Platypezoidea

Male Calotarsa pallipes, copyright William Donald Newton.


Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.
Contains: Phoridae.

The Platypezoidea are a clade of small, humpbacked flies supported by molecular phylogenetic analyses.

<==Platypezoidea [Clythioidea, Phoroidea] WT11
    |  i. s.: Opetiala shatalkani GE05
    |--Opetiidae [Opetiinae] WT11
    |    |--Lithopetia hirsuta GE05
    |    `--Opetia nigra WT11
    `--+--+--+--Archisciada lebanensis GE05
       |  |  `--Phoridae WT11
       |  `--Ironomyiidae WT11
       |       |--Paleopetia laiyangensis GE05
       |       |--Hermaeomyia GE05
       |       |--Eridomyia GE05
       |       |--Cretonomyia pristina GE05
       |       |--Sinolesta [Sinolestinae] GE05
       |       `--Ironomyia [Ironomyiinae] WT11
       |            `--I. nigromaculata WT11
       `--+--Electrosania cretica GE05
          `--Platypezidae [Clythiidae] WT11
               |  i. s.: Maritulus GE05
               |         Parnassos GE05
               |         Proplatypeza GE05
               |         Lebambromyia acrai GE05
               |         Promittor GE05
               |         Oloplatypeza GE05
               |         Bolopus C10
               |         Pamelamyia K87
               |         Orthovena K87
               |         Palaeopetia laiyangensis Zhang 1987 RJ93
               |--Melanderomyia [Melanderomyiinae] C10
               |    `--M. kahli K87
               |--Platypezininae K87
               |    |--Platypezina diversa K87
               |    `--Grossoseta pacifica K87
               |--Microsania [Microsaniinae] C10
               |    |--M. australis CM91
               |    |--M. imperfecta C10
               |    `--M. stigmaticalis C10
               |--Callomyiinae C10
               |    |--Bertamyia notata C10
               |    |--Chydaeopeza C10
               |    |--Callomyia C10
               |    |    |--C. calla C10
               |    |    `--C. gilloglyorum T81
               |    `--Agathomyia C10
               |         |--A. bella (Williston 1903) [=Callomyia bella] C10
               |         `--A. canadensis C10
               `--Platypezinae C10
                    |--Metaclythia currani K87
                    |--Polyporivora polypori K87
                    |--Seri symka K87
                    |--Paraplatypeza C10
                    |    |--P. coraxa K87
                    |    `--P. velutina WT11
                    |--Platypeza C10
                    |    |--P. brunnescens C10
                    |    `--P. consobrina M90
                    |--Protoclythia K87
                    |    |--P. califormica K87
                    |    `--P. modesta K87
                    |--Lindneromyia [incl. Grossovena, Penesymmetria, Plesioclythia, Symmetricella] C10
                    |    |--L. agarici [=Plesioclythia agarici] C10
                    |    |--‘Grossovena’ carbonaria K87
                    |    |--‘Symmetricella’ mogollonensis K87
                    |    `--‘Penesymmetria’ umbrosa K87
                    `--Calotarsa K87
                         |--C. durangoensis Kessel & Young 1974 C10
                         |--C. insignis C10
                         |--C. mexicana Kessel & Young 1974 C10
                         `--C. pallipes C10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C10] Chandler, P. J. 2010. Platypezidae (flat-footed flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 715–719. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K87] Kessel, E. L. 1987. Platypezidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 681–688. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[T81] Teskey, H. J. 1981. Key to families—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 125–147. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Helogale

Common dwarf mongoose Helogale parvula, copyright Bernard Dupont.


Belongs within: Herpestidae.

Helogale, the dwarf mongooses, is a genus of small, diurnal, social mongooses with a grizzled brown pelage found in eastern and southern Africa.

Helogale
    |--H. brunnula S78
    |--H. dybowskii S78
    |--H. hirtula S78
    |--H. ivori S78
    |--H. macmillani S78
    |--H. mimetra S78
    |--H. parvula S78
    |--H. percivali S78
    |--H. undulata S78
    |--H. varia S78
    |--H. vetula S78
    `--H. victorina S78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[S78] Savage, R. J. G. 1978. Carnivora. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 249–267. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

Metopininae

Phalacrotophora epeirae, copyright John R. Maxwell.


Belongs within: Phoridae.
Contains: Melaloncha, Megaselia.

The Metopininae are a diverse group of scuttle flies that generally lack strong isolated bristles on the tibiae (Petersen 1987).

Characters (from Petersen 1987): Frons sometimes bare along margins or on anteroventral half; supra-antennal bristles variable. Tibiae usually without bristles (exceptionally with a single anterodorsal bristle very near base on mid and hind tibiae) or with rows of strong setae. Wing generally fully developed, but sometimes reduced, rudimentary, or absent in female of some species.

<==Metopininae B04
    |  i. s.: Melittophora salti B04
    |         Melaloncha B04
    |         Sinophoritis Hong 2002 H02
    |           `--*S. bikerkosa Hong 2002 H02
    |         Latiarista Hong 2002 H02
    |           `--*L. intermixta Hong 2002 H02
    |--Beckerina [Beckerinini] P87
    |    |--B. aliena P87
    |    `--B. umbrimargo P87
    |--Gymnophorini B10
    |    |--Megaselia B10
    |    `--Gymnophora B10
    |         |--G. arcuata B10
    |         |--G. luteiventris P87
    |         `--G. spiracularis B10
    `--Metopinini B10
         |--Ecituncula B10
         |--Ecitophora B10
         |--Ecitoptera B10
         |--Ecitomyia wheeleri B10, M81
         |--Rhabdomyia setosa B10
         |--Lecanocerus compressiceps P87, M90
         |--*Syneura cocciphila B10, P87
         |--Woodiphora magnipalpis P87
         |--Cremersia spinicauda P87, B10
         |--Zyziphora hirtifrons P87
         |--Myrmosicarius texanus P87
         |--Auxanommatidia californica P87
         |--Physoptera vesiculata P87, B10
         |--Trophithauma rostratum P87
         |--Cataclinusa pachycondylae P87
         |--Stenophorina petiolata P87
         |--Chonocephalus americanus P87
         |--Xanionotum mexicanum P87
         |--Commoptera solenopsidis P87
         |--Acontistoptera B10
         |    |--A. brasiliensis M81
         |    `--A. melanderi P87
         |--Diocophora P87
         |    |--D. appretiata B10
         |    `--D. disparifrons P87
         |--Pericyclocera P87
         |    |--P. cata P87
         |    `--P. floricola P87
         |--Pseudacteon P87
         |    |--P. formicarum A71
         |    `--P. onyx P87
         |--Trophodeinus P87
         |    |--T. furcatus [=Bactropalpus furcatus] B10
         |    `--T. pygmaeus M81
         |--Metopina [incl. Typhlophorina] B10
         |    |--M. goeleti Grimaldi 1989 RJ93
         |    |--M. pachycondylae A71
         |    `--M. subarcuata B10
         |--Puliciphora B10
         |    |--P. borinquenensis B10
         |    |--P. imbecilla B10
         |    `--P. occidentalis M81
         |--Apocephalus B10
         |    |--A. asymmetricus B10
         |    |--A. (Mesophora) borealis P87
         |    `--A. wheeleri B10
         |--Rhyncophoromyia P87
         |    |--R. conica P87
         |    |--R. maculineura B10
         |    `--R. trivittata B10
         |--Neodohrniphora P87
         |    |--N. arnaudi P87
         |    |--N. cognata B10
         |    |--N. curvinervis B10
         |    `--N. mexicanae B10
         `--Phalacrotophora P87
              |--P. berolinensis B04
              |--P. beuki B04
              |--P. epeirae B04
              |--P. fasciata B04
              |--P. halictorum B04
              |--P. (Omapanta) longifrons P87
              |--P. quadripunctata B04
              `--P. rufiventris B04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B04] Brown, B. V. 2004. Revision of the subgenus Udamochiras of Melaloncha bee-killing flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Metopininae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 1–42.

[B10] Brown, B. V. 2010. Phoridae (hump-backed flies, scuttle flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 725–761. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[P87] Peterson, B. V. 1987. Phoridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 689–712. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

Eristalini

Male drone fly Eristalis tenax, copyright Alvesgaspar.


Belongs within: Syrphidae.

The Eristalini are a group of hover flies with aquatic larvae known as rat-tailed maggots; adults have vein R4+5 in the wing looped into cell r4+5 (Kotthoff & Schmid 2005).

<==Eristalini KS05
    |--Eristalis Latreille 1804 (nom. cons.) [incl. Tubifera Meigen 1800 (nom. rej.); Eristalina] KS05
    |    |  i. s.: E. arbustorum K01
    |    |         E. assimilis Walker 1849 [incl. E. capito] R01
    |    |         E. cingulatus T27
    |    |         E. crassipes Fabr. 1805 [=Simoides crassipes; incl. E. pachymerus] R01
    |    |         E. curtus Loew 1860 R01
    |    |         E. horticola S00
    |    |         E. quinquevittatus Macquart 1847 E12
    |    |         E. taeniops Wiedem. 1818 (see below for synonymy) R01
    |    |--E. (Eristalis) tenax TRZ10 [=Tubifera tenax PC66]
    |    `--E. (Eoseristalis) TRZ10
    |         |--E. (E.) alleni TRZ10
    |         `--E. (E.) gatesi TRZ10
    `--Helophilina KS05
         |--Mallota posticata KS05, VT87
         |--Mesembrius KS05
         |--Myathropa florea KS05, T81
         |--Parhelophilus laetus KS05, VT87
         |--Lejops KS05
         |    |--L. (Anasimyia) bilinearis VT87
         |    |--L. (Arctosyrphus) willingii VT87
         |    |--L. (Asemosyrphus) polygrammus TRZ10
         |    |--L. (Lunomyia) cooleyi VT87
         |    `--L. (Polydontomyia) curvipes VT87
         `--Helophilus KS05
              |--H. cingulatus T27
              |--H. hochstetteri T27
              |--H. latifrons VT87
              |--H. miocaenicus (Stackelberg 1925) [=Tubifera miocaenicus, Eristalis miocaenicus] KS05
              |--H. nothobombus Kotthoff & Schmid 2005 KS05
              |--H. pendulus (Linnaeus 1758) KS05
              |--H. primarius Germar 1837 KS05
              |--H. trivittatus (Fabricius 1805) KS05
              `--H. villeneuvi Théobald 1937 KS05

Eristalis taeniops Wiedem. 1818 [incl. E. aegyptius, E. pulchriceps, Helophilus pulchriceps, E. torridus] R01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KS05] Kotthoff, U., & U. Schmid. 2005. A new fossil hoverfly (Insecta, Diptera: Syrphidae) from the Randeck Maar (Early Miocene, south-west Germany). Palaeontology 48 (5): 1091–1096.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[R01] Ricardo, G. 1901. Notes on Diptera from South Africa (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 89–110.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[T81] Teskey, H. J. 1981. Morphology and terminology—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–88. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[TRZ10] Thompson, E. C., G. E. Rotheray & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Syrphidae (flower flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 763–792. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[VT87] Vockeroth, J. R., & F. C. Thompson. 1987. Syrphidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 713–743. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Syrphus

Syrphus sp. (S. vitripennis or S. torvus), copyright Gail Hampshire.


Belongs within: Syrphidae.

Syrphus is a genus of hover flies, most diverse in the north temperate regions, whose larvae are predatory on Sternorrhyncha (Thompson et al. 2010).

Characters (from Thompson et al. 2010): Postpronotum, anterior anepisternum, metathoracic pleuron, and metasternum bare; calypter with ventral lobe pilose, with long, coarse, erect yellow pile dorsally, especially on posteromedian portion; male abdomen with five unmodified pregential segments, tergum 5 visible in dorsal view. Larva brightly patterned; ventral surface smooth, without setae, prolegs or crochets; anal segment without lappets; posterior respiratory process with dorsal spurs, stem of respiratory process long with spiracles not reaching integument, spiracles dark lined.

<==Syrphus
    |--S. abdominalis L02
    |--S. algirus Macquart 1847 E12
    |--S. arcuatus [=Mulio arcuatus] L02
    |--S. bicinctus [=Mulio bicinctus] L02
    |--S. bifasciatus K01
    |--S. bombylans L02
    |--S. caemiteriorum L02
    |--S. fuciformis L02
    |--S. inanis (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Musca inanis L02]
    |--S. intricarius L02
    |--S. knabi T81
    |--S. luniger K01
    |--S. nemorum L02
    |--S. novaezealandiae T27
    |--S. pellucens L02
    |--S. pendulus L02
    |--S. phaeostigma TRZ10
    |--S. pipiens L02
    |--S. ribesii TRZ10
    |--S. ruficornis L02
    |--S. scriptus L02
    |--S. shorae TRZ10
    |--S. tenax L02
    |--S. torvus M90
    |--S. tristis L02
    `--S. vitripennis K01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[T81] Teskey, H. J. 1981. Key to families—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 125-147. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[TRZ10] Thompson, E. C., G. E. Rotheray & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Syrphidae (flower flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 763–792. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

Tethinidae

Dasyrhicnoessa sp., from PaDIL.


Belongs within: Ephydroidea.

The Tethinidae are a group of small to medium-sized flies usually associated with coastal marine or saline habitats (Mathis 2010).

Characters (from Mathis 2010): Small to medium-sized flies, body length 1.6–4 mm; frequently invested with pale yellowish to brown microtomentum. With one to four orbital and zero to four fronto-orbital setae; postocellar setae convergent or absent. Vibrissal seta various, if present usually weak. With one proepisternal seta; one proepimeral seta; anepisternum with one or more setae and some setulae posteriorly. Precoxal bridge present. Wing hyaline to infuscate or pale yellow; C with Sc break only; cell cup present but small; A1 weakened apically, not reaching wing margin. Tibiae lacking preapical dorsal seta. Male terminalia with epandrium bearing two surstyli ventrally; anterior surstylus distinctive; posterior surstylus generally strongly setulose and lobe-like; phallapodeme long, slender; ejaculatory apodeme usually large; phallus usually elongate, ribbon-like, sinuous, subcylindrical, with a more or less dense ventral pubescence, often with several microscopic papillae. Female terminalia with two sclerotised spermathecae; cercus subcylindrical or compressed, sometimes bearing strong, spinelike setulae (pseudacanthophorites); tergites 7 and 7 mostly with characteristic pigmented areas; epiproct generally small, bearing pair of setulae dorsally on apical third; hypoproct large.

<==Tethinidae M10a
    |  i. s.: Listriomastax M10a
    |         Macrocanace V87
    |           |--M. australis V87
    |           `--M. littorea V87
    |--Suffomyia M10b [Zaleinae M10a]
    |--Horaismoptera V87 [Horaismopterinae M10a]
    |    `--H. hennigi V87
    |--Apetaenus [Apetaeninae] M10a
    |    |--A. littoreus M10a
    |    `--A. watsoni M10a
    |--Pelomyiinae M10a
    |    |--+--Pelomyiella mallochi M10a
    |    |  `--Neopelomyia rostrata M10a
    |    `--+--Pelomyia M10a
    |       |    |--P. coronata M10a
    |       |    `--P. occidentalis M10a
    |       `--Masoniella M10a
    |            |--M. advena M10a
    |            |--M. argentinaensis M10a
    |            `--M. richardsi M10a
    `--Tethininae M10a
         |--Afrotethina M04
         |--Plesiotethina Munari 2000 M04
         |    `--*P. australis Munari 2000 M04
         |--Thitena Munari 2004 M04
         |    `--*T. cadaverina Munari 2004 M04
         |--Sigaloethina Munari 2004 M04
         |    `--*S. phaia Munari 2004 M04
         |--Pseudorhicnoessa Malloch 1914 [incl. Macrotethina Malloch 1935] M04
         |    |--*P. spinipes Malloch 1914 [incl. Tethina (*Macrotethina) tibiseta Malloch 1935, P. tibiseta] M04
         |    `--P. rattii M10a
         |--Tethina Haliday in Curtis 1837 M04 [incl. Phycomyza V87]
         |    |  i. s.: T. albosetulosa M10a
         |    |         T. flavigenis M10a
         |    |         T. grisea M10a
         |    |         T. hirsuta Munari 2000 M04
         |    |         T. horripilans M10a
         |    |         T. nigriseta Malloch 1924 [=Rhicnoessa nigriseta] M04
         |    |         T. pallidiseta Malloch 1935 M04
         |    |         T. parvula M10a
         |    |--*T. (Tethina) illota (Haliday 1838) [=Opomyza (*Tethina) illota] M04
         |    `--T. (Rhicnoessa) C-T92
         |         |--T. (R.) alboguttata Strobl 1900 C-T92
         |         |--T. (R.) ochracea (Hendel 1913) C-T92 (see below for synonymy)
         |         `--T. (R.) simplex Collin 1966 C-T92
         `--Dasyrhicnoessa Hendel 1934 M04
              |  i. s.: D. serratula Malloch 1935 (n. d.) M04
              |--*D. fulva (Hendel 1913) [=Rhicnoessa fulva] M04
              |--D. aquila Munari 2002 M04
              |--D. atripes Munari 2004 M04
              |--D. bicolor Munari 2002 M04
              |--D. boninensis Sasakawa 1995 M04
              |--D. clandestina Munari 2002 M04
              |--D. ferruginea (Lamb 1914) [=Rhicnoessa ferruginea, Tethina ferruginea] M04
              |--D. fulvescens Malloch 1935 M04
              |--D. humilis Munari 2004 M04
              |--D. insularis (Aldrich 1931) (see below for synonymy) M04
              |--D. macalpinei Munari 2004 M04
              |--D. mathisi Munari 2002 M04
              |--D. ostentatrix Munari 2004 M04
              |--D. pallida Munari 2004 M04
              |--D. platypes Sasakawa 1986 M04
              |--D. sexseriata (Hendel 1913) (see below for synonymy) M04
              |--D. tripunctata Sasakawa 1974 [incl. D. phyllodes Sasakawa 1995] M04
              |--D. vockerothi Hardy & Delfinado 1980 [incl. D. occidentalis Munari 1986] M04
              |--D. yoshiyasui Sasakawa 1986 M04
              `--D. ciliata group M04
                   |--D. ciliata Munari 2004 M04
                   `--+--D. longisetosa Munari 2004 M04
                      `--D. priapus Munari 2004 M04

Dasyrhicnoessa insularis (Aldrich 1931) [=Tethina insularis, Rhicnoessa insularis; incl. Dasyrhicnoessa freidbergi Munari 1994, Tethina lasiophthalma Malloch 1933, D. lasiophthalma] M04

Dasyrhicnoessa sexseriata (Hendel 1913) [=Rhicnoessa sexstriata, Tethina sexstriata; incl. Dasyrhicnoessa asymbasia Sasakawa 1995] M04

Tethina (Rhicnoessa) ochracea (Hendel 1913) C-T92 [=Rhicnoessa ochracea M04; incl. T. canzonerii Munari 1981 M04, T. chilensis Malloch 1934 M04, Rhicnoessa texana Malloch 1913 M04, T. texana M04]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C-T92] Carles-Tolrá, M. 1992. New and interesting records of Diptera Acalyptrata from Spain. Part I: Acartophthalmidae, Opomyzidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Carnidae, Tethinidae, Milichiidae and Cryptochetidae. Bull. Annls Soc. R. Belge Ent. 128: 343–353.

[M10a] Mathis, W. N. 2010a. Tethinidae (beach flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1109–1114. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M10b] Mathis, W. N. 2010b. Canacidae (surf flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1119. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M04] Munari, L. 2004. Beach flies (Diptera: Tethinidae: Tethininae) from Australia and Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of two new genera and ten new species. Records of the Australian Museum 56: 29–56.

[V87] Vockeroth, J. R. 1987. Tethinidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1073–1078. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Drosophila

Drosophila busckii, from Wikimedia Commons.


Belongs within: Drosophilidae.
Contains: Drosophila (Drosophila), Drosophila (Sophophora).

Drosophila is a diverse, cosmopolitan genus of vinegar flies; the monophyly of the genus as generally recognised is currently under debate.

Characters (from Grimaldi 2010): Arista plumose; facial carina large, often with flat surface; eyes pubescent; acrostichals in six or more rows; two pairs of dorsocentral setae; prescutellar setae absent; two katepisternal setae present of unequal lengths; wing tip rounded; crossveins distant.

<==Drosophila Fallén 1823 (see below for synonymy) SDF04
    |--D. (Dorsilopha) busckii RV05
    `--+--D. (Drosophila) RV05
       `--D. (Sophophora) RV05

Drosophila incertae sedis:
  D. acutilabella S00
  D. artificialis D37
  D. auraria KVV96
  D. berryi W87
  D. colorata M90
  D. earlei D37
  D. grimshawi WT11
  D. guttifera M47
  D. heteroneura C96
  *Tanygastrella’ hypopygialis Duda 1924 SDF04
  D. (Phalodoris) lebanonensis CE79
  D. macrospina D51
    |--D. m. macrospina D51
    |--D. m. limpiensis D51
    `--D. m. ohioensis D51
  D. megagenys W91
  *Adrosophila’ minuta Séguy 1938 SDF04
  *Spuriostyloptera’ multipunctata Duda 1923 SDF04
  D. nasutoides LG91
  D. neorepleta D51
  D. nigrospiracula S85
  D. notha W91
  D. onychophora G10
  D. orientacea GJR97
  D. planitibia G91
  D. prosaltans D51
  D. quadrilineata de Meijere 1911 [=*Chaetodrosophilella quadrilineata] SDF04
  D. recens S00
  D. rubida W70
  D. silvestris VD94
  D. sturtevanti D51
  D. subarctica CE79
  D. suboccidentalis S00
  D. sulcata D37
  D. transversa D37
  D. uvarum B88
  D. vibrissina D37
  D. wheeleri G84
  D. (Paradrosophila Duda 1923) SDF04
    `--D. (*P.) pictipennis Kertész 1901 SDF04
  D. (Pholadoris) T68
    |--D. (P.) lativittata T68
    |--D. (P.) pattersoni T68
    `--D. (P.) victoria T68
  D. (Spinulophila Duda 1923) SDF04
    `--D. (*S.) signata (Duda 1923) [=*Spinulophila signata] SDF04

Drosophila Fallén 1823 [incl. Adrosophila Séguy 1938, Chaetodrosophilella Duda 1923, Chaetodrosophila (l. c.), Spuriostyloptera Duda 1923, Tanygastrella Duda 1924] SDF04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology 4th ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[CE79] Coyne, J. A., W. F. Eanes, J. A. M. Ramshaw & R. K. Koehn. 1979. Electrophoretic heterogeneity of α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase among many species of Drosophila. Systematic Zoology 28 (2): 164–175.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[GJR97] Giordano, R., J. J. Jackson & H. M. Robertson. 1997. The role of Wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of Diabrotica beetles and Gryllus crickets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 94: 11439–11444.

[G84] Gosling, E. M. 1984. The systematic status of Mytilus galloprovincialis in western Europe: a review. Malacologia 25 (2): 551–568.

[G10] Grimaldi, D. 2010. Drosophilidae (small fruit flies, pomace flies, vinegar flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1197–1206. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[KVV96] Kroon, A., R. L. Voenendaal & A. Veerman. 1996. Does the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) respond to photoperiod in a quantitative manner? In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 5–7. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[LG91] Li, W.-H., & D. Graur. 1991. Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution. Sinauer: Sunderland (MA).

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263–288.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[RV05] Robe, L. J., V. L. S. Valente, M. Budnik & E. L. S. Loreto. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) with an emphasis on Neotropical species and groups: a nuclear versus mitochondrial gene approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 623–640.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[SDF04] Singh, B. K., S. Dash & R. S. Fartyal. 2004. Revision of the species of the subgenus Drosophila (Drosophila) of the Kumaon region, India, with the description of eight new species. Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 163–176.

[S85] Slatkin, M. 1985. Gene flow in natural populations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 393-430.

[T68] Throckmorton, L. H. 1968. Concordance and discordance of taxonomic characters in Drosophila classification. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 355–387.

[VD94] Vogler, A. P., & R. Desalle. 1994. Diagnosing units of conservation management. Conservation Biology 8 (2): 354–363.

[W87] Wheeler, M. R. 1987. Drosophilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1011–1018. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W70] White, M. J. D. 1970. Cytogenetics. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 72–82. Melbourne University Press.

[W91] Whitten, M. J. 1991. Australian insects in scientific research. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 236–251. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Diastatidae

Diastata fuscula, copyright Dick Belgers.


Belongs within: Ephydroidea.

The Diastatidae are a group of small, drosophilid-like flies found primarily among lush, low vegetation, often in relatively damp locations (Mathis 2010).

Characters (from Mathis 2010): Adults small, greyish-brown, body length 2.5–4 mm; usually with patterned wings and weakly spinose costa. Postocellar setae convergent; both inner and outer verticals present; ocellar and vibrissal setae well developed; two well-developed fronto-orbital setae present, proclinate seta laterad of reclinate seta present. Antenna decumbent; arista elongate, macropubescent or short plumose. Anepisternum setose or bare; katepisternum bearing twelve setae, posterior seta stronger. C extending to M; C with either subcostal break only or both humeral and subcostal breaks; Sc incomplete, not reaching C, often fusing with R1 distally; R1 bare; both CuA2 and A1 present; cell cup closed, crossvein bm-cu present. Legs moderatly elongate, slender. Abdominal segments 1–5 unmodified; male with segments 6–8 reduced, although tergite 7 well developed, sternite 7 absent; abdominal spiracles (6 or 7) in membrane.

<==Diastatidae [Campichoetidae] M10
    |--Euthychaeta M10
    |--Pareuthychaeta M10
    |    |--P. electrica M87
    |    `--P. minuta M87
    |--Campichoeta M10
    |    |--C. basalis [incl. Thryptocheta tristis] M10
    |    |--C. latigena M10
    |    `--C. punctum WT11
    `--Diastata M10
         |--D. argentina M10
         |--D. costaricensis M10
         |--D. dimidiata M10
         |--D. fuscula WT11
         `--D. vagans M10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[M10] Mathis, W. N. 2010. Diastatidae (diastatid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1207–1210. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M87] McAlpine, J. F. 1987. Diastatidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1019–1022. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Drosophila (Sophophora)

Drosophila melanogaster, copyright Ryszard.


Belongs within: Drosophila.

Drosophila subgenus Sophophora is a genus of vinegar flies most diverse in central Africa and southeast Asia, with a number of species (included the widely studied D. melanogaster) introduced worldwide (Grimaldi 2010).

<==Drosophila (Sophophora) G10
    |--+--D. (S.) obscura RV05
    |  `--D. (S.) pseudoobscura RV05
    `--+--D. (S.) erecta RV05
       |--D. (S.) yakuba RV05
       `--+--D. (S.) melanogaster Meigen 1830 RV05, GE05
          `--+--D. (S.) mauritiana GE05
             |--D. (S.) sechellia H99, GE05
             `--D. (S.) simulans RV05

Drosophila (Sophophora) incertae sedis:
  D. (S.) affinis CE79
  D. (S.) algonquin CE79
  D. (S.) ambigua CE79
  D. (S.) ananassae CE79
  D. (S.) athabasca CE79
  D. (S.) azteca CE79
  D. (S.) bipectinata CE79
  D. (S.) birchii CE79
  D. (S.) bocqueti H99
  D. (S.) burlai H99
  D. (S.) capricorni CE79
  D. (S.) elegans H99
  D. (S.) emarginata T68
  D. (S.) equinoxialis CE79
  D. (S.) eugracilis H99
  D. (S.) fumipennis CE79
  D. (S.) guanche CE79
  D. (S.) malerkotliana G10
  D. (S.) miranda CE79
  D. (S.) narragansett CE79
  D. (S.) nebulosa CE79
  D. (S.) neocordata T68
  D. (S.) neoelliptica T68
  D. (S.) orena CE79
  D. (S.) paulistorum T68
  D. (S.) pavlovskiana CE79
  D. (S.) persimilis CE79
  D. (S.) populi T68
  D. (S.) pseudobocainensis T68
  D. (S.) saltans G10
  D. (S.) subobscura CE79
  D. (S.) sucinea T68
  D. (S.) simulans H99
  D. (S.) teissieri CE79
  D. (S.) tolteca CE79
  D. (S.) tropicalis CE79
  D. (S.) vulcana H99
  D. (S.) willistoni G10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CE79] Coyne, J. A., W. F. Eanes, J. A. M. Ramshaw & R. K. Koehn. 1979. Electrophoretic heterogeneity of α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase among many species of Drosophila. Systematic Zoology 28 (2): 164–175.

[G10] Grimaldi, D. 2010. Drosophilidae (small fruit flies, pomace flies, vinegar flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1197–1206. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H99] Houck, M. A. 1999. Mites as potential horizontal gene transfer agents. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 7–14. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[RV05] Robe, L. J., V. L. S. Valente, M. Budnik & E. L. S. Loreto. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) with an emphasis on Neotropical species and groups: a nuclear versus mitochondrial gene approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 623–640.

[T68] Throckmorton, L. H. 1968. Concordance and discordance of taxonomic characters in Drosophila classification. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 355–387.