Trachyleberidinae

Bradleya sp., copyright Simone Nunes Brandão & Yasuhara Moriaki.


Belongs within: Cytheroidea.

The Trachyleberidinae are a group of ostracods known from the Cretaceous to the present, characterised by valves bearing four adductor muscle scars in a near-vertical row, and a single J-, U- or heart-shaped frontal scar.

<==Trachyleberidinae [Trachyleberides, Trachyleberinae] LH61
    |--Fissocythere Malz 1959 LH61
    |    `--*F. calloglypta Malz 1959 LH61
    |--Quasibuntonia Ruggier 1958 LH61
    |    `--*Q. radiatopora (Seguenza 1880) [=Cythere radiatopora] LH61
    |--Actinocythereis Puri 1953 M61, BB61
    |    `--*A. exanthemata (Ulrich & Bassler 1904) [=Cythere exanthemata] BB61
    |--Anticythereis van den Bold 1946 M61, BB61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--*A. reticulata (Jennings 1936) [=*Pseudocythereis reticulata, *Stephensonaria reticulata] BB61
    |--Pseudocythereis Skogsberg 1928 M61, BB61 [incl. Pseudocytheretta Puri 1958 non Cushman 1906 BB61]
    |    `--*P. spinifera (Skogsberg 1928) [=Cythereis (*Pseudocythereis) spinifera] BB61
    |--Hirsutocythere Howe 1951 M61, BB61
    |    `--*H. hornotina Howe 1951 BB61
    |--Leniocythere Howe 1951 M61, BB61
    |    `--*L. lebanonensis Hower 1951 BB61
    |--Occultocythereis Howe 1951 M61, BB61
    |    `--*O. delumbata Howe 1951 BB61
    |--Spongicythere Howe 1951 M61, BB61
    |    `--*S. spissa Howe 1951 BB61
    |--Echinocythereis Puri 1954 M61, BB61
    |    |--*E. garretti (Howe & McGuirt 1935) [=Cythereis garretti] BB61
    |    `--E. dasyderma B61
    |--Trachyleberidea Bowen 1953 M61, BB61
    |    |--*T. prestwichiana (Jones & Sherborn 1887) [=Cythereis prestwichiana] BB61
    |    `--T. aranea BB61
    |--Protobuntonia Grekoff 1954 M61, BB61
    |    |--*P. numidica Grekoff 1954 BB61
    |    `--P. ioruba BB61
    |--Trachyleberis Brady 1898 BB61 [incl. Trachyleberina M61]
    |    |--*T. scabrocuneata (Brady 1880) [=Cythere scabrocuneata] BB61
    |    `--T. asperrima S61a
    |         |--T. a. asperrima S61a
    |         `--T. a. echinata S61a
    |--Cythereis Jones 1849 M61, BB61
    |    |--C. ornatissima (Reuss 1846) (see below for synonymy) BB61
    |    |--C. dallasensis S61b
    |    |--C. dentata S61a
    |    |--C. glauca B61
    |    |--C. senckenbergi Triebel 1940 WSB93
    |    `--C. tamzergoutensis RR03
    `--Bradleya Hornibrook 1952 M61, BB61
         |--*B. arata (Brady 1880) [=Cythere arata] BB61
         |--B. approximata BB61
         |--B. aurita B61
         |--B. cornueliana S61a
         |--B. diegoensis B61
         |--B. haidingeri (Reuss 1849) [=Cypridina haidingeri; incl. Cythereis (Sacculus) trigibbosa Neviani 1928] BB61
         `--B. pennata B61

Anticythereis van den Bold 1946 M61, BB61 [=Pseudocythereis Jennings 1936 non Skogsberg 1928 BB61, Stephensonaria Coryell in Stephenson 1946 BB61]

Cythereis ornatissima (Reuss 1846) [=Cytherina ornatissima; incl. Cytherina ciliata Reuss 1846, *Cythereis ciliata] BB61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B61] Benson, R. H. 1961. Ecology of ostracode assemblages. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q56–Q63. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[LH61] Levinson, S. A., & H. V. Howe. 1961. Addendum. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q421–Q422. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[M61] Moore, R. C. 1961. Supplement—USSR treatise on Ostracoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q422–Q429. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[RR03] Rossi, A., J. Rey, B. Andreu & K. Taj-Eddine. 2003. Apport des ostracodes à l’interprétation séquentielle du Crétacé inférieur (Berriasien–Valanginien) du bassin d’Essaouira-Agadir (Maroc). Comptes Rendus Palevol 2: 133–141.

[S61a] Scott, H. W. 1961a. Shell morphology of Ostracoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q21–Q37. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[S61b] Scott, H. W. 1961b. Orientation of ostracode shells. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q44–Q47. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[WSB93] Whatley, R. C., D. J. Siveter & I. D. Boomer. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea: Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 343–356. Chapman & Hall: London.

Pterygocytherinae

Quadracythere truncula, from Morley & Hayward (2014).


Belongs within: Cytheroidea.

The Pterygocytherinae are a group of ostracods known from the Cretaceous to the present in which the carapace is broadly triangular with prominent ventrolateral wings, and the valves articulate by means of terminal teeth, sockets, grooves and flanges.

<==Pterygocytherinae [Pterygocytheridae, Pterygocytherides] NT02
    |--Bicornucythere Schornikov & Shaytarov 1979 NT02
    |    `--B. bisanensis (Okubo 1975) [=Leguminocythereis bisanensis, Ruggieria (Keijella) bisanensis] NT02
    |--Climacoidea Puri 1956 M61, BB61
    |    `--*C. pleurata Puri 1956 BB61
    |--Henryhowella Puri 1957 BB61 [=Howella Puri 1956 non Ogilby 1899 M61, BB61]
    |    `--*H. evax (Ulrich & Bassler 1904) [=Cythere evax, *Howella evax] BB61
    |--Pterygocythere Hill 1954 BB61
    |    |--*P. alata (Bosquet 1847) [=Cypridina alata] BB61
    |    `--P. hilli BB61
    |--Carinocythereis Ruggieri 1956 M61, BB61
    |    |--*C. carinata (Roemer 1838) [=Cytherina carinata] BB61
    |    `--C. rugipunctata [incl. Cythere rugipunctata, Puriana rugipunctata] BB61
    |--Isocythereis Triebel 1940 M61, BB61
    |    |--*I. fissicostis Triebel 1940 BB61
    |    |--I. fortinodis BB61
    |    `--I. sealensis Dingle 1971 G12
    `--Quadracythere Hornibrook 1952 M61, BB61
         |--*Q. truncula (Brady 1898) [=Cythere truncula] BB61
         |--Q. regalia B61
         `--Q. vermiculata BB61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B61] Benson, R. H. 1961. Ecology of ostracode assemblages. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q56–Q63. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[G12] Guzel, M. 2012. Jurassic and Early Cretaceous ostracods from Western Australia: what they reveal about evolution of the Indian Ocean. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 849–882. Springer.

[M61] Moore, R. C. 1961. Supplement—USSR treatise on Ostracoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q422–Q429. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[NT02] Nakao, Y., & A. Tsukagoshi. 2002. Brackish-water Ostracoda (Crustacea) from the Obitsu River estuary, central Japan. Species Diversity 7 (1): 67–115.

Darwinulidae

Darwinula stevensoni, copyright Robin James Smith.


Belongs within: Ostracoda.

The Darwinulidae are a group of ostracods living in fresh or brackish waters, known from the Upper Carboniferous (possibly the Ordovician) to the present (Benson et al. 1961).

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961): Shell elongate-ovate; more narrowly rounded and less convex in front; surface typically smooth; right valve larger than left. Hinge simple, undifferentiated; muscle scar comprising numerous radially arranged spots.

<==Darwinulidae [Darwinulacea, Darwinulocopina, Darwinuloidea]
    |--Vestalenula EHH05
    |--Darwinuloides Mandelstam 1956 BB61
    |    |--*D. oviformis (Mandelstam 1947) [=Darwinula oviformis] BB61
    |    `--D. sentjakensis TT05
    `--Darwinula Brady & Norman 1889 DH86 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*D. stevensoni (Brady & Roberston 1870) [=*Polycheles stevensoni, *Darwinella stevensoni] BB61
         |--D. australis Chapman 1909 F71
         |--D. boteai Danielopol 1970 DH86
         |--D. impudica HH09
         |--D. magna HH09
         |--D. protacta Rome 1953 DH86
         `--D. sarytirmenensis HH09

Darwinula Brady & Norman 1889 DH86 [=Darwinella Brady & Robertson 1872 non Müller 1865 BB61, Polycheles Brady 1870 non Heller 1862 BB61; incl. Cyprione Jones 1885 BB61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[DH86] Danielopol, D. L., & G. Hartmann. 1986. Ostracoda. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 265–294. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[EHH05] Eberhard, S. M., S. A. Halse & W. F. Humphreys. 2005. Stygofauna in the Pilbara region, north-west Western Australia: a review. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 167–176.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[HH09] Hu, D., L. Hou, L. Zhang & X. Xu. 2009. A pre-Archaeopteryx troodontid theropod from China with long feathers on the metatarsus. Nature 461: 640–643.

[TT05] Tverdokhlebov, V. P., G. I. Tverdokhlebova, A. V. Minikh, M. V. Surkov & M. J. Benton. 2005. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 27–77.

Palaeocytherideinae

Semicytheridea spirifera, from Benson et al. (1961).


Belongs within: Cytheroidea.

The Palaeocytherideinae are a group of ostracods that have been recognised from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods (Benson et al. 1961).

<==Palaeocytherideinae M61
    |--Palaeocytherideides M61
    |    |--Palaeocytheridea Mandelstam 1947 BB61
    |    |    `--*P. bakirovi Mandelstam 1947 BB61
    |    `--Rubracea Mandelstam in Mandelstam et al. 1957 M61, BB61
    |         `--*R. artis Lyubimova in Mandelstam et al. 1957 BB61
    `--Camptocytherides M61
         |--Camptocythere Triebel 1950 BB61
         |    `--*C. praecox Triebel 1950 BB61
         |--Mandelstamia Lyubimova 1955 M61, BB61
         |    `--*M. facilis Lyubimova 1955 BB61
         `--Semicytheridea Mandelstam 1956 M61, BB61
              `--*S. spirifera (Chapman & Sherborn 1893) [=Cythere spirifera] BB61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[M61] Moore, R. C. 1961. Supplement—USSR treatise on Ostracoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q422–Q429. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

Cypridocopina

Cyprois marginata, copyright Zoologische Staatssammlung Muenchen.


Belongs within: Ostracoda.
Contains: Suchonellina, Cyprididae, Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae.

The Cypridocopina are a group of ostracods in which three pairs of thoracic legs are present, with the first pair modified to function as a mouthpart and the third pair is bent dorsally and used as a cleaning organ, and the body bears a terminal furca (Benson et al. 1961).

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961, as Cypridacea): Carapace variable in size, shape, and surface ornamentation; calcareous or corneous; mid-ventral margin curved inward. Hinge of ridge-and-groove type or rabbeted; muscle scars a median group of spots, typically not radially or linearly arranged, with additional more anteroventral spots in most genera; inner lamellae present; line of concrescence and inner margin typically separated.

<==Cypridocopina
    |--Pontocyprididae (see below for synonymy) MD01
    |    |--Liasina lanceolata (Apostolecsu 1959) WSB93
    |    |--Argilloecia Sars 1866 [=Argillaecia Brady 1870] BB61
    |    |    `--*A. cylindrica Sars 1866 BB61
    |    |--Bakunella Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1958 BB61
    |    |    `--*B. dorsoarcuata (Zalanyi 1929) [=Pontocypris dorsoarcuata] BB61
    |    |--Clinocypris Mandelstam 1956 BB61
    |    |    `--*C. scolia Mandelstam 1956 BB61
    |    |--Pontocypria Müller 1894 BB61
    |    |    `--*P. spinosa Müller 1894 BB61
    |    |--Propontocypris Sylvester-Bradley 1947 BB61
    |    |    `--*P. trigonella (Sars 1866) [=Pontocypris trigonella] BB61
    |    |--Subulacypris Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957 BB61
    |    |    `--*S. subtilis Schneider in Mandelstam et al. 1957 BB61
    |    |--Bosquetia Brady, Crosskey & Robertson 1874 M61, BB61
    |    |    `--*B. robusta Brady, Crosskey & Robertson 1874 BB61
    |    `--Pontocypris Sars 1866 [incl. Cytheropsis McCoy 1849 (n. d.), Erythrocypris Müller 1894] BB61
    |         |--P. mytiloides (Norman 1862) (see below for synonymy) BB61
    |         |--*Cytheropsis’ aldensis M’Coy 1851 BB61
    |         `--P. mawii Jones 1887 [incl. P. mawii var. proxima Jones 1889] C01
    `--Cypridoidea [Cypracea, Cypridacea] M03
         |  i. s.: Camdenidea Swain 1953 BB61
         |           `--*C. camdenensis Swain 1953 BB61
         |         Carbonitidae WSB93
         |           |--Carbonita Strand 1928 [=Carbonia Jones 1870 non Robineau-Desvoidy 1863] BB61
         |           |    |--*C. agnes (Jones 1870) [=*Carbonia agnes] BB61
         |           |    `--C. fabulina G88
         |           `--Gutschickia Scott 1944 WSB93, BB61
         |                |--*G. ninevehensis (Holland 1934) [=Whipplella ninevehensis] BB61
         |                `--G. convexa Tasch 1963 WSB93
         |         Haworthina Kellett 1935 BB61
         |           `--*H. bulleta (Harris & Lalicker 1932) [=Bairdia bulleta] BB61
         |         Hilboldtina Scott & Summerson 1943 BB61
         |           `--*H. multiplicata Scott & Summerson 1943 BB61
         |         Palaeocypris Brongniart 1876 BB61
         |           `--*P. edwardsii Brongniart 1876 BB61
         |         Pruvostina Scott & Summerson 1943 BB61
         |           `--*P. wanlessi Scott & Summerson 1943 BB61
         |         Ranapeltis Bassler 1941 BB61
         |           `--*R. typicalis Bassler 1941 BB61
         |         Scabriculocypris Anderson 1940 BB61
         |           `--*S. trapezoides Anderson 1940 BB61
         |         Suchonella Spizharsky 1937 BB61
         |           |--*S. typica Spizharsky 1937 BB61
         |           `--S. blomi TT05
         |         Suchonellina BB61
         |         Whipplella Holland 1934 BB61
         |           `--*W. cuneiformis Holland 1934 BB61
         |--Cyprididae M03
         |--Candonidae F08
         |--Ilyocyprididae F08
         |--Macrocyprididae [Macrocypridae, Macrocypridoidea, Macrocyprinae] WSB93
         |    |--Macrosarisa exquisita (Kaye 1964) WSB93
         |    |--Macrocypris Brady 1867 CB86
         |    |    |--*M. minna (Baird 1850) [=Cythere minna] BB61
         |    |    `--M. siliquoides Jones 1887 C01
         |    `--Macrocypria Sars 1923 BB61
         |         `--*M. sarsi (Müller 1912) (see below for synonymy) BB61
         `--Notodromadidae [Notodromadinae, Notodromides, Notodrominae, Notodromini] MD01
              |--Notodromas Liljeborg 1853 BB61
              |    `--*N. monachus (Müller 1776) BB61 [=Cypris monacha BB61, Monoculus monachus L02]
              |--Newnhamia King 1855 BB61
              |    `--*N. fenestrata King 1855 BB61
              `--Cyprois Zenker 1854 BB61
                   |--*C. marginata (Strauss 1821) [=Cypris marginata] BB61
                   |--C. ephraimensis Swain 1964 WSB93
                   `--C. tantouensis NG13

*Macrocypria sarsi (Müller 1912) [=Macrocypris sarsi, Bairdia angusta Sars 1866 non Cythere (Bairdia) angusta Jones 1850] BB61

Pontocyprididae [Argilloeciinae, Clinocyprinae, Pontocypridae, Pontocypridinae, Pontocypridoidea, Pontocyprinae] MD01

Pontocypris mytiloides (Norman 1862) [=Cythere (Bairdia) mytiloides; incl. Cypris serrulata Sars 1863, *Pontocypris serrulata] BB61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[C01] Chapman, F. 1901. On some fossils of Wenlock age from Mulde, near Klinteberg, Gotland; with notes by Prof. T. Rupert Jones and Dr. F. A. Bather. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 141–160, pl. 3.

[CB86] Chen D.-Q. & Bao H. 1986. Lower Permian ostracodes from the Chihsia Formation of Jurong and Longtan, Jiangsu Province. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 3 (2): 107–132.

[F08] Fuhrmann, R. 2008. Die Ostrakoden- und Molluskenfauna des Auelehmprofils Zeitz (Landkreis Burgenland) und ihre Aussage zum Klima sowie zur Landnutzung im jüngeren Holozän Mitteldeutschlands. Mauritiana 20 (2): 253–281.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 4. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[M03] Martens, K. 2003. On a remarkable South African giant ostracod (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cyprididae) from temporary pools, with additional appendages. Hydrobiologia 500: 115–130.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[M61] Moore, R. C. 1961. Supplement—USSR treatise on Ostracoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q422–Q429. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60–64.

[TT05] Tverdokhlebov, V. P., G. I. Tverdokhlebova, A. V. Minikh, M. V. Surkov & M. J. Benton. 2005. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 27–77.

[WSB93] Whatley, R. C., D. J. Siveter & I. D. Boomer. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea: Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 343–356. Chapman & Hall: London.

Candonopsini

Right valve of male Candonopsis tenuis, copyright Robin James Smith.


Belongs within: Candonidae.

The Candonopsini are a group of candonid ostracods characterised by the absence of a proximal seta on the caudal ramus.

<==Candonopsini
    |--Marococandona Marmonier, Boulal & Idbennacer 2005 K08
    |--Cubacandona Broodbakker 1983 K08
    |    `--C. cubensis (Danielopol 1978) [=Caribecandona (Cubacandona) cubensis] DH86
    |--Pioneercandonopsis Karanovic 2005 K08
    |    `--P. hancocki Karanovic 2007 K08
    |--Caribecandona Broodbakker 1983 K08
    |    |--C. ansa Broodbakker 1983 DH86
    |    |--C. auricularia Broodbakker 1983 DH86
    |    `--C. trapezoidea Broodbakker 1983 DH86
    `--Candonopsis Vávra 1891 K08
         |  i. s.: C. anisitsi Daday 1905 T56
         |         C. boui Danielopol 1978 DH86
         |         C. putealis Klie 1932 DH86
         |         C. thienemanni Schäfer 1945 DH86
         |         C. trichota Schäfer 1945 DH86
         |--C. (Candonopsis) K08
         |    |--*C. (C.) kingsleyi (Brady & Robertson 1870) [=Candona kingsleyi] BB61
         |    |--C. (C.) dani Karanovic & Marmonier 2002 K08
         |    |--C. (C.) kimberleyi Karanovic & Marmonier 2002 K08
         |    |--C. (C.) murchisoni Karanovic & Marmonier 2002 K08
         |    |--C. (C.) tenuis (Brady 1886) K08
         |    `--C. (C.) westaustraliensis Karanovic & Marmonier 2002 K08
         `--C. (Abcandonopsis Karanovic 2004) K08
              |--C. (A.) aula Karanovic 2004 K08
              |--C. (A.) dedeckkeri Karanovic 2007 K08
              |--C. (A.) inaffecta Karanovic 2007 K08
              |--C. (A.) indoles Karanovic 2004 K08
              |--C. (A.) linnaei Karanovic 2008 K08
              |--C. (A.) pilbarae Karanovic 2007 K08
              `--C. (A.) williami Karanovic & Marmonier 2002 K08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[DH86] Danielopol, D. L., & G. Hartmann. 1986. Ostracoda. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 265–294. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[K08] Karanovic, I. 2008. A new species of the genus Candonopsis (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (4): 411–419.

[T56] Tressler, W. L. 1956. Ostracoda from bromeliads in Jamaica and Florida. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (10): 333–336.

Eucandona

Left (above) and right valves of female Eucandona candida, from Benson et al. (1961).


Belongs within: Candonidae.

Eucandona is a genus of candonid ostracods characterised by the smooth gamma seta on the mandibular palp.

<==Eucandona van Daday 1900 PK04 [incl. Cyprida Goldenberg 1870 BB61, Fabaeformiscandona Krstic 1972 PK04]
    |--*E. balatonica (van Daday 1893) PK04 [=Candona balatonica BB61]
    |--E. acuminata [=Fabaeformiscandona acuminata] PK04
    |--‘Fabaeformiscandona’ brevicornis F08
    |--E. candida (Müller 1776) BB61 [=Cypris candida BB61, Candona candida BB61, Monoculus candidus L02]
    |--E. csikii Daday 1901 D01
    |--E. fabaeformis (Fischer 1851) (see below for synonymy) PK04
    |--E. forma Karanovic 1999 PK04
    |--E. holzkampfi (Hartwig 1900) [=Candona holzkampfi, Fabaeformiscandona holzkampfi] PK04
    |--E. krstici (Petkovski 1969) [=Candona krstici] PK04
    |--‘Fabaeformiscandona’ latens (Klie 1940) DH86
    |--E. pubescens D01
    |--E. svetozari Petkovski & Karanovic 2004 PK04
    `--‘Fabaeformiscandona’ wegelini (Petkovski 1962) DH86

Eucandona fabaeformis (Fischer 1851) [=Cypris fabaeformis, Candona (Eucandona) fabaeformis, Fabaeformiscandona fabaeformis] PK04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DH86] Danielopol, D. L., & G. Hartmann. 1986. Ostracoda. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 265–294. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[F08] Fuhrmann, R. 2008. Die Ostrakoden- und Molluskenfauna des Auelehmprofils Zeitz (Landkreis Burgenland) und ihre Aussage zum Klima sowie zur Landnutzung im jüngeren Holozän Mitteldeutschlands. Mauritiana 20 (2): 253–281.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 4. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[PK04] Petkovski, T. K., & I. Karanovic. 2004. Eucandona svetozari sp. n., a frehwater ostracod from Macedonia (SE Europe) (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Candoninae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 103–111.

Ilyocyprididae

Left (above) and right views of Cypridea granulosa, from Benson et al. (1961).


Belongs within: Cypridocopina.

The Ilyocyprididae are a group of freshwater ostracods known from the Triassic to the present (Benson et al. 1961).

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961): Shell subquadrate, compressed, thickest posteriorly, with one or more dorsomedian sulci; dorsum straight, venter straight to slightly concave, ends rounded, anterior broader; left valve larger than right; surface pitted, tuberculate or spinose. Inner lamellae rather narrow.

<==Ilyocyprididae
    |--Cyprideinae [Cyprideidae, Rostrocyprinae] BB61
    |    |--Cultella Lyubimova 1959 BB61
    |    |    `--*C. daedala Lyubimova 1959 BB61
    |    `--Cypridea Bosquet 1852 [incl. Cytherideis Jones 1856, Dsunbaina Galeeva 1955] BB61
    |         |--C. (Cypridea) BB61
    |         |    |--*C. (C.) granulosa (Sowerby 1836) [=Cypris granulosa] BB61
    |         |    |--C. (C.) propuncta BB61
    |         |    `--C. (C.) wyomingensis BB61
    |         |--C. (Cyamocypris Anderson 1939) BB61
    |         |    |--C. (*C.) valdensis (Fitton 1836) [=Cypris valdensis] BB61
    |         |    `--C. (C.) tumescens BB61
    |         |--C. (Morinina Anderson 1939) BB61
    |         |    `--C. (*M. ) dorsispinata (Anderson 1939) [=*Morinina dorsispinata] BB61
    |         |--C. (Paracypridea Swain 1946) BB61
    |         |    `--C. (*P.) obovata Swain 1946 BB61
    |         |--C. (Pseudocypridina Roth 1933) [incl. Langtonia Anderson 1939] BB61
    |         |    `--C. (*P.) piedmonti (Roth 1933) [=*Pseudocypridina piedmonti] BB61
    |         |--C. (Ulwellia Anderson 1939) BB61
    |         |    `--C. (*U.) menevensis (Anderson 1939) [=*Ulwellia menevensis] BB61
    |         `--C. (Yumenia Hou 1958) BB61
    |              `--C. (*Y.) oriformis (Hou 1958) [=*Yumenia oriformis] BB61
    `--Ilyocypridinae [Ilyocyprides, Ilyocyprinae, Jliocyprinae] BB61
         |--Cyprideamorphella Mandelstam 1956 BB61
         |    `--*C. tarbagataiensis Mandelstam 1956 BB61
         |--Iliocyprella Daday 1900 [=Ilyocyprella Sars 1925] BB61
         |    `--*I. repons (Vávra 1891) [=Ilyocypris bradyi var. repons] BB61
         |--Ilyocyprimorpha Mandelstam 1956 BB61
         |    `--*I. palustris Mandelstam 1956 BB61
         |--Pelocypris Klie 1939 BB61
         |    |--*P. lenzi Klie 1939 BB61
         |    `--P. zilchi BB61
         |--Rhinocypris Anderson 1940 [incl. Origoilyocypris Mandelstam 1956] BB61
         |    |--*R. jurassica (Martin 1940) [=Ilyocypris jurassica] BB61
         |    `--R. cirrita BB61
         `--Ilyocypris Bardy & Norman 1889 F08 (see below for synonymy)
              |--*I. gibba (Ramdohr 1808) [=Cypris gibba] BB61
              |--I. absentiva Fuhrmann 2008 F08
              |--I. aestivalis Fuhrmann 2008 F08
              |--I. bradyi Sars 1890 F08
              |--I. dentifera Sars 1903 NT02
              |--I. errabundoides NG13
              |--I. getica Masi 1906 F08
              |--I. lauta NG13
              |--I. tuberculata D01
              `--I. uncinatus F08

Ilyocypris Bardy & Norman 1889 F08 [=Iliocypris Daday 1900 BB61, Ilyocyprois Masi 1906 BB61, Jliocypris Müller 1900 BB61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[F08] Fuhrmann, R. 2008. Die Ostrakoden- und Molluskenfauna des Auelehmprofils Zeitz (Landkreis Burgenland) und ihre Aussage zum Klima sowie zur Landnutzung im jüngeren Holozän Mitteldeutschlands. Mauritiana 20 (2): 253–281.

[NT02] Nakao, Y., & A. Tsukagoshi. 2002. Brackish-water Ostracoda (Crustacea) from the Obitsu River estuary, central Japan. Species Diversity 7 (1): 67–115.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60–64.

Candona

Candona neglecta, from Sars (1887).


Belongs within: Candonidae.

Candona is a primarily Holarctic genus of ostracods characterised by the presence of three lobes on the hemipenis.

<==Candona Baird 1845 [Candonini] F08
    |--C. abrupta NG13
    |--C. acuta BB61
    |--C. altoides F08
    |--C. angulata F08
    |--C. biangulata BB61
    |--C. compressa S61
    |--C. fluviatilis BB61
    |--C. indigena BB61
    |--C. lindneri F08
    |--C. natronophila F08
    |--C. neglecta F08
    |--C. suburbana BB61
    `--C. vernalis Fuhrmann 2008 F08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[F08] Fuhrmann, R. 2008. Die Ostrakoden- und Molluskenfauna des Auelehmprofils Zeitz (Landkreis Burgenland) und ihre Aussage zum Klima sowie zur Landnutzung im jüngeren Holozän Mitteldeutschlands. Mauritiana 20 (2): 253–281.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60–64.

[S61] Scott, H. W. 1961. Shell morphology of Ostracoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q21–Q37. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

Diocleae

Bay bean Canavalia rosea, copyright Bernard Dupont.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.

The Diocleae are a group of leguminous shrubs and woody vines bearing trifoliolate leaves with stipels, inflorescences with swollen nodes at the pedicel insertions, and flowers with a distinct hypanthium and a calyx with lanceolate lobes.

<==Diocleae CP13
    |--Canavalia DC. 1825 CP13, A61
    |    |--C. ensiformis KBC03
    |    |--C. maritima P88
    |    |--C. microcarpa P88
    |    |--C. obtusifolia DC. 1825 A61
    |    |--C. papuana LK14
    |    |--C. parviflora CP13
    |    `--C. rosea LK14
    `--+--Dioclea CP13
       |    |  i. s.: D. megacarpa GE05
       |    |--D. grandiflora CP13
       |    `--+--D. lasiophylla CP13
       |       `--+--Cleobulia multiflora CP13
       |          `--Cymbosema roseum CP13
       `--+--Lackeya multiflora CP13
          `--+--Rhodopsis planisiliqua CP13
             |--Bionia CP13
             |    |--B. bella CP13
             |    `--+--B. coriacea CP13
             |       `--+--Camptosema spectabile CP13
             |          `--Cratylia mollis CP13
             `--+--Galactia CP13
                |    |--G. striata CP13
                |    `--G. tenuiflora B88
                `--+--Camptosema ellipticum CP13
                   |--Collaea stenophylla CP13
                   `--‘Galactia’ martii CP13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KBC03] Kőhidai, L., C. Bánky & G. Csaba. 2003. Comparison of lectin induced chemotactic selection and chemical imprinting in Tetrahymena pyriformis. Acta Protozoologica 42: 91–97.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

Anodonta

Holotype of Anodonta wheatleyi, from the Mussel Project.


Belongs within: Unionidae.

Anodonta is a genus of freshwater mussels in which the shell is oblong, thin, and rather compressed behind, and the hinge margin lacks teeth (Gray 1840).

Anodonta Lamarck 1799 G07 (see below for synonymy)
    `--A. (Lamproscapha) A66a
         |--A. (L.) ensiformis A66a
         `--A. (L.) wheatleyi A66a

Anodonta incertae sedis:
  A. anatina (Linnaeus 1758) G07 (see below for synonymy)
  A. arcaeformis (Heude 1877) (see below for synonymy) G07
  A. atra Rafinesque 1820 V16
  A. beringiana Middendorff 1851 (see below for synonymy) G07
  A. cataracta D84
  A. cuneata Rafinesque 1820 V16
  A. cygnea (Linnaeus 1758) TW07 (see below for synonymy)
  A. cyrea Drouët 1881 (see below for synonymy) G07
  A. dejecta PF15
  A. euscaphys (Heude 1879) [=Anemina euscaphys; incl. A. fuscoviridis (Moskvicheva 1973)] G07
  A. fragilis D84
  A. gibbosa D84
  A. grandis (Say 1829) JN90
  A. imbecillis T59
  A. implicata D84
  A. kennerlyi Lea 1860 R78
  A. mutabilis Rafinesque 1820 V16
  A. nigrescens Rafinesque 1820 V16
  A. ogurae (Kuroda & Habe 1987) [=Oguranodonta ogurae] G07
  A. pseudodopsis Locard 1883 [=Gabillotia pseudodopsis] G07
  A. ‘radiata’ Rafinesque 1820 non Müll. 1774 V16
  A. swinhoei Adams 1866 A66b
  A. vescoiana Bourguignat 1856 [=Euphrata vescoiana] G07
  A. violacina Rafinesque 1820 V16
  A. woodiana (Lea 1834) [=Sinanodonta woodiana] G07
    |--A. w. woodiana (see below for synonymy) G07
    |--A. w. japonica (von Martens 1874) (see below for synonymy) G07
    `--A. w. lauta E96

Anodonta Lamarck 1799 G07 [incl. Beringiana Starobogatov in Zatravkin 1983 G07, Colletopterum Bourguignat 1880 G07, Ellipsanodon Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996 G07, Euphrata Pallary 1933 G07, Gabillotia Servain 1890 G07, Goniocypris Brady & Robertson 1870 BB61, Kunashiria Starobogatov in Zatravkin 1983 G07, Oguranodonta Kuroda & Habe 1987 G07, Piscinaliana Bourguignat 1881 G07, Sinanodonta Modell 1945 G07; Anodontinae]

Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus 1758) G07 [=Mytilus anatinus G40, Colletopterum (Piscinaliana) anatinum G07; incl. C. apollonicum (Bourguignat 1880) G07, C. baeri (Bogatov, Starobogatov & Prozorova 2005) G07, C. convexum (Drouët 1888) G07, C. (Piscinaliana) depressum (Bourguignat 1881) G07, C. milaschevichi (Bogatov, Starobogatov & Prozorova 2005) G07, C. (P.) nilssonii (Küster 1842) G07, C. ostiarium (Drouët 1881) G07, C. (P.) piscinale (Nilsson 1823) G07, C. (P.) ponderosum (Pfeiffer 1825) G07, C. (P.) rostratum (Rossmässler 1836) G07, C. (P.) sorensianum (Dybowski 1913) G07, C. subcirculare (Clessin 1873) G07]

Anodonta arcaeformis (Heude 1877) [=Anemina arcaeformis; incl. Amuranodonta boloniensis (Zatravkin & Bogatov 1987), Ane. buldowskii (Moskvicheva 1973), Buldowskia cylindrica Moskvicheva 1973, B. flavotincta (von Martens 1905), Amuranodonta kijaensis Moskvicheva 1973, B. koreana Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996, Am. lomakini (Zatravkin & Bogatov 1987), Am. parva Moskvicheva 1973, Buldowskia possietica Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996, Am. pulchra Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996, Anemina shadini (Moskvicheva 1973), Am. sitaensis (Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996), Buldowskia starobogatovi (Moskvicheva 1973), B. suifunensis (Zhadin 1938), B. suifunica (Lindholm 1925), B. suputinensis Moskvicheva 1973] G07

Anodonta beringiana Middendorff 1851 [=Beringiana beringiana; incl. B. compressa Sayenko & Bogatov 1998, B. chereshnevi Bogatov & Starobogatov 2001, B. derzhavini Bogatov & Starobogatov 2001, B. georginensis Bogatov & Starobogatov 2001, B. kamchatica Bogatov & Starobogatov 2001, B. youkanensis (Lea 1867)] G07

Anodonta cygnea (Linnaeus 1758) TW07 [=Mytilus cygneus G40, Anodon cygneus G40; incl. M. avonensis G40, Anodon cygneus var. avonensis G40, M. cellensis G40, Anodon cygneus var. cellensis G40, Anodonta cellensis PV06, Anodonta complanata G40, Anodon cygneus var. complanata G40, Anodonta compressa G40, Anodonta crassa Marks ms G40, Mytilus dentatus G40, M. incrassatus G40, Anodonta intermedia G40, M. maculatus G40, *Goniocypris mitra Brady & Robertson 1870 BB61, Anodon paludosus G40, Anodonta piscinalis G40, Anodon cygneus var. piscinalis G40, Anodonta ponderosa G40, Anodonta rhombea G40, Anodonta rostrata G40, Anodon cygneus var. rostrata G40, Mytilus stagnalis Gmelin 1791 G40, G07, Anodon cygneus var. stagnalis G40, Anodonta stagnalis G07, Anodonta sulcata G40, Anodonta ventricosa G40, Anodonta zellensis (Gmelin 1791) G07]

Anodonta cyrea Drouët 1881 [=Colletopterum (Piscinaliana) cyreum; incl. C. (P.) bactrianum (Rolle 1897), C. (P.) kokandicum Starobogatov & Izzatullaev 1984] G07

Anodonta woodiana japonica (von Martens 1874) [=Kunashiria japonica; incl. K. japonica boreosakhalinensis Labay & Shulga 1999, K. compressa (Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996), K. coptzevi (Zatravkin & Bogatov 1987), Anodonta haconensis von Ihering 1893, K. haconensis, K. iturupica Bogatov, Sayenko & Starobogatov 1999, K. iwakawai (Suzuki 1939), Amuranodonta sihotealinica Zatravkin & Starobogatov 1984, K. sinanodontoides Bogatov, Sayenko & Starobogatov 1999, K. taranetzi (Zhadin 1938), K. zarjaensis (Bogatov & Zatravkin 1988), K. zimini (Zatravkin & Bogatov 1987)] G07

Anodonta woodiana woodiana (Lea 1834) [incl. Sinanodonta amurensis Moskvicheva 1973, S. crassitesta Moskvicheva 1973, S. fukudai Modell 1947, S. gibba (Benson 1855), S. likharevi Moskvicheva 1973, S. (Ellipsanodon) manchurica Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996, S. orbicularis (Heude 1880), S. primorjensis Bogatov & Zatravkin 1988, S. puerorum (Heude 1880), S. schrencki Moskvicheva 1973] G07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A66a] Adams, H. 1866a. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and on the River Ucayali, eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 440–445.

[A66b] Adams, H. 1866b. Descriptions of six new species of shells, and note on Opisthostoma de-Crespignii. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 445–447.

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[D84] Davis, G. M. 1984. Genetic relationships among some North American Unionidae (Bivalvia): sibling species, convergence, and cladistic relationships. Malacologia 25 (2): 629–648.

[E96] Eertman, R. H. M. 1996. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland. Molluscan Research 17: 3–20.

[G07] Graf, D. L. 2007. Palaearctic freshwater mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida) diversity and the Comparatory Method as a species concept. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 156: 71–88.

[G40] Gray, J. E. 1840. A Manual of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of the British Islands, with figures of each of the kinds. By William Turton, M.D. A new edition, thoroughly revised and much enlarged. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans: London.

[JN90] Jirka, K. J., & R. J. Neves. 1990. Freshwater mussel fauna (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Nautilus 103 (4): 136–139.

[PF15] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. H. Ferriss. 1915. Mollusca of the southwestern states, VII: the Dragoon, Mule, Santa Rita, Baboquivari, and Tucson Ranges, Arizona. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 363–418, pls 8–15.

[PV06] Pimenova, E. A., & A. A. Varaksin. 2006. Putative nitroxidergic cells in the digestive system of some mytilids (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae) revealed by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Malacologia 49 (1): 61–77.

[R78] Reid, R. G. B. 1978. The systematic, adaptive and physiological significance of proteolytic enzyme distribution in bivalves. Veliger 20 (3): 260–265.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

[T59] Thomas, G. J. 1959. Self-fertilization and production of young in a sphaeriid clam. Nautilus 72 (4): 131–140.

[V16] Vanatta, E. G. 1916. Rafinesque's types of Unio. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 549–559.

Lespedeza

Lespedeza thunbergii, copyright BotBln.


Belongs within: Desmodieae.

Lespedeza, bush clovers, is a genus of leguminous herbs and shrubs found in eastern Asia and eastern North America.

Characters (from Flora of China): Subshrubs, shrubs, or perennial herbs. Leaves pinnately compound, 3-foliolate; stipule small, subulate or linear, persistent or caducous; stipels absent; leaflets entire. Racemes axillary or flowers fasciculate; bracts persistent, 2-flowered at each bract; bracteoles 2, often persistent; flowers often dimorphic, corollate or not (cleistogamous plants). Calyx campanulate; tube short; lobes 5, upper 2 often connate at base. Corolla exserted; standard oblong or obovate; wings oblong, straight, clawed, auriculate, connivent with keel; keel obtuse and incurved. Stamens 10, diadelphous (9+1), equal. Ovary superior, 1-ovuled; style incurved; stigma terminal. Legume ovoid, obovoid, or ellipsoidal, rarely slightly globose, lenticular, indehiscent, reticulate veined, 1-seeded.

<==Lespedeza
    |--L. bicolor AO88
    |--L. cuneata CP13
    |--L. formosa (Vogel) Koehne 1893 [=Desmodium formosum Vogel 1843] AO88
    |    |--L. f. ssp. formosa (see below for synonymy) AO88
    |    |--L. f. ssp. elliptica (Bentham) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 (see below for synonymy) AO88
    |    `--L. f. ssp. velutina (Nakai) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 [=L. bicolor var. velutina Nakai 1923] AO88
    |         |--L. f. ssp. v. var. velutina (see below for synonymy) AO88
    |         `--L. f. ssp. v. var. satsumensis (Nakai) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 (see below for synonymy) AO88
    |--L. japonica AO88
    |--L. nipponica AO88
    `--L. thunbergii [incl. L. racemosa, L. sieboldii] AO88

Lespedeza formosa ssp. formosa (Vogel) Koehne 1893 [=L. bicolor ssp. formosa (Vogel) Hsu, Li & Gu 1983; incl. L. hayatae Hatusima 1967, L. pubescens Hayata 1911, L. viatorum Champ. ex Bentham in Hooker 1852, L. wilfordii Ricker 1942] AO88

Lespedeza formosa ssp. elliptica (Bentham) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 [=L. elliptica Bentham ex Maximowicz 1873, L. bicolor ssp. elliptica (Bentham) Hsu, Li & Gu 1983] AO88

Lespedeza formosa ssp. velutina var. satsumensis (Nakai) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 [=L. satsumensis Nakai 1928, L. nipponica var. satsumensis (Nakai) Murata 1962, L. thunbergii var. satsumensis (Nakai) Ohwi 1965; incl. L. formosa var. australis Hatusima 1967, L. japonica var. australis (Hatusima) Murata 1978] AO88

Lespedeza formosa ssp. velutina var. velutina (Nakai) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 [incl. L. intermedia var. alba Nakai 1923, L. intermedia var. angustifolia Nakai 1923, L. japonica f. angustifolia (Nakai) Murata 1982, L. japonica var. angustifolia (Nakai) Nakai 1927, L. penduliflora var. albiflora f. angustifolia (Nakai) Ohwi 1953 (n. n.), L. thunbergii var. albiflora f. angustifolia (Nakai) Ohwi 1965, L. japonica var. gracilis Nakai 1927, L. intermedia Nakai 1923 non Britt. 1893, L. japonica var. intermedia (Nakai) Nakai 1927, L. kiusiana Nakai 1927, L. japonica var. retusa Nakai 1927, L. japonica var. spicata Nakai 1939, L. tetraloba Nakai 1939] AO88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AO88] Akiyama, S., & H. Ohba. 1988. Taxonomy of Lespedeza formosa (Vogel) Koehne. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 217–229.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

Desmodieae

Alyce clover Alysicarpus violaceus, copyright Vinayaraj.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.
Contains: Lespedeza, Desmodium.

The Desmodieae are a group of legumes characterised by the production of jointed indehiscent fruits and (1–)3-foliolate leaves with stipels.

<==Desmodieae CP13
    |--+--Campylotropis macrocarpa CP13
    |  `--+--Lespedeza CP13
    |     `--Kummerowia CP13
    |          |--K. stipulacea CP13
    |          `--K. striata MH98
    `--+--+--Phyllodium pulchellum CP13
       |  `--Tadehagi CP13
       |       |--T. robustum LK14
       |       `--T. triquetrum CP13
       `--+--Pseudarthria CP13
          |    |--P. hookeri CP13
          |    `--P. viscida SR07
          `--+--+--Desmodium CP13
             |  `--Uraria CP13
             |       |--U. alopecuroides P03
             |       |--U. crinita CP13
             |       |--U. lagopodioides LK14
             |       `--U. picta DP72
             `--Alysicarpus CP13
                  |--A. bupleurifolius P03
                  |--A. major LK14
                  |--A. monilifer PP07
                  |    |--A. m. var. monilifer PP07
                  |    `--A. m. var. venosa PP07
                  |--A. muelleri LK14
                  |--A. nummulariaefolius [=Hedysarum nummulariaefolium] C55
                  |--A. ovalifolius LK14
                  |--A. schomburgkii LK14
                  |--A. styracifolius SR07
                  |--A. suffructosus LK14
                  `--A. vaginalis CP13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1–110.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

Tephrosia

Wild indigo Tephrosia purpurea, copyright J. M. Garg.


Belongs within: Millettieae.

Tephrosia is a pantropical genus of herbaceous legumes with silky stems and often leaves.

Characters (from Flora of China): Herbs, perennial or rarely annual, often suffrutescent, usually sericeous. Stipules caducous. Leaves imparipinnate; stipels absent; leaflet blades opposite, abaxially often sericeous, secondary veins to ca. 30 on each side of midvein and closely parallel, margin entire. Pseudoracemes terminal or axillary, sometimes opposite a leaf; bracts usually caducous. Bracteoles absent. Corolla white, cream-colored, or mauve, occasionally orange or red; standard reflexed, suborbicular, outside villous or sericeous. Stamens monadel­phous; vexillary stamen somewhat distinct from other 9. Ovary sessile, with trichomes, with numerous ovules. Legume flat, occa­sionally inflated, dehiscent, apex often beaked; valves twisted. Seeds 5-16 per legume, oblong, ellipsoid, or occasionally globose; radicle folded.

<==Tephrosia [Tephrosieae]
    |--T. brachyodon LK14
    |--T. candida G17
    |--T. coriacea LK14
    |--T. crocea LK14
    |--T. flammea LK14
    |    |--T. f. var. flammea LK14
    |    `--T. f. var. monophylla LK14
    |--T. griseola CV06
    |--T. heckmanniana CP13
    |--T. hookeriana Wight & Arn. 1834 P06
    |--T. lasiochlaena LK14
    |--T. laxa LK14
    |    |--T. l. var. laxa LK14
    |    `--T. l. var. angustata LK14
    |--T. leptoclada LK14
    |--T. leptostachya P06
    |--T. oblongata LK14
    |--T. pallida CV06
    |--T. pentaphylla (Roxb.) Don in Sweet 1839 [=Galega pentaphylla Roxb. 1832] P06
    |--T. phaeosperma LK14
    |--T. piscatoria C55
    |--T. procera LK14
    |--T. pumila SR07
    |--T. purpurea P06
    |--T. remotiflora LK14
    |--T. rosea LK14
    |    |--T. r. var. rosea LK14
    |    `--T. r. var. clementii LK14
    |--T. simplicifolia LK14
    |--T. spechtii LK14
    |--T. stipuligera LK14
    |--T. strigosa PP07
    |--T. subpectinata LK14
    |--T. talpa BTA75
    |--T. uniflora PP07
    |    |--T. u. ssp. uniflora PP07
    |    `--T. u. ssp. petrosa PP07
    |--T. valleculata LK14
    `--T. virens LK14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59–71).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P06] Parmar, P. J. 2006. Additions to the flora of Gujarat from Mehsana and Kutch districts (N. Gujarat). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 191–196.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

Erythrininae

Cockspur coral tree Erythrina cristagalli, copyright Frank Vincentz.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.

The Erythrininae are a poorly defined grouping of legumes including the coral trees of the genus Erythrina.

<==Erythrininae CP13
    |--Otoptera burchellii CP13
    `--+--Psophocarpus CP13
       |    |--P. lancifolius CP13
       |    `--P. tetragonolobus P88
       `--Erythrina CP13
            |--E. arborescens D07
            |--E. breviflora F11
            |--E. cristagalli CP13
            |--E. decora CV06
            |--E. dominguezii F11
            |--E. fastigiata BMM99
            |--E. fusca HSS13
            |--E. indica SK02
            |--E. oliviae OB11
            |--E. poeppigiana F11
            |--E. tomentosa PB27
            `--E. vespertilio LK14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BMM99] Braun, U., J. Mouchacca & E. H. C. McKenzie. 1999. Cercosporoid hyphomycetes from New Caledonia and some other South Pacific islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 297–327.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SK02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408–412.