Muscinae

Morellia aenescens, copyright James K. Lindsey.


Belongs within: Azeliinae.
Contains: Neomyia, Mesembrina, Musca.

The Muscinae are a group of house flies including relatives of the cosmopolitan genus Musca and the blood-sucking genera Haematobia and Stomoxys.

Muscinae [Haematobiini, Muscini, Stomoxydinae] KP10
    |--+--+--Mesembrina KP10
    |  |  `--Polietes Rondani 1866 KP10, F92
    |  |       |--*P. lardaria (Fabricius 1781) [=Musca lardaria] F92
    |  |       |--P. domitor (Harris 1780) [=Musca domitor; incl. M. albolineata Fallén 1823] F92
    |  |       |--P. fuscisquamosus Emden 1965 [incl. P. (Pseudomorellia) omeishanensis Fan 1965] F92
    |  |       |--P. hirticrura Meade 1887 F92
    |  |       |--P. koreicus Park & Shinonaga 1985 F92
    |  |       |--P. nigrolimbata (Bonsdorff 1866) [=Aricia nigrolimbata] F92
    |  |       `--P. orientalis Pont 1972 F92
    |  `--Morellia Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 KP10, F92
    |       |--M. (Morellia) F92
    |       |    |--M. (M.) hortorum (Fallén 1816) [=Musca hortorum; incl. *Morellia agilis Robineau-Desvoidy 1830] F92
    |       |    |    |--M. h. hortorum F92
    |       |    |    `--M. h. tibetana Fan 1974 F92
    |       |    |--M. (M.) aenescens Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 F92
    |       |    |--M. (M.) latensispina Fang & Fan 1992 F92
    |       |    `--M. (M.) podagrica (Loew 1857) [=Cyrtoneura podagrica] F92
    |       `--M. (Dasysterna Zimin 1951) F92
    |            |--M. (D.) asetosa Baranov 1925 [incl. M. saishuensis Ôuchi 1942, M. simplicissima Zimin 1951] F92
    |            |--M. (D.) hainanensis Ni 1982 F92
    |            |--M. (D.) hortensia (Wiedemann 1824) (see below for synonymy) F92
    |            |--M. (D.) nigrisquama Malloch 1928 F92
    |            |--M. (D.) simplex (Loew 1857) [=Cyrtoneura simplex] F92
    |            |--M. (D.) sinensis Ôuchi 1942 F92
    |            |--M. (D.) sordidisquama Stein 1918 F92
    |            `--M. (D.) suifenhensis Ni 1982 F92
    `--+--+--Haematobia Le Peletier & Serville 1828 KP10, F92
       |  |    |--*H. irritans (Linnaeus 1758) [=Conops irritans, Lyperosia irritans] F92
       |  |    |--H. exigua de Meijere 1903 F92 (see below for synonymy)
       |  |    |--H. minuta (Bezzi 1892) [=Lyperosia minuta] F92
       |  |    |--H. stimulans A71
       |  |    `--H. titillans (Bezzi 1907) [=Lyperosia titillans] F92
       |  `--+--Musca KP10
       |     `--Eudasyphora Townsend 1911 KP10, F92
       |          |--E. cyanella (Meigen 1826) (see below for synonymy) F92
       |          |--E. cyanicolor (Zetterstedt 1845) [=Pyrellia cyanicolor, Dasyphora cyanicolor] F92
       |          |--E. dasyprosterna Fan & Qian in Fan 1992 F92
       |          |--E. kempi (Emden 1965) (see below for synonymy) F92
       |          |--E. pavlovskyi (Zimin 1951) F92
       |          `--E. tateyamensis Shinonaga 1976 F92
       `--+--Stomoxyini F92
          |    |--Haematostoma Malloch 1932 F92
          |    `--Stomoxys Geoffroy 1762 KP10, F92
          |         |--*S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758) [=Conops calcitrans] F92
          |         |--S. indicus Picard 1908 F92
          |         |--S. sitiens Rondani 1873 (see below for synonymy) F92
          |         `--S. uruma Shinonaga & Kano 1966 F92
          `--Haematobosca Bezzi 1907 KP10, F92
               |  i. s.: H. alcis HV87
               |--H. (Haematobosca) F92
               |    |--*H. (H.) atripalpis (Bezzi 1895) [=Haematobia atripalpis] F92
               |    `--H. (H.) perturbans (Bezzi 1907) [=Siphona perturbans] F92
               |--H. (Bdellolarynx Austen 1909) F92
               |    `--H. (B.) sanguinolenta (Austen 1909) (see below for synonymy) F92
               `--H. (Lyperosiops Townsend 1912) F92
                    `--H. (L.) stimulans (Meigen 1824) [=Stomoxys stimulans] F92

Muscinae incertae sedis:
  Mitroplatia Enderlein 1935 F92
    |--*M. pygmaea Enderlein 1935 F92
    |--M. albisquama F92
    `--M. nivemaculata Fan, Fang & Yang in Fan 1992 F92
  Dasyphora Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 F92
    |--‘Musca’ pratorum Meigen 1826 [incl. M. agilis Meigen 1826, *Dasyphora agilis] F92
    |--D. albofasciata (Macquart in Webb & Berthelot 1839) (see below for synonymy) F92
    |--D. apicotaeniata Ni 1982 F92
    |--D. asiatica Zimin 1947 F92
    |--D. gansuensis Ni 1982 F92
    |--D. gussakovskii Zimin 1947 F92
    |--D. paraversicolor Zimin 1951 F92
    |--D. quadrisetosa Zimin 1951 [incl. D. huiliensis Ni 1982, D. sinensis Ma 1979] F92
    |--D. tianshanensis Ni 1982 F92
    `--D. trichosterna Zimin 1951 F92
  Rypellia Malloch 1931 F92
    |--*R. flavipes Malloch 1931 F92
    |--R. malaisei (Emden 1965) [=Dasyphora (Rypellia) malaisei] F92
    `--R. semilutea (Malloch 1923) (see below for synonymy) F92
  Pyrellia Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 F92
    |--*P. vivida Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 F92
    |--P. habaheensis Fan & Qian in Fan 1992 F92
    |--P. minuta Zimin 1951 F92
    |--P. rapax (Harris 1870) (see below for synonymy) F92
    |--P. secunda Zimin 1951 F92
    `--P. serena K01
  Neomyia F92
  Curranosia Paterson 1957 F92
  Stygeromyia Austen 1907 F92
    `--S. maculosa Austen 1907 F92

Dasyphora albofasciata (Macquart in Webb & Berthelot 1839) [=Lucilia albofasciata; incl. D. saltuum Rondani 1862] F92

Eudasyphora cyanella (Meigen 1826) [=Musca cyanella, Dasyphora cyanella; incl. Lucilia lasiophthalma Macquart 1834, *Eudasyphora lasiophthalma] F92

Eudasyphora kempi (Emden 1965) [=Dasyphora cyanicolor kempi, E. cyanicolor kempi; incl. D. qinghaiensis Ni 1982] F92

Haematobia exigua de Meijere 1903 F92 [=H. irritans exigua F04; incl. Haematobia australis Malloch 1932 F92, Lyperosia flavohirta Brunetti 1910 F92]

Haematobosca (Bdellolarynx) sanguinolenta (Austen 1909) [=Bdellolarynx sanguinolenta; incl. Haematobia aculeata Séguy 1935, Siphona carabao Bohart & Gressitt 1946, Haematobia chinensis Patton 1933, Haematobia rufipes Stein 1918] F92

Morellia (Dasysterna) hortensia (Wiedemann 1824) [=Musca hortensia; incl. Musca hortulana Wiedemann 1830, Pyrellia nigerrima Enderlein 1934, Morellia pingi Hsieh 1958] F92

Pyrellia rapax (Harris 1870) [=Musca rapax; incl. M. aenea Zetterstedt 1838, Pyrellia ignita Robineau-Desvoidy 1830] F92

Rypellia semilutea (Malloch 1923) [=Orthellia semilutea; incl. Pyrellia flavipes Enderlein 1934 non R. flavipes Malloch 1931, R. fulvipes Malloch 1932] F92

Stomoxys sitiens Rondani 1873 [=Stomoxia sitiens; incl. Stomoxys dubitalis Malloch 1932, Stomoxys separabilis Séguy 1935] F92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F04] Ferrar, P. 2004. Australian entomology: isolated, or in touch with the rest of the world? Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 329–333.

[HV87] Huckett, H. C., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Muscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1131. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

Onchocercidae

Onchocerca volvulus, from here.


Belongs within: Spiruromorpha.

The Onchocercidae are a group of parasitic nematodes whose life cycles alternate between insect and tetrapod hosts. The early larval stages lack spines and accumulate in host tissues, and the adults have a smooth and rounded head.

<==Onchocercidae
    |--Litomosoides L07
    |    |--L. oxymycteri L07
    |    `--L. sigmodontis PB07 [incl. L. carinii J02]
    `--Onchocerca PB07
         |--O. armillata G02
         |--O. cervicalis B02
         |--O. gutturosa B02
         |--O. lienalis L02
         |--O. ochengi B02
         `--O. volvulus PB07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B02] Behm, C. A. 2002. Metabolism. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 261–290. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[G02] Gibbons, L. M. 2002. General organisation. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 31–59. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[J02] Justine, J.-L. 2002. Male and female gametes and fertilisation. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 73–119. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L07] Lareschi, M. 2007. Seasonal occurrence of ectoparasites associated with the water rat Scapteromys aquaticus (Muridae, Sigmodontinae) from Punta Lara, Argentina. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congres, pp. 233–240. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[L02] Lee, D. L. 2002. Cuticle, moulting and exsheathment. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 171–209. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[PB07] Philippe, H., H. Brinkmann, P. Martinez, M. Riutort & J. Baguña. 2007. Acoel flatworms are not Platyhelminthes: evidence from phylogenomics. PloS One 2 (8): e717.

Scapteromyini

Ihering's hocicudo Brucepattersonius iheringi, copyright Paulo Ricardo de Oliveira Roth.


Belongs within: Sigmodontinae.

The Scapteromyini are a group of fossorial and semi-aquatic mice found in central South America. The group has been recognised to include the genera Scapteromys, Kunsia and Bibimys but its monophyly has been questioned.

Scapteromyini N10
    |--+--Scapteromys FS15
    |  |    |--S. aquaticus L07
    |  |    `--S. tumidus (Waterhouse 1837) L07
    |  `--Kunsia FS15
    |       |--K. fronto IT07
    |       `--K. tomentosus IT07
    `--+--Bibimys FS15
       |    |--B. labiosus (Winge 1887) FS15, N10 [=Scapteromys labiosus N10]
       |    `--+--B. chacoensis FS15
       |       `--B. torresi FS15
       `--+--Lenoxus apicalis FS15
          `--+--Blarinomys breviceps FS15
             `--Brucepattersonius FS15
                  |--B. albinasus FS15
                  |--B. griserufescens FS15
                  |--B. guarani FS15
                  |--B. igniventris FS15
                  |--B. iheringi FS15
                  |--B. misionensis FS15
                  |--B. paradisus FS15
                  `--B. soricinus FS15

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[L07] Lareschi, M. 2007. Seasonal occurrence of ectoparasites associated with the water rat Scapteromys aquaticus (Muridae, Sigmodontinae) from Punta Lara, Argentina. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 233–240. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

Celmisia subsection Imbricatae

White cushion mountain daisy Celmisia sessiliflora, copyright Leon Perrie.


Belongs within: Celmisia.

The subsection Imbricatae of the genus Celmisia is a group of New Zealand mountain daisies that grow as subshrubs with their leaves not concentrated in clusters (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Subshrubs with hard woody stems and branches; leaves imbricate along branches, living leaves not concentrated in rosulate clusters at tips of branches, sheaths long-persistent; disk-florets yellow.

Celmisia subsect. Imbricatae Allan 1961 A61
    |--C. ser. Robustae Allan 1961 non Pedicularis ser. Robustae Prain 1890 A61
    |    |--C. (sect. *Lignosae subsect. *I. ser. *R.) ramulosa Hooker 1867 A61
    |    |    |--C. r. var. ramulosa A61
    |    |    `--C. r. var. tuberculata Simpson & Thomson 1942 A61
    |    |--C. brevifolia Cockayne ex Cheeseman 1925 A61
    |    |--C. gibbsii Cheeseman 1906 A61
    |    |--C. lateralis Buchan. 1872 A61
    |    |    |--C. l. var. lateralis A61
    |    |    `--C. l. var. villosa Cheeseman 1906 A61
    |    |--C. rupestris Cheeseman 1884 A61
    |    `--C. walkeri Kirk 1877 A61
    `--C. ser. Nanae Allan 1961 A61
         |--C. (ser. *N.) laricifolia Hooker 1855 A61
         |--C. argentea Kirk 1899 [incl. C. sessiliflora var. minor Petrie 1883] A61
         |--C. clavata Simpson & Thomson 1942 (n. d.) A61
         `--C. sessiliflora Hooker 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61

Celmisia sessiliflora Hooker 1864 [incl. C. sessiliflora var. ambigua Simpson 1945 (n. n.), C. sessiliflora var. pedunculata Kirk 1899] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

Ericameria

Grey rabbitbush Chrysothamnus nauseosus, copyright Walter Siegmund.


Belongs within: Astereae.

Ericameria is a genus of shrubby composite plants found in western North America.

Characters (from Roberts & Urbatsch 2003): Habit shrubby; leaves resin-coated, filiform to laminar; captulescences usually corymbiform; phyllaries multiseriate, imbricate, with evident costae; ray corollas, when present, usually small; pappus uniseriate, composed of barbellate bristles.

<==Ericameria
    |  i. s.: E. albida [=Chrysothamnus albidus] RU03
    |--E. sect. Ericameria [=Haplopappus sect. Ericameria] RU03
    |    |--E. arborescens RU03 [=Haplopappus arborescens H93]
    |    |--E. brachylepis RU03 [incl. Haplopappus propinquus H93]
    |    |--E. cooperi RU03 [=Haplopappus cooperi H93]
    |    |--E. cuneata RU03 [=Haplopappus cuneatus H93
    |    |    |--E. c. var. cuneata H93
    |    |    |--E. c. var. macrocephala H93
    |    |    `--E. c. var. spathulata [=Haplopappus cuneatus var. spathulatus] H93
    |    |--E. ericoides RU03 [=Haplopappus ericoides H93; incl. E. ericoides ssp. blakei H93]
    |    |--E. fasciculata RU03 [incl. Haplopappus eastwoodiae H93]
    |    |--E. juarezensis RU03
    |    |--E. laricifolia RU03 [=Haplopappus laricifolius H93]
    |    |--E. martirensis RU03
    |    |--E. palmeri RU03 [=Haplopappus palmeri H93]
    |    |    |--E. p. var. palmeri H93
    |    |    `--E. p. var. pachylepis [=Haplopappus palmeri var. pachylepis] H93
    |    |--E. paniculata [=Chrysothamnus paniculatus] RU03
    |    |--E. parishii RU03 [=Haplopappus parishii H93, E. arborescens ssp. parishii H93]
    |    |    |--E. p. var. parishii H93
    |    |    `--E. p. var. peninsularis H93
    |    |--E. pinifolia RU03 [=Haplopappus pinifolius H93]
    |    `--E. teretifolia [=Chrysothamnus teretifolius] RU03
    |--E. sect. Asiris [=Haplopappus sect. Asiris] RU03
    |    |--E. cervina RU03
    |    |--E. nana RU03 [=Haplopappus nanus H93]
    |    |--E. obovata RU03
    |    |--E. resinosa RU03
    |    `--E. watsonii [=Macronema watsonii] RU03
    |--E. sect. Macronema [=Haplopappus sect. Macronema] RU03
    |    |--E. bloomeri RU03 [=Haplopappus bloomeri H93]
    |    |--E. × bolanderi [E. discoidea × E. nauseosa] RU03
    |    |--E. compacta RU03
    |    |--E. crispa RU03
    |    |--E. discoidea [=Haplopappus macronema] RU03
    |    |    |--E. d. var. discoidea RU03
    |    |    `--E. d. var. linearis RU03
    |    |--E. gilmanii RU03 [=Haplopappus gilmanii H93]
    |    |--E. greenei RU03 [=Haplopappus greenei H93]
    |    |--E. lignumviridis RU03
    |    |--E. nauseosa [=Chrysothamnus nauseosus] RU03
    |    |    |--E. n. ssp. nauseosa RU03
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus nauseosus’ ssp. albicaulis [incl. C. californicus, C. nauseosus var. macrophyllus] H93
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus nauseosus’ ssp. bernardinus H93
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus nauseosus’ ssp. ceruminosus H93
    |    |    |--E. n. ssp. consimilis RU03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus nauseosus’ ssp. hololeucus [incl. C. nauseosus ssp. gnaphalodes] H93
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus nauseosus’ ssp. leiospermus H93
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus nauseosus’ ssp. mohavensis H93
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus nauseosus’ ssp. × viscosus [C. nauseosus ssp. hololeucus × Ericameria cuneata] H93
    |    |    `--‘Chrysothamnus nauseosus’ ssp. washoensis H93
    |    |--E. ophitidis RU03 [=Haplopappus ophitidis H93]
    |    |--E. parryi [=Chrysothamnus parryi] RU03
    |    |    |--E. p. ssp. parryi H93
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus’ p. ssp. × bolanderi [C. nauseosus ssp. albicaulis × Ericameria discoidea] H93
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus’ p. ssp. asper H93
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus’ p. ssp. imulus H93
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus’ p. ssp. latior H93
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus’ p. ssp. monocephalus H93
    |    |    |--‘Chrysothamnus’ p. ssp. nevadensis H93
    |    |    `--‘Chrysothamnus’ p. ssp. vulcanicus H93
    |    |--E. suffruticosa RU03 [=Haplopappus suffruticosus H93]
    |    `--E. zionis RU03
    `--E. (sect. Stenotopsis) linearifolia [=Haplopappus linearifolius] RU03

Ericameria nauseosa ssp. consimilis RU03 [=Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. consimilis H93; incl. C. nauseosus ssp. viridulus H93]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[RU03] Roberts, R. P., & L. E. Urbatsch. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of Ericameria (Asteraceae, Astereae) based on nuclear ribosomal 3´ ETS and ITS sequence data. Taxon 52: 209–228.

Celmisia subsection Rosulatae

Woolly mountain daisy Celmisia incana, copyright Nuytsia@Tas.


Belongs within: Celmisia.

The subsection Rosulatae of the genus Celmisia is a group of New Zealand mountain daisies that grow as subshrubs with leaves concentrated in clusters at the tips of the branches (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Subshrubs with hard woody stems and branches; leaves imbricate along branches, living leaves concentrated in rosulate clusters at tips of branches, sheaths long-persistent; disk-florets yellow.

Celmisia subsect. Rosulatae Allan 1961 A61
    |--C. ser. Discoloratae Allan 1961 A61
    |    |--C. (subsect. *R. ser. *D.) discolor Hooker 1853 A61
    |    |    |--C. d. var. discolor A61
    |    |    |--C. d. var. ampla Allan 1961 A61
    |    |    `--C. d. var. intermedia (Petrie) Allan 1961 [=C. intermedia Petrie 1913] A61
    |    |--C. angustifolia Cockayne 1915 A61
    |    |--C. bonplandii (Buchan.) Allan 1961 [=Erigeron bonplandii Buchan. 1887] A61
    |    |--C. cockayniana Petrie 1912 A61
    |    |--C. du-rietzii Cockayne & Allan ex Martin 1936 A61
    |    |--C. haastii Hooker 1864 A61
    |    |    |--C. h. var. haastii A61
    |    |    `--C. h. var. tomentosa Simpson & Thomson 1942 A61
    |    |--C. hectori Hooker 1864 A61
    |    |--C. incana Hooker 1853 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--C. lindsayi Hooker 1864 A61
    |    `--C. × poppelwellii Petrie 1915 [C. haastii × C. hectori] A61
    |--C. ser. Glabratae Allan 1961 A61
    |    `--C. (ser. *G.) sinclairii Hooker 1864 A61
    |--C. ser. Lanatae Allan 1961 A61
    |    |--C. (ser. *L.) allanii Martin 1935 [incl. C. allanii var. canescens Martin 1935] A61
    |    `--C. macmahonii Kirk 1895 A61
    |         |--C. m. var. macmahonii A61
    |         `--C. m. var. hadfieldii Martin in Allan 1961 A61
    `--C. ser. Viscosae Allan 1961 A61
         `--C. (ser. *V.) viscosa Hooker 1864 A61

Celmisia incana Hooker 1853 [incl. C. incana var. nivalis Martin 1935, C. incana var. petiolata Kirk 1899 non C. petiolata Hooker 1864, C. robusta Buchan. 1887] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

Cotula

Brass buttons Cotula coronopifolia, copyright Franco Folini.


Belongs within: Anthemideae.

Cotula, buttonweeds, is a mostly Southern Hemisphere genus of composite herbs bearing solitary flower heads that usually lack ray florets on terminal peduncles.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Small herbs with alternate leaves; heads small, with all flowers of equal length, solitary on rather long terminal peduncles. Involucre hemispherical, bracts nearly equal with scarious margins, in about two rows; receptacle naked; outer flowers female or bisexual, fertile, usually without corollas; disk-flowers numerous, tubular, four-toothed, bisexual and sterile or fertile; achenes very small (rarely over one millimetre long), more or less compressed, smooth or almost so; pappus absent.

<==Cotula Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |  i. s.: C. bipinnata BR65
    |         C. cotuloides GK00
    |         C. filifolia BR65
    |         C. hemisphaerica VB02
    |         C. monticola Simpson 1952 (n. d.) A61
    |         C. reptans BR65
    |         C. scariosa D03
    |         C. turbinata GK00
    |         C. vulgaris Levyns 1941 [incl. C. filifolia var. decumbens] BR65
    |--C. (subg. Cotula) coronopifolia Linnaeus 1753 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    `--C. (subg. Strongylosperma) australis (Sieb. ex Spreng.) Hooker 1853 (see below for synonymy) A61

Cotula australis (Sieb. ex Spreng.) Hooker 1853 [=Anacyclus australis Sieb. ex Spreng. 1826, Strongylosperma australe Less. 1832; incl. Cotula venosa Colenso 1891] A61

Cotula coronopifolia Linnaeus 1753 A61 [incl. C. integrifolia Hooker 1856 A61, C. coronopifolia var. integrifolia C06]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

Nothridae

Nothrus silvestris, copyright R. Penttinen.


Belongs within: Desmonomata.

The Nothridae are a cosmopolitan group of oribatid mites found feeding on decaying plant matter and fungi. Members of the largest genus in the family, Nothrus, are parthenogenetic but the smaller genera Trichonothrus and Novonothrus reproduce sexually (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009). The greater number of species of Nothrus have been recorded from the Holarctic region but a number of species have disjunct distribution in the northern and southern temperate regions: for instance, Nothrus silvestris is known from New Zealand as well as across the Holarctic (Subías 2004).

Characters (from Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009): Integument distinctly foveolate; rostrum with short medial incision; bothridial seta setiform, longer than seta in; bothridium basally with many saccules or short brachytracheae; epimere II with 3 or more pairs of setae; 9 pairs of genital setae, 1 posterior pair far from medial edge of plate.

<==Nothridae [Nothroidea] S04
    |--Trichonothrus Mahunka 1986 S04
    |    `--*T. austroafricanus Mahunka 1986 S04
    |--Novonothrus Hammer 1966 S04
    |    |--*N. flagellatus Hammer 1966 S04
    |    |--N. covarrubiasi Casanueva & Norton 1997 S04
    |    |--N. kethleyi Casanueva & Norton 1998 S04
    |    |--N. papuensis Hammer 1966 S04
    |    `--N. puyehue Casanueva & Norton 1997 S04
    `--Nothrus Koch 1836 [=Angelia Berlese 1885; incl. Gymnonothrus Ewing 1917, Vigilomicrozetes Tseng 1982] S04
         |--*N. palustris Koch 1839 S04 [=*Angelia palustris CH98]
         |    |--N. p. palustris [incl. N. pallens Koch 1844] S04
         |    |--N. p. azorensis Pérez-Íñigo 1987 S04
         |    `--N. p. bipilis Banks 1895 S04
         |--N. akitaensis Fujikawa 1999 S04
         |--N. anauniensis Canestrini & Fanzago 1876 S04 (see below for synonymy)
         |--N. angolensis Balogh 1958 (n. d.) S04
         |--N. ashoroensis Fujikawa 1999 S04
         |--N. asiaticus Aoki & Ohnishi 1974 [=N. palustris asiaticus] S04
         |--N. basilewskyi Balogh 1958 S04
         |--N. becki Balogh & Mahunka 1981 S04
         |--N. biciliatus Koch 1841 (n. d.) S04 [=Camisia biciliatus CH98]
         |--N. bicolor Koch 1844 (n. d.) S04
         |--N. bispinosus Koch 1839 (n. d.) S04
         |--N. borussicus Sellnick 1928 S04
         |    |--N. b. borussicus S04
         |    `--N. b. neonominatus Subías 2004 (see below for synonymy) S04
         |--N. brasilensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1988 S04
         |--N. brevirostris (Ewing 1910) [=Notaspis brevirostris] S04
         |--N. coniferus Gordeeva & Karppinen 1984 S04
         |--N. corticalis Karpelles 1893 (n. d.) S04
         |--N. crassisetus Mahunka 1982 S04
         |--N. crinitus (Berlese 1916) (see below for synonymy) S04
         |--N. discifer Hammer 1961 S04
         |--N. espinarensis Beck 1962 S04
         |--N. ezoensis Fujikawa 1999 S04
         |--N. flagellum Csiszár 1961 S04
         |--N. gracilis Hammer 1961 S04
         |--N. hatanoensis Fujikawa 1999 S04
         |--N. hauseri Mahunka 1974 S04
         |--N. horridus S22
         |--N. illautus Sellnick 1918 S93
         |--N. ishikariensis Fujikawa 199 S04
         |--N. jaliscoensis Palacios-Vargas & Iglesias 1997 S04
         |--N. leleupi Balogh 1958 S04
         |--N. longipilus (Berlese 1910) [=Angelia anaueniensis longipilus] S04
         |--N. lucunosus Sergienko & Melamud 1993 S04
         |--N. lugubris Canestrini 1898 (n. d.) S04
         |--N. macedi Beck 1962 S04
         |--N. madagascarensis Mahunka 2000 S04
         |--N. magnus Palacios-Vargas & Iglesias 1997 S04
         |--N. meakanensis Fujikawa 1999 S04
         |--N. minimus Koch 1844 (n. d.) S04
         |--N. mirabilis Sergienko & Melamud 1993 S04
         |--N. monodactylus (Berlese 1910) (see below for synonymy) S04
         |--N. monticola Hammer 1961 S04
         |--N. mystax Mahunka 1986 S04
         |--N. oblongus Hammer 1961 S04
         |--N. obsoletus (Koch 1841) (n. d.) [=Celaeno obsoletus] S04
         |--N. oceanicus Sellnick 1959 S04
         |--N. ovivorus Packard 1868 (n. d.) [incl. Oribata aspidioti Ashmead 1879] S04
         |--N. parvus Sitnikova 1975 S04
         |--N. perezinigoi Mahunka 1980 S04
         |--N. peruensis Hammer 1961 S04
         |--N. pileiformis Karpelles 1884 (n. d.) S04
         |--N. posticus Koch 1839 (n. d.) S04
         |--N. praeoccupatus Subías 2004 (see below for synonymy) S04
         |--N. pratensis Sellnick 1928 S04
         |--N. pulchellus (Berlese 1910) [=Angelia pulchella] S04
         |--N. pumilatus Golosova & Karppinen 1985 S04
         |--N. quadripilus Ewing 1909 S04
         |--N. reticulatus Sitnikova 1975 S04
         |--N. reunionensis Mahunka 1978 S04
         |--N. sadoensis Fujikawa 1999 S04
         |--N. senegalensis Mahunka 1992 S04
         |--N. septatus Golosova & Karppinen 1985 S04
         |--N. seychellensis Warburton 1912 [incl. N. scotti Warburton 1912] S04
         |--N. silvestris Nicolet 1855 ME09 [=*Gymnonothrus sylvestris CH98]
         |    |--N. s. silvestris S04
         |    |--N. s. bistilus Jacot 1937 S04
         |    `--N. s. exilior Jaoct 1937 S04
         |--N. silvicus Jacot 1937 [=N. truncatus silvicus] S04
         |--N. springsmythi Sheals 1965 S04
         |--N. suramericanus Hammer 1958 S04
         |--N. taisetsuensis Fujikawa 1999 S04
         |--N. truncatus Banks 1895 S04
         |    |--N. t. truncatus S04
         |    `--N. t. robustus Jacot 1937 S04
         `--N. willmanni Mahunka 1983 S04

Nothrus anauniensis Canestrini & Fanzago 1876 S04 [=N. silvestris anauniensis B-PE07; incl. N. pseudoborussicus Mahunka 1978 S04]

Nothrus borussicus neonominatus Subías 2004 [=N. b. longipilus Mihelčič 1959 non Angelia anauniensis longipilus Berlese 1910] S04

Nothrus crinitus (Berlese 1916) non Warburton & Pearce 1905 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.) [=Angelia pulchella var. crinita] S04

Nothrus monodactylus (Berlese 1910) [=Angelia anauniensis monodactyla non Nothrus monodactylus Michael 1888 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.); incl. N. terminalis carolinae Jaoct 1937, N. terminalis Banks 1910] S04

Nothrus praeoccupatus Subías 2004 [=Vigilomicrozetes pulchellus Tseng 1982 non Angelia pulchella Berlese 1910] S04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B-PE07] Behan-Pelletier, V. M., & B. Eamer. 2007. Aquatic Oribatida: adaptations, constraints, distribution and ecology. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 71–82. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[CH98] Colloff, M. J., & R. B. Halliday. 1998. Oribatid Mites: A catalogue of Australian genera and species. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[ME09] Maraun, M., G. Erdmann, G. Schulz, R. A. Norton, S. Scheu & K. Domes. 2009. Multiple convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites indicates the primacy of ecology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 276: 3219–3227.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

Last updated: 25 February 2019.

Austrachipteria

Austrachipteria sp., photographed by S. E. Thorpe.


Belongs within: Hydrozetoidea.

Austrachipteria is a genus of oribatid mites that is most diverse in Australasia though a single species A. pulla is known from Japan (Subías 2004).

Characters (from Balogh & Balogh 1992): Lamellae synlamellate; pteromorphae immovable; octotaxic system sacculonotic, four pairs of sacculi; ten pairs of notograstral setae present, setae lm and lp originating almost in same longitudinal row as setae c2, h1 and h3; six pairs of genital setae present, one pair of aggenital setae, two pairs of anal setae; three pairs of adanal setae; legs tridactyle.

Austrachipteria Balogh & Mahunka 1966 [incl. Parahypozetes Hammer 1967] S04
    |--*A. lamellata Balogh & Mahunka 1966 S04
    |--A. bidactyla (Balogh & Balogh 1983) [=Parahypozetes bidactylus] S04
    |--A. bidentata (Hammer 1967) [=Parahypozetes bidentatus] S04
    |--A. breviseta (Balogh & Balogh 1983) [=Parahypozetes brevisetus] S04
    |--A. furcata (Hammer 1967) [=Parahypozetes furcatus] S04
    |--A. gigantea (Hammer 1967) [=Parahypozetes giganteus] S04
    |--A. grandis (Hammer 1967) S04 [=*Parahypozetes grandis CH98]
    |--A. hammerae Balogh & Balogh 1992 (see below for synonymy) S04
    |--A. lobata (Hammer 1967) [=Parahypozetes lobatus] S04
    |--A. macrodentata (Hammer 1967) [=Parahypozetes macrodentatus] S04
    |--A. maxima (Hammer 1967) [=Parahypozetes maximus] S04
    |--A. pulla Aoki & Honda 1985 S04
    `--A. quadridentata (Hammer 1967) [=Parahypozetes quadridentatus] S04

Austrachipteria hammerae Balogh & Balogh 1992 [incl. Parahypozetes hammerae Mahunka 1997 non A. hammerae Balogh & Balogh 1992, P. lobatus Balogh & Balogh 1983 non Hammer 1967, Austrachipteria marieae Colloff & Halliday 1998] S04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Balogh, J., & P. Balogh. 1992. The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 1. Hungarian Natural History Museum: Budapest.

[CH98] Colloff, M. J., & R. B. Halliday. 1998. Oribatid Mites: A catalogue of Australian genera and species. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

Ameronothroidea

Tegeocranellus alas, copyright B. Eamer.


Belongs within: Poronoticae.
Contains: Halozetes.

The Ameronothroidea are a group of mostly semi-aquatic oribatid mites, inhabiting locations such as ephemeral rock pools or intertidal littoral zones. Gas exchange may be facilitated during immersion by a cerotegumental plastron and/or taenidia and tecta in the pleural region (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009). Some species of Ameronothridae are noteworthy for being found in extreme environments in the Arctic or Antarctic (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009). Members of the genera Antarcticola and Pseudantarcticola have fewer setae on the notogaster than other genera of Ameronothridae, with only ten or eleven pairs versus the twelve or more pairs of the latter (Balogh & Balogh 1992).

Characters (from Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009): Adults with integument often weakly sclerotised and easily distorted. Prodorsum with or without lamellae, adjacent medially or separated, and lamellar cusps. Tutorium and translamella present or absent. Gena1 notch absent. Bothridial seta normally developed or extremely small, or absent. Chelicerae rhelate-dentate; palpal eupathidium acm separate from solenidion; subcapitular mentum without tectum. Axillary saccule of subcapitulum absent. Dorsophragmata and pleurophragmata present or absent. Discidium present or absent, custodium absent. Pedotectum I large, extending to base of bothridium, subdivided, or absent. Pedotectum II present or absent. With or without tecta laterally to maintain plastron around sejugal region and acetabulum III. Coxisternal setation various (3-1-3-2, 3-1-2-2, 3-1-3-2, 2-1-2-3, or 1-1-1-1). Genital setation 3, 5, or 6 pairs. Ovipositor and spermatopositor with 11-12 setae. Notogaster overhanging ventral plate. Lenticulus present or absent. Immatures apheredermous, plicate, opisthonotum often smooth and convex centrodorsally; unideficient or bideficient. Prodorsal, adanal, and latero-hysterosomal porose regions (or their saccule homologues) present or absent. Seta d variably present on tibiae and genua when respective solenidion is present.

<==Ameronothroidea S04
    |--Ameronothridae SK10
    |    |--Aquanothrus Engelbrecht 1975 [Aquanothridae] S04
    |    |    `--*A. montanus Engelbrecht 1975 S04
    |    |--Capillibates Hammer 1966 S04
    |    |    `--*C. stagaardi Hammer 1966 S04
    |    |--Chudalupia Wallwork 1981 S04
    |    |    `--*C. meridionalis Wallwork 1981 S04
    |    |--Pseudantarcticola Balogh 1970 S04
    |    |    `--*P. tropica Balogh 1970 S04
    |    |--Antarcticola Wallwork 1967 [incl. Petrozetes Sitnikova 1968] S04
    |    |    |--*A. meyeri Wallwork 1967 [incl. Petrozetes oblongus Sitnikova 1968] S04
    |    |    `--A. georgiae Wallwork 1970 S04
    |    |--Alaskozetes Hammer 1955 S04
    |    |    |--*A. coriaceus Hammer 1955 S04
    |    |    |--A. antarcticus (Michael 1903) S04 [=Notaspis antarctica S04, Halozetes antarctica CH98]
    |    |    |    |--A. a. antarcticus S04
    |    |    |    |--A. a. grandjeani (Dalenius 1958) S04 [=Halozetes antarctica grandjeani CH98]
    |    |    |    `--A. a. intermedius Wallork 1967 S04
    |    |    `--A. bouvetoyaensis Pletzen & Kok 1971 S04
    |    |--Ameronothrus Berlese 1896 [incl. Hygroribates Jacot 1934] S04
    |    |    |--*A. lineatus (Thorell 1871) (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    |    |--A. bilineatus (Michael 1888) [=Scutovertex bilineatus] S04
    |    |    |--A. dubinini Sitnikova 1975 S04
    |    |    |--A. harioti (Michael 1891) (n. d.) [=Scutovertex harioti] S04
    |    |    |--A. lapponicus Dalenius 1963 S04
    |    |    |--A. maculatus (Michael 1882) (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    |    |--A. marinus (Banks 1896) S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--A. nidicola Sitnikova 1975 S04
    |    |    |--A. nigrofemoratus (Koch 1879) [=Nothrus nigrofemoratus; incl. A. lineatus brevipes Willmann 1937] S04
    |    |    |--A. oblongus Sitnikova 1975 S04
    |    |    |--A. schneideri (Oudemans 1905) [=Scutovertex schneideri] S04
    |    |    |--A. schubarti Weigmann & Schulte 1975 S04
    |    |    `--A. schusteri Schubart 1970 S04
    |    `--Halozetes S04
    |--Fortuyniidae S04
    |    |--Circellobates Luxton 1992 S04
    |    |    `--*C. venustus Luxton 1992 S04
    |    |--Alismobates Luxton 1992 S04
    |    |    |--*A. reticulatus Luxton 1992 S04
    |    |    `--A. rotundus Luxton 1992 S04
    |    `--Fortuynia Hammen 1960 S04
    |         |--*F. marina Hammen 1960 S04
    |         |--F. elamellata Luxton 1967 S04
    |         |    |--F. e. elamellata S04
    |         |    |--F. e. micromorpha Marshall & Pugh 2002 S04
    |         |    `--F. e. shibai Aoki 1974 S04
    |         |--F. inhambanensis Marshall & Pugh 2002 S04
    |         |--F. maculata Luxton 1986 S04
    |         |--F. rotunda Marshall & Pugh 2002 S04
    |         |--F. sinensis Luxton 1992 S04
    |         `--F. yunkeri Hammen 1963 S04
    |--Selenoribatidae S04
    |    |--Thalassozetes Schuster 1963 S04
    |    |    `--*T. riparius Schuster 1963 S04
    |    |--Psednobates Luxton 1992 S04
    |    |    `--*P. uncunguis Luxton 1992 S04
    |    |--Arotrobates Luxton 1992 S04
    |    |    |--*A. lanceolatus Luxton 1992 S04
    |    |    `--A. granulatus Luxton 1992 S04
    |    |--Selenoribates Strenzke 1961 S04
    |    |    |--*S. foveiventris Strenzke 1961 S04
    |    |    |--S. ghardaqensis Abdel-Hamid 1973 S04
    |    |    `--S. mediterraneus Grandjean 1966 S04
    |    `--Schusteria Grandjean 1968 S04
    |         |--*S. littorea Grandjean 1968 S04
    |         |--S. melanomerus Marshall & Pugh 2000 S04
    |         `--S. ugraseni Marshall & Pugh 2000 S04
    `--Tegeocranellus Berlese 1913 NB-P09, H98 [=Tegeogranellus H98; Tegeocranellidae]
         |--*T. laevis (Berlese 1905) [=Tegeocranus laevis] S04
         |--T. alas Behan-Pelletier 1997 S04
         |--T. barbarae Behan-Pelletier 1997 S04
         |--T. bolivianus Balogh & Mahunka 1969 S04
         |--T. bosniae (Frank 1961) [=Carabodes bosniae] S04
         |--T. concavus Balogh & Balogh 1983 S04
         |--T. convexus Balogh & Balogh 1983 S04
         |--T. kethleyi Behan-Pelletier 1997 S04
         |--T. knysnaensis Kok 1968 [incl. T. africanus Mahunka 1985] S04
         |--T. mediolamellatus Behan-Pelletier 1997 S04
         |--T. mississippii Behan-Pelletier 1997 S04
         |--T. muscorum Behan-Pelletier 1997 S04
         |--T. opcus Tseng 1982 S04
         `--T. sacchareus Kok 1968 S04

*Ameronothrus lineatus (Thorell 1871) [=Eremaeus lineatus; incl. Scutovertex corrugatus Michael 1888, S. occidentalis Hull 1918] S04

Ameronothrus maculatus (Michael 1882) [=Scutovertex maculatus; incl. S. maculatus groenlandicus Trägardh 1904, S. pseudomaculatus insularis Hull 1914, S. pseudomaculatus Hull 1914] S04

Ameronothrus marinus (Banks 1896) S04 [=Nothrus marinus S04, *Hygroribates marinus B65; incl. A. fucicolum Brady 1875 S04, Scutovertex spoofi Oudemans 1900 S04, A. spoofi G32]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B65] Balogh, J. 1965. A synopsis of the world oribatid (Acari) genera. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 11 (1–2): 5–99.

[CH98] Colloff, M. J., & R. B. Halliday. 1998. Oribatid Mites: A catalogue of Australian genera and species. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[G32[ Grandjean, F. 1932. Observations sur les oribates (3e série). Bulletin du Muséum, 2e série, 4 (3): 292–306.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[NB-P09] Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 430–564. Texas Tech University Press.

[SK10] Schäffer, S., S. Koblmüller, T. Pfingstl, C. Sturmbauer & G. Krisper. 2010. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals multiple independent evolution of diagnostic morphological characters in the "Higher Oribatida" (Acari), conflicting with current classification. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 246.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.