Halammohydra

Specimen of Halammohydra, photographed by Allen G. Collins.


Belongs within: Hydrozoa.

Halammohydra is a genus of minute hydrozoans living interstitially between sand grains.

Characters (from Carlton 2007): Medusa only; polyp absent. Minute (0.5-2 mm), highly reduced; entirely ciliated; consisting mostly of a manubrium with two whorls of long, contractile tentacles; statocyst present between each pair of tentacles; aboral adhesive organ.

<==Halammohydra Remane 1927 [Halammohydridae] CS-P86
    |  i. s.: H. andamanensis Rao 1967 CS-P86
    |         H. intermedia Clausen 1967 CS-P86
    |         H. sagarensis Rao & Misra 1980 CS-P86
    |--H. (Halammohydra) CS-P86
    |    |--H. (H.) octopodides Remane 1927 CS-P86
    |    `--H. (H.) schulzei Remane 1927 CS-P86
    |--H. (Goulvenhydra Swedmark & Teissier 1967) CS-P86
    |    `--H. (*G.) vermiformis Swedmark & Teissier 1957 CS-P86
    `--H. (Skodenhydra Swedmark & Teissier 1967) CS-P86
         |--H. (*S.) adherens Swedmark & Teissier 1958 CS-P86
         |--H. (S.) cauhani Rao 1975 CS-P86
         `--H. (S.) coronata Clausen 1967 CS-P86

Nomina nuda: Halammohydra coronata var. reducta Clausen in Clausen &Salvini-Plawen 1986 CS-P86
             Halammohydra neglecta Clausen in Clausen & Salvini-Plawen 1986 CS-P86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Carlton, J. T. (ed.) 2007. The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon, 4th ed. University of California Press.

[CS-P86] Clausen, C., & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Cnidaria. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 33-42. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Codonophora

Diphyes dispar, photographed by R. Hopcroft.


Belongs within: Hydrozoa.

The Codonophora is a clade within the siphonophores characterised by the presence of nectosomes, bell-shaped zooids specialised for swimming, and gelatinous shield-like bracts (these latter lost in some subgroups) (Dunn et al. 2005).

<==Codonophora [Brachystelia, Physonectae]
    |  i. s.: Lychnagalma utricularia [incl. L. vesicularia] DPH05
    |--Apolemia DPH05
    `--+--Cordagalma cordiforme DPH05
       |--Erenna DPH05
       |--Stephalia [Rhodaliidae] DPH05
       |    `--S. dilata DPH05
       |--Bargmannia DPH05
       |    |--B. amoena DPH05
       |    `--B. elongata DPH05
       |--Stephanomia DPH05
       |    |--S. amphytridis [=Halistemma amphytridis, S. amphitridis (l. c.)] DPH05
       |    |--S. bijuga B26
       |    `--S. cara B26
       |--+--+--Physophora [Physophoridae] DPH05
       |  |  |    `--P. hydrostatica DPH05
       |  |  `--Forskalia DPH05
       |  |       |--F. tholoides DPH05
       |  |       `--+--F. edwardsi DPH05
       |  |          `--+--F. asymmetrica DPH05
       |  |             `--F. formosa DPH05
       |  `--Agalmatidae DPH05
       |       |--Nanomia DPH05
       |       |    |--N. bijuga DPH05
       |       |    `--N. cara IF02
       |       `--+--Halistemma rubrum DPH05
       |          `--Agalma DPH05
       |               |--A. clausi DPH05
       |               `--+--A. elegans DPH05
       |                  `--+--A. okeni DPH05
       |                     `--Athorybia [Athorybiidae] DPH05
       |                          `--A. rosacea DPH05
       `--Calycophorae DPH05
            |--+--Praya dubia DPH05
            |  `--+--Nectadamas diomedeae DPH05
            |     `--Nectopyramis natans DPH05
            `--+--Craseoa lathetica DPH05
               |--+--+--Gymnopraia lapislazula DPH05
               |  |  `--Rosacea flaccida DPH05
               |  `--Vogtia Kölliker 1853 DPH05
               |       |--V. pentacantha DPH05
               |       `--+--V. glabra DPH05
               |          `--Hippopodius Quoy & Gaimard 1827 DPH05
               |               `--H. hippopus DPH05
               `--+--+--Chuniphyes multidentata DPH05
                  |  `--Clausophyes ovata DPH05
                  `--+--Sphaeronectes gracilis DPH05
                     `--Diphyidae DPH05
                          |--+--Muggiaea atlantica DPH05
                          |  `--+--Lensia conoidea DPH05
                          |     `--Sulculeolaria quadrivalvis DPH05
                          `--+--Chelophyes appendiculata DPH05
                             `--+--Abylopsis [Abylidae] DPH05
                                |    `--A. tetragona DPH05
                                `--Diphyes DPH05
                                     |--D. appendiculata B26
                                     |--D. arctica B26
                                     |--D. bojani B26
                                     |--D. dispar DPH05
                                     |--D. spiralis B26
                                     `--D. truncata B26

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1-509.

[DPH05] Dunn, C. W., P. R. Pugh & S. H. D. Haddock. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics of the Siphonophora (Cnidaria), with implications for the evolution of functional specialization. Systematic Biology 54 (6): 916-935.

[IF02] Ivantsov, A. Yu., & M. A. Fedonkin. 2002. Conulariid-like fossil from the Vendian of Russia: A metazoan clade across the Proterozoic/Palaeozoic boundary. Palaeontology 45 (6): 1219-1229.

Boreosphenida

Right upper molar of Kielantherium gobiensis in (a) occlusal, (b) anterior and (c) labial views, from Lopatin & Averianov (2006).


Belongs within: Trechnotheria.
Contains: Metatheria, Eutheria.

The Boreosphenida is the clade uniting modern marsupials and placentals with their immediate fossil relatives sharing ancestrally tribosphenic molars (with three cusps).

Synapomorphies (from Rougier et al. 1998): Protocone small with distinct trigon basin (inferred from talonid); lower molar talonid with multicuspidated basin.

<==Boreosphenida
    |  i. s.: Tribactonodon VG09
    |         Kermackia FP99
    |--Kielantherium gobiensis LC07, WR07
    `--+--Aegialodon LC07
       |--Potamolestes RWN98
       `--+--Slaughteria RWN98
          `--+--Pappotherium FP99
             `--Theria [Creophaga, Deltatheridia, Deltatheridioidea, Insectivora, Palaeoryctoidea, Sarcobora] WR07
                  |  i. s.: Chronozoon DeVis 1883 LA02
                  |           `--*C. australe DeVis 1883 LA02
                  |         Mixodectidae S35
                  |           |--Mixodectes S35
                  |           `--Eudaemonema Simpson 1935 S35
                  |                `--*E. cuspidata Simpson 1935 S35
                  |         Vulpavoides Matthes 1952 V66
                  |         Ziphacodon Marsh 1872 (n. d.) V66
                  |         Aethechinus algirus JP84
                  |         Miothen Cope 1873 M60
                  |           |--*M. crassigenus Cope 1873 M60
                  |           `--M. gracile Cope 1873 M60
                  |--Metatheria WR07
                  `--Eutheria WR07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FP99] Flynn, J. J., J. M. Parrish, B. Rakotosamimanana, W. F. Simpson & A. R. Wyss. 1999. A Middle Jurassic mammal from Madagascar. Nature 401: 57-60.

[JP84] Jolicoeur, P., P. Pirlot, G. Baron & H. Stephan. 1984. Brain structure and correlation patterns in Insectivora, Chiroptera, and Primates. Systematic Zoology 33 (1): 14-29.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Lopatin, A. V., & A. O. Averianov. 2006. An aegialodontid upper molar and the evolution of mammal dentition. Science 313: 1092.

[LC07] Luo, Z.-X., P. Chen, G. Li & M. Chen. 2007. A new eutriconodont mammal and evolutionary development in early mammals. Nature 446: 288-293.

[M60] McKenna, M. C. 1960. The Geolabidinae: a new subfamily of early Cenozoic erinaceoid insectivores. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences 37 (2): 131-164.

[RWN98] Rougier, G. W., J. R. Wible & M. J. Novacek. 1998. Implications of Deltatheridium specimens for early marsupial history. Nature 396: 459-463.

[S35] Simpson, G. G. 1935. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83 (2981): 221-244.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

[VG09] Vullo, R., E. Gheerbrant, C. De Muizon & D. Néraudeau. 2009. The oldest modern therian mammal from Europe and its bearing on stem marsupial paleobiogeography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (47): 19910-19915.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003-1006.

Gymnobathra

Male genitalia of Gymnobathra flavidella, from Philpott (1927). (A) Lateral view; (b) harpe, inner view; (c) juxta; (d) tegumen, obliquely dorsal view; (e) vinculum.


Belongs within: Gelechioidea.

Gymnobathra is a genus of moths endemic to New Zealand, with larvae feeding on dead wood.

Characters (from Hoare 2010): Uncus well developed and sclerotised; gnathos present; inner surface of valva with specialised patch of setae.

<==Gymnobathra Meyrick 1884 P27
    |--*G. flavidella P27
    |--G. bryaula Meyr. 1905 P27
    |--G. caliginosa Philpott 1927 P27
    |--G. calliploca P27
    |--G. cenchrias P27
    |--G. coarctatella [incl. G. sarcoxantha Meyr. 1883] P27
    |--G. habropis [incl. G. philadelpha Meyr. 1883] P27
    |--G. hamatella P27
    |--G. hyetodes P27
    |--G. omphalota P27
    |--G. parca (Butl. 1887) P27
    |--G. squamea P27
    |--G. thetodes Meyr. 1883 P27
    `--G. tholodella P27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Hoare, R. J. B. 2010. Izatha (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Oecophoridae). Fauna of New Zealand 65: 1-201.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The genitalia of the genus Gymnobathra (Oecophoridae: Lepidoptera). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 716-721.

Borkhausenia

Male genitalia of Borkhausenia paula, from Philpott (1927): (a) lateral view; (b) harpes, internal view.


Belongs within: Gelechioidea.

Borkhausenia is a genus of small moths, some of which can be storage pests.

Characters (from Philpott 1926): Head smooth, side-tufts loosely appressed; ocelli posterior: tongue developed. Antennae ¾, in male moderately or rather strongly ciliated, basal joint moderate, with pecten. Labial palpi moderate or long, curved, ascending, second joint usually nearly reaching base of antennae, with appressed scales, somewhat loose beneath, terminal joint shorter than second, moderate, acute. Maxillary palpi very short, filiform, appressed to tongue. Posterior tibiae c]othed with long fine hairs. Forewings with lA and 2A coalescing near base, Cu1b from or near angle, R5 and R4 stalked, R5 to costa, rf at ½. Rindwjngs under 1, elongate-ovate, cilia ⅔-1; Cu1a and M3 connate, M2, M1 and Rs nearly parallel.

<==Borkhausenia
    |--B. ancogramma M27
    |--B. armigerella L27
    |--B. basella P27b
    |--B. brachyacma P27a
    |--B. chloradelpha L27
    |--B. crotala L27
    |--B. hemisphaerica P27b
    |--B. innotella L27
    |--B. marcida Philpott 1927 P27a
    |--B. paula Philpott 1927 P27a
    `--B. pseudospretella P27b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693-696.

[M27] Meyrick, E. 1927. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 697-702.

Philpott, A. 1926. List of New Zealand species of Borkhausenia (Oecophoridae: Lepidoptera), including new species. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 56: 399-413.

[P27a] Philpott, A. 1927a. New Zealand Lepidoptera: Notes and descriptions. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 703-709.

[P27b] Philpott, A. 1927b. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

Ethmiinae

Caterpillar of Ethmia bipunctella, photographed by Svdmolen.


Belongs within: Gelechioidea.

The Ethmiinae are a group of moths with larvae feeding on Boraginaceae.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991, as Ethmiidae): Small to medium sized; head smooth scaled; ocelli absent; antennae usually without pecten on scape; maxillary palps usually four-segmented, folded over base of proboscis; labial palps recurved; epiphysis present; hind tibiae with long filiform scales; fore wing without pterostigma, R4 and R5 stalked, R5 to costa or apex, CuP present at least towards margind; hind wing with Rs and M1 well separated at base, divergent, M2 not arising nearer to M3 than M1, CuP present; frenulum in female with three bristles; abdomen not spined; male genitalia with uncus often bifurcate or reduced, gnathos sometimes absent, valva usually deeply divided. Larva usually with some secondary setae at least in SV groups, crochets in bi- or uniordinal circle, mesoseries or mesal penellipse; usually beneath light webbing on Boraginaceae. Pupa with a pair of ventral, leg-like processes on abdominal segment 9, each with a series of hooked apical setae.

<==Ethmiinae [Ethmiidae]
    |--Dasyethmia Danilevsky 1969 K07
    |    `--*D. hiemalis Danilevsky 1969 K07
    `--Ethmia K07
         |--E. afghana Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. bipunctella (Fabricius 1775) K07
         |--E. cirrhocnemia (Lederer 1870) K07
         |--E. comitella K07
         |    |--E. c. comitella K07
         |    `--E. c. steppella Dubatolov & Ustjuzhanin 1997 K07
         |--E. defreinai Ganev 1984 K07
         |--E. derbendella Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. distigmatella K07
         |--E. elimatella Danilevsky 1975 [=E. simatalla Danilevsky 1980 (n. n.)] K07
         |--E. euphoria Kun 2007 K07
         |--E. hakkarica Koçak 1986 K07
         |--E. infelix Meyrick 1914 [incl. E. kurdistanella Amsel 1959] K07
         |--E. interposita Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. iranella (Zerny 1940) K07
         |--E. kabulica Amsel 1969 K07
         |--E. lecmima K07
         |    |--E. l. lecmima K07
         |    `--E. l. amsel Kemal & Koçak 2005 K07
         |--E. pagiopa Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. percisa Kun 2007 K07
         |--E. quadrinotella K07
         |    |--E. q. quadrinotella K07
         |    `--E. q. heratella Amsel 1969 K07
         |--E. sattleri Kun 2007 K07
         |--E. sibirica Danilevsky 1975 K07
         |--E. similis Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. soljanikovi Danilevsky & Zagulajev 1975 K07
         |--E. suspecta Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. turkmeniella Dubatolov & Ustjuzhanin 1997 K07
         |--E. vidua K07
         |    |--E. v. vidua K07
         |    `--E. v. flavilaterella Danilevsky 1975 K07
         `--E. wurtseri Amsel 1956 K07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K07] Kun, A. 2007. Studies on Palaearctic Ethmia Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 101-114.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

Gelechioidea

Marsh dowd Blastobasis rebeli, photographed by Bob Foreman.


Belongs within: Ditrysia.
Contains: Cosmopteriginae, Agapalsini, Ethmiinae, Borkhausenia, Gymnobathra, Oecophorinae, Xyloryctinae, Stathmopodinae.

The Gelechioidea is a hyperdiverse group of moths, generally characterised by the presence of a densely scaled proboscis. Approximately 16,500 species are known within the clade, with a correspondingly high diversity of lifestyles, with larvae being phytophagous, detritivorous or even parasitic (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Over half the species of gelechioids are included in the family Oecophoridae, larvae of which mostly tunnel in stems or other plant parts, or inhabit retreats constructed by joining leaves or among detritus. The Gelechiidae, with similar larval habits, are characterised for the most part by trapezoidal hind wings, usually with an emarginate termen (Nielsen & Common 1991).

See also: The butterflies get all the glory (Taxon of the Week: Gelechioidea).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Ocelli present or absent; chaetosemata absent; scape often with pecten; proboscis with dense, imbricated scales towards base, rarely reduced; maxillary palps small, mostly 4-segmented, folded over base of proboscis, rarely reduced; labial palps usually recurved, apical segment often exceeding vertex, usually tapering, acute; epiphysis usually present; spurs 0-2-4; fore wing with M rarely present in discal cell, chorda vestigial or absent, retinaculum in female often subcubital; hind wing with venation sometimes reduced, CuA rarely with basal pecten of hairs, CuP often absent, female frenulum usually with three bristles; S2 of tineid type; abdomen often with prominent dorsal spines. Larva with 3 L setae on prothorax, crochets in a circle, penellipse, or rarely in two transverse rows, abdominal setae L1 and L2 approximated; concealed feeders, case-bearing, tunnelling in stems or fruits, gall-forming, leaf-ming, joining foliage, or feeding beneath silken shelter. Pupa usually with labial palps and fore femora concealed, without dorsal abdominal spines, usually segments 5-7 movable in male, 5-6 in female; usually in larval shelter, not protruded from shelter or cocoon at ecdysis.

<==Gelechioidea
    |--Metachandidae DS73
    |--Anomologidae DS73
    |--Pterolonchidae DS73
    |--Physoptila [Physoptilidae] C74
    |--Strepsimanidae DS73
    |--Blastodacnidae NC91
    |--Symmoca Co70 [Symmocidae NC91]
    |--Holcopogonidae NC91
    |--Mompha WRM02 [Momphidae NC91, Momphinae]
    |    `--M. cephalonthiella WRM02
    |--Agonoxena B88 [Agonoxenidae DS73]
    |    |--A. argaula B88
    |    `--A. phoenicia NC91
    |--Hypertrophidae NC91
    |    |--Eupselia satrapella NC91
    |    `--Hypertropha M87
    |         |--H. chlaenota Meyrick 1887 M87
    |         `--H. tortriciformis (see below for synonymy) M86
    |--Batrachedra P27c [Batrachedridae NC91]
    |    |--B. agaura P27c
    |    |--B. arenosella NC91
    |    |--B. microtoma NC91
    |    `--B. psithyra L27
    |--Lecithoceridae [Timyridae] ZS10
    |    |--Lecithocera micromela M83
    |    `--Crocanthes ZS10
    |         |--C. perigrapta P27c
    |         |--C. prasinopis NC91
    |         `--C. sidonia ZS10
    |--Scythrididae NC91
    |    |--Scythris NC91
    |    |    |--S. epistrota P27c
    |    |    `--S. rhabducha NC91
    |    `--Eretmocera NC91
    |         |--E. dioctis NC91
    |         `--E. flavicincta P27c
    |--Blastobasis F05 [Blastobasidae DS73]
    |    |--B. bassii Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. laurisilvae Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. luteella Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. rebeli Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. sarcophaga NC91
    |    |--B. serradaguae Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. splendens Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. subdivisus Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. tarda NC91
    |    |--B. virgatella Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. walsinghami Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. wolffi Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    `--B. wollastoni Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |--Cosmopterigidae GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Glaphyristis marmarea P27c
    |    |         Trachydora droserodes P27c
    |    |         Euclemensia GE05
    |    |         Hyposmocoma O94
    |    |         Macrobathra diplochrysa ZS10, P27c
    |    |         Morphotica mirifica ZS10
    |    |         Thectophila Meyrick 1927 M27
    |    |           `--*T. acmotypa Meyrick 1927 M27
    |    |--Antequerinae NC91
    |    |--Walshiinae Co70
    |    |--Cosmopteriginae NC91
    |    `--Chrysopeleiinae NC91
    |         |--Chalotis semnostola NC91
    |         `--Ithome lassula NC91
    |--Coleophoridae GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Coleophora YS10
    |    |           |--C. alcyonipennella NC91
    |    |           |--C. frischella B88
    |    |           |--C. laricella F62
    |    |           |--C. lusitanica Baldizzone & Corley 2004 F05
    |    |           |--C. ochroneura Co70
    |    |           `--C. serinipennella NC91
    |    |         Multicoloria YS10
    |    |           |--M. eucoleos YS10
    |    |           `--M. singreni YS10
    |    |         Corythangela NC91
    |    |--Agapalsini F05
    |    `--Systrophoecini F05
    |         |--Systrophoeca Falkovitsh 1972 F05
    |         |--Orghidania F05
    |         `--Suireia F05
    |--Elachistidae GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Cosmiotes NC91
    |    |           |--C. aphanta Co70
    |    |           |--C. archaeonoma M83
    |    |           `--C. synethes NC91
    |    |         Elachista P27c
    |    |           |--E. archaeonoma P27c
    |    |           |--E. exaula P27c
    |    |           |--E. ombrodoca P27c
    |    |           `--E. thallophora P27c
    |    |         Ptilochares Meyrick 1887 M87
    |    |           `--*P. trissodesma Meyrick 1887 M87
    |    |         Castorura Meyrick 1887 M87
    |    |           `--*C. chrysias Meyrick 1887 M87
    |    |--Ethmiinae K07
    |    `--Stenomatinae [Stenomatidae] E03
    |         |--Agriophara Rosenstock 1885 E03
    |         |    |--*A. cinerosa E03
    |         |    |--A. confertella P27c
    |         |    `--A. platyscia NC91
    |         `--Eriogenes Meyrick 1925 E03
    |              |--*E. mesogypsa Meyrick 1925 E03
    |              |--E. cossoides (Butler 1882) [=Phanaca cossoides; incl. E. meyricki Duckworth 1973] E03
    |              `--E. nielseni Edwards 2003 E03
    |--Gelechiidae NS84
    |    |--Aristotelia furtiva P27c
    |    |--Anacampsis simplicella P27c
    |    |--Macrenches clerica P27c
    |    |--Stegasta variana P27c
    |    |--Anaptilora eremias P27c
    |    |--Cymatomorpha euplecta P27c
    |    |--Arega GE05
    |    |--Ardozyga stratifera ZS10
    |    |--Tachyptilia disquei YS10
    |    |--Chaliniastis astrapaea ZS10
    |    |--Hypatima spathota ZS10
    |    |--Harpella geoffroyella [incl. Geoffroyella gruneriella] H1904
    |    |--Cameraria ohridella V09
    |    |--Decatopseustis xanthastis NC91
    |    |--Anarsia molybdota NC91
    |    |--Xerometra crocina NC91
    |    |--Symmetrischema plaesiosema NC91
    |    |--Sitotroga cerealella NC91
    |    |--Atasthalistis ochreoviridella CS70
    |    |--Gaesa capnites Co70
    |    |--Brachiacma palpigera Co70
    |    |--Onebala hibisci Co70
    |    |--Magostolis Meyrick 1887 M87
    |    |    `--*M. uramaula Meyrick 1887 M87
    |    |--Dichomeris [Dichomeridinae] NC91
    |    |    |--D. capnites NC91
    |    |    `--D. ochreoviridella NC91
    |    |--Thiotricha NC91
    |    |    |--T. parthenica NC91
    |    |    `--T. tetraphala P27c
    |    |--Pexicopia [Pexicopiinae] YS10
    |    |    |--P. malvella YS10
    |    |    `--P. nephelombra NC91
    |    |--Gelechia [Gelechiinae] P27c
    |    |    |--G. monophragma P27c
    |    |    `--G. spurcella P01
    |    |--Pectinophora NS84
    |    |    |--P. gossypiella (Saunders 1843) GT12
    |    |    `--P. scutigera G84
    |    |--Scrobipalpa NC91
    |    |    |--S. apatella NC91
    |    |    |--S. heliopa Co70
    |    |    `--S. plaesiosema Co70
    |    |--Apatetris NC91
    |    |    |--A. melanombra P27c
    |    |    |--A. miarodes NC91
    |    |    `--A. poliopasta Co70
    |    |--Protolechia NC91
    |    |    |--P. aversella NC91
    |    |    |--P. deltodes NC91
    |    |    `--P. micropa P27c
    |    |--Phthorimaea NS84
    |    |    |--P. operculella NS84
    |    |    |--P. quieta Philpott 1927 P27a
    |    |    `--P. thyraula P27a
    |    `--Bryotropha F05
    |         |--B. heckfordi Karsholt & Rutten 2005 F05
    |         |--B. sutteri Karsholt & Rutten 2005 F05
    |         `--B. wolschrijni Karsholt & Rutten 2005 F05
    `--Oecophoridae [Cryptolechiadae, Depressariidae] GE05
         |  i. s.: Tingena DGH93
         |         Borkhausenia P27a
         |         Petalanthes M27
         |         Gymnobathra P27b
         |         Eulechria baryptera P27c
         |         Nymphostola galactina P27c
         |         Ochlogenes advectella P27c
         |         Machaeritis aegrella P27c
         |         Oxythecta acceptella P27c
         |         Coeranica isabella P27c
         |         Saropla philocala P27c
         |         Protomacha chalcaspis P27c
         |         Chezala conjunctella P27c
         |         Lophopepla igniferella P27c
         |         Zonopetala clerota P27c
         |         Callithauma pyrites P27c
         |         Eutorna pabulicola P27c
         |         Thudaca obliquella P27c
         |         Endorsis lactella P27c
         |         Schiffermuelleria orthopanes P27c
         |         Leptocroca meselectra P27c
         |         Euchersadaula lathriopa P27c
         |         Euthictis chloratma P27c
         |         Thamnosara sublitella P27c
         |         Telanepsia AY04
         |         Thyrocopa O94
         |         Opisina arnosella [incl. Nephantis serinopa] YS10
         |         Hoplomorpha abalienella ZS10
         |         Euchaetis ZS10
         |         Habroscopa iriodes ZS10
         |         Corocosma Meyrick 1927 M27
         |           `--*C. memorabilis Meyrick 1927 M27
         |         Pleurota P27c
         |           |--P. aorsella P01
         |           `--P. psammoxantha P27c
         |         Agonopterix P04
         |           |--A. alstromeriana P04
         |           `--A. arenella I92
         |         Piloprepes ZS10
         |           |--P. antidoxa ZS10
         |           `--P. lophoptera P27c
         |         Hierodoris H2004
         |           |--H. atychioides H2004
         |           `--H. frigida P27c
         |         Proteodes M27
         |           |--P. carnifex P27c
         |           `--P. melagrapha Meyrick 1927 M27
         |         Lathicrossa M27
         |           |--L. leucocentra P27c
         |           `--L. prophetica Meyrick 1927 M27
         |         Machimia P27c
         |           |--M. carnea P27c
         |           `--M. zatrephes P27c
         |         Cryptolechia P27c
         |           |--C. liochroa P27c
         |           `--C. radiosella P27c
         |         Coesyra P27c
         |           |--C. apora P27c
         |           |--C. dichroella P27c
         |           `--C. paulinella P27c
         |         Atomotricha P27c
         |           |--A. chloronota P27c
         |           |--A. exsomnis P27c
         |           `--A. ommatias L27
         |         Depressaria GE05
         |           |--D. daucella H91
         |           |--D. depressella H91
         |           `--D. pastinacella Retzius 1783 P04
         |         Trachypepla M27
         |           |--T. anastrella L27
         |           |--T. aspidephora L27
         |           |--T. conspicuella L27
         |           |--T. contritella P27c
         |           |--T. euryleucota T27
         |           |--T. indolescens Meyrick 1927 M27
         |           `--T. photinella M27
         |         Izatha P27c
         |           |--I. attactella L27
         |           |--I. convulsella L27
         |           |--I. epiphanes P27c
         |           |--I. mira L27
         |           |--I. peroneanella L27
         |           |--I. picarella L27
         |           `--I. planetella L27
         |         Peritornenta circulatella NC91
         |         Pedois NC91
         |         Tonica effractella NC91
         |         Enchocrates glaucopis NC91
         |         Placocosma resumptella [=Oecophora resumptella; incl. P. hephaestea Meyr. 1883] M86
         |         Antidica pilipes (Butl. 1882) [=Latometus pilipes; incl. A. eriophora Meyr. 1883] M86
         |         Gonionota pyrobola Meyrick 1887 M87
         |         Peritorneuta Co70
         |         Cormotypa fascialis Co70
         |         Sphaerelictis hepialella Co70
         |--Oecophorinae NC91
         |--Xyloryctinae MC13
         |--Stathmopodinae NC91
         `--Procometis [Autostichinae] NC91
              |--P. bisculcata NC91
              `--P. hylonoma P27c

Hypertropha tortriciformis [=Heliodes tortriciformis; incl. Orosana desumptana, Anthoecia divitiosa, Hypertropha thesaurella Meyr. 1880] M86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[Co70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[C74] Common, I. F. B. 1974. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 98–107. Melbourne University Press.

[CS70] CSIRO. 1970. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne University Press.

[DGH93] Daugherty, C. H., G. W. Gibbs & R. A. Hitchmough. 1993. Mega-island or micro-continent? New Zealand and its fauna. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8 (12): 437–442.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[E03] Edwards, E. D. 2003. A review of the genus Eriogenes Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae: Stenomatinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 67–73.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[F62] Flanders, S. E. 1962. Did the caterpillar exterminate the giant reptile? Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 1 (1): 85–88.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[GT12] Gunawardene, N. R., & C. K. Taylor. 2012. New records of Elasmus (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) species from Barrow Island, Western Australia. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 29: 21–35.

[H1904] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H2004] Harris, A. C. 2004. Range extensions of Ancistrocerus gazella (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) and Myomantis caffra (Mantodea: Mantidae). Weta 27: 31–32.

[H91] Hokkanen, H. M. T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 119–138.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K07] Kun, A. 2007. Studies on Palaearctic Ethmia Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 101–114.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693–696.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. Notes on synonymy of Australian micro-Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 803–806.

[M87] Meyrick, E. 1887. Descriptions of new Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1037–1048.

[M27] Meyrick, E. 1927. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 697–702.

[NS84] Naumann, I. D., & D. P. A. Sands. 1984. Two Australian Elasmus spp. (Hymenoptera: Elasmidae), parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): their taxonomy and biology. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 23: 25–32.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P04] Patrick, B. 2004. Parsnip moth established in New Zealand. Weta 27: 8–12.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P27a] Philpott, A. 1927a. New Zealand Lepidoptera: notes and descriptions. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 703–709.

[P27b] Philpott, A. 1927b. The genitalia of the genus Gymnobathra (Oecophoridae: Lepidoptera). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 716–721.

[P27c] Philpott, A. 1927c. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WRM02] Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier & C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31 (1): 67–81.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A., & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 25 May 2017.

Yponomeutoidea

Sedge moth Glyphipteryx chrysoplanetis, photographed by Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Ditrysia.

The Yponomeutoidea are a group of mostly small moths, the larvae of which bore in stems or leaves of plants.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Very small to medium sized, ocelli present or absent; chaetosemata usually absent; scape sometimes with pecten; proboscis naked; maxillary palps small, 1-4-segmented; labial palps short, drooping or moderately ascending; epiphysis present; spurs 0-2-4, rarely 0-2-0; fore wing with M rarely retained in discal cell, chorda and pterostigma often present, R5 usually to termen, venation sometimes reduced; retinaculum in female sometimes a subcostal scale-tuft; hind tibiae usually smooth, abdomen sometimes with inconspicuous dorsal spining, S2 of tineid type and usually with transverse rim near anterior margin, male segment 8 with pleural lobes present and often with paired coremata. Larva with 3 (sometimes 2) prespiracular setae on prothorax, crochets in a uniordinal, uniserial to multiserial circle, occasionally in transverse band or absent; boring in stems, mining in leaves, feeding beneath a slight webbing, or in a more extensive webbing. Pupa without dorsal abdominal spines, or rarely with dorsal transverse ridges; in larval gallery or in fusiform or oval, silken, sometimes network cocoon or exposed, usually not protruded from cocoon or shelter at ecdysis.

<==Yponomeutoidea
    |--Acrolepiidae M03
    |--Plutellidae M03
    |    |--Dolichernis chloroleuca P27
    |    |--Protosynaemis eratopis P27
    |    |--Chrysorthenches AY04
    |    |--Chrysoteuches AY04
    |    |--Proditrix M03
    |    |    |--P. nielseni McQuillan 2003 M03
    |    |    `--P. tetragona M03
    |    |--Orthenches P27
    |    |    |--O. glyphtarcha L27
    |    |    `--O. similis P27
    |    `--Plutella GE05
    |         |--P. antiphona L27
    |         |--P. maculipennis P27
    |         |--P. sera L27
    |         `--P. xylostella GE05
    |--Glyphipterygidae M03
    |    |--Tebenna bradleyi M83
    |    |--Imma acosma P27
    |    |--Heliostibes M27
    |    |    |--H. electrica P27
    |    |    `--H. vibratrix Meyrick 1927 M27
    |    |--Simaethis P27
    |    |    |--S. albifasciata P27
    |    |    |--S. analoga P27
    |    |    `--S. combinatana P27
    |    `--Glyphipteryx P27
    |         |--G. achlyoessa P27
    |         |--G. acronoma P27
    |         |--G. ataracta P27
    |         |--G. chrysoplanetis P27
    |         |--G. cometophora P27
    |         |--G. condonias L27
    |         |--G. octonaria P27
    |         |--G. transversella P27
    |         `--G. zelota P27
    `--+--Bedellia P27 [Bedelliidae M03]
       |    |--B. psamminella L27
       |    `--B. somnulentella P27
       |--Heliodinidae M03
       |    |--Thylacosceles acridomima P27
       |    |--Eretmocera flavicincta P27
       |    |--Vanicela P27
       |    |    |--V. disjunctella P27
       |    |    `--V. xenadelpha P27
       |    `--Stathmopoda P27
       |         |--S. coracodes P27
       |         |--S. crocophanes P27
       |         |--S. melanochroa P27
       |         |--S. phlegyra L27
       |         `--S. skelloni L27
       `--Lyonetidae M03
            |--Leucoptera spartifoliella P04
            |--Hectacma stilbella P27
            |--Hieroxestis P27
            |    |--H. hapsimacha L27
            |    `--H. omoscopa P27
            |--Eschatotypa P27
            |    |--E. derogatella P27
            |    `--E. melichrysa L27
            `--Erechthias M27
                 |--E. acrodina L27
                 |--E. charadota L27
                 |--E. externella M27
                 |--E. fulguritella L27
                 `--E. lychnopa Meyrick 1927 M27

Yponomeutoidea incertae sedis:
  Aegeriidae DS73
  Douglasia Stainton 1854 P66 [=Douglassia (l. c.) non Bartsch 1934 P66; Douglasiidae DS73]
  Yponomeutidae GE05
    |--Tonza purella P27
    |--Lactura egregiella P27
    |--Hyponomeuta interellus P27
    |--Zelleria copidota P27
    |--Atteva niveiguttella GE05, WM66 [=Corinea niveiguttella WM66]
    |--Urodus parvula GE05
    |--Yponomeuta malinella YS10
    `--Prays YS10
         |--P. citri RC91
         `--P. oleellus YS10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693-696.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M03] McQuillan, P. B. 2003. The giant Tasmanian ‘pandani’ moth Proditrix nielseni, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae s. l.) Invertebrate Systematics 17: 59-66.

[M27] Meyrick, E. 1927. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 697-702.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

[P04] Patrick, B. 2004. Parsnip moth established in New Zealand. Weta 27: 8-12.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: An evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1-184, pl. 1-23.

[RC91] Ragusa Di Chiara, S. 1991. Using native phytoseiids in agricultural cropping systems. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 159-166. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A. & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634-661.

Limacodidae

Caterpillar of mottled cup moth Doratifera vulnerans, photographed by Chris Greenaway.


Belongs within: Apoditrysia.

The Limacodidae are a widespread family of moths with reduced proboscids, with most species found in the tropics. Larvae of a number of species bear toxic needle-like setae, giving them the name of 'nettle caterpillars' (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to medium sized; head with rather smooth vestiture of piliform or lamellar scales; ocelli and chaetosemata absent; antenna bipectinate in male, at least in basal half, dentate or filiform in female; proboscis and maxillary palps minute or absent; labial palps short, 2- or 3-segmented; epiphysis absent; spurs 0-2-2 or 0-2-4, rarely absent; femora and tibiae often woolly; fore wing broad triangular, apex rounded, chorda absent, M present in cell, R3, R4 and R5 stalked, CuP present; hind wing with three frenular bristles in female, M present in cell, Sc+R1 fused with Rs near base or Sc is connected to Rs by R1, CuP present; female abdomen with lateral projections from segment 8. Eggs scale-like, in overlapping batches or singly. Larva heteromorphic; 1st instar larva broad and flattened, with four spines on each segment; later instar larvae slug-like, with head retracted, antennae long, thoracic legs reduced, prolegs absent, sometimes with ventral suckers on abdominal segments 1-7, setae often modified, with stinging hairs or reduced; feed exposed. Pupa in oval or pyriform cocoon, with circular, lid-like opening at one end.

<==Limacodidae [Cochlidiidae, Eucleidae]
    |--Susica humeralis P27
    |--Euclea paenulata GE05, P27
    |--Adoneta spinuloides P27
    |--Monoleuca semifascia P27
    |--Prolimacodes scapha P27
    |--Lithacodes fasciola P27
    |--Cochlidion biguttata P27
    |--Parasa lepida MHG04
    |--Pseudanapaea denotata ZS10
    |--Apoda Haworth 1809 [=Cochlidium Hübner 1822, Limacodes Berthold in Latreille 1827] P08
    |    `--*A. limacodes (Hufnagel 1766) [=*Cochlidium limacodes, *Limacodes limacodes] P08
    |--Doratifera B88
    |    |--D. oxlei P27
    |    `--D. vulnerans [=D. longerans (l. c.)] B88
    `--Baria Karsch 1896 O08
         |--*B. elsa (Druce 1888) [=Natada elsa] O08
         `--B. transversata Karsch 1899 O08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318-328.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

[O08] Özdikmen, H. 2008. Nomenclatural changes for some preoccupied harvestman genus group names (Arachnida: Opiliones). Turkish Journal of Arachnology 1 (1): 37-43.

[P08] Paclt, J. 2008. On the triple usage of the family name Apodidae in zoology (Aves; Crustacea; Insecta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 49-52.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Zygaenidae

Cadphises moorei, photographed by Jlee Xurbia at Tring Zoological Museum.


Belongs within: Apoditrysia.

The Zygaenidae are a family of often day-flying moths.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small; head smooth scaled; ocelli present or absent; chaetosemata most often present, often large; antennae filiform, serrate, bipectinate or clubbed, often thick; maxillary palps small, 1- or 2-segmented; labial palps ascending, short; wpiphysis present or absent; spurs 0-2-4, 0-2-2 or absent; hind tibiae smooth; wings rounded, often broad, 1A+2A with short fork; hind wing with Rs sometimes reduced basally, Sc+R1 close to or fused with Rs at base or at midlength, CuP present. Larva short and broad, with crochets in uniordinal mesoseries, anal fork sometimes present. Larvae feed exposed. Pupa stout and flattened, abdominal T2-8 or T3-8 each with transverse row of spines; with a few hooked anal setae; cremaster absent; protruded at ecdysis through broad, horizontal 'frog-mouth' slit in elongate or broadly oval, slightly domed cocoon.

<==Zygaenidae
    `--Chalcosiinae [Chalcosiidae] DS73
         |--Clelea sapphirina WM66
         |--Phalanna polymena WM66
         `--Cadphises DS73
              |--C. maculata DS73
              `--C. moorei DS73

Zygaenidae incertae sedis:
  Levuana iridescens H91
  Heteropan dolens H91
  Pollanisus iridescens P27
  Hystiaea DS73
    |--H. amazonica DS73
    `--H. proserpina DS73
  Zygaena GE05
    |--Z. carniolica (Scopoli 1763) JP05
    |--Z. ephialtes D51
    |--Z. filipendulae P27
    |--Z. ludicra Lucas 1849 E12
    |--Z. purpuralis (Brünnich 1763) JP05
    |--Z. turolensis GE05
    `--Z. viciae (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
  Euchromia DS73
    |--E. amoena DS73
    |--E. creusa P27
    `--E. formosa DS73
  Erasmia GE05
    |--E. aliris DS73
    |--E. pulchella DS73
    `--E. sanguiflua DS73
  Rjabovia Efetov & Tarmann 1995 F05
    `--*R. horni (Alberti 1937) [=Procris horni] F05
  Solaniterna Efetov 2004 F05
    `--*S. subsolana (Staudinger 1862) [=Inos subsolana] F05
  Tremewania Efetov & Tarmann 1999 F05
    `--*T. notata (Zeller 1847) [=Atychia notata] F05
  Wiegelia Efetov & Tarman 1995 F05
    `--*W. amasina (Herrich-Schäffer 1851) [=Procris amasina] F05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H91] Howarth, F. G. 1991. Environmental impacts of classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 485-509.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317-326.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.