemae B50
              |         ‘Melania’ lateritia F66
              |         ‘Melania’ mahalonensis B50
              |         ‘Melania’ mahalonica B50
              |         ‘Melania’ masapensis B50
              |         ‘Melania’ maurula Reeve 1859 PB27
              |         ‘Melania’ menkeana C64
              |         ‘Melania’ neglecta Anthony 1854 BC01
              |         ‘Melania’ newberryi C64
              |         ‘Melania’ nigrina Lea 1856 C64
              |         ‘Melania’ occata C64
              |         ‘Melania’ palicolarum B50
              |         ‘Melania’ pallidula Reeve 1860 [=M. pallens] PB27
              |         ‘Melania’ patriarchalis B50
              |         ‘Melania’ phlebotomum Reeve 1859 PB27
              |         ‘Melania’ plicifera [incl. M. silicula] C64
              |         ‘Melania’ sarasinorum B50
              |         ‘Melania’ scipio [incl. M. buschiana] C64
              |         ‘Melania’ semicancellata PB27
              |         ‘Melania’ shastaensis Lea 1856 [incl. M. shortaensis] C64
              |         ‘Melania’ tominangensis B50
              |         ‘Melania’ towutensis B50
              |         ‘Melania’ towutica B50
              |         ‘Melania’ wahlamatensis C64
              |         ‘Melania’ warderiana C64
              |--*T. (Thiara) amarula (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--T. a. amarula PB27
              |    `--‘Melania’ a. coacta [incl. M. crenularis v. Martens 1860, Tiara vouamica Bourguignat 1889] PB27
              `--‘Melania’ (Tarebia) lirata Benson 1836 [incl. M. flavida, M. semigranosa] TC89

Thiaridae incertae sedis:
  Goniobasis Lea 1862 W77
    |--G. depygis W79
    |--G. laqueta W78
    |--G. livescens W79
    |--G. milesii W79
    |--G. nebrascensis Meek & Hayden 1856 W77
    |--G. proxima D84
    |--G. pulchella W79
    |--G. tenera (Hall 1845) [=Cerithium tenerum] W77
    |--G. tenuicarinata (Meek & Hayden 1857) [=Melania tenuicarinata] W77
    `--G. virginica W79
  Carbonispira Yen 1949 TTE93, KC60
    `--*C. scotica Yen 1949 KC60
  Horea Bourguignat 1888 PB27
    `--‘Melania’ tanganyicensis Smith 1880 [incl. *Horea tanganikana Bourguignat 1888] PB27
  *Antimelania variabilis [=Melania variabilis] PB27
  Juramelanoides Bandel 1991 B91
    `--*J. villersense (de Loriol 1865) [=Cerithium villersense] B91
  Lavansia Bandel 1991 B91
    `--*L. mojonia Bandel 1991 B91

Thiara Röding 1798 BR05 [=Amarula Sowerby 1842 PB27, Hydrognoma Gistel 1848 PB27, Lithoparches Gistel 1848 PB27, Melacantha Swainson 1840 PB27, Melania Lamarck 1799 BR05, Melanidia Rafinesque 1815 PB27, Spirilla Humph. in Gray 1847 PB27, Tiara Hermannsen 1849 PB27; incl. Melas Denys de Montfort 1810 PB27; Melaniacea, Melaniana, Melanianae, Thiareae, Thiarinae, Tiarinae] BR05

*Thiara (Thiara) amarula (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Helix amarula BR17, *Amarula amarula PB27, *Hydrognoma amarula PB27, *Lithoparches amarula PB27, *Melacantha amarula PB27, *Melania amarula BR17, *Melanidia amarula PB27, *Spirilla amarula PB27, *Tiara amarula PB27; incl. *Melas melanus Denys de Montfort 1810 PB27]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B91] Bandel, K. 1991. Gastropods from brackish and fresh water of the Jurassic–Cretaceous transition (a systematic reevaluation). Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe A 134: 9–55.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[B50] Brooks, J. L. 1950. Speciation in ancient lakes (concluded). Quarterly Review of Biology 25: 131–176.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[D84] Dillon, R. T., Jr. 1984. Geographic distance, environmental difference, and divergence between isolated populations. Systematic Zoology 33 (1): 69–82.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W79] Walker, B. 1879. Catalogue of the shell-bearing Mollusca of Michigan. Journal of Conchology 2: 325–337.

[W78] West, D. L. 1978. Reproductive biology of Colus stimpsoni (Prosobranchia: Buccinidae). I. Male genital system. Veliger 20 (3): 266–273.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

Last updated: 18 May 2021.

Sactorthoceratidae


Various views of the ascocerid Choanoceras mutabile, possibly the most obscene cephalopod ever. Figure from Furnish & Glenister (1964).


Belongs within: Michelinoceratida.

The Middle Ordovician to Upper Silurian sactorthoceratid lineage includes the paraphyletic Sactorthoceratidae, Clinoceratidae and Ascocerida. The Sactorthoceratidae and Clinoceratidae were orthoconic or cyrtoconic longicones without endosiphuncular or cameral deposits (Sweet 1964). Septal necks were orthochoanitic or suborthochoanitic in Sactorthoceratidae and Ascocerida, cyrtochoanitic in Clinoceratidae (Furnish & Glenister 1964, Sweet 1964). Ascocerids were distinguished by inflated siphuncles and the periodic shedding of the apical parts of the conch; in the Ascoceratidae, the adoral portion of the conch became greatly swollen, followed by shedding of the juvenile section of the conch to produce a breviconic adult form (Furnish & Glenister 1964).

See also: The floating egg.

<==Sactorthoceratidae
    |--Sactorthoceras Kobayashi 1934 [incl. Sigmorthoceras Kobayashi 1934] S64
    |    `--*S. gonioseptum Kobayashi 1934 S64
    |--Sigmocycloceras Kobayashi 1934 S64
    |    `--*S. kogenense (Kobayashi 1927) [=Protocycloceras kogenense] S64
    `--+--Centroonoceras Kobayashi 1934 [incl. Cyrtoonoceras Flower 1939] S64
       |    `--*C. tokunagai (Kobayashi 1927) [=Ooceras tokunagai] S64
       `--+--Clinoceratidae S64
          |    |--Whiteavesites Foerste 1929 S64
          |    |    `--*W. winnipegense (Whiteaves 1892) [=Orthoceras winnipegense] S64
          |    |--Clinoceras Mascke 1876 [=Clynoceras (l. c.)] S64
          |    |    |--*C. dens Mascke 1876 S64
          |    |    `--C. exiguum P68
          |    `--Whitfieldoceras Foerste 1932 S64
          |         |--*W. mumiaeforme (Whitfield 1882) [=Oncoceras mumiaeforme] S64
          |         |--W. baffinense Foerste 1932 P68
          |         |--W. minimum Foerste 1935 P68
          |         `--W. trentonense Foerste 1932 P68
          `--Ascocerida [Ascoceracea, Ascoceratina, Ascoceratida, Ecdyceratida, Mixochoanites] S64
               |--Choanoceras Lindström 1890 (see below for synonymy) FG64
               |    `--*C. mutabile Lindström 1890 FG64
               |--Hebetoceratidae FG64
               |    |--Hebetoceras Flower 1941 FG64
               |    |    `--*H. mirandum Flower 1941 FG64
               |    |--Ecdyceras Flower 1941 [incl. Pachecdyceras Flower 1947] FG64
               |    |    `--*E. sinuiferum Flower 1941 FG64
               |    `--Montyoceras Flower 1941 FG64
               |         `--*M. arcuatum Flower 1941 FG64
               `--Ascoceratidae [Ascocératides] FG64
                    |--Probillingsitinae FG64
                    |    |--Shamattawaceras Foerste & Savage 1927 FG64
                    |    |    `--*S. ascoceroides Foerste & Savage 1927 FG64
                    |    `--Probillingsites Foerste 1928 FG64
                    |         |--*P. welleri Foerste 1928 FG64
                    |         |--P. belli Miller, Youngquist & Collinson 1954 P68
                    |         |--P. milleri Foerste 1935 P68
                    |         |--P. pronis FG64
                    |         `--P. sutherlandi FG64
                    `--Ascoceratinae [Schuchertoceratidae] FG64
                         |--Aphragmites Barrande 1865 FG64
                         |    `--*A. buchi (Barrande 1855) [=Ascoceras buchi] FG64
                         |--Lindstroemoceras Miller 1932 FG64
                         |    `--*L. dolium (Lindström 1890) [=Ascoceras dolium] FG64
                         |--Glossoceras Barrande 1865 FG64
                         |    |--*G. gracile (Barrande 1865) [=Ascoceras (*Glossoceras) gracile] FG64
                         |    `--G. lindstroemi FG64
                         |--Billingsites Hyatt 1884 [=Billingoceras (l. c.)] FG64
                         |    |--*B. canadensis (Billings 1857) [=Ascoceras canadense] FG64
                         |    |--B. landerensis Foerste 1835 P68
                         |    `--B. williamsportensis Foerste 1924 P68
                         |--Schuchertoceras Miller 1932 FG64
                         |    |--*S. anticostiense (Billings 1866) [=Ascoceras anticostiense] FG64
                         |    |--S. newberryi FG64
                         |    `--S. thomasi [=S. iowaense] FG64
                         |--Ascoceras Barrande 1847 (see below for synonymy) FG64
                         |    |--*A. bohemicum Barrande 1855 FG64
                         |    |--A. collare FG64
                         |    |--A. lagena FG64
                         |    `--A. manubrium FG64
                         `--Parascoceras Miller 1932 [incl. Pseudascoceras Miller 1932, Pseudoscoceras (l. c.)] FG64
                              |--*P. fistula (Lindström 1890) [=Ascoceras fistula] FG64
                              |--P. decipiens FG64
                              |--P. pupa FG64
                              `--P. sipho FG64

Ascoceras Barrande 1847 [=Asoceras (l. c.), Cryptoceras Barrande 1846 (n. n.) non Latreille 1804] FG64

Choanoceras Lindström 1890 [=Choaniceras Lindström 1888 (n. n.), Choniceras (l. c.), Coanoceras (l. c.); Choanoceratidae] FG64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FG64] Furnish, W. M., & B. F. Glenister. 1964. Nautiloidea – Ascocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K261-K277. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1-198.

[S64] Sweet, W. C. 1964. Nautiloidea – Orthocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K216-K261. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

Michelinoceratida


Specimen of Dawsonoceras annulatum, from here.


Belongs within: Cephalopoda.
Contains: Pseudorthoceratidae, Proteoceratidae, Troedssonellidae, Sactorthoceratidae, Orthoceratidae, Paraphragmitidae, Geisonoceratidae.

The Michelinoceratida or Orthocerida were a Lower Ordovician to Upper Triassic assemblage of orthoconic or cyrtoconic cephalopods. This is perhaps the most systematically difficult group of fossil cephalopods and may be polyphyletic, with recent authors suggesting that some families (particularly the Pseudorthoceratidae) should be removed from the order.

Characters (from Sweet 1964): Conchs straight to curved (never coiled), smooth or elaborately ornamented; cameral deposits typically well developed; siphuncles with orthochoanitic or secondarily cyrtochoanitic septal necks and thin connecting rings, empty or occupied by parietal or annulosiphonate deposits.

<==Michelinoceratida (see below for synonymy)
    |--Pseudorthocerataceae S64
    |    |--Pseudorthoceratidae S64
    |    |--Proteoceratidae S64
    |    |--Mysterioceras Teichert & Glenister 1953 [Mysterioceratidae] S64
    |    |    `--*M. australe Teichert & Glenister 1953 S64
    |    `--Stereoplasmoceras Grabau 1922 [incl. Stereoplasmocerina Kobayashi 1936; Stereoplasmoceratidae] S64
    |         |--*S. pseudoseptatum Grabau 1922 S64
    |         |--S. approximatum S64
    |         |--S. liaotungense D82
    |         |--S. longicameratum S64
    |         `--S. tofangoense S64
    `--Orthocerataceae [Orthocerocea, Orthocerotoidea] S64
         |  i. s.: Sphooceras Flower 1962 [Sphooceratidae] S64
         |           `--*S. truncatum (Barrande 1868) [=Orthoceras truncatum] S64
         |         Brachycycloceras Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 [Brachycycloceratidae] S64
         |           |--*B. normale Miller, Dunbar & Condra 1933 S64
         |           |--B. bransoni S64
         |           `--B. curtum S64
         |         Troedssonellidae S64
         |         Dawsonoceratidae S64
         |           |--Dawsonocerina Horný 1956 S64
         |           |    `--*D. omega (Barrande 1868) [=Orthoceras dulce var. omega] S64
         |           `--Dawsonoceras Hyatt 1884 [incl. Cedarvilleoceras Shimizu & Obata 1935] S64
         |                |--*D. annulatum (Sowerby 1818) [=Orthocera annulata] S64
         |                |--D. americanum P68
         |                |--D. hammelli (Foerste 1910) [=Orthoceras (Dawsonoceras) hammelli] P68
         |                |--D. nodocostatum P68
         |                `--D. perelegans [=Orthoceras (Dawsonoceras) perelegans] P68
         |         Offleyoceras Foerste 1928 [Offleyoceratidae] S64
         |           `--*O. arcticum (Foord 1888) [=Orthoceras arcticum] S64
         |--Sactorthoceratidae S64
         `--+--Orthoceratidae S64
            |--Paraphragmitidae S64
            |--Geisonoceratidae S64
            `--Lamellorthoceratidae S64
                 |--Gorgonoceras Zhuravleva 1961 S64
                 |    `--*G. visendum Zhuravleva 1961 S64
                 |--Lamellorthoceras Termier & Termier 1950 (see below for synonymy) S64
                 |    |--*L. vermiculare Termier & Termier 1950 S64
                 |    `--L. gracile S64
                 `--Arthrophyllum Beyrich 1850 S64
                      |--*A. crassum (Roemer 1843) [=Orthoceratites crassus] S64
                      `--A. kahlebergense S64

Michelinoceratida incertae sedis:
  Chicagooceras Foerste & Savage 1927 S64
    `--*C. welleri Foerste & Savage 1927 S64
  Cycloceras M’Coy 1844 [=Cycoceras (l. c.); incl. Perigrammoceras Foerste 1924; Cycloceratidae] S64
    |--*C. annulare (Fleming 1815) [=Orthocera annularis] S64
    |--C. amycus [=Orthoceras (Cycloceras) amycus] P68
    |--C. annulatum [=Orthoceras (Cycloceras) annulatum] P68
    |--C. aokii Endo 1932 P68
    |--C. austini Foerste 1928 P68
    |--C. ballianum Girty 1909 P68
    |--C. inceptum P68
    |--C. junciforme Foerste 1928 P68
    |--C. laevigatum (Foord 1897) [=Orthoceras laevigatum, *Perigrammoceras laevigatum] S64
    |--C. louderbacki Endo 1932 P68
    |--C. manchuriense Endo 1932 P68
    |--C. marginale Endo 1932 P68
    |--C. novacarlislensis (Foerste 1890) [=Orthoceras (Cycloceras) novacarlislensis] P68
    |--C. peitoutzense P68
    `--C. shensiense Endo 1932 P68
  Dictyoceras Eichwald 1860 S64
    `--*D. porosum (Eichwald 1857) [=Orthoceras porosum] S64
  Donacoceras Foerste 1925 S64
    `--*D. timiskamingense Foerste 1925 S64
  Garryoceras Foerste 1928 S64
    `--*G. semiplanatum (Whiteaves 1892) [=Orthoceras semiplanatum] S64
  Heloceras Eichwald 1860 S64
    `--*H. tuberculatum Eichwald 1860 S64
  Loxoceras M’Coy 1844 [=Breynioceras Foerste 1929; Loxoceratidae] S64
    |--*L. breyni (Fleming 1828) [=Orthocera breyni, *Breynioceras breyni] S64
    |--L. husseyi Foerste 1923 P68
    `--L. milleri (Foerste 1910) [=Orthoceras (Loxoceras) milleri] P68
  ‘Molossus’ deMontfort 1808 non Geoffroy 1805 S64
    `--*M. gracilis (Blumenbach 1803) [=Orthoceratites gracilis] S64
  Neorthoceras Shimizu & Obata 1936 S64
    `--*N. verbeeki (Haniel 1915) [=Orthoceras verbeeki] S64
  Protobactrites Hyatt in Zittel 1900 [=Protobactolites (l. c.)] S64
    `--*P. styloideum (Barrande 1866) [=Orthoceras styloideum] S64
  Sannionites Fischer de Waldheim 1829 S64
    `--*S. crepitaculum Fischer de Waldheim 1829 S64
  Subspyroceras Shimizu & Obata 1935 S64
    `--*S. middlevillense (Foerste 1928) [=Spyroceras middlevillense] S64
  Tienoceras Chao 1954 S64
    `--*T. lenticulare Chao 1954 S64
  Tretoceras Salter 1858 [=Diploceras Salter 1856 non Conrad 1842, Tritoceras (l. c.)] S64
    `--*T. bisiphonatum (Sowerby in Murchison 1839) (see below for synonymy) S64

Lamellorthoceras Termier & Termier 1950 [=Lamelloceras (l. c.); incl. Coralloceras Zhuravleva 1962] S64

Michelinoceratida [Michelinoceratina, Michelinoceroida, Orthoceracea, Orthoceratida, Orthocerida, Orthocerotida, Sinoceratida]

*Tretoceras bisiphonatum (Sowerby in Murchison 1839) [=Orthoceras bisiphonatum, *Diploceras bisiphonatum] S64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D82] Dong D.-Y. 1982. Lower Ordovician stromatoporoids of northern Anhui. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 21 (5): 577-583.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1-198.

[S64] Sweet, W. C. 1964. Nautiloidea – Orthocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K216-K261. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

Baltoceratidae


Ventral, dorsal and septal views of Murrayoceras murrayi. Figures from Furnish & Glenister (1964).


Belongs within: Cephalopoda.

The Lower to Middle Ordovician Baltoceratidae were a family of relatively large orthoconic early cephalopods.

Characters (from Furnish & Glenister 1964): Smooth, longiconic orthocones with moderately large marginal siphuncle, orthochoanitic septal necks and thin homogenous connecting rings.

<==Baltoceratidae [Cochlioceratidae]
    |--Bactroceras Holm 1898 FG64
    |    `--*B. avus Holm 1898 FG64
    |--Murrayoceras Foerste 1926 FG64
    |    `--*M. murrayi (Billings 1857) [=Orthoceras murrayi] FG64
    |--Ogygoceras Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1944 FG64
    |    `--*O. gracile Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1944 FG64
    |--Cochlioceras Eichwald 1860 [incl. Baltoceras Holm 1897, Protobaltoceras Troedsson 1937] FG64
    |    |--*C. avus (Eichwald 1857) [=Orthoceras avus] FG64
    |    `--C. burchardii FG64 [=Baltoceras burchardi S64]
    `--Pachendoceras Ulrich & Foerste 1936 FG64
         |--*P. huzzahense (Ulrich & Foerste in Bridge 1931) [=Cameroceras huzzahense] FG64
         |--P. confertum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1944 P68
         |--P. newportense Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1944 P68
         `--P. tardum Ulrich, Foerste et al. 1944 P68

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FG64] Furnish, W. M., & B. F. Glenister. 1964. Nautiloidea - Ellesmerocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K129-K159. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1-198.

[S64] Sweet, W. C. 1964. Nautiloidea – Orthocerida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. K. Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K216-K261. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

Cephalopoda

Cross-section of Archendoceras conipartitum, from Holland (1987).


Belongs within: Mollusca.
Contains: Hadrocheilus, Plectronoceratidae, Multiceratoidea, Baltoceratidae, Angusteradulata, Barrandeocerida, Nautilida.

The Cephalopoda are a class of molluscs first known from the Late Cambrian; among modern taxa, cephalopods include the shelled Nautilidae and the Coleoidea (squids, cuttlefish, octopods) that lack an external shell. Traditionally, the cephalopods have been divided between three subclasses, the Nautiloidea, Ammonoidea and Coleoidea, but the Nautiloidea in the broad sense are paraphyletic with regard to the other two groups.

The earliest cephalopods are known from the Upper Cambrian and had straight to slightly curved shells with tightly packed septa; these stem representatives may not yet have adopted the nektonic lifestyles of crown cephalopods. An alternative structure for cephalopod evolution was proposed by Smith & Caron (2010), who interpreted the Early to Middle Cambrian Nectocarididae as early cephalopods and suggested that the first cephalopods may have lacked a shell (see links below for comments on why this may be unlikely).

See also: How to be straight; Open query—what are cephalopod shells for?; Nectocaris: largely irrelevant to cephalopods?; So nice when people agree with you.

Characters (from Sweet 1964): Ancestrally with a shell divided into chambers by transverse septa; chambers connected by a tubular siphuncle piercing the septa; shell originally conical and more or less straight but becoming elongate and coiled in many lineages. In those species for which soft anatomy is known, body is elongate with an anterior head and posterior ventral mass; mouth with a parrot-like beak and surrounded by an array of tentacles or arms; ancestral molluscan foot modified into a muscular hyponome (siphon) used to eject water from the mantle cavity and so provide propulsion. Digestive system looped so that mouth and anus are both more or less anterior.

<==Cephalopoda [Ellesmerocerida, Ellipochoanoida, Microchoanites, Nautiloidea, Octopodia, Tetrabranchiata]
    |--Protactinoceras [Protactinoceratida] H87
    |    `--P. magnitubulum H87
    |--+--Archendoceras [Yanhecerida] H87
    |  |    `--A. conipartitum H87
    |  `--Plectronoceratida H87
    |       |  i. s.: Lunanoceras precordium H87
    |       `--Plectronoceratidae H87
    `--+--Multiceratoidea M13
       `--+--Baltoceratidae STK64
          `--+--Angusteradulata STK64
             `--+--Barrandeocerida KVF11
                `--Nautilida KVF11

Cephalopoda incertae sedis:
  Pseudogrammoceras DC01
  Esericeras DC01
  Pleydellia subcompta DC01
  Phoenixites frechi GR97
  Holzapfeloceras D02
    |--*H. convolutum (Holzapfel 1895) D02
    `--H. croyi House 1978 D02
  Werneroceras D02
  Gomiprotomeroceras (nom. inv.) D02
    `--G. acutum Sobolew 1914 D02
  Wedekindella brilonensis (Kayser 1872) D02
  Pseudoprobeloceras polonicum (Sobolew 1914) D02
  Archoceras D02
    |--A. tataense Bensaïd 1974 D02
    `--A. varicosum (Drevermann 1901) D02
  Acanthoclymenia genundewa (Clarke 1898) D02
  Linguatornoceras [incl. Truyolsoceras] D02
    |--L. clausum (Glenister 1958) D02
    |--L. compressum (Clarke 1899) D02
    `--‘Truyolsoceras’ undulatum (Sandberger & Sandberger 1856) D02
  Crassotornoceras belgicum (Matern 1931) D02
  Siemiradzkia P87
  Parachondroceras filicostatum Imlay 1967 P87
  Talkeetnites Imlay 1980 P87
  Longaeviceras P87
  Chamoussetia P87
  Xenocephalites [incl. Cadoceras (Oligocadoceras Meledina 1977)] P87
    |--‘Arcticoceras’ crassicostatum P87
    `--‘Arcticoceras’ loveanum P87
  Goniocamax lundgreni S98
  Talenticeras TC71
  Mimosphinctes TC71
  Miklukhoceras pamiricum Pavlov 1967 ZL04
  Schreyerites binodosus (Hauer 1851) SC04
  Paraceratites SC04
    |--P. binodosus Ku79
    |--P. brembanus (Mojsisovics 1882) SC04
    `--P. trinodosus (Mojsisovics 1882) SC04
  Synpharciceras clavilobum (Sandberger & Sandberger 1850) KK02
  Acrimeroceras falcisulcatum Becker 1993 KK02
  Clistoceras globosum Nassichuk 1967 KK02
  Nathorstites maconnelli (Whiteaves 1889) KK02
  Mayaites (Araucanites) stipanicici Westermann & Riccardi 1975 KK02
  Hibolithes E01
    |--H. catlinensis E01
    |--H. joleaudi Ka79
    `--H. pistilliformis Ka79
  Hedstroemoceras Foerste 1930 T64
    `--*H. haelluddenense Foerste 1930 T64
  Rhyncolite Biguet 1819 (see below for synonymy) TMNZ64
    |--*R. hirundo Biguet 1819 [=*Rhombocheilus hirundo, *Rhyncholithes hirundo] TMNZ64
    |--‘Rhyncholitus’ (l. c.) duplicatus Münster 1829 TMNZ64
    |--‘Rhyncolites’ gigantea d’Orbigny 1825 [=*Longocapuchones gigantea, Rhyncholithes giganteus] TMNZ64
    |--R. larus Biguet 1819 TMNZ64
    `--R. mouette Biguet 1819 TMNZ64
  Conchorhynchus de Blainville 1827 [=Conchorchynchus (l. c.), Onchorhynchus (l. c.)] TMNZ64
    `--C. avirostris (von Schlotheim 1820) (see below for synonymy) TMNZ64
  Tillicheilus Shimanskiy 1947 [incl. Unguibeccus Shimanskiy 1949 (n. n.)] TMNZ64
    |--*T. obtusus (Till 1906) [=Rhyncholithes obtusus] TMNZ64
    `--T. sella TMNZ64
  Rhynchoteuthis d’Orbigny 1847 [=Rhynchotenthis (l. c.), Rhynchotheutis Till 1906] TMNZ64
    |--*R. astierianus d’Orbigny 1847 TMNZ64
    |--R. kaibabensis TMNZ64
    `--R. sonii TMNZ64
  Hadrocheilus TMNZ64
  Palaeoteuthis d’Orbigny 1849 [=Palaeotheutis Till 1906] TMNZ64
    `--*P. honoratianus d’Orbigny 1850 TMNZ64
  Scaptorrhynchus Bellardi 1871 [=Scaptorhynchus (l. c.)] TMNZ64
    `--*S. miocenicus Bellardi 1873 TMNZ64
  Leptocheilus Till 1907 TMNZ64
    |--L. (Leptocheilus) TMNZ64
    |    |--*L. (L.) geyeri Till 1907 TMNZ64
    |    `--L. (L.) excavatus TMNZ64
    `--L. (Mesocheilus Till 1909) TMNZ64
         `--L. (*M.) proceroides (Till 1909) [=*Mesocheilus proceroides] TMNZ64
  Akidocheilus Till 1907 TMNZ64
    |--A. (Akidocheilus) TMNZ64
    |    |--*A. (A.) ambiguus Till 1907 TMNZ64
    |    `--A. (A.) tauricus TMNZ64
    `--A. (Planecarpula Shimanskiy 1947) TMNZ64
         `--A. (*P.) infirus Shimanskiy 1947 TMNZ64
  Gonatocheilus Till 1907 TMNZ64
    `--*G. brunneri (Ooster 1857) [=Rhynchoteuthis brunneri] TMNZ64
  Erlangericheilus Shimanskiy 1947 TMNZ64
    `--*E. insignis Shimanskiy 1947 TMNZ64
  Neptunoceratidae T64
    |--Neptunoceras Shimanskiy 1949 T64
    |    `--*N. sakmarense Shimanskiy 1949 T64
    `--Tetrapleuroceras Shimanskiy 1949 T64
         `--*T. karpinskyi Shimanskiy 1949 T64
  Dartoceras Foerste 1936 T64
    `--*D. nodosum Foerste 1936 T64
  Achelois de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) T64
    `--*A. pyramidatum de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) T64
  Amblyceras Glockner 1842 (n. d.) T64
    `--*A. rittbergense Glockner 1842 (n. d.) T64
  Bisiphites de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) T64
  Curvites Petter 1959 (n. d.) T64
  Deltoceras Hyatt 1894 (n. d.) T64
    `--*D. planum Hyatt 1894 (n. d.) T64
  Diadiploceras Hyatt 1884 (n. d.) T64
    `--D. inopinatum [=Discoceras inopinatum] H84
  Gyrocerus King 1844 (n. d.) T64
  Koleoceras Portlock 1843 (n. d.) [=Coleoceras (l. c.)] T64
  Nautilites Pallas 1771 (n. d.) T64
    `--*N. complanatus Pallas 1771 (n. d.) T64
  Oceanus de Montfort 1808 (n. d.) T64
    `--*O. flammeus de Montfort (n. d.) T64
  Parksoceras Foerste & Savage 1927 (n. d.) T64
    `--*P. lepidodendroides (Parks 1915) [=Orthoceras (Thoracoceras) lepidodendroides] T64
  Pteronautilus Meek in Meek & Hayden 1865 (n. d.) T64
    `--*P. seebachianus (Geinitz 1861) (n. d.) [=Nautilus seebachianus] T64
  Schoulgoceras Shimanskiy 1951 (n. d.) T64
  Ungeroceras Sturgeon & Miller 1948 (n. d.) T64
    `--*U. ungeri Sturgeon & Miller 1948 (n. d.) T64
  Gasconoceras P68
    |--G. obesum Foerste 1936 P68
    `--G. planiventrum Foerste 1936 P68
  ‘Rhenopterus’ maccarthyi (Kjellesvig-Waering 1934) TB04
  Aulacosphinctes H79
    |--A. hollandi H79
    `--A. reedi SY85
  Micracanthoceras micracanthus H79
  Nectocarididae SC10
    |--Nectocaris Conway Morris 1976 EL11, W96
    |    `--N. pteryx Conway Morris 1976 D95
    |--Petalilium [=Petalium (l. c.)] SC10
    |    `--P. latus SC10
    `--Vetustovermis planus SC10
  Loxendoceras Collins 1967 EK12
  Paradakeoceras minor Flower 1964 EK12

Nomen nudum: Diadiploceras quadratum Hyatt 1883 H84

Conchorhynchus avirostris (von Schlotheim 1820) [=Lepadites avirostris; incl. *C. ornatus de Blainville 1827, Rhyncolites gaillardoti d’Orbigny 1825, Rhyncholites gaillardoti, Sepia gaillardoti] TMNZ64
Rhyncolite Biguet 1819 [=Nautilorhynchus Frič 1910, Rhombocheilus Shimanskiy 1947, Rhyncholites Zieten 1830, Rhyncholithes de Blainville 1827, Rhyncholithus Bronn 1853, Rhyncholitus (l. c.), Rhyncolites d’Orbigny 1825, Rhyncholythes (l. c.); incl. Longocapuchones Shimanskiy 1947] TMNZ64

*Type species of generic name indicated

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