Galumna

Galumna sp., copyright Dann Thombs.


Belongs within: Galumnoidea.

Galumna is a cosmopolitan genus of over 200 species of oribatid mites with well-developed pteromorphs. The majority of species are included in the subgenus Galumna in which line L on the prodorsum (corresponding to the position of the lamellae in other oribatids) is more or less arched, with the lamellar setae positioned far from the end of line L. Members of the subgenera Erogalumna and Indogalumna have dense longitudinal lines on the notogaster (Balogh & Balogh 1992). In the subgenus Cosmogalumna, the notogaster is ornamented in a reticulate pattern.

Characters (from Balogh & Balogh 1992): Lamellar setae originating laterad to line L. Notogaster with areae porosae, ten pairs of setae. Pteromorphae with one seta.

Galumna Heyden 1826 S04
    |  i. s.: G. clericata (Berlese 1915) S07
    |         G. formicarius NB-P09
    |         G. longipluma Berlese 1904 H07
    |         G. tenuiclavus G33
    |--G. (Galumna) [incl. Holokalumma Jacot 1929, Holozetes Jacot 1929, Zetes Koch 1836] S04
    |    |--*G. (G.) alata (Hermann 1804) S04 [=Notaspis alatus S04, Oribates alatus CF77, Zetes alatus CF77]
    |    |    |--G. a. alata (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    |    `--G. a. multiiterata Subías 2004 [=Galumna maxima Willmann 1939 non Oribata maxima Berlese 1916] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) aba Mahunka 1989 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) aegyptica Abdel-Hamid, Al-Assiuty & Trrad 1982 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) agueroi Balogh 1997 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) ambigua Wallwork 1977 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) angularis Jeleva, Scull & Cruz 1984 [incl. G. hamifer Mahunka 1985] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) ankaratra Mahunka 1997 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) antalata Banks 1916 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) appressala (Ewing 1910) (n. d.) [=Oribata appressala] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) arabica Bayoumi & Al-Khalifa 1984 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) araujoi Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1994 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) armatifera Mahunka 1996 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) arrugata Jeleva, Scull & Cruz 1984 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) atomaria (Berlese 1914) [=Oribata atomaria] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) australis (Berlese 1914) [=Oribata australis] S04
    |    |    |--G. a. australis S04
    |    |    `--G. a. pembertoni (Jacot 1934) [=Zetes pembertoni] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) azoreana Pérez-Íñigo 1992 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) baloghi Wallwork 1965 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) banksi Jacot 1929 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) barnardi (Jacot 1940) [=Holozetes barnardi] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) basilewskyi Balogh 1962 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) berlesei Oudemans 1919 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) betzaida Mahunka 1992 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) bimorpha Mahunka 1987 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) bradleyi (Jacot 1935) [=Zetes bradleyi] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) brasiliensis Sellnick 1923 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) californica (Hall 1911) [=Oribata alata californica] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) calva Starý 1997 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) capensis Engelbrecht 1969 S04
    |    |    |--G. c. capensis S04
    |    |    `--G. c. dissimilis Engelbrecht 1969 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) castanea (Canestrini 1898) (n. d.) [=Oribata castanea] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) changchuneis Wen 1987 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) chujoi Aoki 1966 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) circularis Hammer 1958 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) cirripilis (Canestrini 1898) (n. d.) [=Oribata cirripilis] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) coloradensis (Jacot 1929) S04 [=*Holokalumma coloradensis BB92]
    |    |--G. (G.) colossus Oudemans 1915 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) comparabilis Engelbrecht 1972 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) coreana Choi 1986 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) coronata Mahunka 1992 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) costata Mahunka 1978 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) crenata Deb & Raychaudhuri 1975 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) cubana Jeleva, Scull & Cruz 1984 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) cuneata Aoki 1961 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) delectum Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1996 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) difficilis (Berlese 1916) (n. d.) [=Oribata difficilis] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) dimidiata Engelbrecht 1969 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) dimorpha Krivolutskaja 1952 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) discifera Balogh 1960 [incl. G. engelbrechti Balogh & Balogh 2002 non Mahunka 1997] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) dispar Willmann 1931 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) divergens Mahunka 1995 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) dorsalis (Koch 1835) (n. d.) [=Zetes dorsalis] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) dubia Mihelčič 1953 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) egregia Sellnick 1923 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) elegantula (Jacot 1935) [=Zetes elegantulus] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) elimata (Koch 1841) [=Oribata elimata] S04
    |    |    |--G. e. elimata (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    |    `--G. e. sinensis Jacot 1922 [=G. obvia sinensis] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) engelbrechti Mahunka 1997 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) euaensis Hammer 1973 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) europaea (Berlese 1914) [=Oribata emarginatus europaea] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) exigua Sellnick 1925 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) fijiensis Hammer 1973 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) flabellifera Hammer 1958 S04
    |    |    |--G. f. flabellifera [incl. Pergalumna pyri Elbadry & Nasr 1975] S04
    |    |    `--G. f. orientalis Aoki 1965 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) flagellata Willmann 1925 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) floridae (Jacot 1929) [=Holokalumma floridae] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) fordi (Jacot 1934) [=Zetes fordi] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) gharbiensis Bayoumi, Al-Assiuty et al. 1983 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) gibbula Grandjean 1956 [=G. tarsipennata gibbula] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) glabra Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1991 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) globuloides (Tafner 1905) (n. d.) [=Oribata globuloides] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) granalata Aoki 1984 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) grandjeani Balogh 1962 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) hammerae Balogh 1985 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) heros (Canestrini 1897) (n. d.) [=Oribata heros] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) hexagona Balogh 1960 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) homodactyla (Karpelles 1893) (n. d.) [=Oribata homodactyla] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) hudsoni Hammer 1952 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) humida (Hall 1911) [=Oribata humida] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) ‘imperfecta’ Hammer 1972 non Banks 1906 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) incerta Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1991 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) incisa Mahunka 1982 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) innexa Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1986 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) iranensis Mahunka 2001 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) irazu Balogh 1997 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) iterata Subías 2004 (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    |--G. (G.) ithacensis (Jacot 1929) [=Zetes ithacensis] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) jacoti Wharton 1938 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) karajica Mahunka 2001 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) kazakhstani Krivolutskaja 1952 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) khoii Mahunka 1989 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) lanceata (Oudemans 1900) (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    |--G. (G.) laselvae Balogh 1997 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) longiclava Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1991 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) longiporosa Fujikawa 1972 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) louisianae (Jacot 1929) [=Zetes louisianae; incl. G. confusa Woodring 1965] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) lunaris Jeleva, Scull & Cruz 1984 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) lyrica (Jacot 1935) [=Holokalumma lyrica] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) macroptera (Ewing 1909) [=Oribata macroptera] S04
    |    |    |--G. m. macroptera S04
    |    |    `--G. m. matecumbei (Jacot 1935) [=Zetes matecumbei] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) major (Pearce 1906) [=Oribata alata major] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) mariae Balogh 1961 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) mauritii Mahunka 1978 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) ‘maxima’ (Berlese 1916) (n. d.) [=Oribata maxima non Ewing 1908] S04
    |    |    |--G. m. maxima S04
    |    |    |--G. m. lawrencei Jacot 1940 S04
    |    |    `--G. m. natalensis Jacot 1940 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) media (Berlese 1914) [=Oribata media] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) microfissum Hammer 1968 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) minuta (Ewing 1909) [=Oribata minuta] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) mollis Kunst 1958 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) monteithi Balogh & Mahunka 1978 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) monticola Hammer 1977 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) mystax Pérez-Íñigo & Pérez-Íñigo 1993 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) nigra (Ewing 1909) [=Oribata nigra] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) nilgiria (Ewing 1910) [=Oribata nilgiria] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) niliaca Al-Assiuty, Abdel-Hamid et al. 1985 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) nodula Nevin 1974 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) nonoensis Balogh 1988 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) nuda Engelbrecht 1972 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) obvia (Berlese 1914) SK10, S04 [=Oribata obvius S04]
    |    |--G. (G.) ‘ovata’ (Berlese 1916) (n. d.) [=Oribata ovata non Koch 1839] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) pallida Hammer 1958 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) parascaber Deb & Raychaudhuri 1975 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) parva Woodring 1965 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) parviporosa Balogh & Balogh 1983 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) perezi Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1994 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) planiclava Hammer 1973 S04
    |    |    |--G. p. planiclava S04
    |    |    `--G. p. ishigakiensis Aoki 1982 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) polyporus Mihelčič 1952 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) pusilla Sellnick 1923 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) reiterata Subías 2004 [=G. longiporosa Choi 1986 non Fujikawa 1972] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) reticulata Hammer 1958 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) rossica Sellnick 1926 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) rostrata Sellnick 1922 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) rugosa Hammer 1968 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) sabahna Mahunka 1995 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) saboori Mahunka 2001 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) samoaensis Jacot 1924 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) scaber Hammer 1968 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) sequoiae (Jacot 1929) [=Zetes sequoiae] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) setigera Mihelčič 1956 (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    |--G. (G.) similis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1980 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) sinuofrons Jacot 1922 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) strinovichi Balogh & Balogh 1983 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) swezeyi (Jacot 1928) [=Zetes swezeyi] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) szentivanyorum Balogh & Balogh 1983 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) tarsipennata Oudemans 1913 (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    |--G. (G.) tessellata (Ewing 1910) [=Oribata tessellata] S04
    |    |--G. (G.) texana Banks 1906 S04 [=*Holozetes texanus BB92]
    |    |--G. (G.) tokyoensis Aoki 1966 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) tricuspidata Engelbrecht 1969 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) triops Balogh 1960 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) triquetra Aoki 1965 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) tuberculata Mahunka 1997 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) unica Sellnick 1923 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) valida Aoki 1994 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) varia Mahunka 1995 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) virginiensis Jacot 1929 S04
    |    |--G. (G.) weni Aoki & Hu 1993 S04
    |    `--G. (G.) zachvatkini Grishina 1982 S04
    |--G. (Angulogalumna Grishina 1981) S04
    |    `--G. (*A.) asiatica (Grishina 1981) [=*Angulogalumna asiatica] S04
    |--G. (Cosmogalumna Aoki 1988) [incl. Variogalumna Mahunka 1995] S04
    |    |--G. (*C.) ornata (Aoki 1988) [=*Cosmogalumna ornata] S04
    |    |--G. (C.) praeoccupata Subías 2004 (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    `--G. (C.) singularis (Mahunka 1995) [=Variogalumna singularis] S04
    |--G. (Erogalumna Grandjean 1964) S04
    |    `--G. (*E.) zeucta (Grandjean 1964) [=*Erogalumna zeucta] S04
    |--G. (Indogalumna Balakrishnan 1985) S04
    |    |--G. (*I.) microsulcata (Balakrishnan 1985) [=*Indogalumna microsulcata] S04
    |    |--G. (I.) ‘monticola’ (Balakrishnan 1985) non Hammer 1977 [=Indogalumna monticola] S04
    |    |--G. (I.) neonominata Subías 2004 [=G. clavata Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1991 non Sellnick 1931] S04
    |    |--G. (I.) pterolineata Hammer 1972 S04
    |    |--G. (I.) rasilis Pérez-Íñigo 1987 (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    `--G. (I.) undulata (Balakrishnan 1985) [=Indogalumna undulata] S04
    `--G. (Kabylogalumna Bernini 1984) S04
         `--G. (*K.) rhinoceros (Bernini 1984) [=*Kabylogalumna rhinoceros] S04

Galumna (Cosmogalumna) praeoccupata Subías 2004 [=Cosmogalumna imperfecta Aoki & Hu 1993 non G. imperfecta Hammer 1972] S04

*Galumna (Galumna) alata alata (Hermann 1804) [incl. G. coleoptratrum occidentale Jacot 1929, Oribata octopunctata Ewing 1909, Zetes satellitius Koch 1841] S04

Galumna (Galumna) elimata elimata (Koch 1841) [incl. Oribata obvius norvegicus Berlese 1914, Dimidiogalumna wallworki Balogh & Balogh 2002] S04

Galumna
(Galumna) iterata Subías 2004 [=Zetes banksi Jacot 1929 non Galumna banksi Jacot 1929; incl. G. jacoti Marshall, Reeves & Norton 1987 non Wharton 1938] S04

Galumna (Galumna) lanceata (Oudemans 1900) [=Notaspis lanceata; incl. G. maxima Mihelčič 1956 nec Oribata maxima Berlese 1916 nec G. maxima Willmann 1939] S04

Galumna
(Galumna) setigera Mihelčič 1956 [incl. G. (Pergalumna) crassicostata Mihelčič 1956, G. distincta Mihelčič 1956, G. (P.) fusigera Mihelčič 1956, G. sicca Mihelčič 1957] S04

Galumna (Galumna) tarsipennata Oudemans 1913 [incl. G. (Pergalumna) lata Mihelčič 1956, G. nova Mihelčič 1957, G. parvula Mihelčič 1956] S04

Galumna (Indogalumna) rasilis Pérez-Íñigo 1987 [incl. G. rugosa Wallwork 1977 non Hammer 1968, G. sanctaehelenae Balogh & Balogh 2002] S04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB92] Balogh, J., & P. Balogh. 1992. The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 1. Hungarian Natural History Museum: Budapest.

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[G33] Grandjean, F. 1933. Étude sur le développement des oribates. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 58: 30–61.

[H07] Haq, M. A. 2007. Biodegradation and productivity in tropical ecosystem by oribatid mites. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 137–150. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[NB-P09] Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 430–564. Texas Tech University Press.

[SK10] Schäffer, S., S. Koblmüller, T. Pfingstl, C. Sturmbauer & G. Krisper. 2010. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals multiple independent evolution of diagnostic morphological characters in the "Higher Oribatida" (Acari), conflicting with current classification. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 246.

[S07] Schatz, H. 2007. Biogeography of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) from the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica and Panama. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 151–167. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

Last updated: 27 June 2017.

Multioppia

Dorsal view of Multioppia (Multioppia) rangifera, from here.


Belongs within: Oppiidae.

Multioppia is a cosmopolitan genus of oppioid oribatid mites. Its three subgenera are distinguished by the morphology of the sensillus: lanceolate and ciliate in Multilanceoppia, fusiform and pectinate with bifurcate side-branches in Furculoppia, or fusiform and simply ciliate or pectinate in Multioppia sensu stricto (Balogh & Balogh 1992 vol. 1).

Characters (from Balogh & Balogh 1992 vol. 1): Sensillus fusiform or lanceolate, ciliate or pectinate. Usually with three pairs of sigillae between the interlamellar setae. Notogaster with twelve pairs of setae. Genital plates with five pairs of setae. Fissure iad paraanal.

<==Multioppia Hammer 1961 S04
    |--M. (Multioppia) S04
    |    |--*M. (M.) radiata Hammer 1961 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) australis Hammer 1962 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) bacilliseta Ohkubo 1996 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) canariensis Pérez-Íñigo & Peña 1996 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) engelmanni (Calugar & Vasiliu 1983) [=Oppia engelmanni] S04
    |    |--M. (M.) formosana Tseng 1982 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) furugelma Rjabinin 1987 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) gapsaensis Choi 1986 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) ghiljarovi (Kulijev 1962) [=Oppia ghiljarovi] S04
    |    |--M. (M.) gilmartinoi Subías & Arillo 1996 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) glabra (Mihelčič 1955) [=Oppia glabra] S04
    |    |--M. (M.) gracilis Hammer 1972 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) indica Haq 1978 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) insolita Ivan & Vasiliu 1999 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) insulana Pérez-Íñigo 1982 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) integra Pérez-Íñigo 1990 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) jandiae Pérez-Íñigo & Peña 1996 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) longisetosa Mahunka 1986 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) moritzi Mahunka & Topercer 1983 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) neglecta Pérez-Íñigo 1969 [incl. M. excisa Moritz 1971] S04
    |    |--M. (M.) pakistanensis Hammer 1977 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) pauciramosa Balogh & Balogh 1986 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) perfecta Mahunka & Topercer 1983 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) pulchra Littlewood & Wallwork 1972 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) rangifera Ivan & Vasiliu 1999 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) shinanoensis Fujita 1989 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) similis Mahunka 1982 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) simplitricha Sanyal & Bhaduri 1989 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) spinifera Mahunka 1982 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) stellifera Hammer 1961 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) tamdao Mahunka 1988 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) tenue Mahunka & Mahunka-Papp 1999 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) translamellaris Balogh & Balogh 1986 S04
    |    |--M. (M.) trembleyi Mahunka 1977 [incl. M. calcarata Mahunka 1992] S04
    |    |--M. (M.) wilsoni Aoki 1964 S04
    |    |    |--M. w. wilsoni [incl. Oppia carolinae barbatis Jacot 1938 (n. d.), O. carolinae Jacot 1938 (n. d.)] S04
    |    |    |--M. w. hungarica Mahunka 1983 [=M. laniseta hungarica] S04
    |    |    `--M. w. laniseta Moritz 1966 (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    `--M. (M.) xinjiangensis Wang, Zheng et al. 1990 S04
    |--M. (Furculoppia Balogh 1983) S04
    |    `--M. (*F.) furcata (Kunst 1958) S04 (see below for synonymy)
    `--M. (Multilanceoppia Subías 1989) S04
         |--M. (*M.) carpatica Schalk 1966 [=M. ramulifera carpatica] S04
         |--M. (M.) brevipectinata Suzuki 1976 S04
         |    |--M. b. brevipectinata S04
         |    `--M. b. lenis Fujita & Fujikawa 1986 S04
         |--M. (M.) insularis Mahunka 1985 S04
         `--M. (M.) pankovi Rjabinin 1987 S04

Multioppia (*Furculoppia) furcata (Kunst 1958) S04 [=Oppia furcata S04; incl. O. bulgarica Mahunka 1987 S04, O. ramulifera Kunst 1959 S04, Multioppia (Furculoppia) ramulifera BB92]

Multioppia (Multioppia) wilsoni laniseta Moritz 1966 [incl. Oppia caporiacci Valle 1955 (n. d.), O. insolita Mihelčič 1956 (n. d.), Dameosoma clavipectinatum lamellatum Thamdrup 1932 (n. d.) non D. minus lamellata Halbert 1923, O. sexmaculata Dalenius 1950 (n. d.)] S04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB92] Balogh, J., & P. Balogh. 1992. The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 2. Plates. Hungarian Natural History Museum: Budapest.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

Holonota

SEM of Eulohmannia ribagai, from here.


Belongs within: Sarcoptiformes.
Contains: Perlohmanniidae, Epilohmanniidae, Euphthiracaroidea, Phthiracaridae, Desmonomata.

The Holonota are a major division of the oribatid mites in which the notogaster (dorsum of the hysterosoma) is fused into a single sclerite, without transverse scissures. Members of this group have previously been divided between the Mixonomata, Desmonomata and Circumdehiscentiae (or Brachypylina). However, the Desmonomata are paraphyletic with regard to the Circumdehiscentiae, and the Mixonomata are in turn paraphyletic to the Desmonomata. In members of the 'Mixonomata', the body is dichoid, with the sejugal furrow separating the proterosoma and hysterosoma remaining soft and articulate both dorsally and ventrally. The Ptyctima, box mites, have this articulation further modified to allow the proterosoma (aspis) to be folded downwards against the hysterosoma, with the legs being withdrawn into the body cavity (Norton & Beha-Pelletier 2009).

The genus Nehypochthonius includes two species of colourless, weakly sclerotised mites known from litter and moss in North America and Japan; the apparent absence of males in large populations suggests that they are parthenogenetic. Members of this genus have the rostral tectum weakly developed, so that the chelicerae are mostly exposed dorsally. The light yellow, elongate Eulohmannia ribagai is also asexual; this species is found in forest humus throughout the Holarctic (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009).

See also: Mite-in-a-box.

<==Holonota [Dichosomata, Mixonomata, Mixonomatides] MH04
    |  i. s.: Perlohmanniidae NB-P09
    |--Eulohmannia Berlese 1910 S04 [incl. Arthronothrus Trägardh 1910 S04; Eulohmanniidae, Eulohmannioidea MH04]
    |    `--*E. ribagai (Berlese 1910) (see below for synonymy) S04
    `--+--Epilohmanniidae MH04
       `--+--Ptyctima [Euptyctima] DA07
          |    |--Euphthiracaroidea DW10
          |    `--Phthiracaridae DW10
          `--+--Desmonomata DW10
             `--Nehypochthonius Norton & Metz 1980 DW10, S04 [Nehypochthoniidae, Nehypochthonoidea]
                  |--*N. porosus Norton & Metz 1980 S04
                  `--N. yanoi Aoki 2002 S04

*Eulohmannia ribagai (Berlese 1910) [=Lohmannia (*Eulohmannia) ribagai; incl. Arthronothrus biunguiculatus Trägardh 1910] S04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[DA07] Domes, K., M. Althammer, R. A. Norton, S. Scheu & M. Maraun. 2007. The phylogenetic relationship between Astigmata and Oribatida (Acari) as indicated by molecular markers. Experimental and Applied Acarology 42 (3): 159–171.

[MH04] Maraun, M., M. Heethoff, K. Schneider, S. Scheu, G. Weigmann, J. Cianciolo, R. H. Thomas & R. A. Norton. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari): evidence for multiple radiations of parthenogenetic lineages. Experimental and Applied Acarology 33 (3): 183–201.

[NB-P09] Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 430–564. Texas Tech University Press.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

Acaridae

Mould mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, from the US Department of Agriculture.


Belongs within: Acaroidea.
Contains: Rhizoglyphinae.

The Acaridae are a diverse group of often generalised astigmatan mites. Many species are insect associates, with a phoretic hypopus (deutonymph) stage in the life cycle (Philips 1990). Members of the basal subfamily Acarinae appear to be vertebrate nidicoles (i.e. living in vertebrate nesting structures such as nests, burrows or human houses); deutonymphs are known to be phoretic on fleas (OConnor 2001).

Characters (from Philips 1990): Chelicerae chelate-dentate. Idiosoma usually smooth, with simple setae; setae vi present; sejugal furrow present. Tarsi with pair of sclerotised condylophores supporting well-developed empodial claw in fleshy pretarsus; tibia I with two setae and one solenidion. Males usually with pair of anal suckers and pair of suckers on tarsus IV. Hypopus with scapular setae smooth; posteroventral sucker plate present.

<==Acaridae [Acarini, Tyroglyphidae]
    |--Acarinae O01
    |    |--Psyllacarus O01
    |    `--+--Paraceroglyphus O01
    |       `--+--Trichopsylopus O01
    |          `--Acarus [Acaridini] O01
    |               |--*A. siro Linnaeus 1758 K09, O01 [=Tyrogliphus siro] CF77
    |               |--A. armatus CF77
    |               |--A. caudatus Canestrini & Fanzago 1877 CF77
    |               |--A. cubicularius CF77
    |               |--A. domesticus CF77
    |               |--A. farinae [=Tyroglyphus farinae] CF77
    |               |--A. farris (Oudemans 1905) W91
    |               |--A. gracilis (Hughes 1957) DA07
    |               |--A. immobilis Griffiths 1964 W91
    |               |--A. mammillaris CF77
    |               |--A. oblongulus CF77
    |               |--A. penetrans Contarini 1843 CF77
    |               `--A. ‘spinipes’ Koch 1835-1844 non Müller 1776 [=Glyciphagus spinipes] CF77
    `--+--Horstiinae O01
       |    |--Neohorstia O01
       |    `--+--+--Megachilopus O01
       |       |  `--+--Cerophagopsis indicus O01
       |       |     `--Sennertionyx O01
       |       `--+--Diadasiopus O01
       |          `--+--Horstiella O01
       |             `--+--Medeus O01
       |                `--Horstia O01 [incl. Ceroglyphus O09]
       |                     |--H. longa O01
       |                     `--H. virginica K62
       `--+--+--‘Acotyledon’ formosani O01
          |  `--Rhizoglyphinae O01
          `--Tyrophaginae O01
               |  i. s.: Schulzea O01
               |         Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Troupeau 1879) O01, DA07
               |--Lackerbaueria O01
               `--+--Kuzinia O01
                  `--+--Forcellinia O01
                     `--Tyrophagus [Tyrophagini] O01
                          |--T. casei C91
                          |--T. formicitorum O01
                          |--T. fungivorus SM91
                          |--T. longior EP91
                          |--T. neiswanderi Johnston & Bruce 1965 W91
                          |--T. palmarum Oudemans 1924 W91
                          |--T. perniciosus Zachvatkin 1941 W91
                          |--T. putrescentiae (Schrank 1781) DA07
                          |--T. similis K91
                          `--T. zachvatkini O09

Acaridae incertae sedis:
  Mycetoglyphus O01
  Neoacotyledon O01
  Tyroborus lini (Oudemans 1924) DA07
  Fagacarus P90
  Konoglyphus P90
  Neotropacarus WP99
  Reckiacarus O09
  Trichodactylus xylocopae CF77
  Aleurobius farinae S22
  Tyroglyphus S22
    |--T. longior S22
    |--T. siculus S22
    `--T. siro S22

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CF77] Canestrini, G. & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69-208, pls 202-207.

[C91] Chmielewski, W. 1991. Stored products mites (Acaroidea) in Polish bee hives. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 615-619. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[DA07] Domes, K., M. Althammer, R. A. Norton, S. Scheu & M. Maraun. 2007. The phylogenetic relationship between Astigmata and Oribatida (Acari) as indicated by molecular markers. Experimental and Applied Acarology 42 (3): 159-171.

[EP01] Emmanouel, N. G., & H. Panou. 1991. A study on mites associated with bark and twigs of various trees in Attica (Greece). In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 523-532. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K09] Krantz, G. W. 2009. Introduction. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 1-2. Texas Tech University Press.

[K62] Krombein, K. V. 1962. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XVI. Biological notes on Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker, a parasitic mite of the megachilid bee, Osmia (Osmia) lignaria Say (Acarina: Chaetodactylidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 237-250.

[K91] Kuwahara, Y. 1991. Pheromone studies on astigmatid mites—alarm, aggregation and sex. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 43-52. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[O01] OConnor, B. M. 2001. Historical ecology of the Acaridae (Acari): Phylogenetic evidence for host and habitat shifts. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 76-82. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[O09] OConnor, B. M. 2009. Cohort Astigmatina. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 565-657. Texas Tech University Press.

[P90] Philips, J. R. 1990. Acarina: Astigmata (Acaridida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 757-778. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23-112, 4 pls.

[SM91] Serralheiro, F., & M. Madeira. 1991. Acari colonization of Quercus suber and Eucalyptus globulus litter. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 353-358. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[W91] Walzl, M. G. 1991. Comparison of the sclerotized structures of Acaridae and Glycyphagidae used for copulation. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 283-286. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Astigmata

Nymph of Hypodectes propus, from here.


Belongs within: Desmonomata.
Contains: Acaroidea, Histiostomatidae, Canestrinioidea, Psoroptidia, Glycyphagidae, Hemisarcoptoidea.

The Astigmata are a group of soft-bodied mites lacking respiratory tracheae (Philips 1990). Many have rapid life cycles, and may be significant scavengers of decomposing matter. Most astigmatans (excluding the vertebrate-associated Psoroptidia) have a modified non-feeding deutonymph (hypopus) stage in the life cycle that is adapted for phoretic dispersal or diapause during adverse conditions. However, if conditions are suitable, protonymphs may moult directly to the tritonymphal stage of the life cycle and bypass the deutonymph instar (OConnor 2009).

See also: Life in the fast lane.

Characters (from Philips 1990): Weakly sclerotised, slow-moving, pale; respiratory stigmata and tracheae absent, respiration occuring through cuticle. Chelicerae mostly chelate-dentate. Palps two-segmented. Idiosoma usually divided into propodosoma and hysterosoma by sejugal furrow. Hysterosoma with laterodorsal hysterosomal gland openings normally visible. Primary genital opening of both sexes occuring ventrally between the legs, flanked by two pairs of genital papillae. Oviposition occuring through this opening (oviporus) in female, but sperm received through small circular opening (bursa copulatrix) at posterior end of body. Male aedeagus supported by struts; male anal opening often flanked by pair of copulatory suckers.

<==Astigmata [Acaridei, Acaridiae, Acaridida, Astigmatina]
    |  i. s.: Myrmolichus greimae W01
    |         Naidacarus arboricolus A-B91
    |         Amphicalvolia hurdi O09
    |--Schizoglyphus [Schizoglyphidae, Schizoglyphoidea] O09
    |    `--S. biroi O09
    `--+--+--Acaroidea DW10
       |  `--Histiostomatoidea O09
       |       |--Histiostomatidae DW10
       |       `--Guanolichidae O09
       |            |--Neoguanolichus P90
       |            `--Guanolichus gabonensis O09
       `--+--+--+--Canestrinioidea DW10
          |  |  `--Psoroptidia DW10
          |  `--Hypoderatidae [Hypoderatoidea] DW10
          |       |--Phalacrodectes gaudi DW10
          |       |--Acotylopus [incl. Muridectes] O09
          |       |--Dipodomydectes O09
          |       |--Hypodectes De Filippi 1861 WP99, CF77
          |       |    |--H. carpophagae Baraldi 1875 CF77
          |       |    `--H. propus WP99
          |       |--Neottialges DW10
          |       |    |--N. evansi DW10
          |       |    `--N. plegadicola O09
          |       `--Tytodectes O09
          |            |--T. falconis O09
          |            `--T. strigis O09
          `--Glycyphagoidea O09
               |  i. s.: Aeroglyphidae O09
               |           |--Aeroglyphus robustus O09
               |           `--Glycycometus [incl. Austroglycyphagus] O09
               |                |--G. geniculatus [=Austroglycyphagus geniculatus] DA07
               |                |--G. lukoschusi O09
               |                |--G. malaysiensis C-R02
               |                |--‘Austroglycyphagus’ orientalis SH01
               |                `--‘Austroglycyphagus’ thailandicus SH01
               |         Rosensteiniidae O09
               |           |--Rosensteinia sieversi O09
               |           |--Mydopholeus O09
               |           |--Chiroptoglyphus americanus O09
               |           |--Micronychites postverrucosus O09
               |           |--Cheiromelicus trochanteralis O09
               |           |--Troglotacarus [Troglotacaridae] O09
               |           |    `--T. hauseri O09
               |           |--Lophonotacarus [Lophonotacaridae] O09
               |           |    `--L. minutus O09
               |           `--Nycteriglyphus O09
               |                |--N. bifolium O09
               |                |--N. pterophorus O09
               |                `--N. vespertilio O09
               |         Euglycyphagidae O09
               |           |--Euglycyphagus intercalatus O09
               |           `--Lomelacarus O09
               |         Pedetopus [Pedetopodidae] O09
               |           `--P. zumpti O09
               |         Echimyopodidae O09
               |           |--Echimyopus dasypus O09
               |           |--Blomia tropicalis O09
               |           |--Marsupiopus zyzomys O09
               |           `--Marmosopus mesoamericanus O09
               |--Glycyphagidae DW10
               `--+--Hemisarcoptoidea DW10
                  `--Chortoglyphidae DW10
                       |--Chortoglyphus arcuatus MR01
                       |--Alabidopus asiaticus O09
                       `--Aplodontopus O09
                            |--A. marmotae O09
                            `--A. sciuricola Hyland & Fain 1968 M-PV-G01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[CF77] Canestrini, G. & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69-208, pls 202-207.

[C-R02] Corpuz-Raros, L. A. 2002. Philippine acarine biological control agents: Status, bioecology and research prospects. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 85 (2): 137-154.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222-241.

[DA07] Domes, K., M. Althammer, R. A. Norton, S. Scheu & M. Maraun. 2007. The phylogenetic relationship between Astigmata and Oribatida (Acari) as indicated by molecular markers. Experimental and Applied Acarology 42 (3): 159-171.

[M-PV-G01] Montiel-Parra, G., G. A. Villegas-Guzman, M. Vargas & O. J. Polaco. 2001. Mites associated with nests of Neotoma albigula Hartley, 1894 (Rodentia: Muridae) in Durango, México. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 586-593. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[MR01] Morris, M. J. A., & J. Rimmer. 2001. Allergenicity of the predator dust mite Cheyletus tenuipilis (Acari: Cheyletidae): A preliminary study. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 558-564. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[O09] OConnor, B. M. 2009. Cohort Astigmatina. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 565-657. Texas Tech University Press.

[P90] Philips, J. R. 1990. Acarina: Astigmata (Acaridida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 757-778. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[SH01] Sumangala, K., & M. A. Haq. 2001. Survey of the mite fauna associated with Apis spp. in Kerala, southern India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 565-568. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[W01] Wurst, E. 2001. The life cycle of Lemanniella minotauri n. sp. and the erection of the new family Lemanniellidae (Acari: Astigmata). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie A (Biologie) 621: 1-34.

Rhizoglyphinae

Female Sancassania berlesei, copyright Tom Cameron.


Belongs within: Acaridae.
Contains: Rhizoglyphini.

The Rhizoglyphinae are an ecologically diverse group of astigmatan mites, commonly associated with moist temporary habitats. With the exceptions of the basal genera Acotyledon and Viedebanttia, many rhizoglyphines exhibit male polymorphism with major males developing modifications for fighting. The genus Sancassania includes species found in fungal fruiting bodies, root crops and human habitats; other species live in association with insects such as scarab beetles or ground-nesting bees (OConnor 2001).

Characters (from Baker & Wharton 1952): Inner propodosomal setae shorter than outer; legs stout, the setae in many cases being modified as stout spines; microsense and macrosense setae arising from same base.

<==Rhizoglyphinae [Caloglyphidae]
    |  i. s.: Ewingiidae O01
    |           |--Ewingia O01
    |           |--Askinasia O01
    |           |--Hoogstraalacarus O01
    |           `--Kanekobia potamona O09
    |--Acotyledon [Acotyledonini] O01
    |    `--A. paradoxa O01
    |--Viedebanttia O01
    |    `--V. schmitzi O01
    `--+--Cosmoglyphus O01
       `--+--Rhizoglyphini O01
          `--+--Ctenocolletacarus O01
             `--Sancassania [incl. Caloglyphus; Caloglyphini] O01
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ anomalus D01
                  |--S. berlesei [=Caloglyphus berlesei] F01
                  |--S. boharti O01
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ michaeli MH04
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ moniezi K91
                  |--S. mycophaga ED01 [=Caloglyphus mycophagus DAA91]
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ oudemansi SH01
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ polyphyllae K91
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ rhizoglyphoides C91
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ rodionovi WP99
                  `--‘Caloglyphus’ rodriguezi K91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Baker, E. W., & G. W. Wharton. 1952. An Introduction to Acarology. The MacMillan Company: New York.

[C91] Chmielewski, W. 1991. Stored products mites (Acaroidea) in Polish bee hives. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 615-619. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[D01] Desch, C. E. 2001. Anatomy and ultrastructure of the female reproductive system of Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 203-212. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[DAA91] Desch, C. E., J. R. H. Andrews & L. G. Arlian. 1991. The digestive system of Sarcoptes scabiei (L.): light and electron microscope study. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 271-279. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[ED01] Ehrnsberger, R., & J. Dabert. 2001. Population dynamics of acarid mites in two different types of poultry raising systems in Germany. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 576-582. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[F01] Fashing, N. J. 2001. Morphological adaptations associated with mate-guarding behaviour in the genus Hericia (Acari: Algophagidae). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 176-179. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K91] Kuwahara, Y. 1991. Pheromone studies on astigmatid mites—alarm, aggregation and sex. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 43-52. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[MH04] Maraun, M., M. Heethoff, K. Schneider, S. Scheu, G. Weigmann, J. Cianciolo, R. H. Thomas & R. A. Norton. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari): evidence for multiple radiations of parthenogenetic lineages. Experimental and Applied Acarology 33 (3): 183-201.

[O01] OConnor, B. M. 2001. Historical ecology of the Acaridae (Acari): Phylogenetic evidence for host and habitat shifts. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 76-82. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[O09] OConnor, B. M. 2009. Cohort Astigmatina. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 565-657. Texas Tech University Press.

[SH01] Sumangala, K., & M. A. Haq. 2001. Survey of the mite fauna associated with Apis spp. in Kerala, southern India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 565-568. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Corixidae

Corixa punctata, copyright Wolfram Sondermann.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Corixidae, water boatmen, are a group of aquatic bugs characterised by short forelegs with hair-fringed scoop-shaped or cylindrical tarsi. These are used to collect prey (mostly insect larvae) from bottom ooze. Hind legs are used for swimming and have long fringes of hair on the tibiae and tarsi. The majority of living species are included in the subfamily Corixinae; members of the genus Micronecta are much smaller than species of Corixinae (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Corixidae [Corixoidea]
    |--Diaprepocoris [Diaprepocorinae] CGW91
    |--Velocorixa [Velocorixinae] S02
    |    `--V. ponomarenkoi S02
    |--Micronecta [Micronectinae] CGW91
    |    `--M. robusta TJ06
    `--Corixinae G75
         |--Cymatia coleoptrata CGW91, H01
         |--Agraptocorixa G75
         |    |--A. eurynome TDC06
         |    `--A. parvipunctata TDC06
         |--Sigara CGW91
         |    |--S. arguta PC66
         |    `--S. falleni W01
         `--Corixa H01
              |--C. concinna CS77
              |--C. fallenii H01
              |--C. geoffroyi H01
              |--C. lateralis [incl. C. hieroglyphica] H01
              |--C. limitata H01
              |--C. nigrolineata CS77
              |--C. punctata Im92
              |--C. stagnalis CS77
              |--C. striata H01 [=Sigara striata L02]
              `--C. vanduzeei S02

Corixidae incertae sedis:
  Haenbea badamgaravae GE05, S02
  Yanliaocorixa S02
  Gazimuria GE05
  Karataviella GE05
  Diapherinus GE05
  Cristocorixa GE05
  Bumbacorixa GE05
  Corixonecta GE05
  Jiangxicorixa S02
  Linicorixa S02
  Ratiticorixa S02
  Vulcanicorixa S02
  Shelopuga sinitsae S02
  Siculocorixa estria S02
  Lufengnacta GE05
  Liassocorixa GE05
  Bakharia GE05
  Archaeocorixa GE05
  Baissocorixa GE05
  Mesosigara kryshtofovichi GE05, S02
  Corixalia GE05
  Rhomboidella GE05
  Shurabella [Shurabellidae] GE05
  Diacorixa S02
    |--D. germanica S02
    `--D. miocenica S02
  Cenocorixa WP99
    |--C. bifida WP99
    `--C. expleta WP99
  Hesperocorixa TW05
    |--H. distanti (Kirkaldy 1899) Iw92
    |--H. kolthoffi (Lundblad 1933) Iw92
    `--H. mandshurica (Jaczewski 1924) Iw92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[TJ06] Thomas, E. J., & J. John. 2006. Diatoms and macroinvertebrates as biomonitors of mine-lakes in Collie, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (3): 109–117.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175–183.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: features facilitating coexistence. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 121–135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Phoridae

Phalacrotophora epeirae, copyright John R. Maxwell.


Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.
Contains: Melaloncha.

The Phoridae, scuttle flies, are a group of small hump-backed flies of diverse habits. Winged species are readily distinguished by the characteristic venation of their wings, with four veins running obliquely across the main body of the wing.

Characters (from McAlpine 1990): Small humpbacked flies, 1-4 mm long. Ptilinal fissure and lunule absent. Wing rounded at apex, with radiating venation: branches of R strongly thickened and crowded into anterior base, four other weak and peculiarly aligned veins in remainder of wing blade; C ending near middle of anterior margin.

<==Phoridae [Phoroidea]
    |--Prioriphora GE05 [Prioriphorinae BLM02]
    |    `--P. casei GE05
    `--Metopininae B04
         |--Rhynchophoromyia B04
         |--Physoptera B04
         |--Metopina GE05
         |    |--M. goeleti GE05
         |    `--M. pachycondylae A71
         |--+--Melittophora salti B04
         |  `--Melaloncha B04
         `--Phalacrotophora B04
              |--P. berolinensis B04
              |--P. beuki B04
              |--P. epeirae B04
              |--P. fasciata B04
              |--P. halictorum B04
              |--P. quadripunctata B04
              `--P. rufiventris B04

Phoridae incertae sedis:
  Megaselia B04
    |--M. abdita WT11
    |--M. alternata A-B91
    |--M. elongata [incl. M. cuspidata] A71
    |--M. fasciata A71
    |--M. halterata CT01
    |--M. (Aphiochaeta) impariseta M83
    `--M. scalaris GE05
  Aneurina Z02
  Spiniphora Z02
  Apocephalus B04
  Aphiura treviceps M83
  Borophaga incrassata [=Hypocera incrassata] A71
  Pseudacteon formicarum A71
  Aenigmatias [incl. Platyphora] A71
  Phora Latreille 1796 BR05
    `--P. occidentata M90
  Thaumatoxena GE05
  Euliphora grimaldii GE05
  Acontistoptera GE05
  Puliciphora GE05
  Lecanocerus compressiceps M90
  Dohrniphora T90
  Cryptopteromyia jeanssoni S94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 227-240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[B04] Brown, B. V. 2004. Revision of the subgenus Udamochiras of Melaloncha bee-killing flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Metopininae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 1-42.

[CT01] Clift, A., & M. A. Terras. 2001. A quantitative study of phoresy in Microdispus lambi (Acari: Microdispidae) in eastern Australia. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 394-398. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1-155.

[T90] Teskey, H. J. 1990. Insecta: Diptera larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1253-1276. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.