Panorpoidea

Necrotaulius tener, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).


Belongs within: Holometabola.
Contains: Lepidoptera, Trichoptera, Permochoristidae, Mecoptera, Siphonaptera, Strepsiptera, Diptera.

The Panorpoidea is a clade of insects including the flies, moths and related taxa. The basalmost division in the clade is between the Antliophora, including flies, scorpionflies and fleas, and the Amphiesmenoptera, including moths and caddisflies, with stem representatives of both lineages appearing in the Permian (Ren et al. 2009). Basal members of the Amphiesmenoptera included forms superficially similar to scorpionflies such as the Permian Protomeropidae. These were medium-sized insects with an elongate head and mandibles, probably carnivorous, that had elongate mid and hind coxae that were probably used in jumping (Ivanov & Sukatsheva 2002).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Muscle present connecting pleura and first axillary sclerite at base of wing. Hind wing with veins CuP and A1 basally fused. Ovipositor reduced or absent. Larval labium lacking palp muscles.

Panorpoidea [Panorpida, Papilionidea]
    |--+--Kaltanidae [Cycloristidae, Tomiochoristidae] RL09
    |  |    |--Moravochorista carolina Kukalov√°-Peck & Willmann 1989 N02
    |  |    `--Altajopanorpa pilosa N02
    |  `--Amphiesmenoptera [Permotrichoptera, Protomeropina] GE05
    |       |  i. s.: Mesotrichopteridium IS02
    |       |         Cretotaulius ultimus IS02
    |       |         Trichopteridium IS02
    |       |          Paratrichopteridium IS02
    |       |--Protomeropidae IS02
    |       |    |--Marimerobius IS02
    |       |    `--Permomerope IS02
    |       |         |--P. australis Tillyard 1926 F71
    |       |         |--P. nanus Riek 1923 F71
    |       |         `--P. ramosa IS02
    |       `--+--Uraloptysma [Uraloptysmatidae] IS02
    |          |    `--U. maculata IS02
    |          |--Microptysmatidae GE05
    |          |    |--Microptysma sibiricum GE05
    |          |    `--Kamopanorpa IS02
    |          |         |--K. pritykinae IS02
    |          |         `--K. rotundipennis IS02
    |          `--+--Cladochorista [Cladochoristidae] GE05
    |             |    |--C. belmontensis Tillyard 1926 F71
    |             |    `--C. multivenosa IS02
    |             `--+--Lepidoptera GE05
    |                `--+--Trichoptera GE05
    |                   `--Necrotaulius [Necrotauliidae] GE05
    |                        |--N. marginatus IS02
    |                        |--N. parvulus (Geinitz 1884) IS02
    |                        |--N. proximus IS02
    |                        |--N. stigmaticus IS02
    |                        |--N. tener GE05
    |                        `--N. westwoodi IS02
    `--Antliophora (see below for synonymy) RL09
         |--Permocentropidae N02
         |--+--+--Sibiriothaumatidae RL09
         |  |  `--Agetopanorpa N02 [Agetopanorpidae, Agetopanorpinae RL09
         |  |       `--A. permiana N02
         |  `--Permochoristidae RL09
         `--+--Sylvopanorpinae
            `--+--Permopanorpidae [Lithopanorpidae, Martynopanorpidae] RL09
               |    |--Seniorita gratiosa N02
               |    `--Permopanorpa inaequalis GE05
               `--+--Belmontiidae [Parabelmontiidae] RL09
                  |    |--Belmontia mitchelli Tillyard 1919 F71
                  |    `--Parabelmontia permiana Tillyard 1922 F71
                  `--+--Mecopteroidea [Mecopterida] RL09
                     |    |--Muchoriidae RL09
                     |    `--+--Mecoptera RL09
                     |       `--Siphonaptera RL09
                     `--Halteria D03
                          |--Strepsiptera D03
                          `--+--Liassophilidae [Laurentipteridae, Pseudodipteridae] RL09
                             |    |--Ijapsyche sibirica N02
                             |    |--Liassophila N02
                             |    `--Laurentiptera gallica GE05
                             `--+--Permotanyderus F71 [Permotanyderidae RL09]
                                |    `--P. ableptus Riek 1953 F71
                                `--Diptera RL09

Antliophora [Boreoidea, Mecaptera, Mecoptera, Meropeoidea, Neomecoptera, Paramecoptera, Paratrichoptera, Pseudopolycentropodoidea] GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D03] Didham, R. K. 2003. New invertebrate phylogenies. Weta 25: 1-7.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[IS02] Ivanov, V. D., & I. D. Sukatsheva. 2002. Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813. The caddisflies (=Phryganeida Latreille, 1810). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 199-220. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[N02] Novokshonov, V. G. 2002. Order Panorpida Latreille, 1802. The scorpionflies (=Mecaptera Packard, 1886, =Mecoptera Comstock et Comstock, 1895, +Neomecoptera Hinton, 1958, +Paratrichoptera Tillyard, 1919, +Paramecoptera Tillyard, 1919). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 194-199. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RL09] Ren, D., C. C. Labandeira, J. A. Santiago-Blay, A. Rasnitsyn, C. Shih, A. Bashkuev, M. A. V. Logan, C. L. Hotton & D. Dilcher. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326: 840-847.

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