Cavilabiata

Alpine redspot dragonfly Austropetalia tonyana, copyright Gunther Theischinger.


Belongs within: Eteoanisoptera.
Contains: Brachystigmata.

The Cavilabiata are a clade of dragonflies uniting the Cordulegastridae, Libellulidae and related families. Other than the basal Cordulegastridae, most members of this clade belong to the subclade Cristotibiata, united by a rather stout pterostigma that is not parallel-sided, a shortened hindwing CuA, and an enlarged anal loop (Bechly & Ueda 2002).

Synapomorphies (from Bechly & Ueda 2002): Discoidal triangles at least somewhat longitudinal elongate in both wings, especially in the hind wing; distal part of antesubnodal area free of crossveins (“cordulegastrid gap”); “gaff” (basal CuA before its branching) of hindwing at least slightly prolonged; RP3/4 and MA slightly undulating in both pairs of wings.

<==Cavilabiata
    |--Cordulegaster I92 [Cordulegastrida BU02, Cordulegastridae, Cordulegastroidea]
    |    `--C. boltoni I92
    `--Cristotibiata BU02
         |--Brachystigmata BU02
         `--+--Phyllopetalia WO91 [Neopetaliidae BU02]
            |--Archipetalia WO91 [Archipetaliidae TH06]
            |    `--A. auriculata Tillyard 1917 TH06
            `--Austropetalia WO91 [Austropetaliidae] TH06
                 |--A. patricia (Tillyard 1910) TH06
                 `--A. tonyana Theischinger 1995 TH06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BU02] Bechly, G., & K. Ueda. 2002. The first fossil record and first New World record for the dragonfly clade Chlorogomphida (Insecta: Odonata: Anisoptera: Araripechlorogomphidae n. fam.) from the Crato Limestone (Lower Cretaceous, Brazil). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 328: 1–11.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[TH06] Theischinger, G., & J. Hawking. 2006. The Complete Field Guide to Dragonflies of Australia. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[WO91] Watson, J. A. L., & A. F. O’Farrell. 1991. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 294–310. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

Last updated: 6 February 2019.

Oedipodinae

Locusta migratoria, copyright Alpsdake.


Belongs within: Acridoidea.

The Oedipodinae are a group of grasshoppers characterised by male genitalia in which the ventral aedeagal valves are very closely associated with the dorsal valves, and the narrow ventral lobe appears to participate in directing the neck of the spermatophore into the spermathecal duct (Eades 2000).

<==Oedipodinae P05
    |--Dissosteira carolina E00
    |--Camnula pellucida E00
    |--Arphia BM76
    |--Celes variabilis BM76, B01
    |--Encoptolophus BM76
    |--Pardalophora BM76
    |--Sciretetica BM76
    |--Spharagemon BM76
    |--Trilophida annulata BM76
    |--Xyleus BM76
    |--Duroniella P05
    |    |--D. fracta (Kraus 1890) P05
    |    `--D. laticornis (Karus 1909) P05
    |--Acrotylus P05
    |    |--A. insubricus (Scopoli 1786) P05
    |    |--A. patruelis Y70
    |    `--A. strepens D95
    |--Aiolopus P05
    |    |--A. strepens (Latreille 1804) P05
    |    |--A. tamulus BM76
    |    `--A. thalassinus (Fabricius 1781) P05
    |--Trimerotropis BM76
    |    |--T. citrina D37
    |    |--T. cyaneipennis SM87
    |    |--T. suffusa SM87
    |    `--T. pallidipennis Z94
    |--Sphingonotus P05
    |    |--S. erythropterus R96
    |    |--S. lucasii Saussure 1888 D95
    |    |--S. rubescens (Walker 1870) D95
    |    `--S. tricinctus D95
    |--Oedaleus P05
    |    |--O. australis R96
    |    |--O. decorus (Germar 1817) P05
    |    |--O. infernalis B01
    |    |--O. marmoratus B01
    |    `--O. mlokosiewiczi B01
    |--Oedipoda BM76
    |    |--O. albolineata Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. algeriana Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. arenaria Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. coerulescens D95
    |    |    |--O. c. coerulescens D95
    |    |    `--O. c. sulfurescens Saussure 1884 D95
    |    |--O. fuscocincta Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. mauritanica Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. miniata (Pallas 1771) D95
    |    `--O. virescens Lucas 1847 E12
    |--Papipappus clarazianus R15
    `--Locusta E00
         |--L. acuminata L02
         |--L. citrifolia L02
         |--L. coronata (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Gryllus coronatus L02]
         |--L. migratoria E00
         |    |--L. m. migratoria E00
         |    |--L. m. manilensis K-P83
         |    `--L. m. migratorioides E00
         |--L. savignyi Lucas 1847 E12
         |--L. verrucivora (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Gryllus verrucivorus L02]
         |--L. viridis L02
         `--L. viridissima B01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D95] Damerdji, A. 1995. Bio-écologie du peuplement des orthoptères de la région de Ghazaouet (Tlemcen, Algérie). Mésogée 54: 73–80.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181–210.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618–1669.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese (“southern Sporadhes”) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3–11.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[SM87] Sites, J. W., Jr & C. Moritz. 1987. Chromosomal evolution and speciation revisited. Systematic Zoology 36 (2): 153–174.

[Y70] Yinon, U. 1970. Electrophysiological evidence of relationships in acridid insects. Systematic Zoology 19 (4): 397–398.

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205–237.

Stenobothrus

Male Stenobothrus lineatus, copyright Gilles San Martin.


Belongs within: Acridoidea.

Stenobothrus is a genus of grasshoppers found in Eurasia and Africa, characterised by the presence of a tooth on the ovipositor.

<==Stenobothrus
    |--S. apricarius B01
    |--S. bicolor B01
    |--S. cognatus B01
    |--S. dorsatus B01
    |--S. elegans B01
    |--S. horvathi Bolivar 1901 B01
    |--S. lineatus F01
    |--S. morio B01
    |--S. nigromaculatus B01
    |--S. parallelus B01
    |--S. petraeus B01
    |--S. simplex B01
    `--S. vagans B01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[F01] Field, L. H. 2001. Stridulatory mechanisms and associated behaviour in New Zealand wetas. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 271–295. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Aphididae

Poplar-lettuce gall aphid Pemphigus bursarius, copyright Rasbak.


Belongs within: Aphidoidea.
Contains: Cinara, Aphidini.

The Aphididae, aphids, are a morphologically diverse group of phytophagous bugs with differentiated parthenogenetic and sexually reproducing generations. Parthenogenetic individuals are usually wingless and sexually reproducing individuals alate. Commonly, populations will go through several parthenogenetic generations before producing a single alate generation at the end of the growing season. Some species cause gall formation on their plant hosts.

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Parthenogenetic females viviparous, sexual females oviparous. Antennae 4—6-segmented; apical segment usually with well-delimited processus terminalis; one primary rhinarium basal to processus terminalis and one subapically on penultimate segment; other (secondary, adult) rhinaria present in most alatae and some apterae, usually concentrated on segment III. Eyes of apterae compound or 3—faceted. Siphunculi and cauda (modified apical segment) usually present; paired siphunculi marginally on or near T5, varying from rings to long, cylindrical tubes. Fore wings, if present, tectiform or, less often, held flat in repose; RP mostly present, M simple or 1— or 2-branched, CuA1 and CuA2 usually separate. Hind wings mostly with 2 oblique veins.

<==Aphididae [Eriosomatidae, Pemphigidae]
    |--Lachninae [Lachnidae] PS96
    |    |--Cinara CGW91
    |    |--Cedrobium laportei PS96
    |    |--Schizolachnus PS96
    |    |--Tuberolachnus PS96
    |    `--Trama taraxaci Shinji 1930 RD77, TYM08
    |--Pemphiginae GE05
    |    |--Aploneura lentisci M83
    |    |--Smynthurodes betae WEE70
    |    |--Geoica WEE70
    |    |    |--G. lucifuga WEE70
    |    |    `--G. utricularia W87
    |    |--Eriosoma WEE70
    |    |    |--E. lanigerum CGW91
    |    |    `--E. pyricola WEE70
    |    `--Pemphigus S87
    |         |--P. betae Ru96
    |         |--P. bursarius CGW91
    |         |--P. nidificusposchingeri R13
    |         |--P. populicaulis SB80
    |         |--P. populitransversus SS74
    |         `--P. populivenae S87
    |--Hormaphidinae [Hormaphidae, Hormaphididae, Mormaphidae] GE05
    |    |--Ceratovacuna lanigera CGW91, MHG04
    |    |--Oregma WEE70
    |    |--Hormaphis hamamelidis RD77
    |    |--Electrocornia P92
    |    |--Petiolaphis Hong & Wang 1990 H02
    |    |    `--*P. laiyangensis Hong & Wang 1990 H02
    |    |--Petiolaphioides Hong & Wang 1990 H02
    |    |    `--*P. shandongensis Hong & Wang 1990 H02
    |    |--Yueaphis Wang 1993 H02
    |    |    `--*Y. fushunensis Wang 1993 H02
    |    |--Pseudoregma CGW91
    |    |    |--P. bambucicola GE05
    |    |    `--P. panicola CGW91
    |    `--Cerataphis WEE70
    |         |--C. brasiliensis (Hempel 1901) (see below for synonymy) Ra96
    |         |--C. formosana Takahashi 1924 Ra96
    |         |--C. lataniae Ra96
    |         `--C. orchidearum Ra96
    |--Aphidinae GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Aphidocallis caudatus GE05
    |    |         Cavariella aegopodii CGW91
    |    |         Aulacorthum CGW91
    |    |           |--A. circumflexum A71
    |    |           `--A. solani CGW91
    |    |         Brachycaudus CGW91
    |    |           |--B. cardui PSM96
    |    |           |--B. helichrysi CGW91
    |    |           |--B. persicae CGW91
    |    |           |--B. (Appelia) schwartzi (Börner 1931) MF05
    |    |           `--B. tragopogonis PSM96
    |    |         Hyalopterus pruni CGW91
    |    |         Macrosiphum CGW91
    |    |           |--M. albifrons PSM96
    |    |           |--M. californicum PSM96
    |    |           |--M. colylicola Shinji 1930 TYM08
    |    |           |--M. euphorbiae WFS04
    |    |           |--M. miscanthi WEE70
    |    |           |--M. (Macrosiphum) rosae (Linnaeus 1758) MF05
    |    |           `--M. urticae (Linnaeus 1758) V09, L58 [=Aphis urticae V09]
    |    |         Metopolophium dirhodum CGW91
    |    |         Myzus CGW91
    |    |           |--M. ascalonicus CGW91
    |    |           |--M. cerasi PSM96
    |    |           |--M. cymbalariae CGW91
    |    |           |--M. inuzakurae Shinji 1930 TYM08
    |    |           |--M. ornatus CGW91
    |    |           `--M. persicae B88
    |    |         Capitophorus elaeagni CGW91
    |    |         Hyperomyzus lactucae CGW91
    |    |         Rhopalosiphum CGW91
    |    |           |--R. enigmae [incl. R. enigmae var. parvae] M37
    |    |           |--R. insertum CGW91
    |    |           |--R. maidis CGW91
    |    |           |--R. nymphaeae CGW91
    |    |           |--R. padi M83
    |    |           |--R. prunifoliae M37
    |    |           |--R. rufiabdominalis CGW91
    |    |           `--R. subterraneum Mason 1937 M37
    |    |         Neomyzus circumflexus WEE70
    |    |         Brevicoryne brassicae WEE70
    |    |         Lipaphis erysimi WEE70
    |    |         Chaetosiphon WEE70
    |    |           |--C. fragaefolii WEE70
    |    |           `--C. tetrahodum PSM96
    |    |         Elatobium abietinum WEE70
    |    |         Idiopterus nephrelepidis WEE70
    |    |         Shinjia pteridifoliae WEE70
    |    |         Longiunguis sacchari WEE70
    |    `--Aphidini NNA-ZPH05
    `--Drepanosiphinae [Callaphididae, Drepanosiphidae, Sinaphididae] GE05
         |  i. s.: Jurocallis Shaposhnikov 1979 RJ93, HW11
         |           `--J. longipes RJ93
         |         Ceriferella CGW91
         |         Neuquenaphis CGW91
         |         Taiwanaphis CGW91 [incl. Sensoriaphis AY04]
         |           |--T. furcifera CGW91
         |           `--T. tasmaniae CGW91 [=Sensoriaphis tasmaniae WEE70]
         |         Neophyllaphis CGW91
         |           |--N. brimblecombei CGW91
         |           `--N. gingerensis CGW91
         |         Leptocallites Hong 2002 H02
         |           `--*L. xilutianensis Hong 2002 H02
         |         Megalomytisites Hong 2002 H02
         |           `--*M. lontitibiales Hong 2002 H02
         |         Fushunocallites Hong 2002 H02
         |           `--*F. wanghuacunensis Hong 2002 H02
         |         Huaxiacallites Hong 2002 H02
         |           `--*H. reptantes Hong 2002 H02
         |         Sinocallis Hong 2002 H02
         |           `--*S. clypeolata Hong 2002 H02
         |         Eocallites Hong 2002 H02
         |           `--*E. mallicaudatus Hong 2002 H02
         |         Polychaitocallis Hong 2002 H02
         |           `--*P. ovata Hong 2002 H02
         |         Xilutianocallis Wang 1991 H02
         |           `--*X. yangi Wang 1991 H02
         |         Balticaphis H02
         |         Balticornaraphis H02
         |         Larssonaphis H02
         |         Succaphis Heie 1967 H02
         |           `--*S. holgeri Heie 1967 H02
         |         Symydobius H02
         |         Euceraphis H02
         |         Penaphis Lin 1980 H02
         |           |--*P. circa Lin 1980 H02
         |           |--‘Sinaphis’ epichare Zhang et al. 1989 [incl. Penaphis nanligezhuanensis Lin 1995] H02
         |           `--P. peregrina (Zhang et al. 1989) [=Tartaraphis peregrina] H02
         |         Myzocallis RD77
         |         Aniferella P92
         |         Conicaudus P92
         |         Electromyzus P92
         |         Megantennaphis P92
         |         Mengeaphis glandulosa P92
         |         Sternaphis P92
         |         Tertiaphis P92
         |         Zymus P92
         |--Palaeosiphon [Palaeosiphonini] H02
         |--Megapodaphis [Macropodaphidini] H02
         |--Palaeophyllaphis Heie 1967 [Phyllaphidini] H02
         |    `--*P. longirostris Heie 1967 H02
         |--Lizerini P92
         |    |--Lizerius CGW91
         |    |--Mindazerius dominicanus Heie & Poinar 1988 P92
         |    `--Paoleilla P92
         `--Drepanosiphonini H02
              |--Drepanosiphon platanoidis RD77
              |--Oligocallis H02
              |--Meganotennaphis H02
              `--Ellectrocallis H02

Aphididae incertae sedis:
  Acyrthosiphon WCH11
    |--A. kondoi CGW91
    |--A. lactucae PSM96
    `--A. pisum WCH11
  Uroleucon LD04
    |--U. cirsii PSM96
    |--U. formosanus C96
    |--U. ivae PSM96
    |--U. russellae PSM96
    `--U. sonchi PSM96
  Macrosiphoniella F05
    |--M. ludovicianae PSM96
    `--M. madeirensis Aguiar & Ilharco 2005 F05
  Pseudoprotaphis Kadyrbekov 2001 F05
    `--*P. erigerontis (Holman 1966) [=Aphis (Protaphis) erigerontis] F05
  Tuberocephalus Shinji 1929 TYM08
    `--T. artemisiae Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Caraviella azamii Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Eumyzus Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Amphorophora katsurae Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Illinoia TYM08
    |--I. kerriae Shinji 1930 TYM08
    `--I. rhododendri PSM96
  Macrocaudus Shinji 1930 TYM08
    `--M. phaseoli Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Microtarsus Shinji 1929 TYM08
    `--M. pterydifoliae Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Anuraphis mumecola Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Pseudomegoura Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Somaphis Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Trichonosiphoniella Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Tuberocorpus Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Microlophium carnosum V09
  Pterochlorus rosae H01
  Chromaphis juglandicola KU07
  Panaphis juglandis KU07
  Calaphis CGW91
  Therioaphis trifolii CGW91
    |--T. t. trifolii PSM96
    `--T. t. maculata PSM96
  Neotoxoptera oliveri CGW91
  Sitobion CGW91
    |--S. avenae K09
    `--S. clydesmithi PSM96
  Pentalonia nigronervosa CGW91
  Megoura viciae N70
  Kallistaphis basalis WEE70
  Huaxiaphis Hong 2002 H02
    `--*H. gracilicornuta Hong 2002 H02
  Eomakrosoura Hong 2002 H02
    `--*E. expansirostrata Hong 2002 H02
  Liaoaphis Hong 2002 H02
    `--*L. furvifemoralis Hong 2002 H02
  Sunaphis Hong & Wang 1990 H02
    |--*S. shandongensis Hong & Wang 1990 H02
    `--S. laiyangensis Hong & Wang 1990 H02
  Brachyunguis Das 1918 RH96
    |--B. (Brachyunguis) RH96
    |    |--*B. (B.) harmalae Das 1918 RH96
    |    |--B. (B.) bahamondesi Remaudière & Halbert 1996 RH96
    |    |--B. (B.) bishopi Remaudière & Halbert 1996 RH96
    |    `--B. (B.) bonnevillensis (Knowlton 1928) RH96
    `--B. (Xerophilaphis Nevsky 1928) RH96
         |--B. (*X.) saxaulica (Nevsky 1928) [=*Xerophilaphis saxaulica] RH96
         |--B. (X.) blanchardi Remaudière & Bahamondes 1987 RH96
         `--B. (X.) tetrapteralis (Cockerell 1902) RH96
  Diuraphis noxia T96
  Tetraneura ulmi W87
  Forda W87
    |--F. formicaria W87
    `--F. marginata W87
  Dysaphis RD77
    |--D. crataegi RD77
    `--D. plantaginea ACW01
  Schizoneura corni RD77, R13
  Tamalia RD77
  Hamamelistes RD77
  Phorodon humuli RD77
  Palaeoforda taymyrensis P92, RJ93
  Baltichaitophorus P92
  Pseudamphorophora P92
  Succinaphis P92

Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel 1901) [=Ceratovacuna brasiliensis; incl. Astegopteryx fransseni Hille Ris Lambers 1933, Cerataphis fransseni, Aleurocanthus palmae Ghesquière 1934, Cerataphis palmae, Cerataphis variabilis Hille Ris Lambers 1953] Ra96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 376–380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under'—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C96] Chow, Y. S. 1996. Biology and life stages of Charletonia taiwanensis Tsai and Chow (Erythraeidae) in Taiwan. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 359–361. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HW11] Homan, A., & P. Wegierek. 2011. A new family of aphids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha) from the Lower Cretaceous of Baissa, Transbaikalia. ZooKeys 130: 167–174.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KU07] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2007. Natural enemies of the walnut pest Aceria tristriatus (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 451–453. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[LD04] Lin, C.-P., & B. N. Danforth. 2004. How do insect nuclear and mitochondrial gene substitution patterns differ? Insights from Bayesian analyses of combined datasets. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 686–702.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M37] Mason, P. W. 1937. A new root aphid (Homoptera: Aphiidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (6): 166–167.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[MF05] Monserrat, V. J., & S. de Freitas. 2005. Contribución al conocimiento de los crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile) (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Graellsia 61 (2): 163–179.

[NNA-ZPH05] Nieto Nafría, J. M., M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga & N. Pérez Hidalgo. 2005. Toxoptera citricida or Toxoptera citricidus? The validity of a specific name (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Aphidini). Graellsia 61 (1): 141–142.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[PS96] Pike, K. S., & P. Starý. 1996. New species of Pauesia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) parasitoids on Cinara (Homoptera: Aphididae: Lachninae) associated with conifers in the Pacific northwest. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 324–331.

[PSM96] Pike, K. S., P. Starý, R. Miller, D. Allison, L. Boydston, G. Graf & T. Miller. 1996. New species and host records of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) from the Pacific northwest, U.S.A. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 570–591.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[Ra96] Raspi, A. 1996. Thaumatomyia elongatula (Becker) (Chloropidae) and Leucopis annulipes Zetterstedt (Chamaemyiidae): two Diptera preying on Phloeomyzus passerinii (Signoret) (Homoptera: Phloeomyzidae) in Italy. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 509–516.

[RH96] Remaudière, G., & S. E. Halbert. 1996. American species of the genus Brachyunguis Das (Homoptera: Aphididae), including two new species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 249–255.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[Ru96] Russell, L. M. 1996. Notes on Cerataphis brasiliensis and synonyms palmae, variabilis and fransseni (Homoptera: Aphididae), with a key to Cerataphis species living on palms and orchids. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 439–449.

[S87] Sabrosky, C. W. 1987. Chloropidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1049–1067. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[SS74] Senner, J. W., & R. R. Sokal. 1974. Analysis of dimorphism in natural populations with consideration of methodological and epistemological problems. Systematic Zoology 23 (3): 363–386.

[SB80] Sokal, R. R., & C. A. Braumann. 1980. Significance tests for coefficients of variation and variability profiles. Systematic Zoology 29 (1): 50–66.

[T96] Tanasijtshuk, V. N. 1996. Two new species of Leucopis Meigen (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) predacious on the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae), in North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (4): 640–646.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[W87] Walter, D. E. 1987. Belowground arthropods of semiarid grasslands. In: J. L. Capinera (ed.) Integrated Pest Management on Rangeland: A shortgrass prairie perspective pp. 271–290. Westview Press, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado).

[WCH11] Welch, K. D., P. R. Crain & J. D. Harwood. 2011. Phenological dynamics of web-building spider populations in alfalfa: implications for biological control. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 244–249.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

Last updated: 18 July 2021.

Naucoroidea

Naucoris cimicoides, from here.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Naucoroidea are a group of aquatic, predatory bugs with raptorial forelegs, spinose mid and hind tibiae, and lacking veins in the membrane of the hemelytron (if present) (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Naucoroidea SP02
    |  i. s.: Schizopteryx S02
    |--Triassocoridae GE05
    |--Potamocoridae [Potamocorinae] GE05
    |--Aphelocheiridae [Aphelocheirinae] GE05
    |    |--Coreoidus latus SP02
    |    `--Aphelocheirus I92
    |         |--A. australicus CGW91
    |         `--A. kawamurae Matsumura 1915 I92
    `--Naucoridae GE05
         |  i. s.: Mongonecta S02
         |         Aidium GE05
         |         Angaronecta GE05
         |         Heleonaucoris GE05
         |         Liadonaucoris GE05
         |         Nectodes GE05
         |         Nectonaucoris GE05
         |         Scaphocoris [Scaphocoridae] GE05
         |         Aphlebocoris [Aphlebocoridae] GE05
         |         Apopnus GE05
         |         Scaphodemopsis GE05
         |         Cantaeronecta GE05
         |--Ambrysinae CGW91
         |--Limnocorinae CGW91
         |--Laccocorinae CGW91
         |--Cryphocricinae CGW91
         |--Cheirochelinae CGW91
         `--Naucoris [Naucorinae] CGW91
              |--N. cimicoides H01
              `--N. congrex CGW91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Leptopodomorpha

Salda pallipes, copyright Stephanie Boucher.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Leptopodomorpha are a group of large-eyed, predatory bugs most commonly found on the margins of ponds and streams. They are united by adaptations to a side-by-side copulatory position, with the male abdomen possessing an apparatus for grasping the female (Schuh & Polhemus 1980).

<==Leptopodomorpha [Acanthioideae, Leptopinae] GE05
    |  i. s.: Britannicola GE05
    |         Helenosaldula aberrans SP80
    |         Saldonia [Archegocimicidae] GE05
    |           `--S. sibirica SP02
    |--Leptopodoidea SP80
    |    |--Omaniidae SP80
    |    |    |--Omania SP80
    |    |    |    |--O. coleoptrata SP80
    |    |    |    `--O. marksae WEE70
    |    |    `--Corallocoris SP80
    |    |         |--C. marksae N91
    |    |         `--C. nauruensis SP80
    |    `--Leptopodidae GE05
    |         |--Leptosaldinae SP80
    |         |    |--Leptosalda chiapensis SP80
    |         |    `--Saldolepta Schuh & Polhemus 1980 SP80
    |         |         `--S. kistnerorum SP80
    |         `--Leptopodinae SP80
    |              |--Patapius spinosus SP80
    |              |--Valleriola wilsoni SP80, CGW91
    |              |--Erianotus lanosus SP80
    |              |--Martiniola SP80
    |              `--Leotichius [Leotichiidae] SP80
    |                   `--L. speluncarum SP80
    `--Saldoidea SP80
         |--Aepophilus [Aepophilidae] SP80
         |    `--A. bonnairei SP80
         `--Saldidae [Acanthiidae] SP80
              |  i. s.: Micracanthia ripula SP80
              |         Ioscytus nasti D62
              |         Teoleuca D62
              |         Lampracanthia D62
              |         Oreokora Drake 1962 [=Oreocora] D62
              |           |--*O. chilensis (Blanchard 1852) (see below for synonymy) D62
              |           |--O. amazona (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora amazona] D62
              |           |--O. andensis (Distant 1893) [=Acanthia andensis; incl. Pentacora bruesi Drake 1949] D62
              |           |--O. angusta (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Pentacora angusta] D62
              |           |--O. bacayana (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora bacayana] D62
              |           |--O. bergi (Haglund 1899) [=Salda bergi; incl. Saldula lynchi Drake & Carvalho 1948] D62
              |           |--O. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Saldula doeringi] D62
              |           |--O. perula (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora perula] D62
              |           |--O. pillaona (Drake 1955) D62
              |           |--O. regilla (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora regilla] D62
              |           |--O. rogeri (Kirkaldy 1899) [=Acanthia rogeri] D62
              |           `--O. sola (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Saldula sola] D62
              |         Pelachoris Drake 1962 D62
              |           `--*P. leucographa [=Pentacora leucographa] D62
              |--Chiloxanthinae SP80
              |    |--Enalosalda SP80
              |    `--+--Paralosalda SP80
              |       `--+--Chiloxanthus SP80
              |          `--Pentacora SP80
              |               |--P. salina D62
              |               `--P. sphacelata (Uhler 1877) (see below for synonymy) D62
              |--Mesolygaeus [Enicocorinae, Mesolygaeidae] ZG05
              |    `--M. laiyangensis Ping 1928 ZG05
              `--Saldinae SP80
                   |  i. s.: Saldula CGW91
                   |           |--S. brevicornis CGW91
                   |           |--S. hirsuta D62
                   |           |--S. pallipes SP80
                   |           |--S. palustris (Douglas 1874) [=Salda palustris; incl. Saldula fernaldi Drake 1949] D62
                   |           `--S. pexa Drake 1950 [=S. hirsuta pexa] D62
                   |--Salduncula SP80
                   `--+--Saldoidini SP80
                      |    |--Orthophrys SP80
                      |    `--Saldoida D62
                      `--Salda D62 [Saldini SP80]
                           |--S. coxalis [incl. S. argentina] D62
                           |--S. nobilis H01
                           |    |--S. n. nobilis H01
                           |    `--S. n. reuteri H01
                           `--S. pallipes H01

*Oreokora chilensis (Blanchard 1852) [=Acanthia chilensis, Salda chilensis; incl. A. araucanica Kirkaldy 1889] D62

Pentacora sphacelata (Uhler 1877) [=Salda sphacelata, Saldula sphacelata; incl. Salda rubromaculata Heidemann 1901, Pentacora rubomaculata] D62

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D62] Drake, C. J. 1962. Synonymic data and two new genera of shore-bugs (Hemiptera: Saldidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 115–124.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[SP80] Schuh, R. T., & J. T. Polhemus. 1980. Analysis of taxonomic congruence among morphological, ecological and biogeographic data sets for the Leptopodomorpha (Hemiptera). Systematic Zoology 29 (1): 1–26.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZG05] Zhang, J., V. B. Golub, Y. A. Popov & D. E. Shcherbakov. 2005. Ignotingidae fam. nov. (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingoidea), the earliest lace bugs from the Upper Mesozoic of eastern China. Cretaceous Research 26: 783–792.

Notonectoidea

Anisops sp., from Landcare Research.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Notonectoidea, backswimmers, are a group of aquatic, predatory bugs with a strongly, transversely arched body and a short or absent forewing membrane (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Notonectoidea CGW91
    |  i. s.: Mesotrephes S02 [Mesotrephidae SP02]
    |--+--Helotrephidae GE05
    |  `--Plea D14 [Pleidae GE05, Pleinae]
    |       |--P. leachi [incl. P. minutissima] H01
    |       `--P. rufonotata Distant 1914 D14
    `--Notonectidae GE05
         |  i. s.: Nepidium GE05
         |         Asionecta GE05
         |         Notonectites GE05
         |         Pelonecta GE05
         |         Buenoa scimitra WL09
         |--Clypostemmatinae S02
         |    |--Canteronecta irajae S02
         |    `--Clypostemma GE05
         |         |--C. limna S02
         |         `--C. xyphiale Popov 1964 ZG05
         |--Notonectinae D14
         |    |--Nychia sappho CGW91
         |    |--Enithares CGW91
         |    |    |--E. bergrothi Montand. 1892 D14
         |    |    `--E. woodwardi CGW91
         |    `--Notonecta Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         |--N. glauca Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         |--N. handlirschi CGW91
         |         |--N. minutissima Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         |--N. montandoni Kirkaldy 1897 I92
         |         |--N. sieblosiensis S02
         |         |--N. striata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         `--N. triguttata I92
         `--Anisopinae CGW91
              |--Paranisops inconstans CGW91
              |--Walambianisops CGW91
              `--Anisops D14
                   |--A. assimilis D14
                   |--A. calcaratus TDC06
                   |--A. cleopatra Distant 1914 D14
                   |--A. deichmuelleri S02
                   |--A. gratus TDC06
                   |--A. heydeni S02
                   |--A. hyperion Kirk 1898 D14
                   |--A. inconstans WEE70
                   |--A. stali Kirkaldy 1904 T13
                   |--A. thienemanni TDC06
                   `--A. wakefieldi PC66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175–183.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZG05] Zhang, J., V. B. Golub, Y. A. Popov & D. E. Shcherbakov. 2005. Ignotingidae fam. nov. (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingoidea), the earliest lace bugs from the Upper Mesozoic of eastern China. Cretaceous Research 26: 783–792.

Anthocoridae

Orius niger, from Raupach et al. (2014).


Belongs within: Cimicomorpha.

The Anthocoridae, flower bugs, are a group of small bugs that mostly feed on insect eggs or haemolymph from other insects. They are characterised by the presence of a cuneus in the hemelytron, with the hemelytral membrane usually being veinless, the presence of ocelli, and an apparently three-segmented labium. Most species engage in haemocoelic insemination, with the exception of the subfamily Lasiochilinae (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Anthocoridae
    |  i. s.: Amphiareus YS01
    |         Bilia MM96
    |         Macrotracheliella laevis MM96
    |         Plochiocorella elongata CGW91
    |--Lasiochilus [Lasiochilinae] CGW91
    |    `--L. femoralis CGW91
    |--Lyctocorinae [Dufouriellinae, Lyctocoraria, Lyctocoridae, Xylocoraria] C61
    |    |  i. s.: Eoanthocoris cretaceus Popov 1990 SP02, RJ93
    |    |         Physopleurella CGW91
    |    |--Lyctocoris C61 [Lycotocorini W77]
    |    |    |--L. campestris (Fabricius 1794) [=Acanthia campestris] C61
    |    |    `--L. subelegans Breddin 1928 C61
    |    |--Xylocorini W77
    |    |    |--Xylocoris C61
    |    |    |    |  i. s.: X. hirsutus Carayon 1961 C61
    |    |    |    |--X. (Xylocoris) C61
    |    |    |    |    |--X. (X.) afer (Reuter 1884) [=Piezostethus afer] C61
    |    |    |    |    |--X. (X.) cursitans (Fallén 1807) [=Anthocoris cursitans] C61
    |    |    |    |    `--X. (X.) galactinus C61
    |    |    |    `--X. (Arrostus) flavipes (Reuter 1875) (see below for synonymy) C61
    |    |    `--Piezostethus galactinus W77, G89
    |    |--Almeidini W77
    |    |    |  i. s.: ‘Piezostethus’ machadoi Carvalho 1952 W77
    |    |    |--Australmeida Woodward 1977 W77
    |    |    |    `--*A. derricki (Gross 1954) [=Lasiochilus derricki] W77
    |    |    |--Almeida Distant 1910 W77
    |    |    `--Lippomanus Distant 1904 W77
    |    |--Cardiastethus C61 [Cardiastethini W77]
    |    |    |--C. affinis C61
    |    |    |--C. capensis Carayon 1961 C61
    |    |    |--C. fasciiventris C61
    |    |    |--C. megalophthalmus C61
    |    |    |--C. poweri WFS04
    |    |    |--C. pygmaeus C61
    |    |    `--C. rufescens C61
    |    `--Scolopini W77
    |         |--Lasiochiloides Champion 1901 C61
    |         `--Blaptostethus Fieber 1860 C61
    |              |--B. africanus (Carayon 1956) [=Lasiochiloides africanus] C61
    |              `--B. pleneti (Carayon 1958) [=Lasiochiloides pleneti] C61
    `--Anthocorinae C61
         |  i. s.: Wollastoniella bifoveata Carayon 1958 C61
         |--Anthocoris [Anthocorini] C61
         |    |--A. nemoralis C61
         |    |--A. nemorum H01
         |    |--A. pacificus Kirkaldy 1908 K08
         |    |--A. subcruciatus Walker 1872 C61
         |    `--A. sylvestris K08
         `--Oriini C61
              |--Lampronannella Poppius 1909 C61
              |--Dokkiocoris Miller 1951 C61
              |--Pseudotriphleps Poppius 1910 [incl. Horniella Poppius 1910 non Raffray 1904] C61
              |--Caffrocoris Carayon 1961 C61
              |    `--*C. brincki Carayon 1961 C61
              |--Bilianella C61
              |    |--B. microscopica C61
              |    `--B. minuta Carvalho 1951 C61
              |--Montandoniola Poppius 1909 [incl. Teisocoris Hiura 1959] C61
              |    |--*M. moraguesi (Puton 1896) [=Montandoniella moraguesi] C61
              |    |--‘Ectemnus’ pictipennis Esaki 1931 [=*Teisocoris pictipennis] C61
              |    `--M. thripodes Bergroth 1916 C61
              `--Orius Wagner 1952 [Oriini] C61
                   |  i. s.: O. armatus CGW91
                   |         O. cocciphagus (Hesse 1947) [=Triphleps cocciphagus] C61
                   |         O. fogoensis Wagner 1957 C61
                   |         O. insidiosus MM96
                   |         O. laevigatus WS07
                   |         O. minutum KU07
                   |         O. tantillus CGW91
                   |         O. tristicolor WT91
                   |--O. (Orius) C61
                   |    |--O. (O.) brunnescens (Poppius 1913) [=Triphleps brunnescens] C61
                   |    |--O. (O.) niger C61
                   |    `--O. (O.) thripoborus (Hesse 1940) [=Triphleps thripoborus] C61
                   `--O. (Dimorphella) lanatus Carayon 1961 C61

Xylocoris (Arrostus) flavipes (Reuter 1875) [=Piezostethus flavipes; incl. Triphleps frumenti Zacher 1922, T. ramae Narayanan & Chatterji 1953, T. sinui Narayanan & Chatterji 1952] C61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C61] Carayon, J. 1961. Hemiptera (Heteroptera): Anthocoridae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 533–557. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a , 7: 5–72.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KU07] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2007. Natural enemies of the walnut pest Aceria tristriatus (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 451–453. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WS07] Walzer, A., & P. Schausberger. 2007. Key factors of intraguild predation among Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 645–648. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[WT91] Wilson, L. T., P. J. Trichilo, D. L. Flaherty, R. Hanna & A. Corbett. 1991. Natural enemy-spider mite interactions: comments on implications for population assessment. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 167–173. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[W77] Woodward, T. E. 1977. The occurrence of Almeidini (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in Australia, with the description of a new genus. Systematic Entomology 2: 255–260.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 30 January 2019.