Platygastridae

Scelio sp., copyright Edward Trammel.


Belongs within: Proctotrupomorpha.
Contains: Baeini, Platygasterinae, Telenominae.

The Platygastridae are a clade of small wasps that begin life as parasitoids of insect and spider eggs though some may not emerge from the host until it has reached a more advanced stage of development. They are characterised by a unique telescoping ovipositor mechanism, and the presence of basiconic sensilla (presumably secretory) on the ventral surface of the first flagellomeres of the antennal clavus (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The venation of the wings is reduced, particularly in the Platygasterinae and Sceliotrachelinae (Platygastridae sensu stricto) whose fore wings have only a knobbed submarginal vein or lack veins entirely. Subfamilies outside the Platygastridae sensu stricto were previously recognised as a distinct family Scelionidae before molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the latter to represent a paraphyletic grouping. Species of Platygasterinae and Sceliotrachelinae also differ from 'Scelionidae' in having hymenopteriform or cyclopoid larvae rather than teleaform larvae (Naumann 1991).

Other members of the Platygastridae include the Teleasinae, characterised by a sharp lateral margin on the metasoma and lateral ocelli closer to the central ocellus than to the compound eyes, which parasitise eggs of Carabidae. The Thoronini are parasites of semi-aquatic Heteroptera such as Nepidae and Gerridae (Naumann 1991).

Characters (from Naumann 1991, for Platygasteroidea): Parasites of eggs or larvae. Antennal sockets and clypeus very narrowly separated or contiguous. Scape relatively long (length more than 2.5 times width). Pronotum virtually continuous behind fore coxae; prepectus fused to posterior of pronotum and represented by posterior pronotal inflection. Mesoscutum without median sulcus. Axillae variable. Fore wing without pterostigma; costal cell present or absent and radial cell open posteriorly or absent. M+CuA absent from hind wing. Suture present between T2 and S2; metasomal spiracles absent. Ovipositor at rest concealed within metasoma, can be protruded by increase in hydrostatic pressure within metasoma. T9 divided into anterior and posterior parts with anterior part concealed and attached to base of tube-like ovipositor and posterior part either exposed and bearing cerci or membranous and concealed. First instar larvae teleaform, hymenopteriform or cyclopoid.

Platygastridae [Platygastroidea, Scelionidae, Scelioninae, Scelionoidea]
    |--+--Archaeoteleia mellea MH11, HB13
    |  `--+--Nixonia watshami MH11
    |     `--Platygasterinae MH11
    `--+--Telenominae MH11
       `--+--Gryonini N91
          |    |--Gryon atriscapus MH11, NS91
          |    `--Encyrtoscelio N91
          `--Calliscelionini N91
               |--Macroteleia MH11
               |--Probaryconus N91
               |--Calliscelio N91
               |--Lispoteleia N91
               |--Neoparidris N91
               |--Crama N91
               `--Jarabambius N91

Platygastridae incertae sedis:
  Sceliomorpha HB13
  Chromateleia HB13
  Piestopleura canariensis Buhl 2005 F05
  Brachinostemma R70
  Tetrabaeus R70
  ‘Coelocyba’ musila Fernando 1957 B88
  Hoplogryon A71
  Oxytelia R70
  Teleasinae N91
    |--Xenomerus [Xenomerini] N91
    `--Teleasini N91
         |--Teleas clavicornis MS01 [=Scelio (Teleas) clavicornis G20]
         `--Trimorus N91
  Hadronotus N91
    |--H. bicolor Ashmead 1894 GM79
    |--H. goethei Girault 1932 G32
    `--H. variocellus Girault 1926 G26a
  Mirobaeus A95
  Prosapegus R70
  Hoploteleia R70
  Psilanteridini N91
  Doddiella [Doddiellini] N91
  Neoscelio [Neoscelionini] N91
  Cremastobaeus [Cremastobaeini] N91
  Ladora [Aradophagini] N91
  Platyscelio [Platyscelionini] N91
  Mantibaria [Mantibariini] N91
    |--M. anomala N91
    `--M. manticida [=Rielia manticida] RD77
  Scelio [Scelionini] N91
    |--S. duris Walker 1839 W39
    |--S. gobar Walker 1839 W39
    |--S. rugulosus G20
    |--S. shakespearei Girault 1926 G26b
    `--S. walkeri A71
  Embidobiini N91
    |--Embidobia R00
    `--Palaeogryon muesebecki Masner 1969 R00, P92
  Thoronini N91
    |--Tiphodytes N91
    `--Microthoron N91
  Baryconini N91
    |--Baryconus fulleri P92
    |--Bracalba N91
    `--Oxyscelio N91
  Baeini N91
  Eumicrosoma RD77
  Lepidoscelio RD77
  Proteroscelio antennalis Brues 1937 P92
  Cenomanoscelio pulcher Schlüter 1978 P92
  Aneurobaeus P92
  Archaeoscelio P92
  Brachyscelio P92
  Ceratobaeoides P92
  Ceratoteleia P92
  Chromoteleia P92
  Dissolcus P92
    |--D. atriscapus Girault 1926 G26c
    `--D. beenleighi Girault 1932 G32
  Electroteleia P92
  Hadronotoides P92
  Microtelenomus P92
  Proplatyscelio P92
  Pseudobaeus P92
    |--P. dugandani Girault 1928 G28
    |--P. glorius Girault 1926 G26c
    `--P. timorensis Girault 1932 G32
  Sembilanocera P92
  Sparasion Latreille 1802 P92, L02
    |--*S. cephalotes L02
    `--S. frontale G20
  Trachelopteron P92
  Uroteleia P92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A95] Austin, A. D. 1995. New species of baeine parasitoids of spider eggs (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 253–263.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G26a] Girault, A. A. 1926a. Hymenoptera minutae nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 196).

[G26b] Girault, A. A. 1926b. Characteristics of new Australian insects. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 197–198).

[G26c] Girault, A. A. 1926c. New pests from Australia. II. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 200–202).

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. Some new hexapods stolen from authority. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 221–224).

[G32] Girault, A. A. 1932. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 293–298).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

[NS91] Nagelkerke, C. J., & M. W. Sabelis. 1991. Precise sex-ratio control in the pseudo-arrhenotokous phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus occidentalis Nesbitt. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 193–207. Chapman & Hall: London.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

[W39] Walker, F. 1839. Monographia Chalciditum vol. 2. Species collected by C. Darwin, Esq. Hyppolite Baillière: London.

Last updated: 18 March 2021.

Ormyridae

Ormyrus orientalis, copyright ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources.


Belongs within: Chalcidoidea.

The Ormyridae are a group of chalcidoid wasps that parasitise plant galls of other insects (Bouček 1988). The majority of species are included in a single genus Ormyrus; attempts to divide this morphologically diverse genus into finer subgroups have generally not been successful.

See also: Ormyrids: attacking the gall.

Characters (from Bouček 1988): Antenna thirteen-segmented; gena posteriorly rounded; occipital carina present, horseshoe-shaped; pronotum relatively short; notauli complete, posteriorly subparallel; forewing with marginal vein at least five times as long as narrow pedunculate part of stigmal vein, without linea calva; tarsi five-segmented; gaster always strongly sclerotised, often with coarse sculpture, sometimes sculpture reduced to small longitudinal ridges bearing a bristle at apex; male gaster broader than high, with at least a blunt edge on sides; cerci reduced to low plates, placed on undivided sclerotised epipygium which is subconical in female, or in form of transverse plate in male; ovipositor not exserted.

<==Ormyridae [Ormyrinae] HB13
    |--*Ormyrulus gibbus B88
    `--Ormyrus Westwood 1832 (see below for synonymy) B88
         |--*O. punctiger B88
         |--O. australiensis Girault 1915 B88
         |--O. bicarinatus Girault 1915 B88
         |--O. bicoloripes Girault 1915 B88
         |--O. brevicaudis MS01
         |--O. carinativentris Girault 1915 B88
         |--‘Torymus (*Chrysoideus)’ chrysidiformis B88
         |--O. langlandi Girault 1920 [incl. Tribaeus decaryi Risbec 1955] B88
         |--O. longicornis Bouček 1970 B88
         |--O. orientalis B88
         |--O. rosae HB13
         |--O. silvae Girault 1925 B88
         |--O. variolosus MS01
         `--O. watshami B88

Ormyrus Westwood 1832 [incl. Chrysoideus De Stefani 1898, Cyrtosoma Perris 1840, Monobaeus Förster 1860, Periglyphus Boheman 1833, Siphonura Nees 1834, Tribaeus Förster 1860, Wania Risbec 1951] B88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

Proctotrupidae

Proctotrupes gravidator, copyright Tom Murray.


Belongs within: Proctotrupoidea.

The Proctotrupidae are a group of small wasps that are mostly endoparasites of Coleoptera larvae, rarely of Diptera. Most species have the wing venation reduced, with the radial cell reduced or almost obliterated, but a well-developed venation and radial cell is retained in the fore wing of the Austroserphini. The species Exallonyx trifoveatus is found worldwide as a parasite of Staphylinidae in compost heaps (Naumann 1991).

Characters (from Naumann 1991): Mostly small (3–15 mm); mesosoma without transscutal articulation; metasoma with large syntergum; trochantellus sometimes present on fore leg; T2 and S2 (petiole) and synsternum fused; metasoma in females usually posteriorly down-curved and telescopic; cerci digitiform or absent.

Proctotrupidae [Proctotrupinae, Serphidae]
    |--Austroserphini [Austroserphidae] RC74
    |    |--Austroserphus Dodd 1933 MH11, R54
    |    |    `--*A. albofasciatus Dodd 1933 R54
    |    `--Acanthoserphus Dodd 1915 RC74, R54
    |         `--*A. albicoxa Dodd 1915 R54
    `--+--Disogmus Foerster 1856 MH11, R54
       |    |--D. areolator (Haliday 1839) [=Disogmus areolator] R54
       |    `--D. nigerrimus Dodd 1915 R54
       `--+--Exallonyx trifoveatus MH11, N91
          `--Proctotrupes Latreille 1796 MH11, R54
               |--*P. brevipennis Latreille 1802 R54
               |--P. collaris Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
               |--P. doddi Riek 1954 R54
               |--P. gravidator MS01
               |--P. janthinae Dodd 1915 [=Proctotrypes janthinae] R54
               |--P. niger G20
               |--P. nitens Dodd 1920 R54
               |--P. splendidus Riek 1954 R54
               |--P. syagrii R70
               `--P. turneri Dodd 1920 R54

Proctotrupidae incertae sedis:
  Codrus A71
  Phaenoserphus Kieffer in André 1908 R54
    |--*P. curtipennis (Haliday 1839) [=Proctotrupes curtipennis] R54
    |--P. australiae (Kieffer 1907) [=Proctotrypes australiae] R54
    |--P. calcar A71
    `--P. viator A71
  Labeo pusillus Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
  Prosacantha MS01
    |--P. grandis MS01
    `--P. spinosa Szépligeti in Moscáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
  Isocybus MS01
    |--I. grandis MS01
    `--I. rossicus Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
  Pantoclis MS01
    |--P. barycera MS01
    `--P. rufipes Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
  Acropiesta MS01
  Oxyserphus N91
  Austrocodrus N91
  Mischoserphus N91
  Apoglypha N91
  Serphonostus N91
  Cryptoserphus Kieffer in André 1907 R54
    |--*C. longicalcar Kieffer in André 1908 R54
    |--C. nigriscutum Dodd 1915 R54
    |--C. nitidus Dodd 1915 R54
    `--C. sulcatus Riek 1954 R54
  Paracodrus R54
  Rasnitsynia huadongensis (Zhang 1985) [=Oligoneuroides huadongensis] RJ93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS One 6 (11): e27023.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R54] Riek, E. F. 1954. Australian wasps of the family Proctotrupidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea). Australian Journal of Zoology 3: 106–117.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[RC74] Riek, E. F., & J. C. Cardale. 1974. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 107–111. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 18 March 2021.

Eurytominae

Female Tetramesa, copyright Mardon Erbland.


Belongs within: Eurytomidae.
Contains: Bruchophagus, Sycophila, Eurytoma.

The Eurytominae are a group of eurytomid wasps in which the antenna has at most twelve segments; a single anellus is present which may be almost fused with the first funicular segment, and the apical segments are mostly fused into a clava (Bouček 1988).

<==Eurytominae [Aximinae, Eudecatominae, Eurytomini, Harmolitinae, Philolemini, Prodecatominae] MH11
    |--Ficomila MH11
    `--+--Sycophila HB13
       `--+--+--Endobia donacis HB13
          |  `--+--Bruchodape ignota HB13
          |     `--Bephrata ruficollis HB13
          `--+--+--Aiolomorphus rhopaloides HB13
             |  `--Eurytoma HB13
             `--+--+--Masneroma angulifera HB13
                |  |--Axima zabriskiei HB13
                |  `--Axanthosoma Girault 1913 MH11, B88
                |       |--*A. nigrum Girault 1913 B88
                |       |--A. io Girault 1915 B88
                |       `--A. ruskini Girault 1926 B88
                `--+--Systole Walker 1832 HB13, B88
                   |    |--*S. albipennis B88
                   |    |--S. coriandri MH11
                   |    `--S. foeniculi Otten 1941 B88
                   `--Tetramesa Walker 1848 HB13, B88 (see below for synonymy)
                        |--*T. iarbas B88
                        |--T. angelonini (Girault 1924) [=Eurytoma angelonini] B88
                        |--T. australiensis (Girault 1915) [=Isosoma australiensis] B88
                        |--T. funeralis (Girault 1915) (see below for synonymy) B88
                        |--‘Isosoma’ guttula MS01
                        |--T. linearis (Walker 1832) [=Isosoma lineare] B88
                        |--T. longicornis A71 [=*Harmolita longicornis B88]
                        |--‘Eurytoma’ longula [=*Isosoma longula] B88
                        `--‘Isosoma’ ovata Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01

Eurytominae incertae sedis:
  Bruchophagus B88
  Homodecatoma B88
  Ahtola B88
  *Philolema carinigera B88
  Tenuipetiolus B88
  Stigmeurytoma Bouček 1988 B88
    `--*S. eucalypti (Ashmead 1900) [=Eurytoma eucalypti] B88
  Syceurytoma Bouček in Bouček, Watsham & Wiebes 1981 B88
    `--*S. ficus B88
  Giraultoma Bouček 1988 B88
    `--*G. pulchricopus (Girault 1915) [=Xanthosoma pulchricorpus; incl. X. haeckeli Girault 1915] B88
  Ausystole Bouček 1988 B88
    `--*A. beenleighi (Girault 1926) [=Eurysystole beenleighi] B88
  Houstonia Bouček 1988 B88
    `--*H. zani Bouček 1988 B88
  Plutarchia Girault 1925 B88
    |--*P. bicarinativentris Girault 1925 B88
    `--P. indefensa B88
  Mesoeurytoma Cameron 1911 [incl. Stireurytoma Cameron 1911] B88
    |--*M. cariniceps B88
    `--*Stireurytoma’ carinata B88
  Austrodecatoma Girault 1925 B88
    |--*A. trinotata (Girault 1915) (see below for synonymy) B88
    `--A. omninigra Girault 1928 B88
  Hexeurytoma Dodd 1917 B88
    |--*H. grandis Dodd 1917 B88
    |--H. giraulti Bouček 1988 (see below for synonymy) B88
    `--H. nigripennis Bouček 1988 B88
  Acantheurytoma Cameron 1911 [incl. Odonteurytoma Mukerjee 1981] B88
    |--*A. spinifera B88
    |--A. albicornis [=Eurytoma albicornis] B88
    `--*Odonteurytoma’ tanjorensis B88
  Risbecoma Subba Rao 1978 B88
    |--*R. bruchocida [=Eurytoma bruchocida] B88
    |--R. acaciarum Bouček 1988 B88
    `--R. capensis B88

*Austrodecatoma trinotata (Girault 1915) [=Eudecatoma trinotata; incl. E. circumnotata Girault 1915, E. rufipronotum Girault 1915] B88

Hexeurytoma giraulti Bouček 1988 [=Eurytoma fuscipennis Girault 1915 non Phylloxeroxenus fuscipennis Girault 1913] B88

Tetramesa Walker 1848 HB13, B88 [incl. Exanthosoma Girault 1915 B88, Gahaniola Erdös 1952 B88, Harmolita Motschulsky 1863 B88, Isosoma Walker 1832 non Billberg 1820 B88, Isosomocharis Ashmead 1888 B88, Isthmosoma Hedicke 1921 B88, Philachyra Walker 1871 B88, Urios Girault 1911 B88, Xanthosoma Ashmead 1888 B88]

Tetramesa funeralis (Girault 1915) [=*Exanthosoma funeralis; incl. Isosoma wordsworthi Girault 1915] B88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

Torymini

Male (upper) and female Torymus bedeguaris, copyright Josef Dvořák.


Belongs within: Torymidae.

The Torymini are a group of torymid wasps in which the groove between the mesopleuron and metapleuron is straight or slightly curved, and the gaster is sessile or on a shiny, usually pale petiole. Most species are parasitoids of gall-forming or wood-boring insects; some are phytophagous seed-eaters (Bouček 1988).

Torymini
    |--Ecdamua Walker 1862 MH11, B88 [incl. Monodontomerella Girault 1915 B88]
    |    |--*E. macrotelus B88
    |    |--E. indica [incl. Amonodontomerus indicus Ahmad 1946 non Ecdamua indica] B88
    |    `--E. longipilum (Girault 1925) [=*Monodontomerella longipilum] B88
    `--+--Physothorax bidentulus MH11
       `--Torymus Dalman 1820 MH11, B88 (see below for synonymy)
            |--*T. bedeguaris (Linnaeus 1758) B88, L58 (see below for synonymy)
            |--T. albomaculatus Lucas 1849 E12
            |--‘Syntomaspis’ apicalis A71
            |--T. auratus A71
            |--T. cingulatus A71
            |--‘Syntomaspis’ cyanea A71
            |--T. druparum Boheman 1834 B88
            |--T. eurynotus [=*Syntomaspis eurynotus] B88
            |--T. josephinae Bouček 1988 B88
            |--T. nigricornis A71
            |--T. varians (Walker 1833) B88 [=Callimome varians B88, Syntomaspis varians R70]
            `--T. ventralis MS01

Torymini incertae sedis:
  Ovidia Girault 1924 B88
    `--*O. conicicollis Girault 1924 B88
  Austorymus Bouček 1988 B88
    `--*A. nitidus Bouček 1988 B88
  Mesodiomorus Strand 1911 B88
    `--*M. compressus B88
  Diomorus Walker 1834 B88
    |--*D. nobilis B88
    |--D. armatus (Boheman 1834) [=Torymus armatus] B88
    |--D. calcaratus BM76
    `--D. orientalis Masi 1926 [incl. Macrodontomerus silvifilia Girault 1927, D. silvifilia] B88

Torymus Dalman 1820 MH11, B88 [=Callimome Spinola 1811 (nom. rej.) B88; incl. Misocampe Latreille 1817 B88, Misocampus Dufour 1847 B88, Syntomaspis Förster 1856 B88]

*Torymus bedeguaris (Linnaeus 1758) B88, L58 [=Ichneumon bedeguaris B88, *Callimome bedeguaris B88, Cynips bedeguaris L02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

Conura

Chalcis myrifex, copyright H. Dumas.


Belongs within: Chalcididae.

Conura is a genus of chalcidid wasps whose species mostly attack the pupae of Lepidoptera, though some develop on other insects such as Coleoptera. Molecular analysis (Heraty et al. 2013) suggests that this genus is paraphyletic to other members of the Chalcidini, a group of Chalcididae with a distinctly petiolate gaster and apically acute hind tibia. Members of the genus Chalcis are parasitoids of stratiomyiid fly larvae (Bouček 1988).

Characters (from Bouček 1988, for Chalcidini): Apex of hind tibia tapering into a strong spine extended far beyond insertion of tarsus; gaster attached at coxae; petiole distinctly longer than broad, not longitudinally striate; propodeal spiracle elongate in almost vertical direction; postmarginal vein several times longer than stigmal vein.

<==Conura [Chalcidariae, Chalcidini, Smicrini]
    |  i. s.: C. delumbis MH11
    |         C. debilis MH11
    |         C. miniata HB13
    |--C. xanthostigma HB13
    `--+--C. flavicans HB13
       `--+--C. immaculata HB13
          `--+--Melanosmicra variventris HB13
             `--Chalcis Fabricius 1787 HB13, B88 [=Smicra Spinola 1837 B88, Smiera Spinola 1811 B88]
                  |--*C. sispes [=Sphex sispes, *Smiera sispes] B88
                  |--C. amenocles D07
                  |--C. australiensis (Girault 1936) [=Smicra australiensis; incl. S. chinchillae Girault 1936] B88
                  |--C. columbiana Howard 1885 GM79
                  |--C. flavipes Fabricius 1793 MS01, B88
                  |--C. flebilis HB13
                  |--C. louisiana Girault 1917 G17
                  |--C. myrifex HB13
                  `--C. ovata G17
                       |--C. o. ovata G17
                       `--C. o. abiesae Girault 1917 G17

Nomen nudum: Chalcis anna Girault 1937 B88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[D07] Desjardins, C. A. 2007. Phylogenetics and classification of the world genera of Diparinae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Zootaxa 1647: 1–88.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80–101).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

Hesperiidae

Long-tailed skipper Urbanus proteus, copyright Andreas Kay.


Belongs within: Obtectomera.
Contains: Hasora, Pyrginae, Toxidia, Hesperilla, Trapezites, Hesperiinae.

The Hesperiidae, skippers, are a group of butterfly-like Lepidoptera with an erratic, quick flight. They have their antennal bases spaced relatively far apart and the antennal club usually has a small apical hook. Many skippers are dully coloured and species may be very difficult to distinguish. Several subfamilies are currently recognised, including the Megathyminae, giant skippers, of arid regions of North America that have sometimes been recognised as a distinct family. The Trapezitinae of Australasia are relatively small, stout-bodied skippers whose larvae feed on monocotyledons such as grasses or sedges. The Coeliadinae, awls, are relatively large, robust hesperiids found in the Afrotropical, Oriental and Australian regions whose larvae feed on dicotyledons, particularly Leguminosae (Braby 2000).

Characters (from Braby 2000): Adults small to medium-sized, head broad, body stout, wings relatively short, usually sombre brown but sometimes brightly coloured; antennae widely separated at base, apiculus of club curved or sharply bent with tip blunt or pointed; fore wing with five branches on radial vein, all arising separately from cell, and one anal vein; hind wing with humeral vein usually present, two anal veins, tornus usually rounded or sometimes slightly produced but rarely tailed; both sexes with six normal functional legs, tarsi with a pair of apical claws; fore tibia with epiphysis on inner side. Egg hemispherical or dome-shaped, smooth but often with series of longitudinal ribs. Final instar larva cylindrical, tapering at each end, finely spinulose with numerous secondary setae; head comparatively large, larger than prothorax; osmeterium absent; crochets of prolegs in a circle; anal comb usually present. Pupa usually concealed inside larval shelter, attached by cremaster and sometimes also by central girdle.

<==Hesperiidae [Hesperioidea]
    |--Urbanus [Eudamiinae] KP19
    |    |--U. dorantes (Stoll 1791) FS54
    |    |--U. eurycles (Latreille 1723) FS54
    |    |    |--U. e. eurycles FS54
    |    |    `--U. e. latipennis (Marille & Vuillot 1891) FS54
    |    |--U. gracilicauda (Plötz 1880) FS54
    |    |--U. proteus (Linnaeus 1758) FS54
    |    `--U. undulatus (Hewitson 1867) FS54
    `--+--Megathymus [Megathyminae, Megathymidae] KP19
       |    `--M. yuccae KP19
       `--Hesperiinae KP19

Hesperiidae incertae sedis:
  Phareas Westwood 1852 [=Phareus (l. c.) non Simon 1879] K03
  Epargyreus exadeus (Cramer 1782) S55
  Thymele fulminans Herrich-Schäffer 1869 FS54
  Autochton FS54
    |--A. aunus (Fabricius 1781) FS54
    |--A. cincta Herrich-Schäffer & Plötz 1882 FS54
    `--A. subalbatus (Plötz 1882) FS54
  Nascus phocus (Cramer 1779) S55
  Cogia calchas (Herrich-Schäffer 1869) FS54
  Achalarus toxeus (Plötz 1882) FS54
  Spathilepia clonius (Cramer 1779) FS54
  Phanus vitreus (Cramer 1782) S55
  Pellicia S55
    |--P. bromias (Godman & Salvin 1894) FS54
    `--P. polyctor (Prittwitz 1868) S55
  Mylon S55
    |--M. brasilicola (Strand 1920) S55
    `--M. lassia (Hewitson 1868) FS54
  Antigonus erosus (Hübner 1820) FS54
  Pholisora FS54
    |--P. azteca Scudder 1871 FS54
    `--P. orsines (Godman & Salvin 1896) FS54
  Copaeodes aurantiaca (Hewitson 1868) FS54
  Hylephila phylaeus (Drury 1770) FS54
  Polites athenion (Hübnewr 1816) FS54
  Poanes melane (Edwards 1869) FS54
  Atrytone FS54
    |--A. dion C37
    |    |--A. d. dion C37
    |    `--A. d. alabamae C37
    `--A. gala Godman & Salvin 1900 FS54
  Calpodes ethlius (Cramer 1782) FS54
  Panoquina vala (Mabille 1891) FS54
  Cobalus subcordata FS54
  Lerodea edata FS54
  Perichares corydon (Fabricius 1775) FS54
  Pyrrhopyge GE05 [Pyrrhopyginae NC91]
    |--P. creon GE05
    `--P. josephina Draudt 1921 S55
  Mysoria thasus (Cramer 1782) S55
  Jemadia suzetta Mabille & Boullet 1908 S55
  Goniurus S55
    |--G. decurtatus Herrich-Schäffer 1869 S55
    |--G. eurycles Latreille 1823 S55
    |--G. leucogramma Mabille 1888 S55
    `--G. undulatus Hewitson 1867 S55
  Chioides catillus (Cramer 1782) S55
  Telegonus S55
    |--T. creteus (Cramer 1782) S55
    `--T. mephitis Hewitson 1876 S55
  Paches loxus (Westwood & Hewitson 1852) S55
  Eudamidas ozema (Butler 1870) S55
  Ebrietas infanda (Butler 1877) S55
  Heliopetes S55
    |--H. alana (Reakirt 1868) S55
    `--H. arsalte (Linnaeus 1758) S55
  Thymelicus S55
    |--T. athenion (Hübner 1816) S55
    `--T. lineolus Ochsenheimer 1808 B08
  Carystus ebusa (Cramer 1782) S55
  Pyrrhopygopsis cleanthes (Latreille 1823) S55
  Elbella etna GE05
  Pamphilites abdita GE05
  Erionota thrax MHG04, VHK02
  Syrichthus P01
    |--S. alveus [incl. S. alveus var. onopordi] P01
    `--S. malvae P01
  Carterocephalus P01
    |--C. palaemon I92
    |    |--C. p. palaemon I92
    |    `--C. p. satakei (Matsumura 1919) I92
    `--C. silvius P01
  Parosmodes D01
    |--P. icteria B01a
    `--P. numa Druce 1901 D01
  Acleros B01a
    |--A. mackenii B01a
    `--A. placidus B01a
  Andronymus philander B01a
  Kedestes wallengrenii B01a
  Baoris lugens B01a
  Ceratrichia B01a
    |--C. punctulata B01a
    `--C. stellata B01a
  Eretis lugens B01b
  Gomalia elma B01b
  Cyclopides quadrisignata B01b
  Padraona zeno B01b
  Gegenes letterstedti B01b
  Rhopalocampta forestan B01b
  Lerema KP19
  Protopyrginae B00
  Heteropterinae B00
  Coeliadinae J03
    |--Choaspes J03
    |--Hasora B00
    |--Allora Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00
    |    |--A. doleschallii (Felder 1860) B00
    |    `--A. major (Rothschild 1915) B00
    `--Badamia Moore 1881 B00
         |--B. atrox (Butler 1877) B00
         |    |--B. a. atrox PP02
         |    `--B. a. subflava PP02
         `--B. exclamationis (Fabricius 1775) B12
  Pyrginae J03
  Trapezitinae J03
    |--Toxidia B00
    |--Hesperilla NC91
    |--Trapezites B00
    |--Felicina Waterhouse 1932 B00
    |--Hewitsoniella Shepard 1931 B00
    |--Rachelia Hemming 1964 B00
    |    `--R. extrusus (Felder & Felder 1867) B00
    |--Pasma Waterhouse 1932 B00
    |    `--P. tasmanicus (Miskin 1889) B00
    |--Dispar Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00
    |    `--D. compacta (Butler 1882) B00
    |--Proeidosa Atkins 1973 B00
    |    `--P. polysema (Lower 1908) B12
    |--Signeta Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00
    |    |--S. flammeata (Butler 1882) B00
    |    `--S. tymbophora (Meyrick & Lower 1902) B00
    |--Croitana Waterhouse 1932 B00
    |    |--C. aestiva Edwards 1979 B00
    |    |--C. arenaria Edwards 1979 B00
    |    `--C. croites (Hewitson 1874) [incl. C. croites pindar (Waterhouse 1932)] B00
    |--Neohesperilla Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00
    |    |--N. croceus (Miskin 1889) B00
    |    |--N. senta (Miskin 1891) B00
    |    |--N. xanthomera (Meyrick & Lower 1902) B00
    |    `--N. xiphiphora (Lower 1911) B00
    |--Oreisplanus Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00
    |    |--O. munionga (Olliff 1890) B00
    |    |    |--O. m. munionga B00
    |    |    `--O. m. larana Couchman 1962 B00
    |    `--O. perornata (Kirby 1893) B00
    |--Herimosa Atkins 1994 B00
    |    `--H. albovenata (Waterhouse 1940) [=Anisynta albovenata] B00
    |         |--H. a. albovenata B00
    |         |--H. a. fuscata (Parson 1965) B00
    |         `--H. a. weemala (Couchman 1954) B00
    |--Mesodina Meyrick 1901 B00
    |    |--M. aeluropis Meyrick 1901 B00
    |    |--M. cyanophracta Lower 1911 B00
    |    |--M. gracillima Edwards 1987 B00
    |    |--M. halyzia (Hewitson 1868) B00
    |    `--M. hayi Edwards & Graham 1995 B00
    |--Motasingha Watson 1893 B00
    |    |--M. dirphia (Hewitson 1868) B00
    |    |--M. dominula P27
    |    `--M. trimaculata (Tepper 1882) B00
    |         |--M. t. trimaculata B00
    |         |--M. t. dilata Waterhouse 1932 [incl. M. trimaculata dea Waterhouse 1933] B00
    |         `--M. t. occidentalis Moulds & Atkins 1986 B00
    |--Antipodia Atkins 1984 B00
    |    |--A. atralba (Tepper 1882) B00
    |    |--A. chaostola (Meyrick 1888) [=Hesperilla chaostola] B00
    |    |    |--A. c. chaostola B00
    |    |    |--A. c. chares (Waterhouse 1933) B00
    |    |    `--A. c. leucophaea (Couchman 1946) B00
    |    `--A. dactyliota (Meyrick 1888) [=A. atralba dactyliota] B00
    |         |--A. d. dactyliota B00
    |         `--A. d. nila (Waterhouse 1932) B00
    `--Anisynta Lower 1911 B00
         |--A. cynone (Hewitson 1874) B00
         |    |--A. c. cynone (see below for synonymy) B00
         |    `--A. c. gunneda Couchman 1954 B00
         |--A. dominula (Plötz 1884) B00
         |    |--A. d. dominula (see below for synonymy) B00
         |    `--A. d. pria (Waterhouse 1932) B00
         |--A. monticolae (Olliff 1890) B00
         |--A. sphenosema (Meyrick & Lower 1902) B00
         `--A. tillyardi Waterhouse & Lyell 1912 B00

Anisynta cynone cynone [incl. A. cynone gracilis (Tepper 1882), A. cynone grisea Waterhouse 1932] B00

Anisynta dominula dominula [incl. A. dominula drachmophora (Meyrick 1885), A. dominula draco Waterhouse 1938, A. dominula dyris Waterhouse 1938] B00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 17–35.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[B01a] Butler, A. G. 1901a. An account of a collection of butterflies made by the Rev. K. St. Aubyn Rogers between Mombasa and the forests of Taveta. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 22–35.

[B01b] Butler, A. G. 1901b. An account of a collection of butterflies obtained by Lord Delamere, chiefly at Munisu, near Mount Kenya. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 197–203.

[C37] Clark, A. H. 1937. The butterflies of Virginia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (5): 116.

[D01] Druce, H. 1901. Descriptions of some new species of Lepidoptera from east Africa and tropical America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 432–444.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75–87.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5–12.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329–338.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

Last updated: 1 March 2021.

Heliothis

Tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, copyright Diane Brodeur.


Belongs within: Heliothinae.

Heliothis is a genus of moths including several species that are significant pests of agricultural crops. Examples include the tobacco budworm H. virescens, a species found in southern North America that feeds on a wide range of crop and garden plants including, as well as tobacco, such plants as cotton, soybeans, cabbages and melons.

Characters (from Matthews 1999): Membrane of vesica with basal scobinate patch well separated from base of aedeagus, scobinate patch often large, denticles of scobinate patch relatively large.

<==Heliothis Ochsenheimer 1816 (see below for synonymy) M99
    |--H. viriplaca (Hufnagel 1766) [=Phalaena viriplaca; incl. P. dipsacea Linnaeus 1767, *Heliothis dipsacea] M99
    |--‘Melicleptria’ belladonna Edwards 1881 [=*Disocnemis belladonna] M99
    |--H. frivaldszkyii Treitschke 1835 B08
    |--H. hoarei Matthews 1999 M99
    |--H. maritima M99
    |    |--H. m. maritima JP05
    |    `--H. m. bulgarica Draudt 1855 JP05
    |--H. nubigera M99
    |--‘Chloridea’ obsoleta CS77
    |--H. ononis M99
    |--H. peltigera M99
    |--H. phloxiphaga M99
    |--H. punctifera Walker 1857 (see below for synonymy) M99
    |--*Masalia’ radiata Moore 1881 M99
    |--H. roseivena (Walker 1866) [=Leucania roseivena; incl. L. alarioides Butler 1886] M99
    |--H. scutosa F92
    |--‘Nonagria’ senegalensis Guenée 1852 [=*Timora senegalensis] M99
    |--H. subflexa RA96
    |--H. treitschkii Frivaldszky 1835 B08
    |--H. virescens (Fabricius 1777) (see below for synonymy) M99
    `--H. zea PHK96

Heliothis Ochsenheimer 1816 [=Heliothentes Ochsenheimer 1816 (nom. inv.), Heliothisa (l. c.), Heliothris (l. c.), Heliotis Sodoffsky 1837; incl. Aspila Guenée 1852, Chloridea Duncan 1841, Disocnemis Grote 1883, Dysocnemis (l. c.), Masalia Moore 1881, Neocleptria Hampson 1903, Timora Walker 1856] M99

Heliothis punctifera Walker 1857 [=*Neocleptria punctifera; incl. N. punctifera ab. grisescens Warren 1913, N. punctifera ab. griseum Warren 1913, Heliothis leucatma Meyrick 1897] M99

Heliothis virescens (Fabricius 1777) [=Noctua virescens, *Aspila virescens; incl. Phalaena rhexiae Smith 1797, *Chloridea rhexiae] M99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 17–35.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RA96] Reitz, S. R., & P. H. Adler. 1996. Biology and larval taxonomy of Eucelatoria bryani Sabrosky and E. rubentis (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tachinidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (4): 625–629.

Last updated: 22 March 2020.

Papilionidae

Short-horned baronia Baronia brevicornis, copyright Fritz Geller-Grimm.


Belongs within: Obtectomera.
Contains: Teracolus, Papilioninae, Parnassiinae.

The Papilionidae, swallowtails, are a group of large butterflies characterised by the presence of an epiphysis on the fore tibia. The short-horned baronia Baronia brevicornis of Mexico is placed as its own subfamily as the sister taxon of all other living species (Silva-Brandão et al. 2005).

Characters (from Braby 2000): Adults large, boldly patterned, often with brilliant colours. Antennae relatively close together at base. Forewing with five-branched radial vein, R4 and R5 usually stalked, and two anal veins with 2A running freely to dorsum; hind wing with humeral vein present, single anal vein present, tornus often conspicuously tailed. Both sexes with six functional legs; fore tibia with epiphysis; tarsi with simple, well-developed apical claws. Egg almost spherical, usually smooth. Final instar larva stout, often bearing series of dorsal processes or spines that may be long and fleshy; thorax sometimes humped, always bearing eversible osmeterium; crochets of prolegs in biordinal or triordinal mesoseries. Pupa attached by cremaster, held upright by central girdle.

<==Papilionidae
    |--Baronia [Baroniinae] S-BF05
    |    `--B. brevicornis Salvin 1893 S-BF05
    `--+--Papilioninae S-BF05
       `--Parnassiinae S-BF05

Papilionidae incertae sedis:
  Bhutanitis GE05
  Praepapilio GE05
    |--P. colorado GE05
    `--P. gracilis GE05
  Iphiclides AN-A04
    |--I. ajax RD77
    `--I. podalirius AN-A04
         |--I. p. podalirius AN-A04
         `--I. p. feisthamelii AN-A04
  Sericinus telamon P01
  ‘Thais’ Fabricius 1807 non Röding 1798 P01, BR05
    |--T. polyxena P01
    `--T. rumina G20
  Zerynthia polyxena P93
  Teracolus B01a
  Glutophrissa contracta B01a
  Herpaenia eriphia B01a
  Eronia E01b
    |--E. dilatata B01a
    `--E. leda B01b
  Pinacopteryx B01b
    |--P. astarte B01b
    |--P. gerda B01b
    |--P. orbona [incl. P. larima] B01b
    |--P. pigea B01b
    `--P. rubrobasalis [incl. P. vidua] B01b
  Nychitona medusa B01b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AN-A04] Askew, R. R., & J. L. Nieves-Aldrey. 2004. Further observations on Eupelminae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae) in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands, including descriptions of new species. Graellsia 60 (1): 27–39.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B01a] Butler, A. G. 1901a. An account of a collection of butterflies made by the Rev. K. St. Aubyn Rogers between Mombasa and the forests of Taveta. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 22–35.

[B01b] Butler, A. G. 1901b. An account of a collection of butterflies obtained by Lord Delamere, chiefly at Munisu, near Mount Kenya. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 197–203.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S-BF05] Silva-Brandão, K. L., A. V. L. Freitas, A. V. Z. Brower & V. N. Solferini. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of the New World Troidini swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on COI, COII, and EF-1α genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 468–483.

Last updated: 1 March 2021.

Lycaena

Scarce copper Lycaena virgaureae, copyright Algirdas.


Belongs within: Lycaenidae.

Lycaena, coppers, is a genus of butterflies found primarily in the Holarctic region. Males of this genus usually have the ground colour of the upper wing surface orange.

<==Lycaena
    |--L. admetus [incl. L. admetus var. ripperti] P01
    |--L. aegon P01
    |--L. amanda P01
    |--L. argiades [incl. L. argiades ab. coretas] P01
    |--L. argus P01
    |--L. arion [incl. L. arion var. cyanecula, L. arion var. obscura] P01
    |--L. boldenarum O81
    |--L. cnejus WM66
    |--L. damon P01
    |--L. elpis WM66
    |--L. eros P01
    |--L. eumedon P01
    |--L. icarus P01
    |--L. iolas Ochsenheimer 1816 B08
    |--L. kandarpa WM66
    |--L. karsandra Moore 1865 WM66
    |--L. nisa Wallace & Moore 1866 WM66
    |--L. parrhasius WM66
    |--L. plinius WM66
    |--L. pluto WM66
    |--L. sangra Moore 1865 WM66
    |--L. semiargus P01
    |--L. varunana Moore 1865 WM66
    `--L. virgaureae (Linnaeus 1758) JP05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 17–35.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

Hadeninae

Sugar cane armyworm Leucania stenographa, copyright Simon Hinkley & Ken Walker.


Belongs within: Xyleninae.

The Hadeninae are a group of moths whose larvae often feed on grasses (Poaceae); the oblong, smooth eggs are often laid in clusters in a gel. Adults have hairy, unlashed eyes and unspined tibiae (Nielsen & Common 1991). Members include the Glottulini, a small group of colourful moths found in the Malesian region whose larvae feed on bulbs of Amaryllidaceae. Leucania is a genus of cryptically coloured moths with fore wings bearing striate brown shading on a tan background that rest by day among dry grasses.

Hadeninae M99
    `--Glottulini [Glottulidae, Glottulinae] ZK11
         |--Chasmina cygnus WM66
         `--Diaphone capillamentum ZK11

Hadeninae incertae sedis:
  Metopiora sanguinata (Lucas 1892) M99
  Dasygaster padockina NC91
  Tiracola plagiata NC91
  Hadena P01
    |--H. amanda Swinhoe 1901 S01
    |--H. ochroleuca F92
    |--H. lateritia P01
    |--H. tritici R13
    `--H. turbulenta S96
  Persectania NC91
    |--P. atristriga M83
    |--P. aversa M83
    |--P. ewingii NC91
    `--P. steropastis L27
  Pseudaletia C70
    |--P. adultera [=Cirphis adultera] S72
    |--P. convecta C70
    |--P. separata H74
    `--P. unipuncta LY07
  Leucania M99
    |--L. albicosta [=Cirphis albicosta] T69
    |--L. albipuncta F92
    |--L. alopa T27
    |--L. amblycasis T69
    |--L. atristriga T27
    |--L. comma F92
    |--L. commoides T69
    |--L. cruegeri MC13
    |--L. griseipennis T27
    |--L. insueta T69
    |--L. juncicola T69
    |--L. latiuscula T69
    |--L. linda T69
    |--L. linita T69
    |--L. littoralis F92
    |--L. loreyi F92
    |--L. lithargyrea F92
    |--L. miasticta T69
    |--L. mollis L27
    |--L. multilinea T69
    |--L. oaxacana T69
    |--L. obsoleta F92
    |--L. obtusa Guenée 1852 M99
    |--L. pallens F92
    |--L. phragmitidicola T69
    |--L. pseudargyria T69
    |--L. purdii T27
    |--L. scirpicola T69
    |--L. semivittata T27
    |--L. separata F92
    |--L. solita H01
    |--L. stenographa Lower 1900 M99
    |--L. unipunctata B88
    |--L. ursula T69
    `--L. vitellina T69

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[H01] Hampson, G. F. 1901. The Lepidoptera-Phalaenae of the Bahamas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 246–261.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693–696.

[LY07] Liu, J., X. Yang, Y. Zhang & Z. Liu. 2007. Effects of exogenous juvenile hormone III on the ixodid tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae). In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 209–213. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) in the eastern United States: seasonal flight activity, distribution, hosts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 109–118.

[S72] Southcott, R. V. 1972. Revision of the larvae of the tribe Callidosomatini (Acarina: Erythraeidae) with observations on post-larval instars. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 13: 1–84.

[S01] Swinhoe, C. 1901. New genera and species of eastern and Australian moths (continued). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 489–501.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[T69] Treat, A. E. 1969. The genus Dicrocheles: three new species and a reappraisal. Acarologia 11 (4): 630–656.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

Last updated: 21 February 2021.

Agrotis

Heart and dart Agrotis exclamationis, copyright Entomart.


Belongs within: Macrolepidoptera.

Agrotis, cutworms, is a genus of moths with ground-dwelling larvae that feed on plants from the base.

Characters (from Hampson 1892): Eyes naked and without lashes. Proboscis well developed. Palpi obliquely porrect, with second segment evenly scaled and third segment prominent. Thorax and abdomen without tufts. Abdomen somewhat flattened. Tibia very strongly spined. Fore wings with non-crenulate outer margin. Hind wings with veins 3 and 4 from cell.

<==Agrotis [Agrotiinae, Agrotini]
    |--A. crinigera SS96
    |--A. exclamationis V09
    |--A. infusa G84
    |--A. islandica [incl. A. islandica var. rossica] P01
    |--A. lycarum P01
    |--A. munda G84
    |--A. prasina P01
    |--A. putris P01
    `--A. ypsilon C90
         |--A. y. ypsilon M83
         `--A. y. anietuma M83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[SS96] Simberloff, D., & P. Stilling. 1996. How risky is biological control? Ecology 77 (7): 1965–1974.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.