Mulineae

Schizeilema roughii, copyright Melissa Hutchison.


Belongs within: Apiaceae.

The Mulineae are a group of umbelliferous plants characterised by the production of fruits with mericarps rounded on back or dorsally slightly flattened and a relatively broad commissure, and seeds surrounded by a woody layer (Allan 1961).

<==Mulineae A61
    |--Mulinum spinosum SB06
    `--Schizeilema Domin 1908 A61
         |--S. allanii Cheesem. 1925 A61
         |--S. cockaynei (Diels) Cheesem. 1925 [=Azorella cockaynei Diels 1908] A61
         |--S. colensoi Domin 1908 [incl. Pozoa trifoliolata var. tripartita Hooker 1853] A61
         |--S. exiguum (Hooker) Domin 1908 [=Pozoa exigua Hooker 1864, Azorella exigua Kirk 1899] A61
         |--S. haastii (Hooker) Domin 1908 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |    |--S. h. var. haastii [incl. S. haastii ssp. hookerianum Domin 1908] A61
         |    `--S. h. var. cyanopetalum (Domin) Cheesem. 1925 [=S. haastii ssp. cyanopetalum Domin 1908] A61
         |--S. hydrocotyloides (Hooker) Domin 1908 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |--S. nitens (Petrie) Domin 1908 [=Azorella nitens Petrie 1893] A61
         |--S. pallidum (Kirk) Domin 1908 [=Pozoa pallida Kirk 1878, Azorella pallida Kirk 1899] A61
         |--S. reniforme (Hooker) Domin 1908 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |--S. roughii (Hooker) Domin 1908 [=Pozoa roughii Hooker 1864, Azorella roughii Kirk 1899] A61
         `--S. trifoliolata (Hooker) Domin 1908 (see below for synonymy) A61

Schizeilema haastii (Hooker) Domin 1908 [=Pozoa haastii Hooker 1864, Azorella haastii Kirk 1899; incl. P. elegans Colenso 1891] A61

Schizeilema hydrocotyloides (Hooker) Domin 1908 [=Pozoa hydrocotyloides Hooker 1864, Azorella hydrocotyloides Kirk 1899] A61

Schizeilema reniforme (Hooker) Domin 1908 [=Pozoa reniforme Hooker 1844, Azorella reniformis Benth. & Hooker 1867] A61

Schizeilema trifoliolata (Hooker) Domin 1908 [=Pozoa trifoliolata Hooker 1853, Azorella trifoliolata Kirk 1899 non Gay 1847-1848; incl. Schizeilema trifoliolatum f. fallax Domin 1908, A. hookeri Drude 1898, Pozoa (Azorella) microdonta Colenso 1891, A. radians Drude 1898 (n. n.)] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[SB06] Sarno, R. J., M. S. Bank, H. S. Stern & W. L. Franklin. 2006. Effects of age, sex, season, and social dynamics on juvenile guanaco subordinate behavior. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 41–47.

Saniculeae

Flat sea holly Eryngium planum, copyright Bernard Dupont.


Belongs within: Apiaceae.

The Saniculeae are a group of umbelliferous plants characterised by fruits with a minutely ornamented surface, two mericarps, and a non-lignified endocarp composed of a single cell layer (Liu et al. 2003).

<==Saniculeae
    |--Alepidea LWT03
    |    |--A. amatymbica LWT03
    |    `--A. setifera LWT03
    `--+--Hacquetia epipactis LWT03
       `--+--+--Actinolema macrolema LWT03
          |  `--Astrantia LWT03
          |       |--A. major LWT03
          |       `--A. maxima LWT03
          |--Sanicula LWT03
          |    |--S. arctopoides H93
          |    |--S. arguta [incl. S. simulans] H93
          |    |--S. bipinnata H93
          |    |--S. bipinnatifida H93
          |    |--S. coerulescens LWT03
          |    |--S. crassicaulis H93
          |    |--S. elata D07
          |    |--S. europaea LWT03
          |    |--S. graveolens H93
          |    |--S. gregaria K03
          |    |--S. hoffmannii H93
          |    |--S. laciniata H93
          |    |--S. lamelligera LWT03
          |    |--S. maritima H93
          |    |--S. peckiana H93
          |    |--S. rubriflora LWT03
          |    |--S. saxatilis H93
          |    |--S. tracyi H93
          |    `--S. tuberosa H93
          `--Eryngium Linnaeus 1753 LWT03, A61
               |--E. alismaefolium H93
               |--E. aristulatum H93
               |    |--E. a. var. aristulatum H93
               |    |--E. a. var. hooveri H93
               |    `--E. a. var. parishii H93
               |--E. armatum H93
               |--E. articulatum H93
               |--E. campestre Linnaeus 1753 PL04
               |--E. castrense H93
               |--E. constancei H93
               |--E. foetidum BB07
               |--E. giganteum LWT03
               |--E. horridum RJ11
               |--E. maritimum LWT03
               |--E. mathiasiae H93
               |--E. pinnatifidum GK00
               |--E. pinnatisectum H93
               |--E. plantagineum M99
               |--E. planum LWT03
               |--E. racemosum H93
               |--E. spina-alba C55
               |--E. spinosepalum [incl. E. vaseyi var. globosum] H93
               |--E. vaseyi [incl. E. vaseyi var. vallicola] H93
               `--E. vesiculosum Labill. 1804 A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BB07] Baishya, A. K., & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 121–154.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 79–88.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[LWT03] Liu, M., B-E. van Wyk & P. M. Tilney. 2003. The taxonomic value of fruit structure in the subfamily Saniculoideae and related African genera (Apiaceae). Taxon 52: 261–270.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

Peucedaneae

Garden angelica Angelica archangelica, copyright Richard Hoare.


Belongs within: Apiaceae.

The Peucedaneae are a group of umbelliferous plants characterised by the production of fruits with lateral ribs produced into broad wings (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Flowers pedicelled in umbels; styles arising from stylopodia; fruits with distinct, unarmed ribs, lateral ribs broad, winged; seeds narrow in section, flattened on commissural surface.

<==Peucedaneae A61
    |--Peucedanum GR98
    |    |--P. arenarium GR98
    |    |    |--P. a. ssp. arenarium GR98
    |    |    `--P. a. ssp. neumayeri GR98
    |    |--P. graveolens I92
    |    `--P. sativum C06
    `--Angelica Linnaeus 1753 A61
         |--A. archangelica BB-L86
         |--A. arguta H93
         |--A. breweri H93
         |--A. californica [=A. tomentosa var. californica] H93
         |--A. callii H93
         |--A. decipiens Hooker 1864 [=Aciphylla decipiens Benth. & Hooker 1867, Ligusticum decipiens Kirk 1899] A61
         |--A. geniculata (Forster) Hooker 1864 A61 (see below for synonymy)
         |--A. genuflexa H93
         |--A. hendersonii [=A. tomentosa var. hendersonii] H93
         |--A. kingii H93
         |--A. lineariloba [incl. A. lineariloba var. culbertsonii] H93
         |--A. lucida H93
         |--A. montana (Forster & Forster) Cockayne 1915 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |--A. tomentosa H93
         `--A. trifoliolata (Hooker) Cockayne 1899 (see below for synonymy) A61

Angelica geniculata (Forster) Hooker 1864 A61 [=Peucedanum geniculatum Forster 1786 A61, Anisotome geniculata Hooker 1853 A61, Bowlesia geniculata C06]

Angelica montana (Forster & Forster) Cockayne 1915 [=Gingidium montanum Forster & Forster 1776; incl. Ligusticum gingidium Forster 1786, Angelica gingidium Hooker 1864, Anisotome gingidium Hooker 1853] A61

Angelica trifoliolata (Hooker) Cockayne 1899 [=Ligusticum trifoliolatum Hooker 1864; incl. Anisotome enysii var. tennysonianum Laing 1912] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BB-L86] Bengtson, S.-A., G. Brinck-Lindroth, L. Lundqvist, A. Nilsson & S. Rundgren. 1986. Ectoparasites on small mammals in Iceland: origin and population characteristics of a species-poor insular community. Holarctic Ecology 9: 143–148.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

Smyrneae

Mountain myrrh Oreomyrrhis colensoi, copyright Jeremy Rolfe.


Belongs within: Apiaceae.

The Smyrneae are a group of umbelliferous plants characterised by seeds with a groove on the commisural surface (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Flowers pedicelled in umbels; styles arising from stylopodia; fruits with distinct, unarmed ribs; seeds grooved on commissural surface.

<==Smyrneae A61
    |--Smyrnium H91
    |    |--S. olusatrum C55
    |    `--S. perfoliatum H91
    `--Oreomyrrhis Endl. 1839 A61
         |--O. andicola Endl. 1839 A61
         |--O. colensoi Hooker 1853 [=O. andicola var. colensoi Kirk 1899] A61
         |    |--O. c. var. colensoi A61
         |    |--O. c. var. delicatula Allan 1961 A61
         |    |--O. c. var. hispida Allan 1961 A61
         |    `--O. r. var. multifida Allan 1961 A61
         |--O. ramosa Hooker 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
         `--O. rigida (Kirk) Allan ex Mathias & Constance 1955 [=O. andicola var. rigida Kirk 1899] A61

Oreomyrrhis ramosa Hooker 1864 [=O. andicola var. ramosa Kirk 1899; incl. O. andicola var. apiculata Kirk 1899, O. haastii Hooker 1864] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Eutherapsida

Reconstruction of Ulemosaurus svijagensis, copyright Dmitry Bogdanov.


Belongs within: Therapsida.
Contains: Dicynodontia, Cynodontia.

The Eutherapsida are the clade of synapsids uniting modern mammals with the Permian Dinocephalia. Members of the clade are characterised by a bowing of the zygomatic arch and increase in size of the temporal fenestra, together with loss of the olecranon ulnae and reduction of the fifth pedal digit to three phalanges.

<==Eutherapsida [Anomodontia, Cryptodontia] S03
    |  i. s.: Theriognathus Broom 1920 C07, D07
    |           `--T. microps D07
    |         Endothiodon [Endothiodontia] C07
    |         Dromasauria R61
    |           |--Galeops R61
    |           |--Galechirus R61
    |           `--Galepus R61
    |--+--Dicynodontia S03
    |  `--Theriodontia [Therosauria] S03
    |       |  i. s.: Binaralia C07
    |       |           |--Lycosaurus C07
    |       |           `--Tigrisuchus C07
    |       |         Inostrancevia [Inostranceviidae] C07
    |       |           |--I. annae C07
    |       |           `--I. uralensis Tatarinov 1974 TT05
    |       |         Ericiolacerta Watson 1931 [Ericiolacertidae] D07
    |       |           `--E. parva D07
    |       |--Gorgonops C07 [Gennetotheria, Gorgonopsia S03, Tectinaralia]
    |       `--Eutheriodontia HK01
    |            |--Cynodontia S03
    |            `--Therocephalia S03
    |                 |  i. s.: Lycosuchus HK01
    |                 |         Promoschorhynchus S03
    |                 |--Bauria HK01 [Bauriamorpha, Baurioidea K88]
    |                 `--Whaitsiidae K88
    `--Dinocephalia S03
         |  i. s.: Rhopalodon TT05
         |         Sinophoneus Cheng & Ji 1996 CL97
         |         Microsyodon orlovi CL97
         |         Estemmenosuchus Tchudinov 1960 D07 [Estemmenosuchidae TT05]
         |           |--E. mirabilis D07
         |           `--E. uralensis D07
         |--Stenocybus Cheng & Li 1997 [Stenocybusidae] CL97
         |    `--*S. acidentatus Cheng & Li 1997 CL97
         `--+--Tapinocephalidae [Tapinocephalia, Tretospondylia] CL97
            |    |--Tapinocephalus C07
            |    `--Ulemosaurus Rjabinin 1938 TT05, D07
            |         |--U. gigas TT05
            |         `--U. svijagensis D07
            `--Anteosauridae [Anteosauria] CL97
                 |--Titanophoneus adamanteus (Orlov 1958) CL97, TT05
                 |--Deuterosaurus jubilaei (von Nopcsa 1928) TT05
                 |--Syodon CL97
                 |--Australosyodon CL97
                 `--Anteosaurus Watson 1921 D07
                      `--A. magnificus D07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C07] Case, E. C. 1907. Revision of the Pelycosauria of North America. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 55: 1–176, 35 pls.

[CL97] Cheng Z. & Li J. 1997. A new genus of primitive dinocephalian—the third report on Late Permian Dashankou lower tetrapod fauna. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 35 (1): 35–43.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[HK01] Hopson, J. A., & J. W. Kitching. 2001. A probainognathian cynodont from South Africa and the phylogeny of nonmammalian cynodonts. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 156 (1): 5–35.

[K88] Kemp, T. S. 1988. Interrelationships of the Synapsida. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 2. Mammals pp. 1–22. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[R61] Romer, A. S. 1961. Synapsid evolution and dentition. In: Vandebroek, G. (ed.) International Colloquium on the Evolution of Lower and Non Specialized Mammals. Koninklijke Vlaames Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van Belgie—Klasse der Wetenschapen 1961 (1): 9–56.

[S03] Sidor, C. A. 2003. The naris and palate of Lycaenodon longiceps (Therapsida: Biarmosuchia), with comments on their early evolution in the Therapsida. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 977–984.

[TT05] Tverdokhlebov, V. P., G. I. Tverdokhlebova, A. V. Minikh, M. V. Surkov & M. J. Benton. 2005. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 27–77.

Sphenacodontidae

Pair of mounted skeletons of Dimetrodon, copyright D'Arcy Norman.


Belongs within: Synapsida.
Contains: Therapsida.

The Sphenacodontidae are a group of carnivorous 'pelycosaurs' known from the later Carboniferous to the Middle Permian, suggested by Kemp (1988) to be paraphyletic to the therapsids.

<==Sphenacodontidae K88
    |  i. s.: Secodontosaurus BH04
    |         Sphenacodon Marsh 1878 D07
    |           |--S. ferocior D07
    |           `--S. ferox Marsh 1878 C07
    |--Haptodus K88
    `--+--Therapsida K88
       `--Dimetrodon Cope 1878 K88, BH04
            |--*D. incisivus Cope 1878 (see below for synonymy) C07
            |--D. angelensis D07
            |--D. biradicatus C07
            |--D. dollovianus (Cope 1884) [=Embolophorus dollovianus] C07
            |--D. giganhomogenes Case 1907 C07
            |--D. gigas (Cope 1878) [=Clepsydrops gigas] C07
            |--D. grandis N85
            |--D. limbatus BH04
            |--D. longiramus Case 1907 C07
            |--D. macrospondylus (Cope 1884) [=Clepsydrops macrospondylus] C07
            |--D. milleri BH04
            |--D. natalis BH04
            |--D. navajovicus Case 1907 C07
            |--D. obtusidens (Cope 1880) [=Theropleura obtusidens] C07
            |--D. occidentalis BH04
            |--D. platycentrus Case 1907 C07
            `--D. teutonis Berman et al. 2001 BH04

*Dimetrodon incisivus Cope 1878 [incl. Clepsydrops limbatus Cope 1877, C. (Embolophorus) limbatus; incl. Dimetrodon rectiformis Cope 1878, D. semiradicatus Cope 1881] C07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BH04] Berman, D. S., A. C. Henrici, S. S. Sumida & T. Martens. 2004. New remains of Dimetrodon teutonis (Synapsida: Sphenacodontidae) from the Lower Permian of Germany. Annals of Carnegie Museum 73 (2): 48–56.

[C07] Case, E. C. 1907. Revision of the Pelycosauria of North America. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 55: 1–176, 35 pls.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[K88] Kemp, T. S. 1988. Interrelationships of the Synapsida. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 2. Mammals pp. 1–22. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[N85] Norman, D. 1985 (reprinted 2000). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

Kannemeyeriiformes

Reconstruction of Kannemeyeria, copyright Dmitry Bogdanov.


Belongs within: Dicynodontia.

The Kannemeyeriiformes are a cosmopolitan clade of dicynodonts known from the Triassic, some members of which reached the size of a modern cow. Members of the clade are united by a markedly enlarged preacetabular expansion of the iliac blade, a distinctly offset caput femoris on the femur, and an olecranon ulnae formed by a separate ossification (Maisch 2000).

<==Kannemeyeriiformes
    |--Shansiodontidae M00
    |    |--Vinceria Bonaparte 1967 M00
    |    `--+--Rhinodicynodon Kalandadze 1970 M00
    |       `--+--Shansiodon Yeh 1959 M00
    |          `--Tetragonias Cruickshank 1967 M00
    |               `--T. njalilus M00
    `--+--Kannemeyeriidae M00
       |    |--Rabidosaurus Kalandadze 1970 M00
       |    |--Wadiasaurus Roy-Chowdhury 1970 M00
       |    |    `--W. indicus M00
       |    `--Kannemeyeria Seeley 1908 M00
       |         |--K. erithrea D07
       |         |--K. jenseni D07
       |         `--K. simocephala M00
       `--+--Dinodontosauridae [Dinodontosaurinae, Sinokannemeyeriini] M00
          |    |--Dinodontosaurus Romer 1943 M00
          |    `--+--Sinokannemeyeriinae M00
          |       |    |--Parakannemeyeria Sun 1960 M00
          |       |    `--Sinokannemeyeria Young 1937 M00
          |       `--Rechnisaurinae M00
          |            |  i. s.: Shaanbeikannemeyeria Cheng 1980 M00
          |            |--Rhadiodromus Efremov 1951 (see below for synonymy) M00
          |            `--+--Rechnisaurus Roy-Chowdhury 1970 M00
          |               `--Sangusaurus Cox 1969 M00
          |                    `--S. parringtonii NB17
          `--Stahleckeriidae M00
               |--Stahleckeriinae M00
               |    |--Angonisaurus Cox & Li 1983 M00
               |    |    `--A. cruickshanki NB17
               |    |--Stahleckeria von Huene 1925 [incl. Barysoma Cox 1965] M00
               |    |    `--S. potens von Huene 1935 [incl. S. lenzii Romer & Price 1944, Barysoma lenzii] M00
               |    `--Zambiasaurus Cox 1968 M00
               |         `--Z. submersus M00
               `--Placeriinae M00
                    |--Moghreberia Dutuit 1980 M00
                    |--Placerias Lucas 1904 M00
                    |    `--P. gigas M00
                    `--Ischigualastia Cox 1962 M00
                         `--I. jenseni M00

Kannemeyeriiformes incertae sedis:
  Jachaleria Bonaparte 1971 M00
  Dolichuranus Keyer 1973 M00
  Azarifeneria Dutuit 1989 (n. d.) M00
  Calleonasus Kalandadze 1986 (n. d.) M00
  Edaxosaurus Kalandadze 1986 (n. d.) M00
  Elatosaurus Kalandadze 1986 (n. d.) M00
  Nasoplanites Surkov 1999 M00
  Cristonasus Surkov 1999 M00
  Parvobestiola Surkov 1999 M00
  Planitorostris Surkov 1999 M00

Rhadiodromus Efremov 1951 [incl. Rhinocerocephalus Vjushkov 1969, Uralokannemeyeria Danilov 1971] M00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[M00] Maisch, M. W. 2000. Observations on Karoo and Gondwana vertebrates. Part 2: A new skull-reconstruction of Stahleckeria potens von Huene, 1935 (Dicynodontia, Middle Triassic) and a reconstruction of kannemeyeriiform phylogeny. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 220 (1): 127–152.

[NB17] Nesbitt, S. J., R. J. Butler, M. D. Ezcurra, P. M. Barrett, M. R. Stocker, K. D. Angielczyk, R. M. H. Smith, C. A. Sidor, G. Niedźwiedzki, A. G. Sennikov & A. J. Charig. 2017. The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan. Nature 544: 484–487.

Metatheria

Lower jaw of Pediomys, from here.


Belongs within: Boreosphenida.
Contains: Marsupialia.

The Metatheria are a clade of mammals including the total group of modern marsupials and all fossil taxa more closely related to marsupials than to other mammals. The earliest metatherians are known from the early Late Cretaceous of Eurasia and North America though they only survived into the Cenozoic in South America and Australia.

Synapomorphies (from Bi et al. 2014, for Sulestes + Marsupialia): Posterior vertical shelf of masseteric fossa connected to dentary condyle as thin crest along angular margin of mandible; dentary condyle continuous with semicircular posterior margin of dentary, condyle facing up due to up-turning of posterior-most part of dentary; molar with cristid obliqua present, contact closest to lowest point of protocristid; mesiolingual vertical crest of paraconid on lower molars forming a keel; entoconid near height of hypoconid; paraconid, metaconid, and entoconid on lower molars aligned; functional talonid basin of lower molars as long as wide; hypoconid/protoconid height ratio between 40% and 60%; stylar cuspule "C" (near ectoflexus) present on penultimate upper molar; wear facets 5 and 6 differentiated on labial face of entoconid; five upper incisors present; upper anterior-most incisor anteriorly projecting, separated from following teeth by diastema; body of calcaneus mediolaterally compressed at level of posterior calcaneoastragalar facet; calcaneal tubercle ventrally curved; lacrimal foramen on facial side of lacrimal; optic foramen not separated from sphenorbital fissure; incisive foramina intermediate in size.

<==Metatheria [Boreometatheria, Marsupialiformes, Marsupicarnivora] VG09
    |--Sulestes BW14
    `--+--Marsasia LJ03
       `--+--+--Kokopellia VG09
          |  `--Asiatherium KH14
          `--+--Albertatherium BW14
             `--+--Anchistodelphys LJ03
                `--+--Peradectia [Alphadelphia] CGW04
                   |    |  i. s.: Caroloameghiniidae CGW04
                   |    |--Peradectidae GH99
                   |    |    |--Kasserinotherium tunisiense Crochet 1986 GH99
                   |    |    |--Peradectes Matthew & Granger 1921 S35
                   |    |    |    |--*P. elegans Matthew & Granger 1921 S35
                   |    |    |    `--P. minor OB13
                   |    |    `--Alphadon [Alphadontidae] CGW04
                   |    |         |--A. halleyi G03
                   |    |         |--A. marshi Simpson 1927 FN03
                   |    |         `--A. perexiguus G03
                   |    |--+--Pariadens VG09
                   |    |  `--Didelphodon [Stagodontidae] LJ03
                   |    |       `--D. vorax Marsh 1889 FN03
                   |    `--Pediomys [Pediomyidae] LJ03
                   |         |--P. clemensi G03
                   |         |--P. elegans G03
                   |         |--P. hatcheri SBL05
                   |         |--P. krejcii G03
                   |         `--P. prokrejcii G03
                   `--Notometatheria [Ameridelphia, Sparassodonta] RWN98
                        |--+--Mayulestes [Mayulestidae] WR07
                        |  |    `--M. ferox WR07
                        |  `--+--Marsupialia VG09
                        |     `--+--Pucadelphidae CGW04
                        |        |    |--Pucadelphys andinus WR07
                        |        |    |--Incadelphys CGW04
                        |        |    `--Mizquedelphys CGW04
                        |        `--Andinodelphys LJ03
                        `--Borhyaenoidea M77
                             |  i. s.: Hondadelphys M77 [Hondadelphidae CGW04]
                             |--Thylacosmilus Riggs 1933 D07 [Thylacosmilidae M77]
                             |    |--T. ferox D07
                             |    `--T. lentis D07
                             `--+--Proborhyaenidae [Proborhyaeninae] CGW04
                                |    |--Arminiheringia auceta M77, S32
                                |    `--Proborhyaena M77
                                `--+--Hathliacynidae [Hathliacyninae] M77
                                   |    |--Sipalocyon M77
                                   |    |--Patene M77
                                   |    |--Cladosictis Amighino 1887 M77, D07
                                   |    |    |--C. bardus D07
                                   |    |    |--C. centralis D07
                                   |    |    `--C. patagonica D07
                                   |    `--Allqokirus CGW05
                                   `--Borhyaenidae RWN98
                                        |  i. s.: Pharsophorus lacerans S32
                                        |         Procladosictis M77
                                        |--Prothylacynus [Prothylacyninae] M77
                                        `--Borhyaeninae M77
                                             |--Nemolestes M77
                                             |--Angelocabrerus M77
                                             `--Borhyaena Ameghino 1894 D07
                                                  |--B. excavata D07
                                                  |--B. macrodonta D07
                                                  `--B. tuberata S32

Metatheria incertae sedis:
  Kiruwamaq Goin & Candela 2004 AH07
  Arcantiodelphys Vullo, Gheerbrant et al. 2009 VG09
    `--*A. marchandi Vullo, Gheerbrant et al. 2009 VG09
  Dakotadens VG09
  Iqualadelphis RWN98
  Turgidodon LJ03
    |--T. praesagus G03
    |--T. rhaister G03
    `--T. russelli G03
  Iugomortiferum VG09
  Adelodelphys VG09
  Sinbadelphys VG09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AH07] Asher, R. J., I. Horovitz, T. Martin & M. R. Sánchez-Villagra. 2007. Neither a rodent nor a platypus: a reexamination of Necrolestes patagoniensis Ameghino. American Museum Novitates 3546: 1–40.

[BW14] Bi, S., Y. Wang, J. Guan, X. Sheng & J. Meng. 2014. Three new Jurassic euharamiyidan species reinforce early divergence of mammals. Nature 514: 579–584.

[CGW04] Case, J. A., F. J. Goin & M. O. Woodbourne. 2004. “South American” marsupials from the Late Cretaceous of North America and the origin of marsupial cohorts. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 11 (3–4): 223–255.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FN03] Fox, R. C., & B. G. Naylor. 2003. A Late Cretaceous taeniodont (Eutheria, Mammalia) from Alberta, Canada. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 229 (3): 393–420.

[GH99] Gheerbrant, E., & J.-L. Hartenberger. 1999. Nouveau mammifère insectivore (?Lipotyphla, ?Erinaceomorpha) de l’Eocène inférieur de Chambi (Tunisie). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 73 (1–2): 143–156.

[G03] Gordon, C. L. 2003. A first look of estimating body size in dentally conservative marsupials. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 10 (1–2): 1–21.

[LJ03] Luo, Z.-X., Q. Ji, J. R. Wible & C.-X. Yuan. 2003. An Early Cretaceous tribosphenic mammal and metatherian evolution. Science 302: 1934–1940.

[M77] Marshall, L. G. 1977. Cladistic analysis of borhyaenoid, dasyuroid, didelphoid, and thylacinid (Marsupialia: Mammalia) affinity. Systematic Zoology 26 (4): 410–425.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K–Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[RWN98] Rougier, G. W., J. R. Wible & M. J. Novacek. 1998. Implications of Deltatheridium specimens for early marsupial history. Nature 396: 459–463.

[S32] Simpson, G. G. 1932. Skulls and brains of some mammals from the Notostylops beds of Patagonia. American Museum Novitates 578: 1–11.

[S35] Simpson, G. G. 1935. The Tiffany fauna, Upper Paleocene. I.—Multituberculata, Marsupialia, Insectivora, and ?Chiroptera. American Museum Novitates 795: 1–19.

[SBL05] Sullivan, R. M., A. C. Boere & S. G Lucas. 2005. Redescription of the ceratopsid dinosaur Torosaurus utahensis (Gilmore, 1946) and a revision of the genus. Journal of Paleontology 79 (3): 564–582.

[VG09] Vullo, R., E. Gheerbrant, C. De Muizon & D. Néraudeau. 2009. The oldest modern therian mammal from Europe and its bearing on stem marsupial paleobiogeography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (47): 19910–19915.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003–1006.

Atlantogenata

Southern tamandua Tamandua tetradactyla, copyright Bernard Dupont.


Belongs within: Eutheria.
Contains: Dasypodidae, Folivora, Tubulidentata, Afrosoricida, Macroscelididae, Pan-Paenungulata.

The Atlantogenata are a clade of mammals supported by molecular data uniting the clades Xenarthra and Afrotheria. Xenarthra is the order of mammals containing the anteaters, sloths and armadillos, and is primarily found in South America. The name refers to the distinctive vertebrae of members of the clade. In older references this group was commonly referred to the Edentata, meaning 'toothless', but only the anteaters (Myrmecophagidae) are truly toothless; the sloths and armadillos retain enamelless back teeth. The armadillos and their extinct relatives in the Cingulata are characterised by dorsal armour formed from osteoderms covered in keratinous scales, that may be variously fused to form plates. The sloths and anteaters retain a uniform covering of thick hair. Anteaters have elongate snouts and tongues used for feeding on social insects.

The Afrotheria is a clade of mammals united by molecular analyses, though morphological support for the clade remains elusive. Most phylogenies support division of living afrotherians between the insectivorous taxa—Afrosoricida (golden moles and tenrecs), Macroscelididae (elephant shrews) and Orycteropus afer (aardvark)—and the herbivorous Paenungulata. Possible fossil afrotherians include the Ptolemaiida, a group of insectivorous or omnivorous mammals known from the Oligocene and Miocene of Africa. At least one ptolemaiidan, Kelba quadeemae, was probably about the size of modern coyote (Cote et al. 2007).

<==Atlantogenata [Hicanodonta] HUG17
    |--Xenarthra HUG17
    |    |  i. s.: Proeutatus Ameghino 1891 BAA04
    |    |           `--P. lagena A05a
    |    |         Propaopus Ameghino 1881 BAA04
    |    |--Cingulata [Dasypoda, Dasypodoidea] DSD03
    |    |    |--Stegotheriidae A05c
    |    |    |    |--Stegotherium Ameghino 1887 M94, BAA04
    |    |    |    |    |--S. simplex [=Scotaeops simplex] A05c
    |    |    |    |    |--S. tessellatum M94
    |    |    |    |    `--S. variegatum D07
    |    |    |    |--Necrodasypus galliae Filhol 1894 [=Necromanis galliae] A05c
    |    |    |    `--Pseudostegotherium glangeaudi A05c, A05b
    |    |    |--Dasypodidae BAA04
    |    |    `--Peltephilidae [Peltateloidea] BAA04
    |    |         |--Peltephilus Ameghino 1887 BAA04
    |    |         |    `--P. ferox D07
    |    |         `--Epipeltephilus A05c
    |    `--Pilosa DSD03
    |         |--+--Folivora DSD03
    |         |  `--Pseudoglyptodon chilensis MJ11
    |         `--+--Utaetus Ameghino 1902 HUG17, BAA04
    |            |    |--U. argos A05c
    |            |    |--U. buccatus HUG17
    |            |    `--U. deustus A05c
    |            `--Myrmecophagidae [Vermilingua] DSD03
    |                 |  i. s.: Protamandua rothi OB13
    |                 |--Cyclopes Gray 1821 DSD03, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |                 |    `--*C. didactylus (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |                 |         |--C. d. didactylus [incl. Myrmecophaga unicolor Geoffroy in Desmarest 1804] C57
    |                 |         |--C. d. catellus Thomas 1928 C57
    |                 |         |--C. d. dorsalis (Gray 1865) [=Cyclothurus dorsalis] C57
    |                 |         |--C. d. eva Thomas 1902 C57
    |                 |         |--C. d. ida Thomas 1900 [incl. C. didactylus codajazensis Lönnberg 1942] C57
    |                 |         |--C. d. juruanus Lönnberg 1942 C57
    |                 |         |--C. d. melini Lönnberg 1928 C57
    |                 |         `--C. d. mexicanus G69
    |                 `--Myrmecophaginae DC01
    |                      |--Myrmecophaga Linnaeus 1758 BAA04 [incl. Falcifer Rehn 1900 C57]
    |                      |    |--*M. tridactyla Linnaeus 1758 [incl. M. jubata Linné 1766, M. iubata] C57
    |                      |    |    |--M. t. tridactyla C57
    |                      |    |    `--M. t. artata Osgood 1912 [=M. t. artatus] C57
    |                      |    `--M. aculeata G96
    |                      `--Tamandua Gray 1825 DSD03, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |                           |--*T. tetradactyla (Linnaeus 1758) [=Myrmecophaga tetradactyla] C57
    |                           |    |--T. t. tetradactyla (see below for synonymy) C57
    |                           |    |--T. t. chapadensis Allen 1904 (see below for synonymy) C57
    |                           |    |--T. t. chiriquensis Allen 1904 (see below for synonymy) C57
    |                           |    |--T. t. instabilis Allen 1904 C57
    |                           |    |--T. t. punensis Allen 1916 C57
    |                           |    `--T. t. quicha Thomas 1927 C57
    |                           |--T. longicaudata (Wagner 1844) [=Myrmecophaga longicaudata] C57
    |                           |    |--T. l. longicaudata [=T. tetradactyla longicaudata] C57
    |                           |    `--T. l. mexianae Hagmann 1908 C57
    |                           `--T. mexicana WR07 [=T. tetradactyla mexicana G69]
    `--Afrotheria [Colbertia] HUG17
         |  i. s.: Ptolemaiida CW07
         |           |  i. s.: Qarunavus Simons & Gingerich 1974 CW07
         |           |           `--Q. meyeri Simons & Gingerich 1974 CW07
         |           |--Kelba Savage 1965 [Kelbidae] CW07
         |           |    `--K. quadeemae Savage 1965 [incl. Kenyalutra songhorensis, Ndamathaia kubwa] CW07
         |           `--Ptolemaiidae [Ptolemayidae] CW07
         |                |--Ptolemaia Osborn 1908 CW07
         |                |    |--*P. lyonsi Osborn 1908 CW07
         |                |    `--P. grangeri Bown & Simons 1987 CW07
         |                `--Cleopatrodon Bown & Simons 1987 CW07
         |                     |--C. ayeshae Bown & Simons 1987 CW07
         |                     `--C. robusta Bown & Simons 1987 CW07
         |         Ocepeia daouiensis HUG17
         |--Afroinsectiphilia HUG17
         |    |--+--Tubulidentata FS15
         |    |  `--Plesiorycteropus Filhol 1895 ANG03, M94 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |       |--*P. madagascariensis Filhol 1895 (see below for synonymy) M94
         |    |       `--P. germainepetterae MacPhee 1994 M94
         |    `--Afroinsectivora OB13
         |         |--Afrosoricida OB13
         |         `--+--Macroscelididae OB13
         |            |--+--Pseudictops Matthew, Granger & Simpson 1929 AM05, V67 [Pseudictopidae]
         |            |  `--Anagalidae MHL03
         |            |       |--Anagale Simpson 1931 AM05, V67
         |            |       |    `--A. gobiensis MHL03
         |            |       `--Anagalopsis Bohlin 1951 V67
         |            `--+--Dilambdogale gheerbranti HUG17
         |               `--Widanelfarasia HUG17
         |                    |--W. bowni HUG17
         |                    `--W. rasmusseni HUG17
         `--Pan-Paenungulata OB13

Cyclopes Gray 1821 DSD03, C57 [incl. Cyclothurus Lesson 1842 C57, Myrmidon Wagley 1830 C57; Cyclopedidae]

*Cyclopes didactylus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Myrmecophaga didactyla, Cyclothurus didactyla, Myrmidon didactylus] C57

Plesiorycteropus Filhol 1895 ANG03, M94 [incl. Myoryctes Forsyth Major 1908 (preoc.) M94, Majoria Thomas 1915 M94; Bibymalagasia, Plesiorycteropodidae, Plesiorycteropodinae]

*Plesiorycteropus madagascariensis Filhol 1895 [incl. Hypogeomys boulei Grandidier 1912, Myoryctes rapeto Forsyth Major 1908, Majoria rapeto] M94

Tamandua Gray 1825 DSD03, C57 [=Tamanduus Cuvier 1829 C57; incl. Dryorix Gloger 1841 C57, Uroleptes Wagner 1830 C57, Uroleptess Alston 1882 C57]

Tamandua tetradactyla chapadensis Allen 1904 [incl. T. tetradactyla kriegi Krumbiegel 1940, Myrmecophaga bivittata straminea Cope 1889 (n. d.)] C57

Tamandua tetradactyla chiriquensis Allen 1904 [=T. t. chiriquinus (l. c.); incl. T. t. tambensis Lönnberg 1937] C57

*Tamandua tetradactyla tetradactyla (Linnaeus 1758) [incl. Myrmecophaga bivittata Geoffroy in Desmarest 1804, Tamandua bivittata, M. crispa Rüppell 1845, M. myosura Pallas 1776, M. nigra Geoffroy in Desmarest 1804, Tamandua bivittata var. opistholeuca Gray 1873, T. bivittata var. opithomelas Gray 1873, M. tamandua Cuvier 1817, M. ursina Rapp 1852] C57

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A05a] Ameghino, F. 1905a. Le perforación astragaliana en Priodontes, Canis (Chrysocyon) y Typotherium. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 1–19.

[A05b] Ameghino, F. 1905b. La perforación astragaliana en el Orycteropus y el origen de los Orycteropidae. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 59–95.

[A05c] Ameghino, F. 1905c. Les édentés fossiles de France et d'Allemagne. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 175–250.

[AM05] Asher, R. J., J. Meng, J. R. Wible, M. C. McKenna, G. W. Rougier, D. Dashzeveg & M. J. Novacek. 2005. Stem Lagomorpha and the antiquity of Glires. Science 307: 1091–1094.

[ANG03] Asher, R. J., M. J. Novacek & J. H. Geisler. 2003. Relationships of endemic African mammals and their fossil relatives based on morphological and molecular evidence. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 10 (1–2): 131–194.

[BAA04] Bergqvist, L. P., E. A. L. Abrantes & L. dos S. Avilla. 2004. The Xenarthra (Mammalia) of São José de Itaboraí Basin (upper Paleocene, Itaboraian), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Geodiversitas 26 (2): 323–337.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[CW07] Cote, S., L. Werdelin, E. R. Seiffert & J. C. Barry. 2007. Additional material of the enigmatic Early Miocene mammal Kelba and its relationship to the order Ptolemaiida. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (13): 5510–5515.

[DC01] Delsuc, F., F. M. Catzeflis, M. J. Stanhope & E. J. P. Douzery. 2001. The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: implications for the status of the enigmatic fossil Eurotamandua. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 268: 1605–1615.

[DSD03] Delsuc, F., M. J. Stanhope & E. J. P. Douzery. 2003. Molecular systematics of armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae): contribution of maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 261–275.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[G96] Geoffroy, É. L. 1796. Extrait d'un mémoire sur le Myrmecophaga capensis, Gme. Bulletin de la Société Philomatique, a ses Correspondans 50: 1–2.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[HUG17] Halliday, T. J. D., P. Upchurch & A. Goswami. 2017. Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals. Biological Reviews 92 (1): 521–550.

[M94] MacPhee, R. D. E. 1994. Morphology, adaptations, and relationships of Plesiorycteropus, and a diagnosis of a new order of eutherian mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 220: 1–214.

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521–524.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K–Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[V67] Van Valen, L. 1967. New Paleocene insectivores and insectivore classification. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 135 (5): 217–284.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003–1006.

Folivora

Brown-throated sloth Bradypus variegatus, photographed by Stefan Laube.


Belongs within: Atlantogenata.
Contains: Ortotheriinae.

The Folivora, sloths, are a group of herbivorous mammals known from Central and South America. Living members of the group are arboreal though many fossil members were terrestrial and could reach massive sizes.

<==Folivora [Gravigrada, Phyllophaga, Tardigrada] DSD03
    |--Bradypus Linnaeus 1758 C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: B. boliviensis Gray 1871 [=B. tridactylus boliviensis] C57
    |    |         B. infuscatus Wagler 1831 C57
    |    |           |--B. i. infuscatus (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |           |--B. i. brasiliensis Blainville 1840 (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |           |--B. i. ephippiger Philippi 1870 [incl. B. ignavus Goldman 1913, B. violeta Thomas 1917] C57
    |    |           |--B. i. gorgon Thomas 1926 C57
    |    |           `--B. i. marmoratus (Gray 1849) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |--B. torquatus Illiger 1811 FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--+--*B. tridactylus Linnaeus 1758 C57, FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |       `--+--B. pygmaeus FS15
    |          `--B. variegatus Schinz 1823 FS15, C57 [=B. (Scaeopus) variegatus C57]
    `--Megalonychidae FS15
         |  i. s.: Eucholoeops ingens S32
         |         Schismotherium S32
         |         Hapaloides S32
         |         Hapalops Ameghino 1887 S32, BAA04
         |           |--H. cadens D07
         |           |--H. elongatus OB13
         |           |--H. indifferens D07
         |           `--H. longicers D07
         |         Proschismotherium S32
         |           |--P. oppositum S32
         |           `--P. scarritti Simpson 1932 S32
         |--+--+--Nothrotheriinae MM95
         |  |  |    |--Pronothrotherium MM95
         |  |  |    `--+--Nothropus MM95
         |  |  |       `--+--+--Nothrotheriops shastense MM95, FS15
         |  |  |          |  `--Nothrotherium maquinense FS15
         |  |  |          `--Thalassocnus Muizon & McDonald 1995 MM95
         |  |  |               |--*T. natans Muizon & McDonald 1995 MM95
         |  |  |               |--T. antiquus D07
         |  |  |               |--T. carolomartini N10
         |  |  |               |--T. littoralis D07
         |  |  |               `--T. yaucensis N10
         |  |  `--+--Eremotherium laurillardi FS15
         |  |     `--Megatherium Cuvier 1796 FS15, H07 [Megatheriidae]
         |  |          |--M. americanum H07
         |  |          |--M. lundii O05
         |  |          `--M. tarijense FS15
         |  `--+--+--Paramylodon harlani FS15
         |     |  `--+--Mylodon darwinii FS15
         |     |     `--+--Lestodon armatus FS15
         |     |        `--Glossotherium Owen 1842 FS15, D07
         |     |             `--G. robustum D07
         |     `--+--Scelidotherium leptocephalum FS15
         |        `--+--Catonyx cuvieri FS15
         |           `--+--Valgipes deformis FS15
         |              `--Scelidodon chiliensis FS15
         `--+--+--Choloepus Illiger 1811 FS15, C57 [=Chaelopus Gray in Griffith 1827 C57, Cholopus Sclater 1872 C57]
            |  |    |--*C. didactylus (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) C57
            |  |    `--C. hoffmanni Peters 1858 C57
            |  |         |--C. h. hoffmanni [incl. C. didactylus var. columbianus Gray 1871] C57
            |  |         |--C. h. agustinus Allen 1913 C57
            |  |         |--C. h. capitalis Allen 1913 [incl. C. andinus Allen 1913] C57
            |  |         |--C. h. florenciae Allen 1913 [incl. C. napensis Lönnberg 1922] C57
            |  |         |--C. h. juruanus Lönnberg 1942 C57
            |  |         `--C. h. pallescens Lönnberg 1928 [incl. C. h. peruvianus Menegaux 1906 (n. d.)] C57
            |  `--Ortotheriinae FS15
            `--+--Megalonyx Jefferson 1799 FS15, H07 [Megalonychidae]
               |    `--M. jeffersoni H07
               `--+--+--Diabolotherium nordenskioldi FS15
                  |  `--Acratocnus Anthony 1916 FS15, AC98
                  |       |--*A. odontrigonus Anthony 1916 AC98
                  |       `--A. ye FS15
                  `--Megalocninae PC56
                       |--Megalocnus Leidy 1868 [=Megalochnus Ameghino 1881; incl. Myomorphus Pomel 1868] PC56
                       |    |--*M. rodens Leidy 1868 PC56 (see below for synonymy)
                       |    `--M. zile FS15
                       |--Neomesocnus Arredondo 1961 AC98
                       |    `--*N. brevirrostris Arredondo 1961 AC98
                       |--Parocnus Miller 1929 AC98
                       |    |--*P. serus Miller 1929 AC98
                       |    `--P. browni FS15
                       `--Mesocnus Matthew 1931 AC98
                            |--*M. browni Matthew 1931 AC98
                            `--M. torrei Matthew 1931 AC98

Bradypus Linnaeus 1758 C57 [incl. Acheus Cuvier 1825 C57, Arctopithecus Gray 1849 non Virey 1819 C57, Eubradypus Lönnberg 1942 C57, Hemibradypus Anthony 1906 C57, Ignavus Blumenbach 1779 C57, Neobradypus Lönnberg 1942 C57, Scaeopus Peters 1864 C57; Bradypodidae DSD03]

Bradypus infuscatus brasiliensis Blainville 1840 [=B. braziliensis, B. tridactylus brasiliensis; incl. Arctopithecus blainvilli Gray 1849, B. dorsalis Fitzinger 1871, B. miritibae Lönnberg 1942, B. pallidus Wagner 1844] C57

Bradypus infuscatus infuscatus Wagler 1831 [incl. B. infuscatus var. brachydactylus Wagner 1844, B. marmoratus codajazensis Lönnberg 1942, B. macrodon Thomas 1917, B. speculiger Fitzinger 1871, B. trivittatus Cornalia in Osculati 1850] C57

Bradypus infuscatus marmoratus (Gray 1849) [=Arctopithecus marmoratus; incl. A. problematicus Gray 1849, A. flaccidus var. smithii Gray 1869, B. (Eubradypus) tocantinus Lönnberg 1942, B. unicolor Fitzinger 1871] C57

Bradypus torquatus Illiger 1811 FS15, C57 [=B. (*Scaeopus) torquatus C57; incl. B. affinis Gray 1849 C57, B. crinitus Gray 1849 C57, Hemibradypus mareyi Anthony 1906 C57]

*Bradypus tridactylus Linnaeus 1758 C57, FS15, C57 [=Arctopithecus tridactylus C57; incl. Acheus ai Lesson 1827 C57, B. ai C57, B. cristatus Temminck in Fitzinger 1871 C57, B. cuculliger Wagler 1831 C57, B. tridactylus guianensis Blainville 1940 C57, B. gularis Rüppell 1845 C57, Arctopithecus gularis C57]

*Choloepus didactylus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Bradypus didactylus, Cholopus didactylus; incl. Choloepus brasiliensis Fitzinger 1871, B. curi Link 1795, Choloepus guianensis Fitzinger 1871, B. unau Link 1795] C57

*Megalocnus rodens Leidy 1868 PC56 [incl. M. casimbae Matthew 1959 AC98, M. intermedius Mayo 1969 AC98, M. junius Matthew 1959 AC98, M. ursulus Matthew 1959 AC98]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1–29.

[BAA04] Bergqvist, L. P., E. A. L. Abrantes & L. dos S. Avilla. 2004. The Xenarthra (Mammalia) of São José de Itaboraí Basin (upper Paleocene, Itaboraian), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Geodiversitas 26 (2): 323–337.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[DSD03] Delsuc, F., M. J. Stanhope & E. J. P. Douzery. 2003. Molecular systematics of armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae): contribution of maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 261–275.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

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[H07] Hooker, J. J. 2007. Bipedal browsing adaptations of the unusual Late Eocene-earliest Oligocene tylopod Anoplotherium (Artiodactyla, Mammalia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 151 (3): 609–659.

[MM95] Muizon, C. de, & H. G. McDonald. 1995. An aquatic sloth from the Pliocene of Peru. Nature 375: 224–227.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K–Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[O05] Outes, F. F. 1905. Sobre un instrumento paleolítico de Luján (Provincia de Buenos Aires). Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 169–173.

[PC56] Paula Couto, C de. 1956. On two mounted skeletons of Megalocnus rodens. Journal of Mammalogy 37 (3): 423–427.

[S32] Simpson, G. G. 1932. Some new or little-known mammals from the Colpodon beds of Patagonia. American Museum Novitates 575: 1–12.