Microtrombidium

Microtrombidium pusillum, from here.


Belongs within: Microtrombidiidae.

Microtrombidium is a cosmopolitan genus of predatory mites, primarily recognised from adults with the larva of M. nitidum only described in 1994. Though numerous species have been assigned to the genus historically, the position of many requires further assessment (Southcott 1994).

Characters (from Southcott 1994): Adult/deutonymph with idiosoma with more or less uniform pelage of strongly setulose setae, unexpanded, unchambered, pointed or blunted; palpal tibia with odontus and paradont, and one or more dorsomedial ctenidia; legs I and IV longer than II and III, and not greatly longer than idiosomal length. Larva with anterior dorsal scutum with six scutalae and two sensillary setae; posterior dorsal scutum with two scutalae; both scuta porose, without striations or special markings; anterior dorsal scutum with posterolateral border emarginate, accomodating well-developed eye shields; anterior eye significantly larger than posterior; at least some of dorsal idiosomal setae posterior to posterior dorsal scutum with well-developed basal plates; two ventral intercoxalae between coxae III; coxalae 2, 1, 1, formula bN, b, N; two solenotibialae at about middle of tibia I; Tarsal claws 2, 2, 3 (deformed); tarsus III abbreviated, not truncate; hypostomala pointed, not digitate.

<==Microtrombidium Haller 1882 [=Microthrombidium Oudemans 1912; incl. Enemothrombium André 1924] S94
    |--M. pusillum (Hermann 1804) S94 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--M. p. pusillum SB63
    |    `--M. p. botschi Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |--M. affine Hirst 1928 S94
    |--M. aquarium Schweizer 1951 SB63
    |--M. arborealis Boshell & Kerr 1942 M46
    |--M. barringunense Hirst 1928 H98
    |--M. basiliense Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |--M. berlesei Schweizer 1922 S22
    |--M. bifoliosum (Canestrini 1884) S22, SB63 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Trombidium’ bipectinatum [=Enemothrombium bipectinatum] O28
    |--M. bispinum Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |--M. confusum Berlese 1910 [=Enemothrombium confusum] SB63
    |--M. cooki DPD16
    |--M. danbyi WL09
    |--M. densipapillum Berlese 1910 [=M. (Enemothrombium) densipapillum] SB63
    |--M. distinctum (Canestrini 1897) [=Ottonia distincta, Camerothrombium distinctum, Enemothrombium distinctum] S76
    |--M. duartei M46
    |--‘Enemothrombium’ folliculum Schweizer 1951 SB63
    |--M. furcipilis (Canestrini 1898) [=Ottonia furcipilis, Microthrombidium furcipilis, Microtrombidium furcipile] H98
    |--‘Enemothrombium’ gambiense Womersley 1942 H98
    |--M. geographicum S22
    |--M. goodenoughense S94
    |--M. hirsutum Womersley 1945 S61
    |--M. jabanicum Berlese 1910 [=M. pusillum var. jabanicum] S76
    |--M. karriense Womersley 1934 [=M. karriensis, Elahistothrombium karriense] H98
    |--‘Enemothrombium’ langhofferi S51
    |--M. littorale M46
    |--M. maculatum Womersley 1942 H98
    |--M. medium Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |--M. myloriense Womersley 1937 H98
    |--M. newmani Womersley 1934 H98
    |--M. nitidum Southcott 1994 S94
    |--M. parvum Oudemans 1913 SB63
    |--M. quadrispinum Berlese 1910 SB63
    |--M. raeticum Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |--M. soperi M46
    |--M. stimulans M46
    |--M. subferociforme Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |--M. subrasum (Berlese 1910) [=M. (Enemothrombium) subrasum] SB63
    |--M. tasmanicum Womersley 1937 H98
    |--M. tenuipalpe Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |--M. triangulum Howard 1919 S94
    |--M. tredecimmaculatum M46
    |--M. welleslyi WL09
    `--M. wellingtonense Womersley 1945 S94

Microtrombidium bifoliosum (Canestrini 1884) S22, SB63 [=Trombidium bifoliosum SB63, *Enemothrombium bifoliosum SB63; incl. Trombidium sanguineum S51]

Microtrombidium pusillum (Hermann 1804) S94 [=Trombidium pusillum S94, Ottonia pusilla TU33; incl. M. pusillum var. balzani S22, M. pusillum var. columbianum S22, M. pusillum var. minor Schweizer 1922 S94, T. purpureum Haller 1882 non Trombidium purpureum Koch 1837 SB63, *M. purpureum S94]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DPD16] Dabert, M., H. Proctor & J. Dabert. 2016. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 75–90.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[M46] Michener, C. D. 1946. The taxonomy and bionomics of some Panamanian trombidiid mites. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 39: 349–380.

[O28] Oudemans, A. C. 1928. Fauna Buruana. Acari. Treubia 7 (Suppl. 2): 37–100.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S51] Schweizer, J. 1951. Die Landmilben des schweizerischen Nationalparkes. 2. Teil: Trombidiformes. Ergebnisse der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung des schweizerischen Nationalparks [Résultats des recherches scientifiques entreprises au Parc National Suisse] 3 (Neue Folge): 51–172.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S76] Shiba, M. 1976. Taxonomic investigation on free-living Prostigmata from the Malay Peninsula. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 7: 83–229.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1–155.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

Last updated: 24 April 2018.

Trombellidae

Trombella lusitanica, from Walter et al. (2009).


Belongs within: Trombidiae.

The Trombellidae are a group of large, often colourful mites found in forest litter whose larvae are parasitic on insects (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Adults with idionotum entirely surrounded by peripheral sclerotised band, or bearing 2-16 circular depressions with peripheral sclerotised bands, or with idionotal borne on raised papillae but lacking basal sclerites. Larvae with idionotum bearing unpaired prodorsal sclerite but lacking scutellum, setae c1 located on paired platelets; coxal plates smooth; urstigmata present between coxal plates I-II; femur I bearing 5-6 branched setae; femora II-III bearing multiple solenidia θ; pretarsus with empodium.

<==Trombellidae WL09
    |  i. s.: Taraxithrombium gordoni WL09
    |--Notothrombium Štorkán 1934 T35 [Notothrombiinae W91]
    |--Moyanella [Moyanellinae] WL09
    |    `--M. gigax WL09
    |--Spelaeothrombiinae W91
    |    |--Typhlothrombium Berlese 1910 WL09, T35
    |    |--Neotyphlothrombium WL09
    |    |--Paratyphlothrombium WL09
    |    `--Speothrombium monoculata Robaux 1972 WL09, DC91
    `--Trombellinae WL09
         |--Parachyzeria Hirst 1926 S61
         |--Atomus Latreille 1795 SB63
         |    `--*A. parasiticus (de Geer 1778) [=Acarus parasiticus] SB63
         |--Nothrotrombidium WL09
         |    |--N. otiorum WL09
         |    `--N. treati WL09
         |--Durenia WL09
         |    |--D. papuana WL09
         |    `--D. singaporensis WL09
         `--Trombella Berlese 1887 T35
              |--T. adelaideae Womersley 1939 H98
              |--T. alpha Southcott 1986 H98
              |--T. calabyi Southcott 1986 H98
              |--T. cucumifera Southcott 1986 H98
              |--T. fusiformis Southcott 1986 H98
              |--T. lusitanica WL09
              |--T. rugosa Southcott 1986 H98
              |--T. sternutor Southcott 1986 H98
              `--T. warregensis Hirst 1929 H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DC91] Daniel, M., V. Černý, J. Štěrba & J. de la Cruz. 1991. Morphological study of adults of trombiculid mites from Cuban hot caves. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 261–263. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[T35] Thor, S. 1935. Übersicht und Einteilung der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814 in Unterfamilien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 109 (5–6): 107–112.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[W91] Welbourn, W. C. 1991. Phylogenetic studies of the terrestrial Parasitengona. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 163–170. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Eustigmaeus

Eustigmaeus frigida, copyright D. E. Walter.


Belongs within: Raphignathoidea.

Eustigmaeus is a cosmopolitan genus of parasitic or bryophagous mites (Faraji et al. 2007).

Characters (from Faraji et al. 2007): Dorsum with 3 shields, prodorsal shield with 4 pairs of setae and usually one pair of eyes, opisthosomal shield with 6 pairs of setae and suranal shield with 2 pairs of setae; humeral setae c2 situated on triangular shields, displaced to a ventral or ventrolatral position; dorsal shield generally sculptured or ornamented; legs shorter than idiosoma; gnathosoma partly covered by overhanging prodorsum; palp 5-segmented, with a tridentate, terminal eupathidium; primary claw on palptibia well developed, with a smaller accessory claw at its base; chelicerae not joined together; venter with 2 or 4 endopodal shields which may be united or divided midventrally; aggenital area with 1 to 3 pairs setae and pseudoanal covers with 3 to 4 pairs of setae.

<==Eustigmaeus Berlese 1910 [incl. Ledermuelleria Oudemans 1923] FUB07
    |--*E. kermesinus (Koch 1841) [=Stigmaeus kermesinus] FUB07
    |--E. abseus Dogan 2005 FUB07
    |--E. anauniensis (Canestrini 1889) FUB07 (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. arcticus (Wood 1972) [=Ledermuelleria arctica; incl. E. mineus Barillo 1989] FUB07
    |--E. bali Dogan & Ayyildiz 2003 FUB03
    |--E. brevivestitus Kazmierski & Donczyk 2003 FUB07
    |--E. chilensis (Chaudhri 1965) FUB07
    |--E. clavatus (Canestrini & Fanzago 1876) [incl. Raphignathus sphagneti Hull 1918] FUB07
    |--E. collarti (Cooreman 1955) FUB07
    |--E. coronaria (Kuznetzov 1977) FUB07
    |--E. erciyesiensis Dogan, Ayyildiz & Fan 2003 FUB07
    |--E. erzincanensis Dogan 2005 FUB07
    |--E. erzurumensis Dogan 2005 FUB07
    |--E. etruscus (Berlese 1910) FUB07
    |--E. formosus Kazmierski & Donczyk 2003 FUB07
    |--E. frigida WL09
    |--E. ioanninensis Kapaxidi & Papadoulis 1999 FUB07
    |--E. jiangxiensis Hu, Chen & Huang 1996 FUB07
    |--E. johnstoni Zhang & Gerson 1995 FUB07
    |--E. kauaiensis S01
    |--E. longisetosus (Willmann 1956) FUB07
    |--E. microsegnis (Chaudhri 1965) FUB07
    |--E. mixta (Wood 1966) [=Ledermuelleria mixta] H98
    |--E. myrtea (Chaudhri 1965) FUB07
    |--E. nasrinae Khanjani & Ueckermann 2002 KU02
    |--E. ottavii (Berlese 1910) FUB07
    |--E. oudemansi (Thor 1930) FUB07
    |--‘Rhaphignathus’ patrius Berlese 1885 SB63 (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. philippica KU02
    |--E. pinnatus (Kuznetsov 1977) FUB07
    |--E. plumifer (Halbert 1923) FUB07
    |--E. pulchellus (Thor 1930) FUB07
    |--E. rhodomela (Koch 1841) [incl. E. fani Dogan 2005] FUB07
    |--E. schusteri (Summers & Price 1961) FUB07
    |--E. sculptus Dogan, Ayyildiz & Fan 2003 FUB07
    |--E. segnis (Koch 1836) FUB07 [=Caligonus segnis KU02, *Ledermuelleria segnis SB63]
    |--E. truncates (Halbert 1923) FUB07
    |--E. turcicus Dogan & Ayyildiz 2003 FUB07
    |--E. vacuus Dogan 2005 FUB07
    `--E. variolatus Barilo 1987 FUB07

Eustigmaeus anauniensis (Canestrini 1889) FUB07 [incl. E. granulosus Willmann 1951 FUB07, E. kentingensis Tseng 1982 FUB07, Raphignathus pectinatus Ewing 1917 FUB07, E. pectinatus KU02]

‘Rhaphignathus’ patrius Berlese 1885 SB63 [=Ledermuelleria patrius SB63; incl. Raphignathus patrius var. brevipalpe S22]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FUB07] Faraji, F., E. A. Ueckermann & F. Bakker. 2007. First record of Eustigmaeus jiangxiensis Hu, Chen and Huang (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from France with a key to the European species of Eustigmaeus Berlese, 1910. International Journal of Acarology 33 (2): 145–151.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[KU02] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2002. The stigmaeid mites of Iran (Acari: Stigmaeidae). International Journal of Acarology 28 (4): 317–339.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S01] Swift, S. F. 2001. The leg chaetotaxy of Caligonellidae (Prostigmata: Raphignathoidea). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 242–249. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

Pyemotoidea

Pyemotes tritici, copyright Eric Erbe.


Belongs within: Prostigmata.

The Pyemotoidea are a group of mites whose adult females, where their habits are known, are parasitoids on eggs and immature instars of insects (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Female gnathosoma capsulate, circular, oval, or somewhat elongate, visible or hidden from above, with 1-2 pairs of dorsal setae; palpi closely appressed, often weakly delineated or reduced; movable cheliceral digits usually strongly styletlike, partially retractile; pharynx muscular, undivided, usually prominent. Male gnathosoma similarly developed, though sometimes less robust than in female. Prodorsal shield of females with pair of anterolateral stigmnta and associated tracheae, and with 2-3 pairs of setiform setae and with or without a pair of anterolateral bothridia with capitate sensilla, the latter represented by normal scapular setae in males. Opisthosoma of females with first dorsal plate C entire, not expanded anteriorly over prodorsum. Adults with coxisternal plates I-II united medially, forming prominent prosternal apodeme; female coxisternal plates III-IV separated from each other medially by soft cuticle that bears a separate triangular sternal plate with a pair of setae, or united medially and not forming a poststernal apodeme; male coxisternal plates III-IV fused medially, with or without a poststernal apodeme. Female genital opening small, covered by consolidated aggenital plate; genital setae absent, 1 pair of aggenital setae present or absent. Males with plates C and D consolidated, and with caudal or ventrocaudal genital capsule formed by consolidated plates H, PS, Ag, with short sclerotized aedeagus flanked by a pair of blunt or hooked setigenous processes and surrounded by adhesive flange or disc. Females with legs I similar to or thicker than legs II-IV and with single claw sometimes enlarged for grasping; legs II-IV similar inform, each usually with paired claws and stalked empodium; trochanter IV subtriangular, similar to trochanters I-III. On adults, coxisternal plates I-II together with 1-4 pairs of setae; trochanters I-IV with or without a seta; femur I with 3-4 setae; genu I with 3 or usually 4 setae; genu II with 2-3 setae. Male legs IV stout, with a single sessile claw in Pyemotidae; similar in form to legs III, with pretarsus and symmetrically paired claws (if claws present on legs III) in Acarophenacidae; and unmodifed, but legs III with large, spurlike tarsal process in Resinacarus. With only one active postembryonic instar (the adult); larva and single nymphal instars inactive calyptostatic apoderms, except a free-living larval instar apparently present in Resinacarus.

<==Pyemotoidea WL09
    |--Caraboacarus Krzcal 1959 L86 [Caraboacaridae WL09]
    |--Resinacarus [Resinacaridae] WL09
    |    `--R. resinatus WL09
    |--Pyemotes Amerling 1862 H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. eccoptogasteri SB63
    |    |    |--P. e. eccoptogasteri SB63
    |    |    `--*P. e. pruni Amerling 1862 SB63
    |    |--P. alastoris (Froggatt 1894) [=Heteropus alastoris, Pediculoides alastoris] H98
    |    |--P. aradii [=Resinacarus aradii] WL09
    |    |--P. barbara WL09
    |    |--P. herfsi (Oudemans 1936) [=Pediculoides herfsi] H98
    |    |--P. parviscolyti WL09
    |    |--P. rhynchitinus (Debey 1849) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |    |--P. scolyti WL09
    |    |--P. tritici (LaGrèze-Fossat & Montagné 1851) [=Acarus tritici] H98
    |    `--P. ventricosus (Newport 1850) [=Heteropus ventricosus, Pediculoides ventricosus] SB63
    `--Acarophenacidae [Acarophenacinae] WL09
         |--Adactylidium beeri WL09
         |--Aethiophenax ipidarius WL09
         |--Paradactylidium WL09
         |--Aegiptophenax WL09
         |--Protophenax koteji WL09
         |--Paracarophenax WL09
         |    |--P. dermestidarium WL09
         |    |--P. dybasi WL09
         |    `--P. ipidarius L86
         `--Acarophenax Newstead & Duvall 1918 H98
              |--A. lukoschusi WL09
              |--A. mahunkai WP99
              |--A. rackae WL09
              `--A. tribolii Newstead & Duvall 1918 H98

Pyemotes Amerling 1862 H98 [incl. Heteropus Newport 1850 nec Beauvois 1805 nec Fitzinger 1826 nec Duméril & Bibron 1839 H98, Pediculoides Targioni-Tozzetti 1878 H98; Pediculoididae, Pyemotidae WL09]

Pyemotes rhynchitinus (Debey 1849) [=Dermaleichus rhynchitinus; incl. D. attelabrinus Debey 1849, Pyemotes attelabrinus] H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[L86] Lindquist, E. E. 1986. The world genera of Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmata): a morphological, phylogenetic, and systematic revision, with a reclassification of family-group taxa in the Heterostigmata. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 118 (S136): 1–517.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Potamogetonales

Aponogeton crispus, from Wikimedia.


Belongs within: Alismatanae.
Contains: Potamogetonaceae.

The Potamogetonales are a group of aquatic flowering plants found in marine or fresh water.

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980, as Potamogetonales + Apogetonales): Fresh-water or marine rhizomatous perennials. Leaves linear to orbicular or oblong, sheathing at base; sheath often ligule-like above. Flowers small, bisexual or unisexual, flowers in spikes or solitary, ebracteate. Perianth-segments 1–4 or 0. Stamens 1–6. Carpels 1–6.

<==Potamogetonales
    |--Cymodoceaceae [Cymodoceales] HL09
    |    |--Thalassodendron Hartog 1970 HL09
    |    |    `--T. ciliatum (Forsskål) Hartog 1970 [=Zostera ciliata Forsskål 1775] HL09
    |    `--Cymodocea DS04
    |         |--C. nodosa GFW98
    |         `--C. serrulata DS04
    `--+--+--Potamogetonaceae DS04
       |  `--Ruppia Linnaeus 1753 ME70 [Ruppiaceae HE80]
       |       |--R. maritima Y98
       |       |    |--R. m. var. maritima C06
       |       |    `--R. m. var. rostellata C06
       |       |--R. megacarpa Mason 1967 ME70
       |       |--R. polycarpa Mason 1967 ME70
       |       |--R. spiralis CS77
       |       `--R. tuberosa KM08
       `--Aponogetonales HE80
            |--Zostera Linnaeus 1753 ME70 [Zosteraceae HE80]
            |    |  i. s.: Z. hornemanniana PP64
            |    |         Z. marina A02
            |    |         Z. nana A27
            |    |         Z. noltii BD95
            |    |         Z. tasmanica Martens ex Aschers. 1867–1868 C06
            |    `--Z. sect. Zosterella ME70
            |         |--Z. capricorni Aschers. 1876 ME70
            |         `--Z. muelleri Irmisch ex Aschers. 1867 [incl. Z. novazelandica Setchell 1933] ME70
            `--Aponogeton Linnaeus 1781 (see below for synonymy) YG03
                 |--*A. natans (Linnaeus) Engl. & Krause 1906 (see below for synonymy) YG03
                 |--A. abyssinicus YG03
                 |--A. appendiculatus Bruggen 1968 YG03
                 |--A. azureus CV06
                 |--A. bruggenii Yadav & Govekar 1994 YG03
                 |--A. crispus Thunberg 1781 (see below for synonymy) YG03
                 |--A. decaryi YG03
                 |--A. distachyus Linnaeus 1781 [=A. distachyon] HE80
                 |--A. euryspermus LK14
                 |--A. kimberleyensis LK14
                 |--A. lakhonensis Camus 1909 [incl. A. luteus, A. pygmaeus Krause 1910] YG03
                 |--*Uvirandra’ madagascariensis Mirbel 1802 [=Urirandra madagascariensis] YG03
                 |--A. satarensis Sundararagh., Kulkarni & Yadav 1982 YG03
                 `--A. undulatus Roxburgh 1832 (see below for synonymy) YG03

Aponogeton Linnaeus 1781 [=Amogeton Necker 1790 (nom. inv.); incl. Uvirandra Mirbel 1802, Urirandra; Aponogetonaceae, Aponogetonineae] YG03

Aponogeton crispus Thunberg 1781 [=A. crispum; incl. A. echinatus Roxburgh 1832, A. echinatum] YG03

*Aponogeton natans (Linnaeus) Engl. & Krause 1906 [=*Amogeton natans; incl. Parua kelanga, A. monostachyon Linnaeus 1782, Spathium monostachyum Edgew. 1843] YG03

Aponogeton undulatus Roxburgh 1832 [=A. undulatum, Spathium undulatum (Roxburgh) Edgew. 1843, Ouvirandra undulata (Roxburgh) Edgew. 1844; incl. Aponogeton microphyllum Roxburgh 1832, Spathium microphyllum (Roxburgh) Voigt 1845, A. stachyosporus de Wit 1958] YG03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Able, K. W. 2002. Killifishes. Family Fundulidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 292–297. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[BD95] Bakalem, A., & J.-C. Dauvin. 1995. Inventaire des crustacés amphipodes (Gammaridea, Caprellidea, Hyperiidea) des costes d'Algérie: essai de synthèse. Mésogée 54: 49–62.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GFW98] Gattuso, J.-P., M. Frankignoulle & R. Wollast. 1998. Carbon and carbonate metabolism in coastal aquatic ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 405–434.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia's shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[YG03] Yadav, S. R., & S. P. Gaikwad. 2003. A revision of the Indian Aponogetonaceae. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1–4): 39–76.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Hydrocharitaceae

Vallisneria spiralis, copyright Lamiot.


Belongs within: Alismatanae.

The Hydrocharitaceae are a group of perennial herbs living at least partially submerged in water that are more diverse in warmer regions of the world.

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Aquatic perennials of fresh or salt water, partly or completely submersed; monoecious or dioecious. Stems long, slender, simple or branched, or 0. Leaves basal or cauline, usually sessile, alternate or whorled, variable in shape and size, submersed or floating. Flowers actinomorphic, commonly unisexual, sometimes bisexual. Inflorescence (or flower) sessile or long-pedunculate, in a tubular bifid spathe or within 2 opposite bracts; male flowers usually many within spathe; female flowers solitary; bisexual flowers solitary or several together. Perianth-segments usually 6 or fewer, in 1-2 whorls, 3 (rarely 2) in each whorl; tube often elongate. Stamens (1)-3-many, anthers 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits (staminodia in female flowers). Ovary inferior, syncarpous, 1-locular, with 3-6 (rarely more) parietal placentae (rudimentary ovaries in male flowers); style-branches as many as placentae; stigmas entire or bifid; ovules many. Fruit submersed, often fleshy, indehiscent, occasionally rupturing irregularly. Seeds many.

<==Hydrocharitaceae [Hydrocharideae, Hydrocharitales]
    |--Elodea canadensis Michaux 1803 HE80
    |--Hydrocharis morsus-ranae BO08
    |--Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss ex Wager 1928 HE80
    |--Stratiotes aloides YY22, C55
    |--Xystrolobos YY22
    |--Hydromystria YY22
    |--Enhalus acoroides P88
    |--Egeria densa Planchon 1849 HE80
    |--Boottia YY22
    |    |--B. aschersoniana M30
    |    `--B. muricata M30
    |--Hydrilla HE80
    |    |--H. kaynensis JD05
    |    `--H. verticillata HE80
    |--Thalassia Banks ex König 1805 HL09
    |    |--T. hemprichii (Ehrenberg) Aschersson 1871 [=Schizotheca hemprichii Ehrenberg 1832] HL09
    |    `--T. testudinum K-M02
    |--Halophila Thouars 1806 HL09
    |    |--H. decipiens Ostenfeld 1902 HL09
    |    |--H. ovalis (Brown) Hooker 1859 [=Caulinia ovalis Brown 1810] HL09
    |    `--H. stipulacea P71
    |--Blyxa YY22
    |    |--B. aubertii LK14
    |    |    |--B. a. var. aubertii LK14
    |    |    `--B. a. var. echinosperma LK14
    |    `--B. octandra LK14
    |--Ottelia HE80
    |    |--O. alismoides P88
    |    |--O. minutissima JD05
    |    |--O. ovalifolia (Brown) Richard 1811 HE80
    |    |    |--O. o. ssp. ovalifolia LK14
    |    |    `--O. o. ssp. chrysobasis LK14
    |    `--O. praeterita S87
    `--Vallisneria HE80
         |--V. americana B97
         |--V. annua LK14
         |--V. gigantea HE80
         |--V. nana LK14
         |--V. spiralis HE80
         |    |--V. s. var. spiralis PP07
         |    `--V. s. var. denseserrulata PP07
         |--V. stylosa JD05
         `--V. triptera LK14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BO08] Bönsel, D., I. Ottich, A. Malten & G. Zizka. 2008. An updated list of the vascular plants of Frankfurt am Main (Pteridophyta & Spermatophyta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 111–121.

[B97] Brown, K. M. 1997. Temporal and spatial patterns of abundance in the gastropod assemblage of a macrophyte bed. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 27–33.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia's shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Filefishes. Family Monacanthidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 592–598. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M30] Moss, C. E. 1930. A new genus of Hydrocharitaceae from tropical Africa. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 14–16.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 15–78.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[P71] Por, F. D. 1971. One hundred years of Suez Canal—a century of Lessepsian migration: retrospect and viewpoints. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 138–159.

[S87] Stephens, W. J. 1887. On the Biloela labyrinthodont (second notice). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1113–1121, pl. 14.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Alismataceae

Arrowhead Sagittaria sagittifolia, copyright Algirdas.


Belongs within: Alismatanae.

The Alismataceae are a family of flowering herbs found in watery habitats in temperate and tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Healy & Edgar 1980).

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Annual or perennial, marsh or aquatic, sometimes lactiferous herbs, erect, rarely with floating leaves; hermaphrodite, monoecious or dioecious, Leaves all basal, long-petioled, sheathing; laminae linear-lanceolate, hastate, sagittate or cordate. Flowers actinomorphic, usually bisexual, in panicles or racemes; sepals 3, green, persistent; petals 3. deciduous, rarely 0. Stamens (3)-6 or more, hypogynous, free; anthers 2-celled. Carpels numerous, superior, free or rarely connate at base, arranged in a ring or irregularly packed over surface of receptacle; style persistent; ovules 1-several. Fruit a head or whorl of achenes, rarely of follicles.

<==Alismataceae
    |--Alisma DS04
    |    |--A. lanceolatum Withering 1796 HE80
    |    `--A. plantago-aquatica Linnaeus 1753 HE80
    `--+--Caldesia DS04
       |    |--C. oligococca DS04
       |    `--C. reniformis AGF98
       `--Sagittaria DS04
            |--S. latifolia DS04
            `--S. sagittifolia C55

Alismataceae incertae sedis:
  Wiesneria YY22
  Lophotocarpus YY22
  Limnophyton YY22
  Burnatia YY22
  Echinodorus Engelmann 1848 L08
    |  i. s.: E. africanus Rataj 1981 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. barthii Mühlberg 1986 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. gabrielii Rataj 1990 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. janii Rataj 1988 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. maculatus Somogyi 2006 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. multiflorus Rataj 1989 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. opacus Rataj 1970 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. portoalegrensis Rataj 1970 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. pseudohorizontalis Rataj 2002 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. schlueteri Rataj 1981 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. veronikae Rataj 1988 (n. d.) L08
    |         E. viridis Rataj 2002 (n. d.) L08
    |--*E. berteroi (Spreng.) Fassett 1955 (see below for synonymy) L08
    `--+--+--E. longipetalus Micheli 1881 (see below for synonymy) L08
       |  `--+--E. horizontalis Rataj 1969 [incl. E. interruptus Rataj 2004] L08
       |     `--E. tunicatus Small 1909 L08
       `--+--E. sect. Palaefolii Rataj 1975 L08
          |    |--E. major (Micheli) Rataj 1967 [=E. martii β major Micheli 1881] L08
          |    `--+--E. pubescens (Mart.) Seub. 1872 (see below for synonymy) L08
          |       `--+--E. inpai Rataj 1981 L08
          |          `--+--E. palaefolius (Nees & Mart.) Macbr. 1931 (see below for synonymy) L08
          |             `--+--E. decumbens Kasselm. 2000 L08
          |                `--E. subalatus (Mart.) Griseb. 1866 (see below for synonymy) L08
          `--+--+--E. heikobleheri Rataj 2004 L08
             |  `--E. grisebachii Small 1909 (see below for synonymy) L08
             `--+--E. lanceolatus Rataj 1968 non E. rostratus var. lanceolatus Engelm. 1890 L08
                `--+--+--E. trialatus Fassett 1955 L08
                   |  `--+--E. glandulosus Rataj 1969 L08
                   |     `--+--E. emersus Lehtonen 2008 L08
                   |        `--E. scaber Rataj 1969 (see below for synonymy) L08
                   `--+--+--E. bracteatus Micheli 1881 (see below for synonymy) L08
                      |  `--E. macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli 1881 [=Alisma macrophyllum Kunth 1841] L08
                      `--+--+--E. cylindricus Rataj 1975 L08
                         |  `--E. glaucus Rataj 1975 [incl. E. teretoscapus Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1994] L08
                         `--+--E. paniculatus Micheli 1881 (see below for synonymy) L08
                            `--+--+--E. reptilis Lehtonen 2008 L08
                               |  `--E. uruguayensis Arechav. 1903 (see below for synonymy) L08
                               `--+--E. cordifolius (Linnaeus) Griseb. 1857 (see below for synonymy) L08
                                  `--+--E. floribundus (Seub.) Seub. 1872 (see below for synonymy) L08
                                     `--+--E. grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli 1881 (see below for synonymy) L08
                                        `--E. longiscapus Arechav. 1903 (see below for synonymy) L08
  Baldellia L08
  Helanthium (Benth. & Hook.) Britton 1905 L08
    |--H. bolivianum [=Echinodorus bolivianus] L08
    |--H. tenellum [=Echinodorus tenellus] L08
    `--H. zombiense [=Echinodorus zombiensis] L08
  Ranalisma L08
  Albidella nymphaeifolia [=Echinodorus nymphaeifolius] L08

*Echinodorus berteroi (Spreng.) Fassett 1955 [=Alisma berteroi Spreng. 1825, A. berteroanum Balb. ex Schult. & Schult. 1830; incl. Echinodorus rostratus var. lanceolatus Engelm. 1890, E. berteroi var. lanceolatus (Engelm.) Fassett 1955, E. cordifolius f. lanceolatus (Engelm.) Fernald 1936, E. rostratus f. lanceolatus (Engelm.) Fernald 1947, E. longilineatus Rataj 2004, E. patagonicus Speg. 1902, E. berteroi ssp. patagonicus (Speg.) Rataj 1969, Alisma rostrata Nutt. 1835, E. rostratus (Nutt.) Engelm. 1848] L08

Echinodorus bracteatus Micheli 1881 [incl. E. bracteatus var. efenestratus Fassett 1955, E. bracteatus ssp. efenestratus (Fassett) Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986] L08

Echinodorus cordifolius (Linnaeus) Griseb. 1857 [=Alisma cordifolia Linnaeus 1753, Sagittaria cordifolia (Linnaeus) Lam. 1788; incl. Echinodorus fluitans Fassett 1955, E. cordifolius ssp. fluitans (Fassett) Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986, E. ovalis Wright ex Sauvalle 1870, Sagittaria radicans Nutt. 1835, E. radicans (Nutt.) Engelm. 1848] L08

Echinodorus floribundus (Seub.) Seub. 1872 [=Alisma floribundum Seub. 1847, E. grandiflorus α floribundus (Seub.) Micheli 1881; incl. E. grandiflorus var. aureus Fassett 1955, E. grandiflorus ssp. aureus (Fassett) Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986, Alisma pubescens β claussenii Seub. 1847, E. grandiflorus var. claussenii Rataj 1969, E. grandiflorus var. longibracteatus Rataj 1969, E. muricatus Griseb. 1858, E. macrophyllus β muricatus (Griseb.) Micheli 1881, E. puncatus Micheli 1881] L08

Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli 1881 [=Alisma grandiflorum Cham. & Schltdl. 1827; incl. E. argentinensis Rataj 1970, E. floridanus Haynes & Burkhalter 1998, E. grandiflorus β ovatus Micheli 1881, E. pellucidus Rataj 1975] L08

Echinodorus grisebachii Small 1909 [incl. E. amazonicus Rataj 1970, E. amphibius Rataj 1967, E. bleherae Rataj 1970, E. eglandulosus Holm-Niels. & Haynes 1985, E. gracilis Rataj 1967, E. grisebachii var. minor Kasselm. 2001 nec E. ellipticus δ minor (Seub.) Micheli 1881 nec E. sellowianus var. minor Buchenau 1903, E. parviflorus Rataj 1970] L08

Echinodorus longipetalus Micheli 1881 [incl. Sagittaria brevipedicellata Kuntze 1898, E. brevipedicellatus (Kuntze) Buchenau 1903, E. reticulatus Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986] L08

Echinodorus longiscapus Arechav. 1903 [=E. grandiflorus var. longiscapus (Arechav.) Hauman 1915, E. sellowianus var. major Buchenau 1903 non E. martii β major Micheli 1881, E. sellowianus var. minor Buchenau 1903 non E. ellipticus δ minor (Seub.) Micheli 1881, E. longiscapus var. minor (Buchenau) Tronc. 1964, E. aschersonianus var. nulliglandulosus Rataj 1970, E. sellowianus Buchenau 1903] L08

Echinodorus palaefolius (Nees & Mart.) Macbr. 1931 [=Sagittaria palaefolia Nees & Mart. 1823, Alisma palaefolium (Nees & Mart.) Kunth 1841; incl. A. ellipticum Mart. 1830, E. ellipticus α latifolia Micheli 1881, E. palaefolius var. latifolius (Micheli) Rataj 1971, Alisma ellipticum β minus Seub. 1847, Echinodorus ellipticus δ minor (Seub.) Micheli 1881, E. palaefolius var. minus (Seub.) Rataj 1971, E. piauhyensis Kasselm. 2001, Alisma virgata Hook. & Arn. 1838, E. virgatus (Hook. & Arn.) Micheli 1881] L08

Echinodorus paniculatus Micheli 1881 [incl. E. paniculatus var. brevifolia Haumann 1915, E. paniculatus var. dubius Fassett 1955, E. paniculatus f. latifolia Chodat & Hassler 1903 non E. ellipticus α latifolia Micheli 1881] L08

Echinodorus pubescens (Mart.) Seub. 1872 [=Alisma pubescens Mart. 1830, E. ellipticus β pubescens (Mart.) Micheli 1881; incl. E. macrocarpus Rataj 1975] L08

Echinodorus scaber Rataj 1969 [=E. macrophyllus ssp. scaber (Rataj) Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986; incl. E. scaber var. proliferatus Rataj 1969] L08

Echinodorus subalatus (Mart.) Griseb. 1866 [=Alisma subalatus Mart. 1830; incl. A. andrieuxii Hook. & Arn. 1838, Echinodorus andrieuxii (Hook. & Arn.) Small 1909, E. subalatus ssp. andrieuxii (Hook. & Arn.) Haynes & Holm-Niels. 1986, Alisma intermedium Mart. 1830, E. intermedius (Mart.) Griseb. 1866, E. longistylis Buchenau 1903, E. andrieuxii var. longistylis (Buchenau) Rataj 1971, E. martii Micheli 1881, E. ellipticus γ ovata Micheli 1881] L08

Echinodorus uruguayensis Arechav. 1903 [=E. martii var. uruguayensis (Arechav.) Hauman 1915; incl. E. aschersonianus Graebn. 1911, E. horemanii Rataj 1970, E. uruguayensis var. minor Kasselm. 2001 nec E. ellipticus δ minor (Seub.) Micheli 1881 nec E. sellowianus var. minor Buchenau 1903 nec E. grisebachii var. minor Kasselm. 2001, E. osiris Rataj 1970] L08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[L08] Lehtonen, S. 2008. An integrative approach to species delimitation in Echinodorus (Alismataceae) and the description of two new species. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 525–563.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Potamogetonaceae

Fennel pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus, copyright Christian Fischer.


Belongs within: Potamogetonales.

The Potamogetonaceae are a cosmopolitan group of aquatic herbs, often bearing a combination of narrow submerged and broader floating leaves.

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Aquatic perennial herbs of brackish or fresh water. Leaves simple, usually alternate, often dimorphic, submersed ones narrower and more delicate than floating ones; in axil, a delicate membranous stipule, either free or adnate below. Inflorescence a many-flowered spike; peduncle axillary with 0, 1 or 2 bracts at base. Flowers small, green, bisexual, actinomorphic, without bracteoles, segments 4, free, valvate, concave. Stamens 4, on claw of segments; anthers 2-celled, apparently sessile, extrorse. Carpels 4, sessile, free, superior; stigma sessile or nearly so; ovule solitary, strongly curved. Achenes drupe-like when fresh; endocarp stony, splitting by separation of vertically-oriented operculum on outer face.

<==Potamogetonaceae [Potamogetonineae]
    |--Diplanthera YY22
    |--Althenia YY22
    |--Groenlandia HE80
    |--Phyllospadix YY22
    |    |--P. iwatensis B79
    |    `--P. scouleri CH97
    `--Potamogeton Linnaeus 1753 ME70
         |  i. s.: P. amplifolius B97
         |         P. berchtoldii CS77
         |         P. compressus C55
         |         P. crispus Linnaeus 1753 HE80
         |         P. drummondii GK00
         |         P. fluitans C55
         |         P. gramineus CS77
         |         P. lucens C55
         |         P. natans DS04
         |         P. nodosus PP07
         |         P. obtusifolius C06
         |         P. octandrus LK14
         |         P. perfoliatus C55
         |         P. polygonifolius ME70
         |         P. pusillus C55
         |         P. richardsonii DS04
         |         P. robinsii B97
         |         P. tricarinatus GK00
         |--P. subg. Potamogeton ME70
         |    |--P. cheesemanii Bennett 1883 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--P. ochreatus Raoul 1844 ME70
         |    `--P. suboblongus Hagström 1916 ME70
         `--P. subg. Coleogeton KG01
              |--P. × bottnicus [P. pectinatus × P. vaginatus] KG01
              |--P. filiformis KG01
              |--P. pectinatus Linnaeus 1753 ME70
              |--P. × suecicus [P. pectinatus × P. filiformis] KG01
              `--P. vaginatus KG01

Potamogeton cheesemanii Bennett 1883 ME70 [incl. P. natans var. australis Kirk ex Bennett 1887 C06, P. membranaceus Hagström 1916 ME70, P. porrigens Hagström 1916 ME70]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B97] Brown, K. M. 1997. Temporal and spatial patterns of abundance in the gastropod assemblage of a macrophyte bed. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 27–33.

[B79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: why colonial animals have more hiding places. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 459–497. Academic Press: London.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[KG01] King, R. A., R. J. Gornall, C. D. Preston & J. M. Croft. 2001. Molecular confirmation of Potamogeton × bottnicus (P. pectinatus × P. vaginatus, Potamogetonaceae) in Britain. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135 (1): 67–70.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 15–78.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Archostemata

Omma stanleyi, copyright David Maddison.


Belongs within: Coleoptera.

The Archostemata are a distinctive group of wood-boring beetles with the labrum fused to the head capsule in adults, and a distinctive wing-tucking mechanism where the wing tips are rolled rather than folded under the elytra (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The most widespread family in the modern fauna is the Cupedidae, members of which have the the antennal insertions dorsal and more or less approximate, fore coxal cavities separated by a prosternal process, lobed fourth tarsomeres, and grooves on the underside of the thorax for reception of the legs.

See also: Eating Mum from the inside out.

<==Archostemata [Cupedoidea]
    |  i. s.: Jurodidae B14
    |           |--Jurodes ignoramus B14
    |           `--Sikhotealinia [Sikhotealiniidae] B14
    |                `--S. zhiltzovae Lafer 1996 B14
    |         Obrienia P02 [Obrieniidae GE05]
    |           `--O. kuscheli P02
    |         Crowsoniella [Crowsoniellidae] Y01
    |           `--C. relicta Pace 1975 B14
    |--+--Micromalthus LeConte 1879 MW15, PY01 [Micromalthidae, Micromalthinae, Micromalthoidea]
    |  |    `---M. debilis LeConte 1878 PN02
    |  `--Ommatidae [Ommatinae, Ommatini, Tetraphaleridae, Tetraphalerini] MW15
    |       |--Notocupes Ponomarenko 1964 KL01
    |       |--Omamima GE05
    |       |--Tetraphalerites GE05
    |       |--Tetraphalerus LM87
    |       |    |--T. bruchi HR11
    |       |    `--T. verrucosus P02
    |       `--Omma Newman 1839 LM87
    |            |--*O. stanleyi Newman 1839 LM87
    |            |--O. mastersi Macleay 1871 LM87
    |            |--O. sagitta B14
    |            `--O. varians B70
    `--Cupedidae [Cupesidae] MW15
         |--Triadocupedinae P02
         |--Mesocupedinae LM87
         `--Cupedinae Y01
              |  i. s.: Rhipsidegma raffrayi (Fairmaire 1884) B14
              |         Adinolepis Neboiss 1984 LM87
              |           |--*A. eumana (Neboiss 1960) [=Cupes eumana] LM87
              |           |--A. mathesonae (Neboiss 1960) [=Cupes mathesonae] LM87
              |           |--A. scalena Neboiss 1984 LM87
              |           `--A. youanga (Neboiss 1960) [=Cupes youanga] LM87
              |         Ascioplaga Y01
              |         Paracupes brasiliensis Y01
              |--Priacma LeConte 1874 MW15, Y01 [Priacminae]
              |    `--P. serrata (LeConte 1861) B14
              `--+--Prolixocupes Neboiss 1959 MW15, Y01
                 |    |--P. laterillei Y01
                 |    `--P. lobiceps HR11
                 `--+--Tenomerga Neboiss 1984 MW15, Y01
                    |    |--T. cinereus Y01
                    |    |--T. concolor LM87
                    |    `--T. mucida LM87
                    `--+--Distocupes Neboiss 1984 MW15, LM87
                       |    `--*D. varians (Lea 1902) [=Cupes varians] LM87
                       `--Cupes Fabricius 1801 MW15, Y01
                            `--C. capitatus Fabricius 1801 B14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[KL01] Krzeminski, W., & C. Lombardo. 2001. New fossil Ephemeroptera and Coleoptera from the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) of Canton Ticino (Switzerland). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 107 (1): 69–78.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[PY01] Philips, T. K., & D. K. Young. 2001. Micromalthidae Barber, 1913. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 22–23. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[PN02] Pollock, D. A., & B. B. Normark. 2002. The life cycle of Micromalthus debilis LeConte (1878) (Coleoptera: Archostemata: Micromalthidae): historical review and evolutionary perspective. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 40 (2): 105–112.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Y01] Young, D. K. 2001. Cupedidae Laporte, 1836. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 19–21. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

Last updated: 10 November 2018.

Megacephala (Pseudotetracha)

Female Megacephala blackburni, from Mal et al. (2012).


Belongs within: Cicindelinae.

The subgenus Pseudotetracha of the genus Megacephala is a group of bright metallic-coloured tiger beetles found on Australian salt flats.

<==Megacephala (Pseudotetracha Fleutiaux 1894) G07
    |--M. (*P.) cylindrica Macleay 1863 [incl. M. frenchi Sloane 1893] LM87
    |--M. (P.) australis (Chaudoir 1865) G07 [=Tetracha australis LM87; incl. T. waterhousii Castelnau 1867 LM87]
    |--M. (P.) blackburni (Fleutiaux 1895) G07 [=Tetracha blackburni LM87]
    |--M. (P.) castelnaui Sloane 1906 G07
    |--M. (P.) cuprascens Sumlin 1997 G07
    |--M. (P.) greyanus (Sloane 1901) G07, LM87 [=Tetracha greyanus LM87]
    |--M. (P.) helmsi (Blackburn 1892) G07 [=Tetracha helmsi LM87]
    |--M. (P.) ion Sumlin 1997 G07
    |--M. (P.) marginicollis Sloane 1906 G07
    |--M. (P.) mendacia Sumlin 1997 G07
    |--M. (P.) oleadorsa Sumlin 1992 G07
    `--M. (P.) pulchra (Brown 1869) G07 [=Tetracha pulchra LM87]
         |--M. p. pulchra LM87
         `--M. p. pseudoblackburni Horn 1923 LM87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G07] Golding, M. R. 2007. A Pictorial Field Guide to the Beetles of Australia. Part 2: Cicindelidae. Ocean Publishing.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Cicindela (Rivacindela)

Rivacindela vannidekiana, copyright Mark Golding.


Belongs within: Cicindelinae.

The subgenus Rivacindela of the genus Cicindela is a group of tiger beetles found on Australian salt flats, characterised by the presence of two or three teeth on the labrum and usually with extensive patches of white on the elytra.

<==Cicindela (Rivacindela Brouerius van Nidek 1973) LM87
    |--C. (*R.) blackburni Sloane 1906 LM87
    |--‘Rivacindela’ aurifodina Sumlin 1997 G07
    |--‘Rivacindela’ avita Sumlin 1997 G07
    |--C. (R.) browni Sloane 1913 LM87
    |--‘Rivacindela’ eburneola Sumlin 1997 G07
    |--C. (R.) gairdneri Freitag 1979 LM87
    |--C. (R.) igneicollis Bates 1874 LM87
    |--‘Rivacindela’ igneicolloides Sumlin 1992 G07
    |--‘Rivacindela’ pseudotrepida Sumlin 1997 G07
    |--C. (R.) saetigera Horn 1893 [incl. C. jungi Blackburn 1901] LM87
    |--‘Rivacindela’ salicursoria Sumlin 1987 G07
    |--‘Rivacindela’ trepida Sumlin 1996 G07
    |--‘Rivacindela’ vannidekiana Sumin 1988 G07
    `--‘Rivacindela’ velox Sumlin 1987 G07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G07] Golding, M. R. 2007. A Pictorial Field Guide to the Beetles of Australia. Part 2: Cicindelidae. Ocean Publishing.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Cicindela (Myriochile)

Cicindela semicincta, copyright Victor W. Fazio III.


Belongs within: Cicindelinae.

The subgenus Myriochile of the genus Cicindela is a group of tiger beetles with completely metallic-coloured legs bearing hooked setae along the posterior margin, and moderately abundant appressed setae on the venter of the body.

<==Cicindela (Myriochile Motschulsky 1861) [=Myriochila (l. c.)] LM87
    |--‘Myriochile’ melancholica (Fabricius 1798) B55, LM87 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Myriochile’ angusticollis B55
    |--‘Myriochile’ fastidiosa B55
    |--C. (M.) mastersi Castelnau 1867 LM87
    |    |--C. m. mastersi [incl. C. curvicollis Sloane 1905, C. pseudoplebeja Mandl 1960] LM87
    |    |--C. m. catoptriola Horn 1901 LM87
    |    `--C. m. plebeia Sloane 1905 LM87
    |--‘Myriochile’ octoguttata B55
    |--C. (M.) parasemicincta Freitag 1979 LM87
    |--C. (M.) semicincta Brullé 1834 (see below for synonymy) LM87
    `--‘Myriochile’ vicina B55

Cicindela (Myriochile) semicincta Brullé 1834 [incl. C. circumcincta Castelnau 1867, C. hemicycla Montrouzier 1855, C. interrupta Fabricius 18701 non Fabricius 1775, C. menestriesi Gistl 1837] LM87

‘Myriochile’ melancholica (Fabricius 1798) B55, LM87 [=Megacephala melancholica LM87; incl. Cicindela aegyptiaca Klug 1832 LM87, *Myriochile aegyptiaca LM87]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Basilewsky, P. 1955. Carabidae (Coleoptera) de l’Angola (première partie). Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 91–137.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.