Pseudepipona

Purbeck mason wasp Pseudepipona herrichii, copyright Nigel Jones.


Belongs within: Eumeninae.

Pseudepipona is a cosmopolitan genus of morphologically fairly unspecialised mason wasps with the propodeum reduced, so part of the posterior face of the mesosoma is formed by the posterior face of the postscutellum, and the first metasomal tergite nearly as wide as the second (Giordani Soika 1961b). In members of the type subgenus, the boundary between the dorsal and posterior surfaces of the postscutellum is smoothly rounded whereas species of Anthodynerus have a distinct carina separating the sections.

<==Pseudepipona Saussure 1856 C85
    |--P. (Pseudepipona) GS61b
    |    |--*P. (P.) herrichii (Saussure 1856) [=Odynerus herrichii] C85
    |    |--P. (P.) aspra Giordani Soika 1962 GS61b, C85
    |    `--P. (P.) succincta (Saussure 1853) GS61b, C85 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--P. s. succincta [incl. Odynerus balyi Saussure 1855] C85
    |         `--P. s. purgata Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    `--P. (Anthodynerus) GS61a
         |--P. (A.) indecora (Cameron 1910) [=Odynerus indecorus] GS61a
         |--P. (A.) proterrens GS61a
         `--P. (A.) synagroides (Saussure 1853) [=Rhynchium synagroides, Odynerus synagroides] GS61a

Pseudepipona incertae sedis:
  P. alaris (Saussure 1853) [=Odynerus (Leionotus) alaris] C85
  P. angulata (Saussure 1856) [=Odynerus angulatus] C85
    |--P. a. angulata C85
    `--P. a. alexandriae (Giordani Soika 1941) [=Odynerus (Rhynchium) angulatus alexandriae] C85
  P. chartergiformis Giordani Soika 1962 C85
  P. clypalaris Giordani Soika 1962 C85
  P. erythrospila (Cameron 1905) [=Odynerus erythrospilus] GS61a
  P. meadewaldoi (Bequaert 1918) [=Odynerus meadewaldoi; incl. O. deceptor Meade Waldo 1915 (preoc.)] GS61a
  P. pallida Giordani Soika 1977 C85
  P. posticus [incl. Odynerus hottentotus] GS61a

Pseudepipona (Pseudepipona) succincta (Saussure 1853) GS61b, C85 [=Odynerus (Leionotus) succinctus C85, O. (Rhynchium) succinctus C85]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[GS61a] Giordani Soika, A. 1961a. Hymenoptera (Aculeata): Vespidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 440–451. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[GS61b] Giordani Soika, A. 1961b. Gli Odynerus sensu antiquo del continente Australiano e della Tasmania. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 57–202.

Last updated: 15 May 2020.

Antamenes

Male Antamenes jugulatus, from the Museum Victoria.


Belongs within: Eumeninae.

Antamenes is an Australian genus of mason wasps with an oblique postscutellum and the first metasomal segment distinctly narrower than the second. Members of the subgenus Australochilus have the distinction between the two segments more marked than in the type subgenus, as well as having the second tergite more heavily punctate (Giordani Soika 1962).

Characters (from Giordani Soika 1962): Mesosoma with propodeum weakly developed, postscutellum with oblique posterior section, generally well separated from the dorsal face of mesosoma. Tergite I with a fairly long petiole, followed by a strongly enlarged, bell-shaped section which (excluding petiole) is not much wider than long. Tergite II clearly, often considerably, wider than first. Male gonocoxite bearing tooth or strong preapical spine on ventral margin; aedeagus short and stocky, with well developed basal lobes.

<==Antamenes Giordani Soika 1958 C85
    |--A. (Antamenes) C85
    |    |--A. (A.) vernalis (Saussure 1853) (see below for synonymy) C85
    |    |--A. (A.) pseudoneotropicus (Giordani Soika 1943) [=Pachymenes pseudoneotropicus] C85
    |    |--A. (A.) tasmaniae (Giordani Soika 1943) [=Pachymenes tasmaniae] C85
    |    `--A. (A.) vorticosus (Giordani Soika 1943) [=Pachymenes vorticosus] C85
    `--A. (Australochilus Giordani Soika 1962) C85
         |--A. (*A.) citreocinctus (Saussure 1867) [=Odynerus (Leionotus) citreocinctus] C85
         |--A. (A.) amicus (Giordani Soika 1943) [=Pachymenes amicus] C85
         |--A. (A.) ferrugineus Giordani Soika 1977 C85
         |--A. (A.) flavoniger Giordani Soika 1977 C85
         |--A. (A.) hackeri Giordani Soika 1962 C85
         |--A. (A.) hostilis Giordani Soika 1962 C85
         `--A. (A.) jugulatus Giordani Soika 1977 C85

*Antamenes (Antamenes) vernalis (Saussure 1853) [=Odynerus vernalis; incl. O. (Leionotus) bisulcatus Cameron 1906, O. flavocinctus Smith 1857, *Antamenes flavocinctus, Pachymenes rectispina Giordani Soika 1943] C85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Giordani Soika, A. 1962. Gli Odynerus sensu antiquo del continente Australiano e della Tasmania. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 57–202.

Last updated: 16 May 2020.

Plumerieae

Golden trumpet Allamanda cathartica, copyright Ngocnk2.


Belongs within: Apocynaceae.

The Plumerieae are a group of flowering plants united by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Most members of the clade possess infrastaminal as well as suprastaminal appendages (not present in Anechites and Plumeria) and winged seeds (not present in Anechites) (Sennblad & Bremer 2002).

<==Plumerieae [Plumerioideae]
    |  i. s.: Cerberiopsis candelabra SB02, StKa02
    |         Skytanthus SB02
    |--+--Cameraria latifolia SB02
    |  `--+--+--Anechites nerium SB02
    |     |  `--Thevetia peruviana SB02
    |     `--Cerbera SB02
    |          |--C. manghas H03
    |          `--C. venenifera SB02
    `--+--Plumeria SB02
       |    |--P. acutifolia KAA-W00
       |    |--P. alba SuKu02
       |    |--P. inodora SB02
       |    |--P. obtusa LK14
       |    `--P. rubra K03
       `--Allamanda SB02
            |--A. blanchetii S-SR09
            |--A. calcicola Souza-Silva & Rapini 2009 S-SR09
            |--A. cathartica SB02
            |--A. laevis S-SR09
            |--A. martii S-SR09
            |--A. polyantha S-SR09
            |--A. puberula S-SR09
            `--A. schottii S-SR09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[KAA-W00] Kheirallah, A.-M., A.-N. H. Aly & N. Y. Abdel-Wahed. 2000. Anamorphosis and life-history of the millipede Nopoiulus kochii (Gervais, 1847), new for Egypt. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 159–168.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[SB02] Sennblad, B., & B. Bremer. 2002. Classification of Apocynaceae s.l. according to a new approach combining Linnaean and phylogenetic taxonomy. Systematic Biology 51 (3): 389–409.

[S-SR09] Souza-Silva, R. F. de & A. Rapini. 2009. Allamanda calcicola (Apocynaceae), an overlooked new species from limestone outcrops in the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 171–174.

[StKa02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[SuKu02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408–412.

Asclepiadoideae

Rosary vine Ceropegia woodii, copyright Céropégia.


Belongs within: Euapocynoidina.
Contains: Asclepiadeae, Marsdenieae.

The Asclepiadoideae are a group of milkweeds possessing clasping translators with two pollinia per translator. As the Asclepiadoidina, they were defined by Sennblad & Bremer (2002) to represent the largest clade including Fockea and Asclepias but not Secamoneae. Members of this clade have been divided between four tribes, the Fockeeae, Ceropegieae, Marsdenieae and Asclepiadeae. In members of the Fockeeae, containing two genera found in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, the pollinia are sessile (Thulin et al. 2008).

<==Asclepiadoideae [Asclepiadoidina]
    |--Fockeeae TGL-S08
    |    |--Cibirhiza TGL-S08
    |    |    |--C. dhofarensis TGL-S08
    |    |    `--+--C. albersiana TGL-S08
    |    |       `--C. spiculata Thulin & Goyder in Thulin, Goyder & Liede-Schumann 2008 TGL-S08
    |    `--Fockea TGL-S08
    |         |--F. multiflora TGL-S08
    |         `--+--F. angustifolia TGL-S08
    |            |--F. capensis TGL-S08
    |            |--F. edulis TGL-S08
    |            `--+--F. comaru TGL-S08
    |               `--F. sinuata TGL-S08
    `--+--Asclepiadeae TGL-S08
       `--+--Marsdenieae TGL-S08
          `--Ceropegieae TGL-S08
               |  i. s.: Stapelia SB02
               |           |--S. grandiflora B00
               |           |--S. kwebensis [incl. S. longipedicellata] CV06
               |           |--S. leendertziae SB02
               |           |--S. pearsonii CV06
               |           |--S. peglerae SK02
               |           |--S. remota CV06
               |           |--S. schinzii CV06
               |           |    |--S. s. var. schinzii CV06
               |           |    `--S. s. var. bergeriana CV06
               |           `--S. variegata B00
               |--+--Anisotoma cordifolia TGL-S08
               |  `--Neoschumannia kamerunensis TGL-S08
               `--+--Caralluma arachnoidea TGL-S08
                  `--Ceropegia TGL-S08
                       |--C. bulbosa PP07
                       |--C. cumingiana B00
                       |--C. dinteri CV06
                       |--C. hirsuta P03
                       |--C. nilotica TGL-S08
                       `--C. woodii SB02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[SB02] Sennblad, B., & B. Bremer. 2002. Classification of Apocynaceae s.l. according to a new approach combining Linnaean and phylogenetic taxonomy. Systematic Biology 51 (3): 389–409.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[TGL-S08] Thulin, M., D. Goyder & S. Liede-Schumann. 2008. Cibirhiza spiculata (Apocynaceae), a remarkable new species from eastern Ethiopia. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 617–624.

Apocynoidina

Wrightia pubescens, copyright Johannes Lundberg.


Belongs within: Apocynaceae.
Contains: Euapocynoidina.

The Apocynoidina are a clade of flowering plants combining taxa historically separated as the subfamily Apocynoideae and the family Asclepiadaceae. Members of this clade are united by molecular phylogenetic analysis, as well as by the basal part of the anther connective (the retinacle) being adnate to the style head (Sennblad & Bremer 2002).

<==Apocynoidina [Apocynoideae]
    |--Wrightieae SB02
    |    |--Stephanostema stenocarpum SB02
    |    |--Pleioceras SB02
    |    `--Wrightia SB02
    |         |--W. arborea SB02
    |         |--W. pubescens LK14
    |         `--W. saligna LK14
    `--+--Nerieae SB02
       |    |--Adenium SB02
       |    |    |--A. multiflorum B00
       |    |    `--A. obesum SB02
       |    `--Nerium SB02
       |         |--N. indicum MH98
       |         `--N. oleander SB02
       `--+--Euapocynoidina SB02
          `--Malouetieae SB02
               |  i. s.: Alafia SB02
               |         Malouetia SB02
               |--Strophanthus eminii SB02
               `--+--Mascarenhasia arborescens SB02
                  `--+--Pachypodium lamerei SB02
                     `--+--Kibatalia gitingense SB02
                        `--+--Funtumia elastica SB02
                           `--Holarrhena SB02
                                |--H. antidysenterica KJ05
                                `--H. pubescens SB02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 121–130.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[SB02] Sennblad, B., & B. Bremer. 2002. Classification of Apocynaceae s.l. according to a new approach combining Linnaean and phylogenetic taxonomy. Systematic Biology 51 (3): 389–409.

Asclepiadeae

Scarlet milkweed Asclepias curassavica, copyright Renjusplace.


Belongs within: Asclepiadoideae.

The Asclepiadeae are a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis, defined by Sennblad & Bremer (2002) as the most expansive clade including Asclepias and Matelea but not members of the Fockeeae, Marsdenieae or Ceropegieae.

<==Asclepiadeae TGL-S08
    |--Schizostephanus alatus SB02
    |--+--Calotropis SB02
    |  |    |--C. gigantea BB07
    |  |    `--C. procera SB02
    |  |         |--C. p. ssp. procera PP07
    |  |         `--C. p. ssp. hamiltonii PP07
    |  `--Asclepias SB02
    |       |--A. albicans H93
    |       |--A. asperula [incl. A. capricornu ssp. occidentalis] H93
    |       |--A. californica H93
    |       |--A. cordifolia H93
    |       |--A. cornuti C55b
    |       |--A. cryptoceras [incl. A. cryptoceras ssp. davisii] H93
    |       |--A. curassavica SB02
    |       |--A. eriocarpa H93
    |       |--A. erosa H93
    |       |--A. fascicularis H93
    |       |--A. linaria H93
    |       |--A. nivea J87
    |       |--A. nyctaginifolia H93
    |       |--A. pubescens BR65
    |       |--A. rotundifolia Miller 1768 [incl. A. arborescens Linnaeus 1771, Gomphocarpus arborescens] BR65
    |       |--A. solanoana H93
    |       |--A. speciosa [incl. A. giffordii] H93
    |       |--A. subulata [incl. A. subulata var. parishii] H93
    |       |--A. syriaca W69
    |       |--A. tuberosa D51
    |       `--A. verticillata C01
    `--+--+--+--Schubertia grandiflora TGL-S08
       |  |  `--Araujia TGL-S08
       |  |       |--A. hortorum SB02
       |  |       `--A. sericofera TGL-S08
       |  `--Metastelmatinae G09
       |       |--Metastelma schaffneri TGL-S08
       |       `--Blepharodon G09
       |            |--B. ampliflorum G09
       |            |--B. crabronum Goyder 2009 G09
       |            |--B. lineare G09
       |            |--B. pictum G09
       |            `--B. salicinum G09
       `--+--Cynanchum TGL-S08
          |    |--C. acutum AGF98
          |    |--C. carnosum LK14
          |    |--C. christineae LK14
          |    |--C. ellipticum TGL-S08
          |    |--C. floribundum BR65
          |    |--C. leptocladum J87
          |    |--C. leptolepis B00
          |    |--C. meyeri CV06
          |    |--C. ovalifolium B00
          |    |--C. pedunculatum VT13
          |    |--C. puberulum LK14
          |    |--C. utahense H93
          |    `--C. vincetoxicum BR65
          `--+--Oxystelma bornouense TGL-S08
             |--+--Pergularia daemia TGL-S08
             |  `--Gomphocarpus TGL-S08
             |       |--G. cancellatus B00
             |       |--G. fruticosus Br. 1809 C06 [=Asclepias fruticosa] BR65
             |       |--G. physocarpus TGL-S08 [=Asclepias physocarpa BR65]
             |       `--G. semiplectens CV06
             `--Tylophora TGL-S08
                  |--T. benthamii LK14
                  |--T. cinerascens LK14
                  |--T. fleckii CV06
                  |--T. flexuosa LK14
                  |--T. heterophylla TGL-S08
                  |--T. flexuosa B12
                  `--T. sylvatica SB02

Asclepiadeae incertae sedis:
  Microloma TGL-S08
    |--M. hereroense CV06
    |--M. penicillatum CV06
    `--M. tenuifolium TGL-S08
  Orthosia serpyllifolia SB02
  Gonolobeae SB02
    |--Fischeria stellata SB02
    `--Matelea SB02
         |--M. hirsuta SB02
         `--M. parvifolia H93
  Tweedia coerulea SB02
  Vincetoxicum SB02
    |--V. canescens C55a
    `--V. hirundinaria SB02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[BB07] Baishya, A. K., & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 121–154.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C01] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—X. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 125–131.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[G09] Goyder, D. J. 2009. Blepharodon crabronum (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a new species from the pre-Cambrian serranias of eastern Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 179–181.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[SB02] Sennblad, B., & B. Bremer. 2002. Classification of Apocynaceae s.l. according to a new approach combining Linnaean and phylogenetic taxonomy. Systematic Biology 51 (3): 389–409.

[TGL-S08] Thulin, M., D. Goyder & S. Liede-Schumann. 2008. Cibirhiza spiculata (Apocynaceae), a remarkable new species from eastern Ethiopia. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 617–624.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

[W69] Wiens, J. A. 1969. An approach to the study of ecological relationships among grassland birds. Ornithological Monographs 8: 1–93.

Gentiana

Spring gentian Gentiana verna, copyright Böhringer Friedrich.


Belongs within: Gentianeae.
Contains: Gentiana section Frigidae, Gentiana section Chondrophyllae, Gentiana section Cruciata, Gentiana section Pneumonanthe.

Gentiana is a cosmopolitan genus of mostly erect herbs, with the highest diversity of species in Asia (Struwe et al. 2002).

Characters (from Struwe et al. 2002): Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs. Stem usually erect, sometimes ascending, simple or branched, mostly quadrangular. Leaves opposite, very rarely whorled. Uppermost leaf pair sometimes forming an involucre around the flowers. Flowers 5-merous (rarely 4- to 8-merous), arranged in simple dichasia, terminal clusters, axillary whorls, or borne singly. Calyx divided shallowly up to the middle, sometimes split to the base on one side. Calyx usually provided with intracalycine membrane, rarely without. Corolla of various shapes, can be tubular, infundibuliform, obconical, hypocrateriform, campanulate, urniform, or rarely rotate. Corolla tube usually longer than corolla lobes, throat rarely provided with fimbriae. Symmetrical or asymmetrical plicae usually present, sometimes fimbriate. Stamens inserted in corolla tube. Filaments usually straight, symmetrical, winged at base, filiform above. Anthers sometimes connate. Ovary sessile or on gynophore, nectary glands present at base. Style usually short or absent, sometimes elongated. Stigmatic lobes often free, sometimes connate. Seeds winged or unwinged.

Gentiana Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |--+--G. sect. Frigidae SK02
    |  `--+--G. sect. Chondrophyllae SK02
    |     |--G. sect. Cruciata SK02
    |     `--G. sect. Pneumonanthe SK02
    `--+--+--+--G. asclepiadea SK02
       |  |  `--G. froelichii SK02
       |  `--G. sect. Gentiana SK02
       |       |--*G. lutea Linnaeus 1753 SK02
       |       |--G. punctata SK02
       |       `--G. purpurea BC02
       `--+--G. sect. Ciminalis SK02
          |    |--G. alpina SK02
          |    `--G. clusii SK02
          `--G. sect. Calathianae SK02
               |--G. bavarica SK02
               |--G. nivalis BC02
               |--G. schleicheri BC02
               |--G. terglouensis SK02
               `--G. verna SK02

Gentiana incertae sedis:
  G. acaulis SK02
  G. argentea O88
  G. atuntsiensis JS02
  G. barbata JS02
  G. bella BC02
  G. brachyphylla BC02
  G. bryoides O88
  G. bulgarica JS02
  G. burkillii O88
  G. burseri JS02
  G. capitata O88
  G. cerastioides JS02
  G. ciliata JS02
  G. corymbosa JS02
  G. crassuloides O88
  G. dasyantha JS02
  G. depressa JS02
  G. detonsa C55
  G. elwesii O88
  G. farreri JS02
  G. favrati JS02
  G. formosana JS02
  G. gelida JS02
  G. glacialis C55
  G. huxleyi O88
  G. infelix O88
  G. karelinii O88
  G. kaufmanniana JS02
  G. kochiana BC02
  G. kurroo JS02
  G. lacerulata O88
  G. lactea JS02
  G. leucomalaena O88
  G. linoides BC02
  G. ludlowii O88
  G. manshurica JS02
  G. marchailhouana JS02
  G. marginata O88
    |--G. m. var. marginata O88
    `--G. m. var. recurvata non G. saxosa var. recurvata Kirk 1885 O88
  G. meiantha O88
  G. micans O88
  G. olgae JS02
  G. orbicularis JS02
  G. ornata O88
  G. pannonica JS02
  G. pedicellata KO88
  G. pentasticta O88
  G. phyllocalyx O88
  G. procera Holm 1901 CD07
  G. producta SK02
  G. prolata O88
  G. (subg. Dolichocarpa) pudica BC02
  G. pumila C55
  G. radicans O88
  G. rigescens JS02
  G. rostani JS02
  G. scabra JS02
  G. schistocalyx JS02
  G. sedifolia SK02
  G. septemfida BC02
  G. serra BC02
  G. sikkimensis JS02
  G. sino-ornata JS02
  G. stipitata O88
  G. strictiflora JS02
  G. stylophora BC02
  G. stylosa O88
  G. suffrutescens JS02
  G. tianscanica JS02
  G. tibetica O88
  G. triflora JS02
  G. tubiflora O88
  G. uchiyamana JS02
  G. utriculosa SK02
  G. venusta O88
  G. vernayi O88
  G. villarsii JS02
  G. vvedenskyi JS02
  G. yunnanensis BC02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BC02] Bouman, F., L. Cobb, N. Devente, V. Goethals, P. J. M. Maas & E. Smets. 2002. The seeds of Gentianaceae. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 498–572. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[JS02] Jensen, S. R., & J. Schripsema. 2002. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 573–631. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[KO88] Kikuchi, T., & H. Ohba. 1988. Preliminary study of alpine vegetation of the Himalayas, with special reference to the small-scale distribution patterns of plant communities. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 47–70.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Desmodium

Greenleaf desmodium Desmodium intortum, copyright Anita Gould.


Belongs within: Desmodieae.

Desmodium, tick clovers, is a genus of leguminous herbs and shrubs found in warmer parts of the world, a number of which have seeds covered in tiny hooked hairs that stick to animal skins or clothes for dispersal. Though species may be regarded as invasive weeds in some areas, some such as the Asian tick-trefoil D. heterocarpon and D. intortum are inter-cropped among grain fields due to their production of secondary metabolites that can ward off pests.

Characters (from Flora of China): Herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate or 1-foliolate by reduction of lateral leaflets, stipulate, stipellate. Flow­ers usually smaller, in racemes or panicles, axillary or terminal, rarely solitary or binate in leaf axils. Bracts persistent or early decid­uous; bracteoles present or absent. Calyx campanulate, 4- or 5-lobed, bilabiate; upper 2 lobes connate for all or most of length, entire or 2-toothed at apex, lower lobes free, longest. Corolla white, green-white, pink, purple, or violet; standard elliptic or obovate to nearly orbicular; wings more or less adherent to keel, wholly clawed. Stamens diadelphous (9+1), rarely monadelphous. Ovary usually sessile, with several to many ovules. Legume compressed, usually indehiscent, transversely segmented, upper (adaxial) suture slightly con­stricted or straight, lower (abaxial) one constricted; articles mostly ellipsoidal to quadrangular. Cotyledons epigeous.

<==Desmodium
    |--D. axillare J87
    |--D. barbatum CP13
    |--D. brownii LK14
    |--D. diffusum P03
    |--D. filiforme LK14
    |--D. gangeticum LK14
    |--D. glareosum LK14
    |--D. hannii LK14
    |--D. heterocarpon LK14
    |    |--D. h. var. heterocarpon LK14
    |    `--D. h. var. strigosum LK14
    |--D. incanum C55
    |--D. intortum MM96
    |--D. muelleri LK14
    |--D. ormocarpoides B00
    |--D. ovalifolium S00
    |--D. paniculatum W10
    |--D. pulchellum P03
    |--D. pullenii LK14
    |--D. pycnotrichum LK14
    |--D. repandum BMM99
    |--D. scorpiurus (Swartz) Desvaux 1813 [=Hedysarum scorpiurus Swartz 1788] GB02
    |--D. tortuosum LK14
    |--D. trichostachyum LK14
    |--D. triflorum LK14 [=Hedysarum triflorum C55; incl. Nicolsonia reptans C55]
    |--D. umbellatum P88
    |--D. velutinum P03
    `--D. zonatum Miq. 1855 [=Meiobomia zonatum (Miq.) Kuntze 1891] SR07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[BMM99] Braun, U., J. Mouchacca & E. H. C. McKenzie. 1999. Cercosporoid hyphomycetes from New Caledonia and some other South Pacific islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 297–327.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[GB02] Gopalakrishna Bhat, K. 2002. Additions to the flora of Karnataka. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 566–567.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[W10] Whittington, A. E. 2010. Platystomatidae (signal flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 903–907. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Last updated: 20 September 2020.

Phaseolinae

Common bean Phaseolus vulgaris, from Wikimedia.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.
Contains: Vigna.

The Phaseolinae are a group of legumes united by the presence of a seed epihilum and a number of flower characters associated with insect pollination. Members include a number of cultivated bean species such as members of the genus Phaseolus, characterised by hooked hairs on the vegetative parts, including the common bean P. vulgaris and lima bean P. lunatus. The hyacinth bean Lablab purpureus is a widely cultivated native of Africa characterised by a laterally flattened style.

<==Phaseolinae CP13
    |--Wajira danissana CP13
    `--+--+--Sphenostylis angustifolia CP13
       |  `--+--+--Alistilus jumellei CP13
       |     |  `--+--Nesphostylis holosericea CP13
       |     |     `--Dolichos CP13
       |     |          |--D. lablab M99
       |     |          `--D. trilobus CP13
       |     `--+--Decorsea CP13
       |        |    |--D. dinteri CV06
       |        |    `--D. schlechteri CP13
       |        `--Macrotyloma CP13
       |             |--M. stenophyllum CP13
       |             `--M. uniflorum SDK05
       `--+--+--Spathionema kilimandscharicum CP13
          |  `--Vatovaea pseudolablab CP13
          |--+--Dipogon lignosus CP13
          |  `--Lablab CP13
          |       |--L. niger M99
          |       `--L. purpureus CP13
          `--+--+--Physostigma venenosum CP13
             |  `--Vigna CP13
             `--+--+--Ramirezella strobilophora CP13
                |  `--Oxyrhynchus CP13 [incl. Peekelia H03]
                |       `--O. volubilis CP13
                |--Phaseolus CP13
                |    |--P. acutifolius SDZ97
                |    |--P. aureus W10
                |    |--P. filiformis [incl. P. wrightii] H93
                |    |--P. lunatus WS01
                |    |--P. multiflorus P09
                |    |--P. semierectus G28
                |    `--P. vulgaris CP13
                `--+--Leptospron adenanthum CP13
                   |--+--Cochliasanthus caracalla CP13
                   |  `--Sigmoidotropis speciosa CP13
                   |--+--Helicotropis linearis CP13
                   |  `--+--Ancistrotropis peduncularis CP13
                   |     `--Condylostylis candida CP13
                   `--+--+--Dolichopsis paraguariensis CP13
                      |  `--Strophostyles helvola CP13
                      `--+--Mysanthus uleanus CP13
                         `--Macroptilium CP13
                              |--M. atropurpureum LK14
                              |--M. lathyroides M99
                              |    |--M. l. var. lathyroides LK14
                              |    `--M. l. var. semierectum LK14
                              `--M. longipedunculatum CP13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. A prodigeous discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 218–220).

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[P09] Petrie, J. M. 1909. The rôle of nitrogen and its compounds in plant-metabolism. Part II.—The non-protein nitrogen in seeds. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 835–844.

[SDZ97] Sang, T., M. J. Donoghue & D. Zhang. 1997. Evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase genes in peonies (Paeonia): phylogenetic relationships of putative nonhybrid species. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 994–1007.

[SDK05] Sharma, L. K., N. K. Dadhich & A. Kumar. 2005. Plant based veterinary medicine from traditional knowledge of India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 43–52.

[W10] Whittington, A. E. 2010. Platystomatidae (signal flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 903–907. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WS01] Wilson, L. J., & V. O. Sadras. 2001. Host plant resistance in cotton to spider mites. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 314–327. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Last updated: 20 September 2020.

Brachiaria

Creeping signalgrass Brachiaria plantaginea, copyright Forest & Kim Starr.


Belongs within: Panicoideae.

Brachiaria, signalgrasses, is a genus of grasses growing to about a metre in height found in warmer parts of the world.

Characters (from Flora of China): Annual or perennial. Leaf blades linear to lanceolate, often with cartilaginous margins. Inflorescence composed of racemes along a central axis; raceme rachis triquetrous or flattened, sometimes winged; spikelets sessile or pedicelled, single or paired, rarely in fascicles or on secondary racemelets. Spikelets plump, usually elliptic, florets 2; lower glume adaxial, varying in length from very small and veinless to many-veined and subequaling spikelet, base sheathing, sometimes extended downward as a short stipe; upper glume and lower lemma similar, as long as spikelet, membranous or cartilaginous; upper lemma coriaceous, smooth, striate or rugose, margins inrolled, apex obtuse to acute, occasionally minutely mucronate; upper palea apex tucked within lemma. x = 7, 9.

<==Brachiaria
    |--B. distachya BB01
    |--B. eruciformis S03
    |--B. lata PP07
    |    |--B. l. var. lata PP07
    |    `--B. l. var. pubescens PP07
    |--B. mutica B10
    |--B. paspaloides SR07
    |--B. plantaginea SMSP06
    |--B. ramosa PP07
    |    |--B. r. var. ramosa PP07
    |    `--B. r. var. pubescens PP07
    |--B. remota S03
    |--B. reptans S03
    |--B. semiundulata S03
    |--B. setigera S03
    |--B. shoenfelderi CV06
    |--B. semiverticillata S03
    |--B. subquadripara BMM99
    `--B. xantholeuca BMM99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB01] Bauer, R., D. Begerow, A. Nagler & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. The Georgefischeriales: a phylogenetic hypothesis. Mycological Research 105 (4): 416–424.

[B10] Boucher, S. 2010. Agromyzidae (leaf-mining flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1057–1071. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[BMM99] Braun, U., J. Mouchacca & E. H. C. McKenzie. 1999. Cercosporoid hyphomycetes from New Caledonia and some other South Pacific islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 297–327.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[SM-SP06] Scherer, A. L., J. de F. Martins Scherer & M. V. Petry. 2006. Reprodução e análise da composição de ninhos de Zenaida auriculata (Des Murs, 1847) (Aves: Columbiformes, Columbidae) em uma unidade petroquímica no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Comunicações do Museo de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Serie Zoologia 19 (1): 29–38.

[S03] Singh, J. N. 2003. Grasses and their hydro-edaphic characteristics in the grassland habitat of Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 143–164.

Crematogaster

Crematogaster scutellaris, copyright Philippe Garcelon.


Belongs within: Meranoplini.

Crematogaster is a pantropical genus of ants characterised by a heart-shaped gaster with the postpetiole attached to its upper surface; the petiole is flattened and the postpetiole is often bilobed in dorsal view (Heterick 2009). Though the genus as a whole is readily recognised, subordinate taxa are less so: species are often very variable and though several subgenera have been recognised, they are poorly defined and often doubtful validity.

<==Crematogaster Lund 1831 Z01 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*C. (Crematogaster) scutellaris (Oliver 1791) [=Formica scutellaris] Z01
    |--C. (Decacrema) borneensis FJ99
    `--C. (Orthocrema) H09
         |--C. (O.) dispar Forel 1902 H09, TB85 [=Cremastogaster sordidula dispar TB85]
         `--C. (O.) queenslandica Forel 1902 H09, TB85 [=Cremastogaster sordidula queenslandica TB85]
              |--C. q. queenslandica TB85
              |--C. q. froggatti Forel 1902 [=Cremastogaster sordidula froggatti] TB85
              |--C. q. gilberti Forel 1910 [=Cremastogaster sordidula gilberti] TB85
              |--C. q. rogans Forel 1902 [=Cremastogaster sordidula rogans] TB85
              `--C. q. scabrula Emery 1914 [=C. froggatti scabrula] TB85

Crematogaster incertae sedis:
  C. aberrans Forel 1892 [incl. Myrmica diffusa Jerdon 1851, C. diffusa, C. aberrans var. inglebyi] B03
  C. aegyptiaca G89
  C. anthracina Smith 1857 B03
  C. apicalis Motsch. 1865 B03
  C. artifex Mayr 1879 [=C. dohrni artifex; incl. C. dohrni artifex var. macaoensis Wheeler 1928] Z01
  C. australis Mayr 1876 [=Cremastogaster australis] TB85
    |--C. a. australis TB85
    |--C. a. chillagoensis Forel 1915 [=Cremastogaster australis chillagoensis] TB85
    `--C. a. sycites Forel 1916 [=Cremastogaster australis sycites] TB85
  C. baduvi N-ZLI11
  C. biroi Mayr 1897 [incl. C. biroi var. aitkeni, C. biroi var. symthiesi] B03
  C. bouvardi N-ZLI11
  C. brunnescens Motsch. 1865 B03
  C. buddhae Forel 1902 B03
  C. castanea G89
  C. contemta Mayr 1878 B03
  C. cornigera Forel 1902 [=Cremastogaster cornigera] TB85
  C. dalyi Forel 1902 B03
  C. deponens Walk. 1859 B03
  C. difformis Smith 1857 B03
  C. dohrni Mayr 1878 B03
  C. ebenina Forel 1902 B03
  C. egidyi Forel 1903 Z01
  C. emeryana BS06
  C. eurydice Forel 1915 [=Cremastogaster (Atopogyne) eurydice] TB85
  C. ferrarii Emery 1887 B03
  C. flava Forel 1886 B03
  C. forticula Walk. 1859 B03
  C. frivola Forel 1902 TB85 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. f. frivola TB85
    `--C. f. sculpticeps Forel 1907 [=Cremastogaster frivola sculpticeps] TB85
  C. fusca Mayr 1876 [=Cremastogaster fusca] TB85
  C. gavipaga N-ZLI11
  C. himalayana Forel 1902 B03
  C. hodgsoni Forel 1902 B03
  C. inflata Smith 1857 B03
  C. kirbii (Sykes 1835) [=Myrmica kirbii] B03
  C. kneri A61
  C. kutteri Viehmeyer 1924 [=Cremastogaster kutteri] TB85
  C. laeviceps Smith 1858 TB85
    |--C. l. laeviceps TB85
    |--C. l. broomensis Forel 1915 [=Cremastogaster laeviceps broomensis] TB85
    |--C. l. chasei Forel 1902 [=Cremastogaster laeviceps chasei] TB85
    `--C. l. clarior Forel 1902 [=Cremastogaster laeviceps clarior] TB85
  C. longiceps Forel 1910 [=Cremastogaster longiceps] TB85
    |--C. l. longiceps TB85
    `--C. l. curticeps Wheeler 1915 TB85
  C. longipilosa N-ZLI11
  C. millardi Forel 1902 B03
  C. mjobergi Forel 1915 [=Cremastogaster mjobergi] TB85
  C. mogdiliani (Emery 1900) [=Tapinoma mogdiliani] B03
  C. ocellata N-ZLI11
  C. osakensis Forel 1900 [=C. sordidula var. osakensis; incl. C. sordidula var. japonica Forel 1912] Z01
  C. pallens Walk. 1859 B03
  C. pallida Lowne 1865 [=C. pallidus] TB85
  C. pallipes Mayr 1862 (see below for synonymy) TB85
  C. perelegans Forel 1902 B03
  C. physothorax Emery 1889 [=C. difformis physothorax] B03
  C. politula Forel 1902 [=C. subnuda politula] B03
  C. pythia Forel 1915 [=Cremastogaster pythia] TB85
  C. ransonneti Mayr 1868 B03
  C. rogenhoferi Mayr 1878 B03
  C. ronganensis Zhou 2001 Z01
  C. rothneyi Mayr 1878 [incl. C. rothneyi var. civa] B03
  C. rufa (Jerdon 1851) [=Myrmica rufa] B03
  C. rufotestacea Mayr 1876 [=Cremastogaster rufotestacea] TB85
    |--C. r. rufotestacea TB85
    `--C. r. dentinasis Santschi 1929 [=C. (Orthocrema) rufotestacea dentinasis] TB85
  C. sagei Forel 1902 B03
  C. scita Forel 1902 [=Cremastogaster scita] TB85
    |--C. s. scita TB85
    `--C. s. mixta Forel 1902 [=Cremastogaster scita mixta] TB85
  C. sewardi N-ZLI11
  C. soror Forel 1902 B03
  C. stolli S10
  C. subnuda Mayr 1878 [incl. C. subnuda rabula] B03
  C. travancorensis Forel 1902 B03
  C. treubi FJ99
  C. vagula Wheeler 1928 [=C. matsumurai vagula] Z01
  C. walshi Forel 1902 B03
  C. whitei Wheeler 1915 TB85
  C. wroughtoni Forel 1902 B03
  C. xerophila Wheeler 1915 TB85
    |--C. x. xerophila TB85
    `--C. x. exigua Wheeler 1915 TB85

Crematogaster Lund 1831 Z01 [=Cremastogaster Mayr 1861 TB85; incl. Acrocoelia Mayr 1852 Z01, Transpeltoides Wheeler 1922 Z01]

Crematogaster frivola Forel 1902 TB85 [=Cremastogaster frivolus TB85; incl. Cremat. perthensis Crawley 1922 H09, TB85]

Crematogaster pallipes Mayr 1862 [=Cremastogaster pallipes, Cremas. pallidipes Dalla Torre 1893; incl. Crematogaster piceus Lowne 1865] TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[FJ99] Fiala, B., A. Jakob, U. Maschwitz & K. E. Linsenmair. 1999. Diversity, evolutionary specialization and geographic distribution of a mutualistic ant-plant complex: Macaranga and Crematogaster in South East Asia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66: 305–331.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[S10] Swann, J. E. 2010. Milichiidae (milichiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1125–1136. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Last updated: 13 June 2020.

Corbiculata

Green orchid bee Euglossa dilemma, copyright Bob Peterson.


Belongs within: Apidae.
Contains: Electrapini, Bombini, Meliponini, Apis.

The Corbiculata are a clade of bees characterised by modification of the hind tibia of females into a corbicula (with a broad hairless patch fringed by long curved hairs) for carrying pollen; many members of the clade are eusocial (Engel 2001).

Characters (from Engel 2001): Mandibular pollex expanded. Metatibia modified into corbicula; metabasitibial plate absent; inner apical margin of metatibia with rastellum; auricle frequently present. Wings uniformly setose. Prepygidial fimbria and pygidial plate absent.

<==Corbiculata [Apes]
    |  i. s.: Electrobombus Engel 2001 [Electrobombini] E01
    |           `--*E. samlandensis Engel 2001 E01
    |         Electrapini E01
    |--Euglossini [Euglossae, Euglossinae] CSD10
    |    |--Eufriesea CSD10 [incl. Paleoeuglossa Poinar 1998 E01]
    |    |    |--E. melissiflora (Poinar 1998) [=*Paleoeuglossa melissiflora] E01
    |    |    |--E. mexicana PK17
    |    |    |--E. pulchra (Smith 1854) CSD10
    |    |    `--E. surinamensis (Linnaeus 1758) CSD10
    |    `--+--Eulaema meriana (Olivier 1789) CSD10
    |       `--+--Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville 1825 CSD10
    |          `--+--Exaerete frontalis (Guérin-Méneville 1845) CSD10
    |             `--Euglossa Latreille 1802 PK17, L02a
    |                  |--E. cordata (Linnaeus 1758) L02a, L58 [=Apis cordata L02a]
    |                  |--E. dilemma PK17
    |                  |--E. gulosa L02b [=Andrena gulosa L02a, Apis gulosa L02b]
    |                  |--E. imperialis Cockerell 1922 CSD10
    |                  |--E. morenei CSD10
    |                  `--E. piliventris Guérin-Méneville 1845 CSD10
    `--+--+--Bombini PK17
       |  `--+--Meliponini CSD10
       |     `--Melikertini E01
       |          |--Melissites Engel 2001 E01
       |          |    `--*M. trigona Engel 2001 E01
       |          |--Roussyana Manning 1960 [=Russyana (l. c.)] E01
       |          |    `--*R. palmnickenensis (Roussy 1937) (see below for synonymy) E01
       |          |--Melikertes Engel 1998 E01
       |          |    |--*M. stilbonotus (Engel 1998) [=Electrapis (Melikertes) stilbonota] E01
       |          |    |--M. clypeatus Engel 2001 E01
       |          |    `--M. proavus (Menge 1856) (see below for synonymy) E01
       |          `--Succinapis Engel 2001 E01
       |               |--S. goeleti Engel 2001 E01
       |               `--+--*S. proboscidea Engel 2001 E01
       |                  `--S. micheneri Engel 2001 E01
       `--Apis PK17

Melikertes proavus (Menge 1856) [=Apis proava, Electrapis (Melikertes) proava, E. (Roussyana) proava, Trigona (R.) proava] E01

*Roussyana palmnickenensis (Roussy 1937) [=Apis palmnickenensis, Electrapis (Roussyana) palmnickenensis, Trigona (R.) palmnickenensis, Roussyana palmuickenensis (l. c.); incl. Electrapis minuta Kelner-Pillault 1970] E01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207–16211.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[L02a] Latreille, P. A. 1802a. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[L02b] Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

Erebidae

Cotton looper moth Anomis flava, copyright Alexey Yakovlev.


Belongs within: Noctuoidea.
Contains: Sorocostia, Hypeninae, Calpinae, Catocalinae, Eublemma, Lymantriinae, Herminiinae, Hypsa, Spilosoma, Lithosiini, Arctiini, Syntomini.

The Erebidae, as recognised by Zahiri et al. (2011), are a diverse clade of noctuoid moths united by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Members of this clade have historically been divided between a number of families with many being previously included in the Noctuidae. Among subgroups previously treated as distinct families are the Arctiinae, tiger moths and related species, a diverse group of often aposematically coloured moths. Most arctiines possess a tymbal organ on the thorax that produces ultrasonic clicks; these clicks are thought to disrupt bat echolocation (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Erebidae [Arctiidae, Aventiinae, Gonopteridae, Phytometrinae, Toxocampidae, Toxocampini] ZK11
    |--Anobini ZK11
    |    |--Anoba anguliplaga ZK11
    |    `--Marcipa ZK11
    `--+--+--+--Colobochyla salicalis ZK11
       |  |  `--Hypeninae ZK11
       |  `--+--+--Oxycilla ondo ZK11
       |     |  `--Rivula [Rivulinae] ZK11
       |     |       |--R. everta Swinhoe 1901 Sw01a
       |     |       |--R. ommatopis NC91
       |     |       `--R. sericealis V09
       |     `--+--Scoliopteryx [Scoliopterygini] ZK11
       |        |    `--S. libatrix [=Gonoptera libatrix] V09
       |        `--Anomis [Anomini] ZK11
       |             |--A. flava B88
       |             |--A. fulvida WM66
       |             |--A. involuta MC13
       |             |--A. lyona G84
       |             |--A. metaxantha ZK11
       |             `--A. sabulifera P27a
       `--+--+--+--Calpinae ZK11
          |  |  `--+--+--Oxidercia toxea ZK11
          |  |     |  `--Azeta ceramina ZK11
          |  |     `--+--Panopoda [Panopodini] ZK11
          |  |        |    `--P. rufimargo ZK11
          |  |        `--Eulepidotis [Eulepidotini] ZK11
          |  |             |--E. geminata T62
          |  |             |--E. metamorpha T62
          |  |             |--E. preclara Todd 1962 T62
          |  |             `--E. rectimargo ZK11
          |  `--+--Catocalinae ZK11
          |     `--+--Lygephila ZK11
          |        |    |--L. maxima ZK11
          |        |    `--L. pastinum (Treischke 1826) JP05
          |        `--+--Scolecocampa [Scolecocampinae] ZK11
          |           |    `--S. liburna ZK11
          |           `--+--Hypenodinae ZK11
          |              |    |  i. s.: Trigonistis NC91
          |              |    |--Hypenodes humidalis ZK11
          |              |    `--+--Schrankia costaestrigalis ZK11
          |              |       `--Micronoctua [Micronoctuidae, Micronoctuinae] ZK11
          |              `--+--Saroba pustulifera ZK11
          |                 `--+--Laspeyria flexula (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) ZK11, JP05
          |                    |--+--Corgatha nitens ZK11
          |                    |  `--Phytometra ZK11
          |                    |       |--P. agnata F92
          |                    |       |--P. gamma F92
          |                    |       `--P. vividaria (Clerck 1759) JP05
          |                    `--+--+--+--Metaemene albiguttata ZK11
          |                       |  |  `--Trisateles [Trisatelini] ZK11
          |                       |  |       `--T. emortualis ZK11
          |                       |  `--+--Prolophota trigonifera ZK11
          |                       |     `--Parascotia [Boletobiinae] ZK11
          |                       |          `--P. fuliginaria (Linnaeus 1761) JP05
          |                       `--+--Araeoptera P27b [Araeopteroninae ZK11]
          |                          |    `--A. canescens P27b
          |                          `--Eublemma ZK11
          `--+--Lymantriinae ZK11
             `--+--Hypsoropha hormosa ZK11
                `--+--+--Masca abactalis ZK11
                   |  `--Pangrapta [Pangraptinae] ZK11
                   |       |--P. bicornuta ZK11
                   |       `--P. decoralis ZK11
                   `--+--+--Herminiinae ZK11
                      |  `--Aganainae [Aganaidae, Hypsidae] ZK11
                      |       |--Digama marmorea Butl. 1877 MC13, M86b [incl. D. piepersiana Snell. 1879 M86b]
                      |       |--Agape chloropyga NC91
                      |       |--Neochera NC91
                      |       |--Hypsa WM66
                      |       |--Peridroma saucia ZK11, RC94
                      |       |--Asota ZK11
                      |       |    |--A. caricae ZK11
                      |       |    |--A. heliconia ZK11
                      |       |    `--A. iodamia NC91
                      |       |--Amerila M86b
                      |       |    |--A. astreas [=Sphinx astreas] M86b
                      |       |    |--A. brachyleuca Meyrick 1886 M86b
                      |       |    |--A. rubripes ZS10
                      |       |    |--‘Chelonia’ saucia [incl. Lithosia arthusbertrand] M86b
                      |       |    `--A. serica Meyrick 1886 M86b
                      |       |--Composia fidellissima H01
                      |       `--Pericopis biformis Schaus 1901 Sc01
                      `--Arctiinae [Nyctemeridae, Nyctemerinae] ZK11
                           |  i. s.: Rhodogastria NC91
                           |           |--R. crokeri P27b
                           |           |--R. fumida Swinhoe 1901 Sw01a
                           |           `--R. roseibarba Druce 1901 D01a
                           |         Amsacta NC91
                           |         Spilosoma NC91
                           |         Ctimene synestia Meyrick 1886 M86a
                           |         Bursada M86a
                           |         Exitelica C70
                           |         Argina NC91
                           |           |--A. astrea NC91
                           |           `--A. cribraria P27b
                           |         Metacrias Meyrick 1886 PPE03, M86b
                           |           |--M. erichrysa Meyrick 1886 M86b
                           |           |--M. huttonii [=Phaos huttonii] M86b
                           |           `--M. strategica PPE03
                           |         Aloa MC13
                           |           |--A. bifrons WM66
                           |           |--A. lactinea WM66
                           |           `--A. marginata MC13
                           |         Utetheisa MC13
                           |           |--U. bella Linn. 1758 H01
                           |           |    |--U. b. bella H01
                           |           |    `--U. b. speciosa H01
                           |           |--U. lotrix NC91
                           |           |--U. pectinata NC91
                           |           |--U. pulchella WM66
                           |           `--U. pulchelloides MC13
                           |         Nyctemera NC91
                           |           |--N. amica [=Agagles amicus] M86b
                           |           |--N. annulata [=Leptosoma annulatum; incl. N. doubledayi] M86b
                           |           |--N. artemis [=Leptosoma artemis] M86a
                           |           |--N. crescens [incl. N. luctuosum] Sw01a
                           |           |--N. cribraria (Linnaeus 1758) M86b, L58 (see below for synonymy)
                           |           |--N. onetha Swinhoe 1901 Sw01a
                           |           |--N. separata M86b
                           |           |--N. tertiana M86b
                           |           `--N. varians WM66
                           |         Euplagia quadripunctaria ZK11, DS73 [incl. Callimorpha hera DS73]
                           |           |--E. q. quadripunctaria DS73
                           |           `--E. q. lutescens DS73
                           |         Calidota strigosa Wlk. 1855 H01
                           |--Lithosiini ZK11
                           `--+--Arctiini ZK11
                              `--Syntomini ZK11

Erebidae incertae sedis:
  Episparis ZK11
  Deilemera antinorii A71
  Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata W03
  Tyria jacobeae DS73
  Agyrtidia uranophila DS73
  Nicaea longipennis DS73
  Ardices curvata P27b
  Lexis nitens P27b
  Calamidia P27b
    |--C. hirta [=Lithosia hirta] M86b
    `--C. salpinctis Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Scaptesyle monogrammaria P27b
  Asura P27b
    |--A. cervicalis M86b
    |--A. habrotis Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--A. lydia [=Pitane lydia; incl. A. gaudens] M86b
  Comarchis Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. aspectatella [=Oecophora aspectatella; incl. Tinea oecophorella] M86b
    |--C. chrysochoa Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. isophragma Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. jocularis (Ros. 1885) [=Mosoda jocularis] M86b
    |--C. lochaga Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. oblita [=Pitane oblita] M86b
    |--C. sparsana [=Conchylis sparsana; incl. Pallene gracilis Butl. 1877] M86b
    |--C. staurocola Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--C. tineoides [=Eutane tineoides; incl. Pitane amanda] M86b
  Stauropolia nekrutenkoi GE05
  Josiomorpha penetrata GE05
  Episcea extravagans GE05
  Crocomela luxuriosa GE05
  Emydia striata [incl. E. striata var. bipunctata] P01
  Diacrisia russula P01
  Nemeophila plantaginis P01
  Hemihylea WZ10
  Deiopeia M86b
    |--D. pulchella M86b
    `--D. syringa M86b
  Hestiarcha Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*H. pyrrhopa Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Exotrocha Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*E. liboria [=Noctua liboria, Lithosia liboria] M86b
  Heterallactis Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*H. euchrysa Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Parelictis Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*P. saleuta Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Scaeodora Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--*S. omophanes Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--S. chionastis Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Cluaca M86b
    |--C. rubricosta M86b
    `--C. struthias Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Anestia Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*A. ombrophanes Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Palaexera Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*P. phyllodes Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Teulisna dasypyga [=Diastrophia dasypyga] M86b
  Tigrioides M86b
    |--T. alterna [=Setina alterna; incl. Lithosia transversa] M86b
    |--T. furcifera [=Setina furcifera; incl. S. trifurcata] M86b
    |--T. heminephes Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--T. nana [=Lithosia nana] M86b
    `--T. spilarcha Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Calligenia M86b
    |--C. cyclota Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. melitaula Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. pyraula Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--C. structa [=Pallene structa] M86b
  Symmetrodes Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*S. nitens [=Lithosia nitens; incl. L. remota] M86b
  Neobrocha Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--N. adoxa Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--N. phaeocyma Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Sorocostia M86b
  Mosoda M86b
    |--M. anartoides Walk. 1900 M86b
    |--M. consolatrix Ros. 1885 M86b
    |--M. jucunda [=Pallene jucunda; incl. Tospitis transitana] M86b
    |--M. ophiodes Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--M. sejuncta [=Pitane sejuncta] M86b
    `--M. servilis Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Hectobrocha Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--*H. pentacyma Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Chiriphe M86b
    |--C. catarrhoa Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. dichotoma Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. dictyota Meyrick 1886 M86b
    |--C. monogrammaria M86b
    |--C. procrena Meyrick 1886 M86b
    `--C. stenopa Meyrick 1886 M86b
  Zia tactalis [incl. Aquita horridella] M86b
  Areas M86b
    |--A. costalis [=Aloa costalis] M86b
    |--A. lactinea M86b
    `--A. marginata (Linnaeus 1758) M86b, L58 (see below for synonymy)
  Eutane M86b
    |--E. partita M86b
    `--E. terminalis [incl. E. maculata Butl. 1877] M86b
  Phragmatobia M86b
    |--P. fuliginosa F92
    `--P. interrupta M86b
  Toxocampa metaspila WM66
  Hyphantria cunea Drury 1773 BB01
  Ecpantheria albiscripta Druce 1901 D01a
  Hyperthaema Sc01
    |--H. albipuncta Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--H. haemacta Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Neritos Sc01
    |--N. asana D01b
    |--N. blanda Druce 1901 D01b
    `--N. sanguipuncta Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Robinsonia polyplagia Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Halisidota Sc01
    |--H. arenacea Schaus 1901 Sc01
    |--H. huaco Schaus 1901 Sc01
    |--H. pallida Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--H. perdentata Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Amastus Sc01
    |--A. adela Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--A. coccinator Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Ischnocampa Sv01
    |--I. nigridorsata Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--I. nigrivena Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Turuptiana obscura Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Hyalarctia sericea Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Munonia iridescens Sc01
  Maenas Sc01
    |--M. bilinea Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--M. salamimia F92
  Antarctia fervida Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Holomelina Sc01
    |--H. cocciniceps Schaus 1901 Sc01
    `--H. trigonifera Schaus 1901 Sc01
  Eucyane D01b
    |--E. excellens D01b
    `--E. hermaea Druce 1901 D01b
  Eucyrta D01b
    |--E. daga D01b
    `--E. lugens Druce 1901 D01b
  Elysus chrysellus Druce 1901 D01b
  Capotena elaina Swinhoe 1901 Sw01b
  Carea Sw01b
    |--C. nitida Sw01b
    |--C. ocyra Sw01b
    `--C. tarika Swinhoe 1901 Sw01b
  Erizada Walker 1865 [incl. Tinosoma Hmpsn. 1894] Sw01b
    `--E. semifervens (Walker 1864) (see below for synonymy) Sw01b

Areas marginata (Linnaeus 1758) M86b, L58 [=Phalaena marginata M86b; incl. A. moorei M86b, A. roseicostis M86b]

Erizada semifervens (Walker 1864) [=Gadirtha semifervens; incl. Tinosoma hyperythrum Hmpsn. 1894, Erizada lichenaria Walker 1865] Sw01b

Nyctemera cribraria (Linnaeus 1758) M86b, L58 [=Phalaena cribraria M86b; incl. Noctua astrea M86b, Xanthesthes guttata M86b, Argina notata M86b, Bombyx pylotis M86b]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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