Diocleae

Bay bean Canavalia rosea, copyright Bernard Dupont.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.

The Diocleae are a group of leguminous shrubs and woody vines bearing trifoliolate leaves with stipels, inflorescences with swollen nodes at the pedicel insertions, and flowers with a distinct hypanthium and a calyx with lanceolate lobes.

<==Diocleae CP13
    |--Canavalia DC. 1825 CP13, A61
    |    |--C. ensiformis KBC03
    |    |--C. maritima P88
    |    |--C. microcarpa P88
    |    |--C. obtusifolia DC. 1825 A61
    |    |--C. papuana LK14
    |    |--C. parviflora CP13
    |    `--C. rosea LK14
    `--+--Dioclea CP13
       |    |  i. s.: D. megacarpa GE05
       |    |--D. grandiflora CP13
       |    `--+--D. lasiophylla CP13
       |       `--+--Cleobulia multiflora CP13
       |          `--Cymbosema roseum CP13
       `--+--Lackeya multiflora CP13
          `--+--Rhodopsis planisiliqua CP13
             |--Bionia CP13
             |    |--B. bella CP13
             |    `--+--B. coriacea CP13
             |       `--+--Camptosema spectabile CP13
             |          `--Cratylia mollis CP13
             `--+--Galactia CP13
                |    |--G. striata CP13
                |    `--G. tenuiflora B88
                `--+--Camptosema ellipticum CP13
                   |--Collaea stenophylla CP13
                   `--‘Galactia’ martii CP13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KBC03] Kőhidai, L., C. Bánky & G. Csaba. 2003. Comparison of lectin induced chemotactic selection and chemical imprinting in Tetrahymena pyriformis. Acta Protozoologica 42: 91–97.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

Anodonta

Holotype of Anodonta wheatleyi, from the Mussel Project.


Belongs within: Unionidae.

Anodonta is a genus of freshwater mussels in which the shell is oblong, thin, and rather compressed behind, and the hinge margin lacks teeth (Gray 1840).

Anodonta Lamarck 1799 G07 (see below for synonymy)
    `--A. (Lamproscapha) A66a
         |--A. (L.) ensiformis A66a
         `--A. (L.) wheatleyi A66a

Anodonta incertae sedis:
  A. anatina (Linnaeus 1758) G07 (see below for synonymy)
  A. arcaeformis (Heude 1877) (see below for synonymy) G07
  A. atra Rafinesque 1820 V16
  A. beringiana Middendorff 1851 (see below for synonymy) G07
  A. cataracta D84
  A. cuneata Rafinesque 1820 V16
  A. cygnea (Linnaeus 1758) TW07 (see below for synonymy)
  A. cyrea Drouët 1881 (see below for synonymy) G07
  A. dejecta PF15
  A. euscaphys (Heude 1879) [=Anemina euscaphys; incl. A. fuscoviridis (Moskvicheva 1973)] G07
  A. fragilis D84
  A. gibbosa D84
  A. grandis (Say 1829) JN90
  A. imbecillis T59
  A. implicata D84
  A. kennerlyi Lea 1860 R78
  A. mutabilis Rafinesque 1820 V16
  A. nigrescens Rafinesque 1820 V16
  A. ogurae (Kuroda & Habe 1987) [=Oguranodonta ogurae] G07
  A. pseudodopsis Locard 1883 [=Gabillotia pseudodopsis] G07
  A. ‘radiata’ Rafinesque 1820 non Müll. 1774 V16
  A. swinhoei Adams 1866 A66b
  A. vescoiana Bourguignat 1856 [=Euphrata vescoiana] G07
  A. violacina Rafinesque 1820 V16
  A. woodiana (Lea 1834) [=Sinanodonta woodiana] G07
    |--A. w. woodiana (see below for synonymy) G07
    |--A. w. japonica (von Martens 1874) (see below for synonymy) G07
    `--A. w. lauta E96

Anodonta Lamarck 1799 G07 [incl. Beringiana Starobogatov in Zatravkin 1983 G07, Colletopterum Bourguignat 1880 G07, Ellipsanodon Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996 G07, Euphrata Pallary 1933 G07, Gabillotia Servain 1890 G07, Goniocypris Brady & Robertson 1870 BB61, Kunashiria Starobogatov in Zatravkin 1983 G07, Oguranodonta Kuroda & Habe 1987 G07, Piscinaliana Bourguignat 1881 G07, Sinanodonta Modell 1945 G07; Anodontinae]

Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus 1758) G07 [=Mytilus anatinus G40, Colletopterum (Piscinaliana) anatinum G07; incl. C. apollonicum (Bourguignat 1880) G07, C. baeri (Bogatov, Starobogatov & Prozorova 2005) G07, C. convexum (Drouët 1888) G07, C. (Piscinaliana) depressum (Bourguignat 1881) G07, C. milaschevichi (Bogatov, Starobogatov & Prozorova 2005) G07, C. (P.) nilssonii (Küster 1842) G07, C. ostiarium (Drouët 1881) G07, C. (P.) piscinale (Nilsson 1823) G07, C. (P.) ponderosum (Pfeiffer 1825) G07, C. (P.) rostratum (Rossmässler 1836) G07, C. (P.) sorensianum (Dybowski 1913) G07, C. subcirculare (Clessin 1873) G07]

Anodonta arcaeformis (Heude 1877) [=Anemina arcaeformis; incl. Amuranodonta boloniensis (Zatravkin & Bogatov 1987), Ane. buldowskii (Moskvicheva 1973), Buldowskia cylindrica Moskvicheva 1973, B. flavotincta (von Martens 1905), Amuranodonta kijaensis Moskvicheva 1973, B. koreana Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996, Am. lomakini (Zatravkin & Bogatov 1987), Am. parva Moskvicheva 1973, Buldowskia possietica Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996, Am. pulchra Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996, Anemina shadini (Moskvicheva 1973), Am. sitaensis (Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996), Buldowskia starobogatovi (Moskvicheva 1973), B. suifunensis (Zhadin 1938), B. suifunica (Lindholm 1925), B. suputinensis Moskvicheva 1973] G07

Anodonta beringiana Middendorff 1851 [=Beringiana beringiana; incl. B. compressa Sayenko & Bogatov 1998, B. chereshnevi Bogatov & Starobogatov 2001, B. derzhavini Bogatov & Starobogatov 2001, B. georginensis Bogatov & Starobogatov 2001, B. kamchatica Bogatov & Starobogatov 2001, B. youkanensis (Lea 1867)] G07

Anodonta cygnea (Linnaeus 1758) TW07 [=Mytilus cygneus G40, Anodon cygneus G40; incl. M. avonensis G40, Anodon cygneus var. avonensis G40, M. cellensis G40, Anodon cygneus var. cellensis G40, Anodonta cellensis PV06, Anodonta complanata G40, Anodon cygneus var. complanata G40, Anodonta compressa G40, Anodonta crassa Marks ms G40, Mytilus dentatus G40, M. incrassatus G40, Anodonta intermedia G40, M. maculatus G40, *Goniocypris mitra Brady & Robertson 1870 BB61, Anodon paludosus G40, Anodonta piscinalis G40, Anodon cygneus var. piscinalis G40, Anodonta ponderosa G40, Anodonta rhombea G40, Anodonta rostrata G40, Anodon cygneus var. rostrata G40, Mytilus stagnalis Gmelin 1791 G40, G07, Anodon cygneus var. stagnalis G40, Anodonta stagnalis G07, Anodonta sulcata G40, Anodonta ventricosa G40, Anodonta zellensis (Gmelin 1791) G07]

Anodonta cyrea Drouët 1881 [=Colletopterum (Piscinaliana) cyreum; incl. C. (P.) bactrianum (Rolle 1897), C. (P.) kokandicum Starobogatov & Izzatullaev 1984] G07

Anodonta woodiana japonica (von Martens 1874) [=Kunashiria japonica; incl. K. japonica boreosakhalinensis Labay & Shulga 1999, K. compressa (Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996), K. coptzevi (Zatravkin & Bogatov 1987), Anodonta haconensis von Ihering 1893, K. haconensis, K. iturupica Bogatov, Sayenko & Starobogatov 1999, K. iwakawai (Suzuki 1939), Amuranodonta sihotealinica Zatravkin & Starobogatov 1984, K. sinanodontoides Bogatov, Sayenko & Starobogatov 1999, K. taranetzi (Zhadin 1938), K. zarjaensis (Bogatov & Zatravkin 1988), K. zimini (Zatravkin & Bogatov 1987)] G07

Anodonta woodiana woodiana (Lea 1834) [incl. Sinanodonta amurensis Moskvicheva 1973, S. crassitesta Moskvicheva 1973, S. fukudai Modell 1947, S. gibba (Benson 1855), S. likharevi Moskvicheva 1973, S. (Ellipsanodon) manchurica Bogatov & Starobogatov 1996, S. orbicularis (Heude 1880), S. primorjensis Bogatov & Zatravkin 1988, S. puerorum (Heude 1880), S. schrencki Moskvicheva 1973] G07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A66a] Adams, H. 1866a. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and on the River Ucayali, eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 440–445.

[A66b] Adams, H. 1866b. Descriptions of six new species of shells, and note on Opisthostoma de-Crespignii. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 445–447.

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[D84] Davis, G. M. 1984. Genetic relationships among some North American Unionidae (Bivalvia): sibling species, convergence, and cladistic relationships. Malacologia 25 (2): 629–648.

[E96] Eertman, R. H. M. 1996. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland. Molluscan Research 17: 3–20.

[G07] Graf, D. L. 2007. Palaearctic freshwater mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida) diversity and the Comparatory Method as a species concept. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 156: 71–88.

[G40] Gray, J. E. 1840. A Manual of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of the British Islands, with figures of each of the kinds. By William Turton, M.D. A new edition, thoroughly revised and much enlarged. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans: London.

[JN90] Jirka, K. J., & R. J. Neves. 1990. Freshwater mussel fauna (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Nautilus 103 (4): 136–139.

[PF15] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. H. Ferriss. 1915. Mollusca of the southwestern states, VII: the Dragoon, Mule, Santa Rita, Baboquivari, and Tucson Ranges, Arizona. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 363–418, pls 8–15.

[PV06] Pimenova, E. A., & A. A. Varaksin. 2006. Putative nitroxidergic cells in the digestive system of some mytilids (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae) revealed by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Malacologia 49 (1): 61–77.

[R78] Reid, R. G. B. 1978. The systematic, adaptive and physiological significance of proteolytic enzyme distribution in bivalves. Veliger 20 (3): 260–265.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

[T59] Thomas, G. J. 1959. Self-fertilization and production of young in a sphaeriid clam. Nautilus 72 (4): 131–140.

[V16] Vanatta, E. G. 1916. Rafinesque's types of Unio. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 549–559.

Lespedeza

Lespedeza thunbergii, copyright BotBln.


Belongs within: Desmodieae.

Lespedeza, bush clovers, is a genus of leguminous herbs and shrubs found in eastern Asia and eastern North America.

Characters (from Flora of China): Subshrubs, shrubs, or perennial herbs. Leaves pinnately compound, 3-foliolate; stipule small, subulate or linear, persistent or caducous; stipels absent; leaflets entire. Racemes axillary or flowers fasciculate; bracts persistent, 2-flowered at each bract; bracteoles 2, often persistent; flowers often dimorphic, corollate or not (cleistogamous plants). Calyx campanulate; tube short; lobes 5, upper 2 often connate at base. Corolla exserted; standard oblong or obovate; wings oblong, straight, clawed, auriculate, connivent with keel; keel obtuse and incurved. Stamens 10, diadelphous (9+1), equal. Ovary superior, 1-ovuled; style incurved; stigma terminal. Legume ovoid, obovoid, or ellipsoidal, rarely slightly globose, lenticular, indehiscent, reticulate veined, 1-seeded.

<==Lespedeza
    |--L. bicolor AO88
    |--L. cuneata CP13
    |--L. formosa (Vogel) Koehne 1893 [=Desmodium formosum Vogel 1843] AO88
    |    |--L. f. ssp. formosa (see below for synonymy) AO88
    |    |--L. f. ssp. elliptica (Bentham) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 (see below for synonymy) AO88
    |    `--L. f. ssp. velutina (Nakai) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 [=L. bicolor var. velutina Nakai 1923] AO88
    |         |--L. f. ssp. v. var. velutina (see below for synonymy) AO88
    |         `--L. f. ssp. v. var. satsumensis (Nakai) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 (see below for synonymy) AO88
    |--L. japonica AO88
    |--L. nipponica AO88
    `--L. thunbergii [incl. L. racemosa, L. sieboldii] AO88

Lespedeza formosa ssp. formosa (Vogel) Koehne 1893 [=L. bicolor ssp. formosa (Vogel) Hsu, Li & Gu 1983; incl. L. hayatae Hatusima 1967, L. pubescens Hayata 1911, L. viatorum Champ. ex Bentham in Hooker 1852, L. wilfordii Ricker 1942] AO88

Lespedeza formosa ssp. elliptica (Bentham) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 [=L. elliptica Bentham ex Maximowicz 1873, L. bicolor ssp. elliptica (Bentham) Hsu, Li & Gu 1983] AO88

Lespedeza formosa ssp. velutina var. satsumensis (Nakai) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 [=L. satsumensis Nakai 1928, L. nipponica var. satsumensis (Nakai) Murata 1962, L. thunbergii var. satsumensis (Nakai) Ohwi 1965; incl. L. formosa var. australis Hatusima 1967, L. japonica var. australis (Hatusima) Murata 1978] AO88

Lespedeza formosa ssp. velutina var. velutina (Nakai) Akiyama & Ohba 1988 [incl. L. intermedia var. alba Nakai 1923, L. intermedia var. angustifolia Nakai 1923, L. japonica f. angustifolia (Nakai) Murata 1982, L. japonica var. angustifolia (Nakai) Nakai 1927, L. penduliflora var. albiflora f. angustifolia (Nakai) Ohwi 1953 (n. n.), L. thunbergii var. albiflora f. angustifolia (Nakai) Ohwi 1965, L. japonica var. gracilis Nakai 1927, L. intermedia Nakai 1923 non Britt. 1893, L. japonica var. intermedia (Nakai) Nakai 1927, L. kiusiana Nakai 1927, L. japonica var. retusa Nakai 1927, L. japonica var. spicata Nakai 1939, L. tetraloba Nakai 1939] AO88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AO88] Akiyama, S., & H. Ohba. 1988. Taxonomy of Lespedeza formosa (Vogel) Koehne. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 217–229.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

Desmodieae

Alyce clover Alysicarpus violaceus, copyright Vinayaraj.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.
Contains: Lespedeza, Desmodium.

The Desmodieae are a group of legumes characterised by the production of jointed indehiscent fruits and (1–)3-foliolate leaves with stipels.

<==Desmodieae CP13
    |--+--Campylotropis macrocarpa CP13
    |  `--+--Lespedeza CP13
    |     `--Kummerowia CP13
    |          |--K. stipulacea CP13
    |          `--K. striata MH98
    `--+--+--Phyllodium pulchellum CP13
       |  `--Tadehagi CP13
       |       |--T. robustum LK14
       |       `--T. triquetrum CP13
       `--+--Pseudarthria CP13
          |    |--P. hookeri CP13
          |    `--P. viscida SR07
          `--+--+--Desmodium CP13
             |  `--Uraria CP13
             |       |--U. alopecuroides P03
             |       |--U. crinita CP13
             |       |--U. lagopodioides LK14
             |       `--U. picta DP72
             `--Alysicarpus CP13
                  |--A. bupleurifolius P03
                  |--A. major LK14
                  |--A. monilifer PP07
                  |    |--A. m. var. monilifer PP07
                  |    `--A. m. var. venosa PP07
                  |--A. muelleri LK14
                  |--A. nummulariaefolius [=Hedysarum nummulariaefolium] C55
                  |--A. ovalifolius LK14
                  |--A. schomburgkii LK14
                  |--A. styracifolius SR07
                  |--A. suffructosus LK14
                  `--A. vaginalis CP13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1–110.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

Tephrosia

Wild indigo Tephrosia purpurea, copyright J. M. Garg.


Belongs within: Millettieae.

Tephrosia is a pantropical genus of herbaceous legumes with silky stems and often leaves.

Characters (from Flora of China): Herbs, perennial or rarely annual, often suffrutescent, usually sericeous. Stipules caducous. Leaves imparipinnate; stipels absent; leaflet blades opposite, abaxially often sericeous, secondary veins to ca. 30 on each side of midvein and closely parallel, margin entire. Pseudoracemes terminal or axillary, sometimes opposite a leaf; bracts usually caducous. Bracteoles absent. Corolla white, cream-colored, or mauve, occasionally orange or red; standard reflexed, suborbicular, outside villous or sericeous. Stamens monadel­phous; vexillary stamen somewhat distinct from other 9. Ovary sessile, with trichomes, with numerous ovules. Legume flat, occa­sionally inflated, dehiscent, apex often beaked; valves twisted. Seeds 5-16 per legume, oblong, ellipsoid, or occasionally globose; radicle folded.

Tephrosia [Tephrosieae]
    |--T. brachyodon LK14
    |--T. candida G17
    |--T. coriacea LK14
    |--T. crocea LK14
    |--T. flammea LK14
    |    |--T. f. var. flammea LK14
    |    `--T. f. var. monophylla LK14
    |--T. griseola CV06
    |--T. heckmanniana CP13
    |--T. hookeriana Wight & Arn. 1834 P06
    |--T. lasiochlaena LK14
    |--T. laxa LK14
    |    |--T. l. var. laxa LK14
    |    `--T. l. var. angustata LK14
    |--T. leptoclada LK14
    |--T. leptostachya P06
    |--T. oblongata LK14
    |--T. pallida CV06
    |--T. pentaphylla (Roxb.) Don in Sweet 1839 [=Galega pentaphylla Roxb. 1832] P06
    |--T. phaeosperma LK14
    |--T. piscatoria C55
    |--T. procera LK14
    |--T. pumila SR07
    |--T. purpurea P06
    |--T. remotiflora LK14
    |--T. rosea LK14
    |    |--T. r. var. rosea LK14
    |    `--T. r. var. clementii LK14
    |--T. simplicifolia LK14
    |--T. spechtii LK14
    |--T. stipuligera LK14
    |--T. strigosa PP07
    |--T. subpectinata LK14
    |--T. talpa BTA75
    |--T. uniflora PP07
    |    |--T. u. ssp. uniflora PP07
    |    `--T. u. ssp. petrosa PP07
    |--T. valleculata LK14
    `--T. virens LK14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59–71).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P06] Parmar, P. J. 2006. Additions to the flora of Gujarat from Mehsana and Kutch districts (N. Gujarat). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 191–196.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

Erythrininae

Cockspur coral tree Erythrina cristagalli, copyright Frank Vincentz.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.

The Erythrininae are a poorly defined grouping of legumes including the coral trees of the genus Erythrina.

<==Erythrininae CP13
    |--Otoptera burchellii CP13
    `--+--Psophocarpus CP13
       |    |--P. lancifolius CP13
       |    `--P. tetragonolobus P88
       `--Erythrina CP13
            |--E. arborescens D07
            |--E. breviflora F11
            |--E. cristagalli CP13
            |--E. decora CV06
            |--E. dominguezii F11
            |--E. fastigiata BMM99
            |--E. fusca HSS13
            |--E. indica SK02
            |--E. oliviae OB11
            |--E. poeppigiana F11
            |--E. tomentosa PB27
            `--E. vespertilio LK14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BMM99] Braun, U., J. Mouchacca & E. H. C. McKenzie. 1999. Cercosporoid hyphomycetes from New Caledonia and some other South Pacific islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 297–327.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SK02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408–412.

Cajaninae

Pigeon pea Cajanus cajan, copyright Tauʻolunga.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.

The Cajaninae are a group of legumes characterised by the production of distinctive secretory structures such as vesicular glands and/or bulbous-based trichomes.

<==Cajaninae CP13
    |--+--Eriosema CP13
    |  |    |--E. chinense LK14
    |  |    |--E. diffusum CP13
    |  |    `--E. harmsiana CV06
    |  `--Rhynchosia CP13
    |       |--R. australis LK14
    |       |--R. edulis CP13
    |       |--R. erythrinoides J87
    |       |--R. minima LK14
    |       `--R. rostrata LK14
    `--Cajanus CP13
         |--C. acutifolius LK14
         |--C. cajan CP13
         |--C. cinereus LK14
         |--C. confertiflorus B00
         |--C. geminatus LK14
         |--C. hirtopilosus LK14
         |--C. indicus R35
         |--C. lanceolatus LK14
         |--C. latisepalus LK14
         |--C. marmoratus LK14
         |--C. pubescens LK14
         |--C. reticulatus LK14
         |    |--C. r. var. reticulatus LK14
         |    `--C. r. var. grandiflorus LK14
         |--C. scarabaeoides LK14
         |    |--C. s. var. scarabaeoides LK14
         |    `--C. s. var. pedunculatus LK14
         `--C. viscidus LK14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

Caesalpinieae

Dwarf poinciana Caesalpinia pulcherrima, copyright Atamari.


Belongs within: Fabales.

The Caesalpinieae are a pantropical group of trees and climbers commonly bearing bipinnate leaves.

Characters (from Flora of China): Leaves bipinnate or rarely pinnate. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Receptacle discoid. Sepals (3-)5(or 6), inserted on margin of receptacle, often unequal, lowest larger, on outside, hooded or navicular. Petals usually 5, rarely 4, slightly unequal. Stamens (4-)10(-20), free, subequal; anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, opening by lateral slits. Ovary or ovary stipe inserted at base of receptacle; ovules 2 to numerous, rarely 1.

<==Caesalpinieae WL09
    |--Cenostigma Tulasne 1843 WL09
    |    |--C. macrophyllum Tulasne 1843 [incl. C. angustifolium Tulasne 1843, C. gardnerianum Tulasne 1843] WL09
    |    `--C. tocantinum Ducke 1915 WL09
    `--Caesalpinia WL09
         |--C. bonduc J07
         |--C. crista B00
         |--C. decapetala H06
         |--C. ferrea B00
         |--C. gilliesii [=Poinciana gilliesii] H93
         |--C. major SR07
         |--C. marginata [incl. Cenostigma sclerophyllum Malme 1900] WL09
         |--C. merxmuellerana CV06
         |--C. mexicana B00
         |--C. oppositifolia H03
         |--C. pacifica (Knowlton) Brown 1956 [=Quercus pacifica Knowlton 1900] B56
         |--C. pearsonii CV06
         |--C. pecorae Brown 1956 B56
         |--C. praecox O06
         |--C. pulcherrima VHK02
         |--C. sappan K03
         |--C. sepiaria J87
         |--C. spinosa OA02
         `--C. virgata [incl. Hoffmannseggia microphylla] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B56] Brown, R. W. 1956. New items in Cretaceous and Tertiary floras of the western United States. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (4): 104–108.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J07] Jadhav, D. 2007. Ethno-medicinal plants used by Bhil tribe of Matrunda, district Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 203–206.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[OA02] Ochoa, J. A., & L. E. Acosta. 2002. Orobothriurus atiquipa, a new bothriurid species (Scorpiones) from Lomas in southern Peru. Journal of Arachnology 30: 98–103.

[O06] Outes, F. F. 1906. Instrumentos y armas neolíticos de Cochicó (Provincia de Mendoza). Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 277–286.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

[WL09] Warwick, M. C., & G. P. Lewis. 2009. A revision of Cenostigma (Leguminosae—Caesalpinioideae—Caesalpinieae), a genus endemic to Brazil. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 135–146.

Cotoneaster

Wall cotoneaster Cotoneaster horizontalis, copyright Peganum.


Belongs within: Rosales.

Cotoneaster is a Palaearctic genus of trees and (more commonly) shrubs bearing usually red fruits (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Shrub or tree, unarmed. Leaves stipuled, petioled, subevergreen, entire. Flowers solitary or clustered at branch tips. Bractlets on hypanthium absent; sepals persistent; stamens about 20; ovary inferior, 2-5-chambered, styles 2-5, free. Fruit a pome, drupe-like.

<==Cotoneaster
    |--C. adpressus O88
    |--C. congestus O88
    |--C. duthieanus O88
    |--C. franchetii H06
    |--C. glaucophyllus H90
    |--C. horizontalis NPA01
    |--C. integerrimus Medikus 1793 (see below for synonymy) TR03
    |--C. ludlowii O88
    |--C. mathonnetii Gandoger 1875 TR03
    |--C. microphyllus O88
    |--C. obtusus V09
    |--C. pannosa H93
    |--C. rotundifolius H90
    |--C. sanguineus O88
    |--C. sherriffii O88
    |--C. simonsii H59
    |--C. tomentosa C55
    `--C. zayulensis O88

Cotoneaster integerrimus Medikus 1793 [=Mespilus cotoneaster Linnaeus 1753, C. vulgaris Lindley 1822; incl. C. scandinavicus Hylmö 1993] TR03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113–118.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[NPA01] Nuzzaci, G., A. Di Palma & P. Aldini. 2001. Functional morphology and fine structure of the female genital system in Typhlodromus spp. (Acari: Phytoseiidae). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 196–202. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[TR03] Thulin, M., & S. Ryman. 2003. Proposal to conserve the name Mespilus cotoneaster (Rosaceae) with a conserved type. Taxon 52: 371–372.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

Potentilla

Creeping cinquefoil Potentilla reptans, copyright Olivier Pichard.


Belongs within: Roperculina.
Contains: Horkelia, Ivesia.

Potentilla, cinquefoils, is a northern temperate genus of herbs and shrubs with usually yellow flowers (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual to shrub; odor resinous or absent. Leaves generally basal, odd-1-pinnate to 1-palmate or 1-ternate; leaflets more or less toothed or lobed, terminal generally more or less equal to lateral. Inflorescence a cyme, generally more or less open; pedicels generally more or less straight. Flower with hypanthium more or less shallow; bractlets 5; sepals generally 5, more or less triangular; petals generally 5, generally the same size as or larger than sepals, generally more or less widely obcordate, generally yellow; stamens generally 20; pistils generally many, styles generally jointed near tip. Fruit an achene.

<==Potentilla Linnaeus 1753 A61 [incl. Duchesnea EH03]
    |--+--P. anserina EH03
    |  |    |--P. a. ssp. anserina [incl. P. anserina var. sericea] H93
    |  |    `--P. a. ssp. pacifica [incl. P. egedii var. grandis] H93
    |  `--+--P. peduncularis EH03
    |     `--P. stenophylla EH03
    `--+--P. micrantha EH03
       `--+--+--*P. reptans EH03
          |  `--P. indica [=Duchesnea indica] EH03
          `--+--P. dickinsii EH03
             |--P. fragarioides EH03
             `--+--+--P. chinensis EH03
                |  |--P. multifida EH03
                |  `--P. nivea EH03
                `--+--P. norvegica EH03 [incl. P. norvegica ssp. monspeliensis H93]
                   `--+--Horkelia EH03
                      `--Ivesia EH03

Potentilla incertae sedis:
  P. adenophylla H03
  P. anglica H93
  P. anserinoides Raoul 1844 [=P. anserina var. anserinoides (Raoul) Hooker 1852] A61
  P. argentea BT72
  P. argyrophylla O88
    |--P. a. var. argyrophylla O88
    `--P. a. var. atrosanguinea O88
  P. biennis H93
  P. biflora O88
  P. borneensis H03
  P. brassii H03
  P. caliginosa O88
  P. caulescens PS98
  P. concinna [incl. P. beanii, P. concinna var. divisa] H93
  P. coriandrifolia O88
  P. cristae H93
  P. cuneata O88
  P. diversifolia [incl. P. glaucophylla] H93
  P. drummondii H93
    |--P. d. ssp. drummondii H93
    |--P. d. ssp. breweri [incl. P. millefolia var. algida] H93
    `--P. d. ssp. bruceae H93
  P. erecta EH03
  P. eriocarpa O88
  P. exigua O88
  P. flabellifolia H93
  P. forrestii O88
    |--P. f. var. forrestii O88
    `--P. f. var. caespitosa O88
  P. frigida C55a
  P. fulgens O88
  P. glandulosa D51
    |--P. g. ssp. glandulosa [incl. P. glandulosa ssp. typica] H93
    |--P. g. ssp. ashlandica [incl. P. glandulosa var. austiniae] H93
    |--P. g. ssp. ewanii H93
    |--P. g. ssp. globosa [incl. P. rhomboidea] H93
    |--P. g. ssp. hansenii H93
    |--P. g. ssp. nevadensis H93
    |--P. g. ssp. pseudorupestris H93
    `--P. g. ssp. reflexa H93
  P. gracilis H93
    |--P. g. var. gracilis H93
    |--P. g. var. elmeri [incl. P. flabelliformis var. inyoensis, P. pectinisecta] H93
    |--P. g. var. fastigiata (see below for synonymy) H93
    |--P. g. var. flabelliformis H93
    `--P. g. var. pulcherrima H93
  P. grayi [=P. flabellifolia var. grayi] H93
  P. heptaphylla S96
  P. hickmanii H93
  P. microphylla O88
    |--P. m. var. microphylla O88
    |--P. m. var. achilleifolia O88
    `--P. m. var. commutata O88
  P. millefolia [incl. P. millefolia var. klamathensis] H93
  P. monanthes O88
  P. morefieldii H93
  P. multijuga H93
  P. newberryi H93
  P. pennsylvanica C55b [incl. P. pensylvanica var. strigosa H93]
  P. polyphylla O88
  P. pusilla S96
  P. recta W69
  P. rimicola [=P. wheeleri var. rimicola] H93
  P. rivalis [incl. P. rivalis var. millegrana] H93
  P. saundersiana O88
  P. supina VB02
  P. wheeleri H93

Potentilla gracilis var. fastigiata [incl. P. gracilis var. glabrata, P. gracilis ssp. nuttallii, P. gracilis var. permollis] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[EH03] Eriksson, T., M. S. Hibbs, A. D. Yoder, C. F. Delwiche & M. J. Donoghue. 2003. The phylogeny of Rosoideae (Rosaceae) based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the trnL/F region of chloroplast DNA. International Journal of Plant Science 164 (2): 197–211.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PS98] Prosser, F., & S. Scortegagna. 1998. Primula recubariensis, a new species of Primula sect. Auricula Duby endemic to the SE Prealps, Italy. Willdenowia 28: 27–46.

[S96] Schatz, H. 1996. Oribatid mites (Oribatida) in alpine dry meadows (Austria, central Alps). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 633–635. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

[W69] Wiens, J. A. 1969. An approach to the study of ecological relationships among grassland birds. Ornithological Monographs 8: 1–93.

Ziziphus

Jujube Ziziphus jujuba, copyright Zeynel Cebeci.


Belongs within: Rhamnaceae.

Ziziphus is a mostly tropical group of trees, shrubs and vines of which some species are cultivated for their edible fruits.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Tree, shrub, vine. Branches alternate, flexible, sometimes 2-3-ranked; twigs thorn-tipped. Leaves in part clustered on short shoots, deciduous or evergreen, petioled; stipules sometimes unequal spines; blade ovate to oblong, 1-3-ribbed from base, more or less entire to serrate. Inflorescence a cyme or small panicle. Flower with hypanthium surrounding base of wary; sepals 5; petals 5, < or = sepals; stamens 5; wary broadly attached at base, chambers 2, each 1-ovuled, styles 2. Fruit a drupe, stone 1.

<==Ziziphus P06
    |--Z. amole SK93
    |--Z. angustifolius (Miq.) Hatus 1960 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |--Z. borneensis SK93
    |--Z. calophylla SK93
    |--Z. glabrata SK93
    |--Z. guaranitica SK93
    |--Z. heguertii SK93
    |--Z. helvola SK93
    |--Z. inermis SK93
    |--Z. joazeiro SK93
    |--Z. jujuba D01 [incl. Z. vulgaris LO98]
    |--Z. lenticellata SK93
    |--Z. lotus SK93
    |--Z. lycioides MF68
    |--Z. mauritiana P06
    |    |--Z. m. var. mauritiana P06
    |    `--Z. m. var. pubescens Bhandari & Bhansai 1990 P06
    |--Z. melastomoides SK93
    |--Z. mucronata SK93
    |--Z. nummularia PP07
    |--Z. obtusifolia H93
    |    |--Z. o. var. obtusifolia H93
    |    `--Z. o. var. canescens [=Condalia lycioides var. canescens] H93
    |--Z. oenoplia SK93
    |--Z. oxyphylla P03
    |--Z. parryi [=Condalia parryi] H93
    |--Z. pseudojoazeiro SK93
    |--Z. quadrilocularis LK14
    |--Z. rhodoxylon SK93
    |--Z. rugosa SK93
    |--Z. spina-christi AGF98
    |--Z. talanai SK93
    |--Z. thyrsiflorus SK93
    |--Z. xylopyrus SK93
    `--Z. zeyheriana SK93

Ziziphus angustifolius (Miq.) Hatus 1960 [=Solenostigma angustifolium Miq. 1861, Celtis angustifolia (Miq.) Planch. in DC. 1873 non Lindl. ex Wall. 1831; incl. Celtis grewioides Warb. 1891] S77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[D01] Doweld, A. B. 2001. The systematic relevance of fruit and seed structure in Bersama and Melianthus (Melianthaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 227: 75–103.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MF68] Moran, R., & R. Felger. 1968. Castela polyandra, a new species in a new section; union of Holacantha with Castela (Simaroubaceae). Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 15 (4): 31–40.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P06] Parmar, P. J. 2006. Additions to the flora of Gujarat from Mehsana and Kutch districts (N. Gujarat). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 191–196.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[SK93] Schirarend, C., & E. Köhler. 1993. Rhamnaceae Juss. World Pollen and Spore Flora 17/18: 1–53.

[S77] Soepadmo, E. 1977. Ulmaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 31–76.

Gouania

Chewstick Gouania lupuloides, copyright Dick Culbert.


Belongs within: Rhamnaceae.

Gouania is a genus of shrubs and lianas found in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas.

Characters (from Flora of Zimbabwe): Climbing shrubs or lianes; branches with coiled tendrils. Leaves alternate. Inflorescence a thyrse. Flowers usually bisexual, 5-merous. Petals 5, hooded. Stamens 5. Disk 5-lobed. Ovary inferior. Fruit a 3-winged schizocarp, separating into 3 cocci.

<==Gouania
    |--G. andamanica SK93
    |--G. colombiana SK93
    |--G. domingensis C55
    |--G. laxiflora SK93
    |--G. leratii SK93
    |--G. longipetala SK93
    |--G. longispicata SK93
    |--G. lupuloides SK93
    |--G. mauritiana SK93
    |--G. microcarpa SK93
    |--G. polygama SK93
    |--G. pyrifolia SK93
    |--G. sericea SK93
    |--G. ulmifolia SK93
    `--G. urticaefolia SK93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[SK93] Schirarend, C., & E. Köhler. 1993. Rhamnaceae Juss. World Pollen and Spore Flora 17/18: 1–53.

Rhamnus

California buckthorn Rhamnus californica, copyright Brofri.


Belongs within: Rhamnaceae.

Rhamnus, buckthorns, is a genus of shrubs and small trees found primarily in temperate regions with a smaller number of tropical species (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Shrub, small tree. Stem with branches alternate, flexible; twigs sometimes thorn-tipped. Leaves sometimes clustered on short shoots, deciduous or evergreen, petioled; stipules deciduous; blade 1-ribbed from base, entire or not. Inflorescence and umbel or flowers solitary, axillary. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, gen >3 mm; hypanthium at base fused to, developing around ovary in fruit, above base deciduous; sepals 4 or 5; petals 0, 4, or 5; stamens 4 or 5; ovary appearing partly inferior, chambers 2-4, each 1-2-ovuled, style lobes 2-4. Fruit a drupe, 2-4-stoned.

<==Rhamnus
    |--R. sect. Rhamnus H93
    |    |--R. alnifolia H93
    |    |--R. crocea H93
    |    |--R. ilicifolia [=R. crocea ssp. ilicifolia] H93
    |    |--R. pilosa [=R. crocea ssp. pilosa] H93
    |    `--R. pirifolia [=R. crocea ssp. pirifolia] H93
    `--R. sect. Frangula H93
         |--‘Frangula’ alnus F05
         |--R. californica RJ11 [=Frangula californica SK93]
         |    |--R. c. var. californica H93
         |    `--R. c. var. occidentalis H93
         |--‘Frangula’ palmeri SK93
         |--‘Frangula’ polymorpha SK93
         |--R. purshiana H93 [=Frangula purshiana SK93; incl. R. purshiana var. annonifolia H93]
         |--R. rubra (see below for synonymy) H93
         |--‘Frangula’ sphaerosperma SK93
         `--R. tomentella H93
              |--R. t. ssp. tomentella [=R. californica ssp. tomentella] H93
              |--R. t. ssp. crassifolia [=R. californica ssp. crassifolia] H93
              |--R. t. ssp. cuspidata [=R. californica ssp. cuspidata] H93
              `--R. t. ssp. ursina [=R. californica ssp. ursina] H93

Rhamnus incertae sedis:
  R. alaternus SK93
  R. alpina SK93
  R. brandonensis CBH93
  R. carniolica SK93
  R. catharticus D01
  R. crenulata SK93
  R. fallax SK93
  R. frangula C55
  R. glandulosa SK93
  R. integrifolia SK93
  R. lanceolata SK93
  R. lojaconoi R-CT01
  R. myrtifolia SK93
  R. nepalensis BB07
  R. prinoides SK93
  R. pumila SK93
  R. saxatilis SK93
  R. sphaerosperma J87
  R. tinctoria SK93

Rhamnus rubra [incl. R. rubra ssp. modocensis, R. rubra ssp. nevadensis, R. rubra ssp. obtusissima, R. rubra ssp. yosemitana] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K., & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 121–154.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D01] Doweld, A. B. 2001. The systematic relevance of fruit and seed structure in Bersama and Melianthus (Melianthaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 227: 75–103.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SK93] Schirarend, C., & E. Köhler. 1993. Rhamnaceae Juss. World Pollen and Spore Flora 17/18: 1–53.

Reynosia

Darling plum Reynosia septentrionalis, from the Leon Levy National Plant Preserve.


Belongs within: Rhamnaceae.

Reynosia is a genus of shrubs and small trees found in the West Indies and adjoining regions of North and Central America.

Characters (from Flora of North America): Shrubs or small trees, unarmed; bud scales present. Leaves persistent, opposite; blade not gland-dotted; pinnately veined, secondary veins straight nearly to margins, higher order veins forming adaxially raised reticulum enclosing isodiametric areoles. Inflorescences axillary, fascicles or flowers solitary; pedicels not fleshy in fruit. Pedicels present. Flowers bisexual; hypanthium cupulate, 2–4 mm wide; sepals [4–]5, spreading, yellow-green, triangular-ovate, small-keeled adaxially, not crested; petals 0[4–5]; nectary fleshy, filling hypanthium, margin entire; stamens 5; ovary superior, 2-locular; style 1. Fruits drupes, 10–20 mm; stone 1, indehiscent.

<==Reynosia
    |--R. affinis SK93
    |--R. barbatula SK93
    |--R. cuneifolia SK93
    |--R. domingensis SK93
    |--R. guama SK93
    |--R. jamaicensis SK93
    |--R. krugii SK93
    |--R. retusa SK93
    |--R. revoluta SK93
    |--R. septentrionalis SK93
    |--R. uncinata SK93
    `--R. wrightii SK93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[SK93] Schirarend, C., & E. Köhler. 1993. Rhamnaceae Juss. World Pollen and Spore Flora 17/18: 1–53.

Pomaderris

Pomaderris vellea, copyright Melburnian.


Belongs within: Rhamnaceae.

Pomaderris is a genus of hairy shrubs and small trees found in Australia and New Zealand.

Characters (from Harden 1990): Shrubs or occasionally small trees; young stems, lower surface of leaves and inflorescences more or less tomentose, hairs generally stellate or mixed with, or concealed by, longer simple hairs. Leaves simple, alternate, petiolate; stipules brown, scarious, usually shed early. Flowers usually yellow or sometimes whitish, mostly c. 2 mm long, clustered in small cymes mostly grouped into terminal panicles or corymbs, sometimes in head-like clusters; bracts surrounding buds usually shed early. Hypanthium fused to ovary and disc. Sepals 5, often reflexed. Petals absent or 5 and often falling early, not enclosing the stamens. Stamens 5; filaments usually long and incurved. Disc annular, surrounding the base of the ovary. Ovary more or less half-inferior. Capsule septicidal, generally fused for about half its length to hypanthium; separating into 3 mericarps that open on inner face. Mostly flowering in spring, with buds apparent for many months before flowers open.

<==Pomaderris Labill. 1804 A61
    |--P. andromedifolia B00
    |--P. angustifolia H90
    |--P. apetala Labill. 1804 [incl. P. mollis Col. 1893, P. tainui Hector 1879] A61
    |--P. argyrophylla H90
    |--P. aspera Sieb. ex DC. 1825 A61
    |--P. banksii Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |--P. betulina SK93
    |--P. brogoensis H90
    |--P. cotoneaster B00
    |--P. brunnea H90
    |--P. cinerea H90
    |--P. cocoparrana H90
    |--P. costata H90
    |--P. cotoneaster H90
    |--P. discolor DC. 1825 A61
    |--P. edgerleyi Hooker 1864 L97, A61 [=P. prunifolia var. edgerleyi (Hooker) Moore in Allan 1961 A61]
    |--P. elachophylla H90
    |--P. elliptica SK93 [incl. P. multiflora Sieb. ex DC. 1825 H90, A61]
    |--P. eriocephala H90
    |--P. ferruginea SK93
    |--P. gilmourii H90
    |    |--P. g. var. gilmourii H90
    |    `--P. g. var. cana H90
    |--P. hamiltonii Moore in Allan 1961 A61
    |--P. helianthemifolia H90
    |--P. intermedia Sieb. ex DC. 1825 A61
    |--P. kumeraho Cunn. 1839 A61
    |--P. lanigera B00
    |--P. ledifolia H90
    |--P. ligustrina SK93
    |--P. nitidula H90
    |--P. notata H90
    |--P. oraria Muell. 1858 [=P. ovaria] A61
    |--P. pallida H90
    |--P. paniculosa L97
    |    |--P. p. var. paniculosa L97
    |    `--P. p. var. novae-zelandiae L97 [=P. oraria var. novae-zelandiae Moore in Allan 1961 A61]
    |--P. parrisiae H90
    |--P. pauciflora H90
    |--P. phylicifolia Lodd. ex Link 1821 A61
    |    |--P. p. var. phylicifolia A61
    |    |--P. p. var. ericifolia (Hook.) Moore in Allan 1961 [=P. ericifolia Hook. 1834; incl. P. amoena Col. 1886] A61
    |    |--P. p. var. ericoides H90
    |    `--P. p. var. polifolia (Reiss. & Muell.) Moore in Allan 1961 [=P. polifolia Reiss. & Muell. 1858] A61
    |--P. prunifolia Cunn. ex Fenzl 1837 A61
    |--P. queenslandica H90
    |--P. rugosa Cheesem. 1925 A61
    |--P. sericea H90
    |--P. sieberiana Wakefield 1951 A61
    |--P. subcapitata H90
    |--P. vellea H90
    |--P. velutina H90
    `--P. virgata H90

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[L97] Lange, P. J. de. 1997. Hebe brevifolia (Scrophulariaceae)—an ultramafic endemic of the Surville Cliffs, North Cape, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 35: 1–8.

[SK93] Schirarend, C., & E. Köhler. 1993. Rhamnaceae Juss. World Pollen and Spore Flora 17/18: 1–53.

Ceanothus

Littleleaf ceanothus Ceanothus parvifolius, copyright Dcrjsr.


Belongs within: Rhamnaceae.

Ceanothus, California lilac, is a North American genus of shrubs and small trees with showy flowers (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Shrub, small tree, prostrate to erect, thorny or not. Stem with branches generally arranged as leaves. Leaves alternate or opposite, deciduous or evergreen, petioled; blade 1-3-ribbed from base, margin entire or not. Inflorescence generally panicle-like aggregations of umbel-like 3-flowered clusters. Flower generally >5 mm; hypanthium surrounding fleshy disk below ovary base, in fruit thick, not splitting; sepals generally 5, lanceolate-deltate, incurved, colored like petals, persistent; petals generally 5, hooded, white to deep blue; stamens generally 5, opposite petals; ovary superior, 3-lobed. chambers 3, each 1-ovuled, style parts 3. Fruit a capsule, more or less spheric, 3-valved. SEEDS 3, approximately 3 mm, one surface convex.

<==Ceanothus
    |--C. americanus SK93
    |--C. arboreus [incl. C. arboreus var. glabra] H93
    |--C. azureus SK93
    |--C. buxifolius SK93
    |--C. confusus [=C. divergens ssp. confusus] H93
    |--C. cordulatus RJ11
    |--C. crassifolius [incl. C. crassifolius var. planus] H93
    |--C. cuneatus SK93
    |    |--C. c. var. cuneatus [incl. C. cuneatus var. dubius, C. cuneatus var. submontanus] H93
    |    |--C. c. var. fascicularis H93
    |    `--C. c. var. rigidus [incl. C. rigidus var. albus] H93
    |--C. cyaneus H93
    |--C. dentatus [incl. C. dentatus var. floribundus] H93
    |--C. divaricatus SK93
    |--C. divergens H93
    |--C. diversifolius H93
    |--C. fendleri SK93
    |--C. ferrisae H93
    |--C. foliosus H93
    |    |--C. f. var. foliosus H93
    |    |--C. f. var. medius H93
    |    `--C. f. var. vineatus H93
    |--C. fresnensis H93
    |--C. gloriosus H93
    |    |--C. g. var. gloriosus H93
    |    |--C. g. var. exaltatus H93
    |    `--C. g. var. porrectus H93
    |--C. greggii RJ11
    |    |--C. g. var. greggii H93
    |    |--C. g. var. perplexans H93
    |    `--C. g. var. vestitus H93
    |--C. griseus [incl. C. griseus var. horizontalis] H93
    |--C. hearstiorum H93
    |--C. impressus [incl. C. impressus va. nipomensis] H93
    |--C. incanus H93
    |--C. integerrimus [incl. C. i. var. californicus, C. i. var. macrothyrsus, C. i. var. puberulus] H93
    |--C. jepsonii H93
    |    |--C. j. var. jepsonii H93
    |    `--C. j. var. albiflorus H93
    |--C. lemmonii H93
    |--C. leucodermis NT01
    |--C. × lorenzenii H93
    |--C. maritimus H93
    |--C. masonii H93
    |--C. megacarpus H93
    |    |--C. m. var. megacarpus [incl. C. megacarpus var. pendulus] H93
    |    `--C. m. var. insularis H93
    |--C. microphyllus SK93
    |--C. oliganthus [incl. C. oliganthus var. orcuttii] H93
    |--C. ophiochilus H93
    |--C. × otayensis H93
    |--C. palmeri H93
    |--C. papillosus H93
    |    |--C. p. var. papillosus H93
    |    `--C. p. var. roweanus H93
    |--C. parryi H93
    |--C. parvifolius H93
    |--C. pinetorum H93
    |--C. prostratus [incl. C. prostratus var. laxus, C. prostratus var. occidentalis] H93
    |--C. pumilus H93
    |--C. purpureus H93
    |--C. roderickii H93
    |--C. sanguineus SK93
    |--C. sonomensis H93
    |--C. sorediatus SK93 [=C. oliganthus var. sorediatus H93]
    |--C. spinosus H93
    |--C. thyrsiflorus [incl. C. thyrsiflorus var. repens] H93
    |--C. tomentosus [incl. C. tomentosus var. olivaceous] H93
    |--C. velutinus H93
    |    |--C. v. var. velutinus H93
    |    `--C. v. var. hookeri H93
    `--C. verrucosus H93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[NT01] Newton, A. F., M. K. Thayer, J. S. Ashe & D. S. Chandler. 2001. Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 272–418. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SK93] Schirarend, C., & E. Köhler. 1993. Rhamnaceae Juss. World Pollen and Spore Flora 17/18: 1–53.