Calomyrmex

Calomyrmex sp., copyright Farhan Bokhari.


Belongs within: Camponotini.

Calomyrmex is an Australasian genus of iridescently coloured formicine ants possessing a metapleural gland and lacking spines on the mesosoma.

Calomyrmex Emery 1895 TB85
    |--*C. laevissimus (Smith 1859) [=Formica laevissima] TB85
    |--C. albertisi (Emery 1887) [=Camponotus albertisi] TB85
    |--C. albopilosus (Mayr 1876) [=Camponotus albopilosus] TB85
    |    |--C. a. albopilosus TB85
    |    `--C. a. wienandsi (Forel 1910) [=Camponotus (Calomyrmex) albopilosus wienandsi] TB85
    |--C. glauerti Clark 1930 TB85
    |--C. impavidus (Forel 1893) [=Camponotus impavidus] TB85
    |--C. purpureus (Mayr 1876) [=Camponotus purpureus] TB85
    |    |--C. p. purpureus TB85
    |    `--C. p. smaragdina Emery 1898 TB85
    |--C. similis (Mayr 1876) [=Camponotus similis] TB85
    `--C. splendidus (Mayr 1876) [=Camponotus splendidus] TB85
         |--C. s. splendidus TB85
         |--C. s. mutans (Forel 1910) [=Camponotus (Calomyrmex) splendidus mutans] TB85
         `--C. s. viridiventris Forel 1915 TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Opisthopsis

Haddon's strobe ant Opisthopsis haddoni, copyright Ajay Narendra.


Belongs within: Camponotini.

Opisthopsis, strobe ants, is an Australasian genus of formicine ants with very large eyes placed high on the head at the posterior corners of the capsule.

Opisthopsis Emery 1893 [=Myrmecopsis Smith 1865 non Newman 1850] TB85
    |--*O. respiciens (Smith 1865) [=Formica (*Myrmecopisis) respiciens] TB85
    |    |--O. r. respiciens TB85
    |    `--O. r. moestus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |--O. diadematus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |    |--O. d. diadematus TB85
    |    `--O. d. dubius Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |--O. haddoni Emery 1893 TB85
    |    |--O. h. haddoni TB85
    |    `--O. h. rufoniger Forel 1910 TB85
    |--O. lienosus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |--O. major Forel 1902 TB85
    |--O. maurus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |--O. pictus Emery 1895 TB85
    |    |--O. p. pictus TB85
    |    |--O. p. bimaculatus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |    |--O. p. lepidus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |    `--O. p. palliatus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    `--O. rufithorax Emery 1895 TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Bothriomyrmex

Bothriomyrmex meridionalis, copyright Claude Lebas.


Belongs within: Dolichoderinae.

Bothriomyrmex is an Old World genus of ants with the gaster anteriorly gibbous and overhanging the petiole which bears a low, anteriorly inclined node (Bingham 1903).

Characters (from Bingham 1903): Worker with head nearly square, almost as broad in front as posteriorly, cheeks straight and not convex; mandibles when closed hidden under anterior margin of clypeus; antennae 12-segmented, apical segment as long as preceding three segments; eyes small. Mesosoma broad in Front, compressed posteriorly; pronotum longer than mesonotum; pro-meso- and meso-metanotal sutures distinct; metanotum with short basal portion and obliquely truncate apical portion; legs short and stout. Pedicel and abdomen short and broad, node of pedicel small and low but distinct, inclined obliquely forwards. Queen with mandibles triangular, with six teeth; clypeus wide, bisinuate along anterior margin; frontal area triangular, depressed, longer than broad, antennal and clypeal hollows confluent; antennal carinae short, wide apart; antennae 12-segmented, somewhat massive. Pedicel with erect node. Wings with one cubital and one discoidal cell. Male with mandibles narrower than in queen, acute; clypeus trapezoidal, convex; eyes very large, ocelli prominent; antennae with 13 segments, the segments much longer proportionately than in queen. Pedicel with node thick, rounded above.

<==Bothriomyrmex Emery 1869 [incl. Chronoxenus Sanntschi 1920] Z01
    |--B. meridionalis (Roger 1863) [=Tapinoma meridionale, *B. costae Emery 1869] TB85
    |--B. dalyi Forel 1895 [=B. wroughtoni dalyi] B03
    |--B. decapitans A71
    |--B. flavus Crawley 1922 TB85
    |--B. myops Forel 1895 B03
    |--B. pusillus (Mayr 1876) [=Tapinoma pusillum] TB85
    |    |--B. p. pusillus TB85
    |    `--B. p. aequalis Forel 1902 TB85
    |--B. scissor Crawley 1922 TB85
    |--B. walshi Forel 1895 B03
    |--B. wilsoni Clark 1934 TB85
    `--B. wroughtoni Forel 1895 B03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Tapinoma

Ghost ants Tapinoma melanocephalum, copyright Kalesh Sadasivan.


Belongs within: Dolichoderinae.

Tapinoma is a cosmopolitan genus of very small, mostly arboreal ants. They are characterised by a petiole with a greatly reduced, more or less obsolete node, and a gaster with four visible tergites (Heterick 2009).

<==Tapinoma Förster 1850 FT08 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*T. erraticum (Latreille 1798) [=Formica erratica, T. collina Förster 1850] TB85
    |--T. ambiguum H09
    |--T. annandalei H09
    |--T. fragile H09
    |--T. indicum Forel 1895 [=T. melanocephalum indicum] Z01
    |--T. litorale H09
    |--T. melanocephalum (Fabricius 1793) FT08 (see below for synonymy) Z01
    |--T. minutum Mayr 1862 FT08
    |    |--T. m. minutum TB85
    |    |--T. m. broomense Forel 1915 [=T. minutum broomensis] TB85
    |    |--T. m. cephalicum Santschi 1928 [=T. (Micromyrma) minutum cephalicum] TB85
    |    `--T. m. integrum Forel 1902 TB85
    |--T. nigerrimum A71
    |--T. pallipes H09
    |--T. pomone H09
    |--T. sessile H09
    |--T. subtile H09
    `--T. williamsi H09

Tapinoma Förster 1850 FT08 [incl. Micromyrma Dufour 1857 Z01, Neoclystopsenella Kurian 1955 Z01, Tapinoptera Santschi 1925 Z01, Zatapinoma Wheeler 1928 Z01]

Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius 1793) FT08 [=Formica melanocephala Z01, Micromyrma melanocephala Z01; incl. Tapinoma (Micromyrma) melanocephalum var. australis Santschi 1928 Z01, T. (M.) melanocephalum var. australe Z01, Formica nana Jerdon 1851 non Latreille 1802 Z01, Myrmica pellucida Smith 1858 Z01]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Technomyrmex

White-footed ant Technomyrmex albipes, copyright Scot Nelson.


Belongs within: Dolichoderinae.

Technomyrmex is a genus of smaller, mostly arboreal ants found in warmer regions of the Old World.

Characters (from Bingham 1903): Worker with head more or less cordate, occiput emarginate, generally broader than anterior margin of head; mandibles broad, triangular, masticatory margin equal in length to outer margin, the former armed with numerous small teeth; clypeus broad, convex in the middle, extending angularly up between antennal carinae; frontal area indistinct; antennal carinae short, wide apart, parallel; scape moderately long, flagellum thickening slightly towards apex; eyes comparatively large, placed in front of transverse middle line of head. Thorax moderately broad, viewed in profile deeply emarginate at meso-metanotal suture; pro-mesonotal suture distinct but not incised; mesonotum convex, raised slightly above pronotum, the two together forming a convex gibbosity; metanotum convex, basal portion slightly sloping forward, apical portion much longer and sloping backwards; legs comparatively short and stout, calcaria pectinate, claws simple. Pedicel without a proper elevated node, simply with an oval flat thickening in the middle; abdomen at base very much produced, raised and gibbous, overhanging pedicel, posteriorly conical, with an apical cloacal aperture. Queen closely resembling worker except head proportionately broader posteriorly; ocelli present and distinct though small; thorax more massive; mesonotum and scutellum nearly flat, very slightly convex; slight constriction present behind wings; fore wing with a radial and one cubital cell; metanotum broad, sloping obliquely back to apex, only slightly convex, nearly flat; pedicel very short, together with abdomen as in worker.

<==Technomyrmex Mayr 1872 FT08 [incl. Aphantolepis Wheeler 1930 Z01, Engramma Forel 1905 Z01]
    |--*T. strenuus Mayr 1872 TB85
    |--T. albipes (Smith 1861) (see below for synonymy) Z01
    |    |--T. a. albipes TB85
    |    `--T. a. cedarensis Forel 1915 TB85
    |--T. antennus Zhou 2001 Z01
    |--T. bicolor Emery 1893 TB85
    |    |--T. b. bicolor TB85
    |    `--T. b. antonii Forel 1902 TB85
    |--T. brunneus Forel 1895 [=T. albipes brunneus] B03
    |--T. difficilis BS06
    |--T. elatior Forel 1902 [=T. mogdiliani elatior] B03
    |--T. horni N-ZLI11
    |--T. jocosus Forel 1910 TB85
    |--T. kraepelini N-ZLI11
    |--T. modiglianii N-ZLI11
    |--T. quadricolor (Wheeler 1930) [=*Aphantolepis quadricolor] TB85
    |--T. sophiae Forel 1902 TB85
    `--T. vitiensis Mann 1921 FT08

Technomyrmex albipes (Smith 1861) [=Formica (Tapinoma) albipes; incl. Tapinoma albitarse Motschulsky 1863, Ta. nigrum Mayr 1862, Technomyrmex albipes st. rufescens Santschi 1928, Te. albipes var. vitiensis Mann 1921] Z01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Leptomyrmex

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus, copyright Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Dolichoderinae.

Leptomyrmex, spider ants, is an Australasian genus of slender-bodied, long-legged ants with long antennal scapes exceeding the vertex by more than half their length.

<==Leptomyrmex Mayr 1862 TB85
    |--*L. erythrocephalus (Fabricius 1775) [=Formica erythrocephala] TB85
    |    |--L. e. erythrocephalus TB85
    |    |--L. e. basirufus Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    |--L. e. brunneiceps Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    |--L. e. clarki Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    |--L. e. cnemidatus Wheeler 1915 TB85
    |    |--L. e. decipiens Wheeler 1915 TB85
    |    |--L. e. mandibularis Wheeler 1915 TB85
    |    |--L. e. rufithorax Forel 1915 TB85
    |    |--L. e. unctus Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    `--L. e. venustus Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |--L. darlingtoni Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    |--L. d. darlingtoni TB85
    |    |--L. d. fascigaster Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    `--L. d. jucundus Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |--L. froggatti Forel 1910 TB85
    |--L. mjobergi Forel 1915 TB85
    |--L. nigriventris (Guérin-Meneville 1831) [=Formica nigriventris] TB85
    |    |--L. n. nigriventris TB85
    |    |--L. n. hackeri Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    `--L. n. tibialis Emery 1895 TB85
    |--L. pallens Emery 1883 [incl. L. p. var. geniculata Emery 1914, L. p. var. nigriceps Emery 1914] E14
    |--L. unicolor Emery 1895 TB85
    |--L. varians Emery 1895 TB85
    |    |--L. v. varians TB85
    |    |--L. v. angusticeps Santschi 1929 TB85
    |    |--L. v. quadricolor Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    |--L. v. rothneyi Forel 1902 TB85
    |    |--L. v. ruficeps Emery 1895 TB85
    |    `--L. v. rufipes Emery 1895 TB85
    `--L. wiburdi Wheeler 1915 TB85
         |--L. w. wiburdi TB85
         `--L. w. pictus Wheeler 1915 TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Masarinae

Paragia vespiformis, from Carpenter (1996).


Belongs within: Vespidae.

The Masarinae, pollen wasps, are a group of wasps found primarily on the southern continents that provision their nests with pollen and nectar. They can be distinguished from other vespids by the lack of a trochantellus on the mid femur.

<==Masarinae [Masaridae, Masarides] HH07
    |--Gayellini [Gayellinae] C96
    `--Masarini C96
         |--Ceramius Latreille 1810 C96, S86
         |    |--C. beyeri C96
         |    |--C. caffer OK99
         |    |--C. capicola R13
         |    |--C. hispanicus RL09
         |    |--C. karooensis R13
         |    |--C. lichtensteinii GS61
         |    |    |--C. l. lichtensteinii GS61
         |    |    `--C. l. macrocephalus Saussure 1855 GS61
         |    `--C. metanotalis OK99
         `--+--Masaris L02 [Masarina C96]
            |    |--M. aegyptiacus PK17
            |    |--M. carli C96
            |    `--M. vespiforms L02
            `--Paragiina [Paragiini] C96
                 |--Ceramiopsis Zavattari 1910 S86
                 |--Metaparagia Meade-Waldo 1911 (see below for synonymy) C96
                 |    |--+--M. maculata (Meade-Waldo 1910) C96, C85 [=Paragia maculata C85, *Rolandia maculata C85]
                 |    |  `--+--*M. pictifrons (Smith 1857) S86, C96, S86 [=Paragia pictifrons S86]
                 |    |     `--M. doddi Meade-Waldo 1911 C96, S86 [=Paragia doddi C85]
                 |    `--+--+--M. confluens (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=Paragia confluens C96, Riekia confluens C96]
                 |       |  `--M. nocatunga (Richards 1962) C96, C85 [=*Riekia nocatunga C85]
                 |       `--+--M. hua (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=*Ammoparagia hua S86]
                 |          `--+--M. borreriae (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=Rolandia borreriae S86]
                 |             `--+--M. angulata (Richards 1968) C96, S86 [=Riekia angulata S86, Rolandia angulata S86]
                 |                `--M. houstoni (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=Rolandia houstoni S86]
                 `--Paragia Shuckard 1837 (see below for synonymy) C96
                      |--*P. decipiens Shuckard 1837 S86
                      |    |--P. d. decipiens C85
                      |    `--P. d. aliciae Richards 1962 C85
                      |--P. australis Saussure 1853 [=P. (Paragiella) australis] C85
                      |    |--P. a. australis C85
                      |    `--P. a. borealis Richards 1962 C85
                      |--P. bicolor Saussure 1853 [=P. (Paragiella) bicolor] C85
                      |--P. calida Smith 1865 [=P. (Paragiella) calida] C85
                      |--P. deceptrix Smith 1862 [=P. deceptor, [=P. (Paragiella) deceptrix] C85
                      |--P. generosa Richards 1962 [=P. (Paragiella) generosa] C85
                      |--P. hirsuta Meade-Waldo 1911 [=P. (Paragiella) hirsuta] C85
                      |--P. magdalena Turner 1908 [=P. (Paragiella) magdalena] C85
                      |--P. mimetica Richards 1968 [=P. (Paragiella) mimetica] C85
                      |--P. monocesta Snelling 1986 S86
                      |--P. morosa Smith 1868 [=P. (Paragiella) morosa] C85
                      |--P. nasuta Smith 1868 [=P. (Paragiella) nasuta] C85
                      |--P. odyneroides Smith 1850 (see below for synonymy) C85
                      |--P. oligomera Snelling 1986 S86
                      |--P. perkinsi Meade-Waldo 1911 [=P. (Paragiella) perkinsi] C85
                      |--P. propodealis Richards 1968 [=P. (Paragiella) propodealis] C85
                      |--P. schulthessi Turner 1936 C85
                      |--P. smithii Saussure 1854 C85
                      |--P. sobrina Smith 1869 [=P. (Paragiella) sobrina; incl. P. excellens Smith 1869] C85
                      |--P. tricolor Smith 1850 [=P. saussurii Smith 1857] C85
                      |--P. venusta Smith 1865 [=P. (Paragiella) venusta; incl. P. concinna Smith 1868] C85
                      |--P. vespiformis Smith 1865 [=P. (*Cygnaea) vespiformis] S86
                      `--P. walkeri Meade-Waldo 1910 [=P. (Paragiella) walkeri] C85

Masarinae incertae sedis:
  Trimeria C96
    |--T. americana C96
    |--T. howardi CC85
    `--T. rhachiphora HH07
  Pseudomasaris HH07
    |--P. phaceliae HH07
    `--P. vespoides JB13
  Celonites Latreille 1802 L02
    |--*C. apiformis [=Masaris apiformis] L02
    |--C. cyprius C96
    `--C. varipennis C96
  Masarina Richards 1962 G05
    |--M. aptosimi Gess 2005 G05
    |--M. ceres G05
    |--M. familiaris G05
    |--M. hermanniae Gess 2005 G05
    |--M. hyalinipennis G05
    |--M. mixta G05
    |--M. mixtoides G05
    |--M. namaqua G05
    |--M. parvula G05
    |--M. peliostomi G05
    |--M. roberti Gess 2005 G05
    |--M. strucki G05
    `--M. tylecodoni G05

Metaparagia Meade-Waldo 1911 [incl. Ammoparagia Snelling 1986, Riekia Richards 1962, Rolandia Richards 1962] C96

Paragia Shuckard 1837 [incl. Alpha Dalla Tore 1904 non Saussure 1854, Beta Dalla Torre 1904 non Saussure 1854, Cygnaea Richards 1962, Paragiella Richards 1962] C96

Paragia odyneroides Smith 1850 [=P. (*Paragiella) odyneroides; incl. P. bidens Saussure 1855, P. praedator Saussure 1855] C85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[C96] Carpenter, J. M. 1996. Generic classification of the Australian pollen wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Masarinae. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 69 (4 suppl.): 384–400.

[CC85] Carpenter, J. M., & J. M. Cumming. 1985. A character analysis of the North American potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Eumeninae). Journal of Natural History 19 (5): 877–916.

[G05] Gess, F. W. 2005. Three new species of Masarina Richards, 1962 from southern Africa with a key to all species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Masarinae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 7–14.

[GS61] Giordani Soika, A. 1961. Hymenoptera (Aculeata): Vespidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 440–451. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O'Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295–3299.

[JB13] Johnson, B. R., M. L. Borowiec, J. C. Chiu, E. K. Lee, J. Atallah & P. S. Ward. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[OK99] OConnor, B. M., & J. S. H. Klompen. 1999. Phylogenetic perspectives on mite-insect associations: the evolution of acarinaria. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 63–71. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[RL09] Ren, D., C. C. Labandeira, J. A. Santiago-Blay, A. Rasnitsyn, C. Shih, A. Bashkuev, M. A. V. Logan, C. L. Hotton & D. Dilcher. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326: 840–847.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[S86] Snelling, R. R. 1986. The taxonomy and nomenclature of some Australian paragiine wasps (Hymenoptera: Masaridae). Contributions in Science 378: 1–19.

Stenodyneriellus

Stenodyneriellus sp., copyright djhiker.


Belongs within: Eumeninae.

Stenodyneriellus is an Indo-Australian genus of potter wasps in which the dorsal surface of the propodeum is well developed behind the postscutellum, so that the latter is entirely or almost entirely separate from the posterior face of the mesosoma, and the superior transverse carina of the propodeum is usually well developed (or, if not, there is still a distinct separation between the dorsal and posterior faces of the propodeum). The first metasomal tergite is about twice as wide as long and nearly as wide as the second tergite (Giordani Soika 1962).

<==Stenodyneriellus Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--*S. turneriellus Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--S. bicoloratus (Saussure 1856) [=Odynerus bicoloratus] C85
    |--S. brisbanensis Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--S. carnarvonensis Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--S. darnleyensis Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--S. novempunctatus Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--S. pseudancistrocerus (Giordani Soika 1962) [=Pseudonortonia pseudancistrocerus] C85
    |--S. punctatissimus Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--S. spinosiusculus Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--S. tricoloratus Giordani Soika 1962 C85 [=Pseudepipona tricolorata GS62]
    |--S. turneriellus Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    `--S. yanchepensis (Giordani Soika 1962) [=Australodynerus yanchepensis] C85
         |--S. y. yanchepensis C85
         `--S. y. nigrithorax (Giordani Soika 1962) [=Australodynerus yanchepensis nigrithorax] C85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[GS62] Giordani Soika, A. 1962. Gli Odynerus sensu antiquo del continente Australiano e della Tasmania. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 57–202.

Australodynerus

Australodynerus punctiventris, copyright Museum Victoria.


Belongs within: Eumeninae.

Australodynerus is an Australian genus of smallish potter wasps characterised by a relatively long, depressed propodeum with well-defined lateral carinae, and a small difference only in the width of the first and second metasomal segments (Giordani Soika 1962).

Characters (from Giordani Soika 1962): Size mediocre. Mesosoma elongate, sub-cylindrical, slightly depressed dorsally, slightly wider anteriorly than posteriorly. Postscutellum with short horizontal dorsal face not well separated from posterior oblique face, which is part of the posterior face of the mesosoma. Propodeum elongate, depressed, with dorsal face continuing regularly onto the posterior face; lateral carinae well developed, rectilinear, forming a right or acute angle at rear where they meet with lower carinae. First tergite broad, dome-shaped; second tergite a little swollen.

<==Australodynerus Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--*A. pusillus (Saussure 1855) [=Odynerus pusillus; incl. O. (Leionotus) macilentus Saussure 1867] C85
    |--A. convexus Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--A. merredinensis Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |    |--A. m. merredinensis C85
    |    |--A. m. everardensis Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |    `--A. m. victoriensis Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--A. punctiventris Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    `--A. pusilloides Giordani Soika 1962 C85
         |--A. p. pusilloides C85
         `--A. p. impudicus Giordani Soika 1962 C85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Giordani Soika, A. 1962. Gli Odynerus sensu antiquo del continente Australiano e della Tasmania. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 57–202.

Pseudalastor

Pseudalastor concolor, copyright Reiner Richter.


Belongs within: Eumeninae.

Pseudalastor is a genus of relatively robust potter wasps in which the female bears a large, raised oval plate on the vertex of the head.

Characters (from Giordani Soika 1962): Mesosoma squat, sub-cylindrical. Postscutellum rounded posteriorly, forming part of the posterior face of the mesosoma. Propodeum very depressed on sides, lateral margins subrectilinear and almost parallel; lateral carina strongly developed, meeting with lower carina to form an almost right angle. First tergite subtruncate at base, much narrower than the following tergite. Vertex of female with a large transverse oval plate, much larger than ocellar area, with sharp contours, sharply raised above the remaining surface of the vertex, provided in center with a round dimple bearing short and dense hair. Aedeagus with very long basal lobes, ribbon-like, depressed, arched towards apex of aedeagus.

<==Pseudalastor Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--*P. concolor (Saussure 1853) [=Odynerus (Leionotus) concolor] C85
    |    |--P. c. concolor C85
    |    `--P. c. rapax Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--P. anguloides Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--P. cavifemur Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--P. metathoracicus (Saussure 1855) (see below for synonymy) C85
    |--P. superbus Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    `--P. tridentatus (Schulthess-Rechberg 1935) [=Alastor (Paralastor) tridentatus] C85
         |--P. t. tridentatus C85
         |--P. t. paganus Giordani Soika 1977 C85
         |--P. t. septentrionalis Giordani Soika 1977 C85
         `--P. t. transgrediens Giordani Soika 1977 C85

Pseudalastor metathoracicus (Saussure 1855) [=Odynerus metathoracicus; incl. O. (Ancistroceroides) sanguinolentus Saussure 1856] C85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Giordani Soika, A. 1962. Gli Odynerus sensu antiquo del continente Australiano e della Tasmania. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 57–202.

Ischnocoelia

Female Ischnocoelia ecclesiastica, from Rayment (1954).


Belongs within: Zethinae.

Ischnocoelia is an Australian genus of wasps that nest in burrows in the ground with cells closed using plant matter.

<==Ischnocoelia Perkins 1908 C85
    |--*I. xanthochroma Perkins 1908 C85
    |--I. ecclesiastica (Rayment 1954) [=Discoelius ecclesiasticus] C85
    |--I. elongata (Saussure 1855) [=Discoelius elongatus] C85
    |--I. ferruginea (Meade-Waldo 1910) [=Elimus ferrugineus] C85
    |--I. fulva (Schulthess-Rechberg 1910) [=Stenolabus fulvus] C85
    |    |--I. f. fulva C85
    |    `--I. f. major Meade-Waldo 1914 C85
    |--I. integra (Schulthess-Rechberg 1910) [=Stenolabus integer] C85
    |    |--I. i. integra C85
    |    `--I. i. carnowi Giordani Soika 1969 C85
    |--I. occidentalis Giordani Soika 1969 C85
    |    |--I. o. occidentalis C85
    |    `--I. o. blumburyensis Giordani Soika 1969 C85
    |--I. polychroma Giordani Soika 1969 C85
    `--I. robusta (Meade-Waldo 1910) [=Elimus robustus] C85
         |--I. r. robusta [incl. Stenolabus vulneratus Schulthess-Rechberg 1910] C85
         |--I. r. analis Giordani Soika 1969 C85
         |--I. r. aurantiaca Giordani Soika 1969 C85
         `--I. r. unicolor Giordani Soika 1969 C85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Zethinae

Zethus slossonae, copyright Bob Peterson.


Belongs within: Vespidae.
Contains: Ischnocoelia.

The Zethinae are a group of mostly solitary (rarely communal) wasps that may construct nests out of plant material (Hines et al. 2007).

<==Zethinae HH07
    |  i. s.: Australozethus Giordani Soika 1969 HH07, C85
    |           |--*A. tasmaniensis Giordani Soika 1969 C85
    |           |    |--A. t. tasmaniensis C85
    |           |    `--A. t. montanus Giordani Soika 1969 [=Pseudozethus tasmaniensis montanus] C85
    |           |--A. continentalis Giordani Soika 1969 C85
    |           `--A. occidentalis Giordani Soika 1969 C85
    |--Calligaster cyanopterus OK99
    `--+--Elimus Saussure 1852 OK99, C85
       |    |--*E. australis Saussure 1852 C85
       |    `--E. mackayensis Meade-Waldo 1910 C85
       `--+--Ischnocoelia OK99
          `--Zethus OK99
               |--Z. biglumis OK99
               |--Z. (Zethoides) binodis CC85
               |--Z. coeruleopennis OK99
               |--Z. diminutus OK99
               |--Z. favillaceus OK99
               |--Z. fuscus OK99
               |--Z. garciai HH07
               |--Z. guerreroi CC85
               |--Z. haywardi OK99
               |--Z. holmbergii Brèthes 1906 B06
               |--Z. miniatus HH07
               |--Z. miscogaster CC85
               |--Z. missionus Brèthes 1906 B06
               |--Z. montezuma CC85
               |--Z. rhodesianus OK99
               |--Z. rugosiceps [=Discoelius rugosiceps] B06
               |--Z. sessilis B78
               |--Z. slossonae CC85
               `--Z. spinipes HH07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B78] Bohart, R. M. 1978. Tachytes of South America (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Larrinae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 104 (3–4): 435–505.

[B06] Brèthes, J. 1906. Véspidos y eumenídidos sudamericanos (nuevo suplemento). Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 310–377.

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[CC85] Carpenter, J. M., & J. M. Cumming. 1985. A character analysis of the North American potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Eumeninae). Journal of Natural History 19 (5): 877–916.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O'Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295–3299.

[OK99] OConnor, B. M., & J. S. H. Klompen. 1999. Phylogenetic perspectives on mite-insect associations: the evolution of acarinaria. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 63–71. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

Rhynchium

Rhynchium quinquecinctum, copyright Len Worthington.


Belongs within: Eumeninae.

Rhynchium is an Old World genus of relatively large wasps, characterised by a lack of prominent punctation on the scutellum and posterior part of the mesoscutum.

<==Rhynchium Spinola 1806 [=Rygchium] C85
    |--‘Vespa’ oculata Fabricius 1781 [incl. *Rygchium europaeum Spinola 1806] C85
    |--‘Rygchium’ annuliferum Boisduval 1835 B35
    |--R. atrum Saussure 1852 C85
    |--R. australense Perkins 1914 C85
    |--R. magnificum Smith 1869 [=Odynerus (Rhynchium) haemorrhoidalis var. magnificus] C85
    |--‘Rygchium’ megaera K62
    |--R. mirabile Saussure 1852 C85 (see below for synonymy)
    |--R. nigrolimbatum Bingham 1912 C85
    |--R. nitidulum R13
    |--R. quinquecinctum S94
    |    |--R. q. quinquecinctum S94
    |    `--R. q. fukaii S94
    |--R. rufipes (Fabricius 1775) [=Vespa rufipes] C85
    |--‘Rygchium’ schwarzi Krombein 1962 K62
    `--R. superbum Saussure 1852 C85 [=Rh. mirabile superbum C85, Rygchium superbum GS61]

Rhynchium mirabile Saussure 1852 C85 [=Rygchium mirabile C85; incl. Rh. rothi Kirby 1885 C85, Odynerus (Rhygchium) rothi C85, Pseudabispa rothi GS61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[GS61] Giordani Soika, A. 1961. Gli Odynerus sensu antiquo del continente Australiano e della Tasmania. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 57–202.

[K62] Krombein, K. V. 1962. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XIII. Descriptions of new wasps from Plummers Island, Maryland, (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 1–18.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[S94] Shimizu, A. 1994. Phylogeny and classification of the family Pompilidae (Hymenoptera). Tokyo Metropolitan University Bulletin of Natural History 2: 1–142.

Ropalidia

Ropalidia marginata, copyright University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore.


Belongs within: Polistinae.

Ropalidia is a diverse genus of social wasps found in warmer regions of the Old World, characterised by fusion of the tergite and sternite of the second gastral segment (Richards 1978).

Characters (from Richards 1978): Humerus with no keel posteriorly in front of first thoracic spiracle. Mesoscutum not margined opposite tegula. Muscle-slit of propodeum usually shorter and rounded at top. Second gastral tergite and sternite more or less solidly fused.

<==Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville 1831 [=Icaria Saussure 1853, Rhopalidia Guérin-Méneville 1838] C85
    |--R. (Ropalidia) C85
    |    |--*R. (R.) maculiventris Guérin 1831 [=*Icaria maculiventris] C85
    |    |--R. (R.) bispinosa R78
    |    |--R. (R.) eboraca Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (R.) erratica R78
    |    |--R. (R.) fasciola Richards 1978 [=Icaria fasciata Smith 1858 non Eumenes fasciata Fabricius 1804] R78
    |    |--R. (R.) fulvopruinosa (Cameron 1906) [=Odynerus (Leionotus) fulvopruinosus] C85
    |    |--R. (R.) humboldti R78
    |    |--R. (R.) irritata R78
    |    |--R. (R.) mimikae R78
    |    |--R. (R.) mondoensis R78
    |    |--R. (R.) pratti R78
    |    `--R. (R.) semihyalinata R78
    |--R. (Anthreneida Whie 1841) [incl. Icariastrum von Dalla Torre 1904] R78
    |    |--R. (A.) sumatrae (Weber 1801) [=Vespa sumatrae; incl. *Anthreneida coronata White 1841, R. speciosa] R78
    |    |--R. (A.) erythrospila (Cameron 1908) R78, NK11 [=R. malayana erythrospila R78]
    |    |--R. (A.) lugubris (Smith 1858) R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) malayana (Cameron 1903) R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) modesta (Smith 1858) R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) nursei R78
    |    |--R. (A.) opulenta (Smith 1857) R78, NK11 [=Icaria opulenta R78, *Icariastrum opulentum R78]
    |    |--R. (A.) ornatipes (Cameron 1900) R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) pilosa (Smith 1854) R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) rufocollaris van der Vecht 1941 R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) rufoplagiata (Cameron 1905) R78, NK11
    |    |    |--R. r. rufoplagiata R78
    |    |    `--R. r. gravelyi R78
    |    `--R. (A.) sericea R78
    |--R. (Icariella Dalla Torre 1904) C85 [=Icarielia R78]
    |    |--R. (*I.) flavopicta (Smith 1857) [=Icaria flavopicta] C85
    |    |--R. (I.) bensoni Richards 1978 R78
    |    |--R. (I.) conservator R78 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--R. (I.) deminutiva [=R. diminutiva (l. c.)] R78
    |    |--R. (I.) festina R78
    |    |--R. (I.) gemmea R78
    |    |--R. (I.) insolens R78
    |    |--R. (I.) integra R78
    |    |--R. (I.) ivorina R78
    |    |--R. (I.) leopoldi R78
    |    |--R. (I.) lepida van der Vecht 1962 R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) longipetiolata F78
    |    |--R. (I.) loriana R78
    |    |--R. (I.) malaisei van der Vecht 1962 R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) montana R78
    |    |--R. (I.) nigrior Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) novaeguineae (von Schulthess 1913) [=Parapolybia novaeguineae, Polybia novaeguineae] R78
    |    |--R. (I.) opifex van der Vecht 1962 R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) romandi (Le Guillou 1841) [=Polistes romandi, Icaria romandi] R78
    |    |    |--R. r. romandi C85
    |    |    `--R. r. cabeti (Saussure 1853) [=Icaria cabeti] C85
    |    `--R. (I.) zonata R78
    |--R. (Icariola Dalla Torre 1904) [=Zuba Cheesman 1952] C85
    |    |--R. (*I.) gregaria (Saussure 1853) [=Icaria gregaria, R. (*Zuba) gregaria] C85
    |    |    |--R. g. gregaria [incl. Polistes bioculata Fabricius 1804 (n. d.)] C85
    |    |    `--R. g. spilocephala (Cameron 1906) (see below for synonymy) R78
    |    |--R. (I.) anarchica R78
    |    |--R. (I.) aristocratica (de Saussure 1853) R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) bicincta R78
    |    |--R. (I.) bilineata R78
    |    |--R. (I.) binghami van der Vecht 1941 R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) canaria R78
    |    |--R. (I.) capensis [incl. R. ambigua] R78
    |    |--R. (I.) carinata R78
    |    |--R. (I.) celebensis van der Vecht 1941 R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) cincta (Lepeletier 1836) R78, GS61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--R. (I.) colorata R78
    |    |--R. (I.) constitutionalis R78
    |    |--R. (I.) copiaria (de Saussure 1862) R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) cyathiformis (Fabricius 1804) R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) darwini Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) deceptor (Smith 1864) [=Icaria deceptor] C85
    |    |--R. (I.) distigma R78
    |    |--R. (I.) dubia R78
    |    |--R. (I.) duchaussoyi R78
    |    |--R. (I.) elegantula Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) eurostoma Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) fasciata (Fabricius 1804) R78, NK11 [=Eumenes fasciata R78; incl. R. picta R78]
    |    |--R. (I.) fluviatilis R78
    |    |--R. (I.) formosa [incl. R. hova] R78
    |    |    |--R. f. formosa R78
    |    |    `--R. ‘hova’ minor R78
    |    |--R. (I.) galimatia R78
    |    |--R. (I.) gracilenta Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) gracilis (Smith 1859) [=Icaria gracilis] R78
    |    |--R. (I.) grandidieri R78
    |    |--R. (I.) granulata van der Vecht 1941 R78, NK11
    |    |    |--R. g. granulata R78
    |    |    `--R. g. borneensis R78
    |    |--R. (I.) guttatipennis R78
    |    |--R. (I.) hirsuta Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) hongkongensis R78
    |    |--R. (I.) horni Sonan 1938 R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) impetuosa (Smith 1860) [=Icaria impetuosa] R78
    |    |--R. (I.) interrupta van der Vecht 1941 [=R. variegata interrupta] C85
    |    |    |--R. i. interrupta C85
    |    |    `--R. i. flavinoda van der Vecht 1941 [=R. variegata flavinoda] C85
    |    |--R. (I.) jacobsoni (du Buysson 1908) R78, NK11 [=R. variegata jacobsoni R78]
    |    |--R. (I.) kurandae Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) laticincta van der Vecht 1962 R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) mackayensis Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) magnanima van der Vecht 1941 NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) marginata (Lepeletier 1836) [=Epipona marginata] R78
    |    |    |--R. m. marginata C85
    |    |    |--R. m. jucunda (Cameron 1898) [=Icaria jucunda] C85
    |    |    `--R. m. sundiaca R78
    |    |--R. (I.) mathematica (Smith 1860) R78, NK11
    |    |    |--R. m. mathematica R78
    |    |    `--R. m. binotata R78
    |    |--R. (I.) mutabilis Richards 1978 C85
    |    |    |--R. m. mutabilis C85
    |    |    `--R. m. torresiana Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) nitidula R78
    |    |--R. (I.) nobilis R78
    |    |--R. (I.) pendula R78
    |    |--R. (I.) petulans R78
    |    |--R. (I.) plebiana Richards 1978 [=R. plebeiana, Icaria plebeja Saussure 1863 non Saussure 1862] R78
    |    |--R. (I.) politica R78
    |    |--R. (I.) pomicolor R78
    |    |--R. (I.) proletaria Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) ranavali R78
    |    |--R. (I.) revolutionalis (Saussure 1853) [=Icaria revolutionalis, I. revolutinalis (l. c.)] C85
    |    |--R. (I.) schulthessi R78
    |    |--R. (I.) scitula (Bingham 1897) R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) socialistica (Saussure 1853) [=Icaria socialistica] C85
    |    |--R. (I.) spatulata R78
    |    |--R. (I.) timida van der Vecht 1962 R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) tomentosa R78
    |    |--R. (I.) trichophthalma Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) turneri Richards 1978 C85
    |    |--R. (I.) unicolor (Smith 1859) R78, SK05
    |    |--R. (I.) variabilis R78
    |    |--R. (I.) variegata (Smith 1852) R78, NK11
    |    `--R. (I.) vitripennis R78
    |--R. (Paraicaria Gribodo 1892) R78
    |    |--R. (P.) bicolorata van der Vecht 1962 (see below for synonymy) R78
    |    `--R. (P.) nigerrima van der Vecht 1962 R78, NK11
    `--R. (Polistratus Cameron 1906) C85
         |--R. (P.) brunnea (Smith 1858) R78 (see below for synonymy)
         |--R. (P.) bambusae Richards 1978 R78
         |--R. (P.) domestica Cheesman 1952 R78
         |--R. (P.) latetergum Richards 1978 C85
         |--R. (P.) melania Richards 1978 R78
         |--R. (P.) mysolica [incl. Odynerus conspicuus] R78
         |--R. (P.) nigra [incl. R. spilostoma] R78
         |--R. (P.) sepicana Richards 1978 R78
         |--R. (P.) wudai R78
         |    |--R. w. wudai R78
         |    `--R. w. trullissima R78
         `--R. (P.) xanthura R78

Ropalidia incertae sedis:
  R. aethiopica (Du Buysson 1906) [=Icaria aethiopica] GS61
  R. artifex (de Saussure 1853) NK11
    |--R. a. artifex R78
    `--R. a. fuscata R78
  R. bipartita van der Vecht 1962 NK11
  R. crassa van der Vecht 1941 NK11
  R. curvilineata (Cameron 1908) NK11
  R. dichroma van der Vecht 1941 NK11
  R. extrema (van der Vecht 1962) NK11
  R. flavobrunnea van der Vecht 1962 NK11
  R. fraterna R78
  R. hongkongensisjuncta (de Saussure 1854) NK11
  R. javanica van der Vecht 1962 NK11 [=R. flavopicta javanica R78]
  R. latebalteata (Cameron 1902) NK11
  R. luzonensis Kojima 1996 NK11
  R. nigrescens van der Vecht 1962 NK11
  R. obscura Gusenleitner 1996 NK11
  R. orhracea NK11
  R. ornaticeps (Cameron 1908) NK11
  R. palawana (Kojima & Tano 1985) NK11
  R. philippinensis (de Saussure 1854) NK11
  R. plebeja (Saussure 1862) NK11 [=Icaria plebeja C85]
  R. pseudomalayana Kojima 1996 NK11
  R. punctum (Fabricius 1804) [=Polistes punctum] C85
  R. socialis (de Saussure 1862) NK11
  R. stigma (Smith 1858) NK11 [=Polybia stigma R78]
  R. trimaculata van der Vecht 1962 NK11

Ropalidia (Icariella) conservator R78 [incl. R. decorata (Smith 1858) R78, NK11, R. goodfellowi R78, R. limatula R78, R. waigeuensis R78, R. xanthopoda R78]

Ropalidia (Icariola) cincta (Lepeletier 1836) R78, GS61 [=Epipona cincta GS61, Icaria cincta GS61; incl. I. tricinctella Gribodo 1895 GS61]

Ropalidia (Icariola) gregaria spilocephala (Cameron 1906) [=Icaria spilocephala; incl. R. gregaria inquieta Cheesman 1952, I. kohni du Buysson 1909, R. gregaria var. tolerans Cheesman 1952] R78

Ropalidia (Paraicaria) bicolorata van der Vecht 1962 [incl. *Paraicaria bicolor Gribodo 1892 non Icaria bicolor Smith 1864] R78

Ropalidia (Polistratus) brunnea (Smith 1858) R78 [=Icaria brunnea C85; incl. R. alleni R78, *Polistratus cariniscutis Cameron 1906 C85]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[GS61] Giordani Soika, A. 1961. Hymenoptera (Aculeata): Vespidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 440–451. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[NK11] Nicholas, A. S., J. Kojima, M. Y. Ruslan, M. Fauzi & A. B. Idris. 2011. A list of social vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from Kuala Lompat, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 59–74.

[R78] Richards, O. W. 1978. The Australian social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 61: 1–132.

[SK05] Saito, F., J. Kojima, R. Ubaidillah & S. Hartini. 2005. Paper wasps of the genus Polistes in eastern Lesser Sunda Islands (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 102–114.

Sphecidae

Cricket-hunter wasp Chlorion aerarium, copyright David Bygott.


Belongs within: Apoidea.
Contains: Sphex, Isodontia, Prionyx, Palmodes, Ammophilinae, Chalybion, Sceliphron, Penepodium, Podium.

The Sphecidae, thread-waisted wasps, are a group of often large wasps whose gaster bears a more or less elongate petiole that is usually composed of the first gastral sternite only. Historically, the name has been used to cover all apoid wasps (i.e. Apoidea excluding bees), a group that now known to be paraphyletic.

Characters (from Bohart & Menke 1976, as Sphecinae): Inner orbits entire, converging or diverging below or parallel; ocelli normal. Antennae usually inserted near middle of face, sockets contiguous with to widely separated from frontoclypeal suture; male with 13 and female with 12 antennal articles. Clypeus transverse or higher than wide, rarely nasiform. Mandible without a notch or angle on externoventral margin; palpal formula usually 6-4 (rarely 6-3 to 6-1); mouthparts short to long; mandibular socket usually closed; occiput and hypostoma usually in contact or nearly so. Pronotum with a high, short collar or collar elongate, and somewhat depressed below level of scutum, rarely tuberculate; pronotal lobe broadly separated from tegula. Notauli present or absent but weak and short when present; no oblique scutal carina. Episternal sulcus usually present, usually extending to anteroventral region of pleuron; omaulus absent. Definitive metapleuron usually consisting of upper metapleural area only. Midtibia usually with two apical spurs; midcoxal cavities and coxae usually approximate, midcoxae without dorsolateral carina or crest; precoxal lobe present; hindfemur usually simple apically; claws with one to five teeth on inner margin, or simple; foretarsal rake present or absent; arolium usually large. Propodeum moderately long to very long; enclosure present, U-shaped, or absent; propodeal sternite present. Forewing usually with three submarginal cells and two recurrent veins whose end point is variable; marginal cell apex acuminate, rounded, or truncate. Jugal lobe large, occupying most of anal area, hindwing media usually diverging at or after cu-a; hindwing without subcoatal vein but with third anal vein. Gaster with cylindrical petiole composed of sternum I, displaced tergum I rarely forming part of petiole; tergum I without lateral carina or line; male with six or seven visible gastral segments; pygidial plate absent. Volsella of male genitalia usually with cuspis and movable digitus; aedeagal head usually with teeth on ventral margin; male sternum VIII variable; cerci present or absent.

Sphecidae [Sceliphronina, Sceliphronini]
    |--Sphecinae SN18
    |    |--+--Sphecini [Sphecina] BM76
    |    |  |    |--Sphex PK17
    |    |  |    `--+--+--Isodontia PK17
    |    |  |       |  `--'Prionyx’ subatratus (Bohart 1958) SN18, BM76 [=Priononyx subatratus BM76]
    |    |  |       `--Prionychini [Prionyxina] SN18
    |    |  |            |--Prionyx PK17
    |    |  |            `--+--Chilosphex Menke in Bohart & Menke 1976 BM76
    |    |  |               |    |--*C. argyrius (Brullé 1833) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |  |               |    `--C. pseudoargyrius (Roth 1967) [=Sphex pseudoargyrius, Palmodes pseudoargyrius] BM76
    |    |  |               `--Palmodes BM76
    |    |  `--Ammophilinae BM76
    |    `--Stangeella Menke 1962 BM76 [Stangeellini SN18, Stangellina]
    |         `--*S. cyaniventris (Guérin-Méneville 1831) [=Pelopoeus cyaniventris, Chlorion cyaniventris] BM76
    `--+--Sceliphrinae SN18
       |    |--Sceliphrini SN18
       |    |    |--Chalybion SN18
       |    |    `--Sceliphron SN18
       |    `--Podiini SN18
       |         |--+--Penepodium BM76
       |         |  `--Dynatus Lepeletier 1845 [incl. Stethorectus Smith 1847] BM76
       |         |       |--D. nigripes (Westwood 1832) [=Podium nigripes; incl. P. giganteum Erichson 1848] BM76
       |         |       |    |--D. n. nigripes BM76
       |         |       |    `--*D. n. spinolae Lepeletier 1845 [incl. *Stethorectus ingens Smith 1847] BM76
       |         |       |--D. burmeisteri (Burmeister 1861) (see below for synonymy) BM76
       |         |       `--D. crassipes (Cameron 1897) [=Podium crassipes] BM76
       |         `--+--Podium BM76
       |            `--Trigonopsis Perty 1833 BM76
       |                 |--T. rufiventris (Fabricius 1804) BM76 (see below for synonymy)
       |                 |--T. cameronii (Kohl 1902) [=Podium cameronii] BM76
       |                 |--T. cyclocephalus Smith 1873 BM76
       |                 |--T. grylloctonus Richards 1937 BM76
       |                 |--T. intermedia Saussure 1867 BM76
       |                 |--T. moraballi Richards 1937 BM76
       |                 |--T. resplendens (Kohl 1902) [=Podium resplendens] BM76
       |                 |--T. soror Mocsáry 1883 [incl. T. frivaldszkyi Mocsáry 1883] BM76
       |                 |--T. vicina (Dalla Torre 1897) (see below for synonymy) BM76
       |                 `--T. violascens (Dalla Torre 1897) (see below for synonymy) BM76
       `--Chlorion Latreille 1802-1803 BM76 [=Chlorium Schulz 1906 BM76; Chloriontinae SN18]
            |--*C. lobatum (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) BM76
            |    |--C. l. lobatum BM76
            |    `--C. l. rugosum Smith 1856 BM76
            |--C. aerarium Patton 1879 [incl. Sphex nearcticus Kohl 1890] BM76
            |--C. boharti Menke 1961 BM76
            |--C. consanguineum (Kohl 1898) [=Sphex consanguineus] BM76
            |--C. cyaneum Dahlbom 1843 [incl. Sphex occultus Kohl 1890] BM76
            |--C. funereum Gribodo 1879 [incl. Sphex eximius Kohl 1885 non Lepeletier 1845, S. kohli André 1888] BM76
            |--C. hemiprasinum (Sichel 1863) (see below for synonymy) BM76
            |--C. hemipyrrhum (Sichel 1863) (see below for synonymy) BM76
            |--C. hirtum (Kohl 1885) [=Sphex hirtus] BM76
            |--C. magnificum Morawitz 1887 BM76
            |--C. maxillosum (Poiret 1787) (see below for synonymy) BM76
            |    |--C. m. maxillosum BM76
            |    `--C. m. ciliatum (Fabricius 1787) (see below for synonymy) BM76
            |--C. migiurtinicum (Giordani Soika 1941) [=Sphex migiurtinicus] BM76
            |--C. mirandum (Kohl 1890) [=Sphex mirandus] BM76
            |--C. regale Smith 1873 [incl. C. superbum Radoszkowski 1887] BM76
            |--C. semenowi Morawitz 1890 BM76
            |    |--C. s. semenowi BM76
            |    `--C. s. occidentale (Beaumont 1962) (see below for synonymy) BM76
            |--C. splendidum Fabricius 1804 (see below for synonymy) BM76
            |--C. strandi Willink 1951 [incl. Sphex tibialis Strand 1910 nec Fabricius 1781 nec Lepeletier 1845] BM76
            `--C. viridicoeruleum Lepeletier & Serville 1828 BM76

Sphecidae incertae sedis:
  Baissodes [Baissodidae] R02
    |--B. longus Rasnitsyn 1986 RJ93
    `--B. robustus R02
  Archisphex BM76 [incl. Palaeapis Hong 1984 E01] E01
    |--*Palaeapis’ beiboziensis Hong 1984 E01
    `--A. crowsoni Evans 1969 BM76
  Lisponema singularis Evans 1969 BM76
  Taimyrisphex pristinus Evans 1973 BM76
  Philoponites clarus Cockerell 1915 BM76
  Prophilanthus destructus Cockerell 1906 BM76
  Larrophanes ophthalmicus Handlirsch 1907 BM76
  Corenocrabro Tsuneki 1974 BM76
    `--*C. ectemiformis Tsuneki 1974 BM76
  Cretosphex Rasnitsyn 1975 BM76
    `--*C. incertus Rasnitsyn 1975 BM76
  Mataeosphex venulosus Zhang 1985 RJ93
  Hoplisidea kohliana Cockerell 1906 SN18, BM76

*Chilosphex argyrius (Brullé 1833) [=Sphex argyrius, Palmodes argyrius; incl. S. emarginatus Brullé 1833 non Villers 1789] BM76

Chlorion hemiprasinum (Sichel 1863) [=Sphex hemiprasinus; incl. C. bicolor Saussure 1869, C. pretiosum Taschenberg 1869] BM76

Chlorion hemipyrrhum (Sichel 1863) [=Sphex hemipyrrhus; incl. S. eximius Strand 1910 nec Lepeletier 1845 nec Kohl 1885, S. lepidus Strand 1910, Chlorion metallicum Taschenberg 1869, C. nobilitatum Taschenberg 1869, C. pallidipenne Taschenberg 1869, Sphex principalis Strand 1910] BM76

*Chlorion lobatum (Fabricius 1775) [=Sphex lobatus; incl. C. azureum Lepeletier & Serville 1828, C. azuzium (l. c.), Sphex chrysis Christ 1791, S. viridis Barbut 1781] BM76

Chlorion maxillosum (Poiret 1787) [=Sphex maxillosus; incl. Pronaeus apicalis Guérin-Méneville 1849, P. nigripes Guérin-Méneville 1849, P. rufipes Guérin-Méneville 1849] BM76

Chlorion maxillosum ciliatum (Fabricius 1787) [=Sphex ciliatus; incl. Pronaeus afinis Smith 1856, Chlorion columbianum Gribodo 1883, Sphex cyanescens Radoszkowski 1881, C. fulvipes Gerstaecker 1857, Pronaeus instabilis Smith 1856, Sphex kigonseranus Strand 1916, S. levilabris Cameron 1910, Chlorion mandibulare Fabricius 1804, S. massaicus Cameron 1908, Pepsis maxillaris Palisot de Beauvois 1805, Chlorion subcyaneum Gerstaecker 1857, C. unicolor Saussure 1867, C. varipenne Reiche & Fairmaire 1850, Sphex xanthoceros Illiger 1801, C. zonatum Saussure 1867] BM76

Chlorion semenowi occidentale (Beaumont 1962) [=Sphex occidentalis; incl. C. bicolor Walker 1871 non Saussure 1869] BM76

Chlorion splendidum Fabricius 1804 [incl. Pronaeus campbelli Saunders 1841, C. forficula Saussure 1891, C. melanosoma Smith 1856, Sphex pulcher Lepeletier 1845] BM76

Dynatus burmeisteri (Burmeister 1861) [=Podium burmeisteri; incl. P. lindneri Schulthess 1937] BM76

Trigonopsis rufiventris (Fabricius 1804) BM76 [=Podium rufiventre BM76; incl. *T. abdominalis Perty 1833 BM76, Podium abdominale K18, T. haemorrhoidalis Smith 1856 BM76]

Trigonopsis vicina (Dalla Torre 1897) [=Sceliphron vicinum, T. affinis Smith 1851 nec Sphex affinis Fabricius 1793 nec S. affinis Lucas 1849, Sc. affine] BM76

Trigonopsis violascens (Dalla Torre 1897) [=Sceliphron violascens, T. violacea Smith 1851 non Sphex violacea Fabricius 1775] BM76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[K18] Kohl, F. F. 1918. Die Hautflügergruppe "Sphecinae". IV. Teil. Die natürliche Gattung Sceliphron Klug (Pelopoeus Latr.). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien 32: 1–171.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 242–254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SN18] Sann, M., O. Niehuis, R. S. Peters, C. Mayer, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, S. Bank, K. Meusemann, B. Misof, C. Bleidorn & M. Ohl. 2018. Phylogenomic analysis of Apoidea sheds new light on the sister group of bees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18: 71.