Obtectomera

Twenty-plume moth Orneodes hexadactyla, copyright Entomart.


Belongs within: Apoditrysia.
Contains: Copromorphoidea, Hesperiidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Riodinidae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae, Pyraloidea, Macroheterocera, Gelechioidea, Thyrididae, Alucitoidea, Pterophoridae.

The Obtectomera are a clade of Lepidoptera united in its circumscription below by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Kawahara et al. 2019). Historically, the clade has been characterised by pupae with abdominal segments 1–4 immobile and without a dorsal row of spines on the tergites (Grimaldi & Engel 2005); however, Obtectomera in this sense may not be monophyletic. Representatives of the Obtectomera include the Calliduloidea, a small group of diurnal moths with simple antennae and wings held back to back at rest, resembling small butterflies (Common 1970). Members of the superfamilies Alucitoidea and Pterophoroidea, plume moths, often have the fore and hind wings deeply cleft into multiple plumes. Pterophoroidea usually possess vein CuP in the fore wing whereas this vein is absent in Alucitoidea (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Obtectomera [Bombycina, Bombycites, Macrolepidoptera, Pyralidina] KP19
    |  i. s.: Hyblaea IR05 [Hyblaeidae, Hyblaeoidea NC91]
    |           |--H. ibidias NC91
    |           `--H. pleura IR05
    |         Copromorphoidea GE05
    |         Whalleyaniidae GE05
    |         Cypra delicatula [incl. Cozistra membranacea] M86
    |         Artaxa M86
    |           |--A. lutea M86
    |           `--A. paraneura Meyrick 1886 M86
    |--Papilionoidea [Papilionides, Rhopalocera] KP19
    |    |  i. s.: Thanatites vetula GE05
    |    |         Corades B66a
    |    |           |--C. cybele Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |           `--C. sareba B66a
    |    |         Daedelma B66a
    |    |           |--D. doraete B66a
    |    |           `--D. emilia Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |         Debis B66a
    |    |           |--D. chandica B66a
    |    |           |--D. europa WM66
    |    |           |--‘Papilio’ halyma Fabricius 1793 [=Neonympha halyma, Satyrus halyma] B66b
    |    |           |--D. isabella Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |           `--D. portlandia B66b
    |    |         Hetaera B66a
    |    |           |--H. aurora [incl. H. andromeda] B66a
    |    |           |--H. esmeralda B66a
    |    |           |--H. harpalyce Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |           |--H. pellucida Butler 1866 B6a
    |    |           |--H. philis B66a
    |    |           `--H. pireta B66a
    |    |         Callidryas WM66
    |    |           |--C. alcmeone WM66
    |    |           |--C. pyranthe WM66
    |    |           `--C. scylla R13
    |    |         Messaris erymanthus WM66
    |    |         Diadema WM66
    |    |           |--D. auge WM66
    |    |           `--D. bolina WM66
    |    |         Hestina assimilis WM66
    |    |           |--H. a. assimilis Iw92
    |    |           `--H. a. shirakii Shirôzu 1955 Iw92
    |    |         Athyma leucothoe WM66
    |    |         Ergolis coryta WM66
    |    |         Cyllo leda WM66
    |    |         Pterygospidea folus [incl. P. cicero] WM66
    |    |         Ismene ladon WM66
    |    |         Chionobas bore [incl. Papilio polixenes Fabricius 1793, Neonympha polixenes] B66b
    |    |         Enodia creola C37
    |    |         Amblyscirtes carolina C37
    |    |         Sarangesa eliminata B01c
    |    |         Pamphila P27
    |    |           |--P. augias WM66
    |    |           |--P. hobomoc P27
    |    |           |--P. maesa Moore 1865 WM66
    |    |           `--P. silvius F92
    |    |         Argyrophenga antipodum P27
    |    |         Archaeprepona GE05
    |    |         Heraclides cresphontes Im92
    |    |         Ericina G20
    |    |           |--E. cupido G20
    |    |           `--E. lysippus G20
    |    |--+--+--Hesperiidae KP19
    |    |  |  `--Hedylidae [Hedyloidea] GE05
    |    |  |       |--Hedyle Guenée 1857 BR05
    |    |  |       `--Macrosoma hedylaria KP19, GE05
    |    |  `--+--Pieridae KP19
    |    |     `--+--Nymphalidae GE05
    |    |        `--+--Riodinidae J03
    |    |           `--Lycaenidae GE05
    |    `--Papilionidae KP19
    `--+--+--Pyraloidea KP19
       |  `--+--Macroheterocera KP19
       |     `--Mimallonidae [Lacosomidae, Mimallonoidea] KP19
       |          |--Bedosia strigifera (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Perophora strigifera] NSp07
       |          |--Lacosoma chiridota KP19
       |          |--Menevia lantona KP19
       |          `--Cicinnus NSp07
       |               |--C. despecta (Walker 1855) [incl. Perophora sanguinolenta Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
       |               `--C. melsheimeri P27
       `--+--Gelechioidea KP19
          `--+--+--Thyrididae KP19
             |  `--Calliduloidea KP19
             |       |--Pterothysanus [Pterothysanidae] RD77
             |       `--Callidulidae KP19
             |            |--Cleis scotti C70
             |            `--Pterodecta [Callidulinae] KP19
             |                 `--P. felderi KP19
             `--+--Alucitoidea KP19
                `--Pterophoroidea [Pterophorii] GE05
                     |--Pterophoridae GE05
                     `--Orneodes Latreille 1802 L02 [Orneodidae P27]
                          |--*O. hexadactyla L02, RD77 [=Pterophorus hexadactylus L02, Alucita hexadactyla H04]
                          |--O. objurgatella B88
                          |--O. phricodes P27
                          `--O. pygmaea RD77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[B66a] Butler, A. G. 1866a. Descriptions of some new exotic butterflies in the National Collection. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 39–42.

[B66b] Butler, A. G. 1866b. A monograph of the genus Euptychia, a numerous race of butterflies belonging to the family Satyridae; with descriptions of sixty species new to science, and notes on their affinities &c. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 458–504.

[B01] Butler, A. G. 1901. On a collection of butterflies from the Uganda Protectorate, forwarded by C. Steuart Betton, Esq., in 1900. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 562.

[C37] Clark, A. H. 1937. The butterflies of Virginia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (5): 116.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[IR05] Idris, A. B., & A. Rizki. 2005. Notes on the tribe Ephialtini (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) of Malaysia. Serangga 10 (1–2): 111–126.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. On some Lepidoptera from the Fly River. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 241–258.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

Pyrginae

Grizzled skipper Pyrgus malvae, copyright Gail Hampshire.


Belongs within: Hesperiidae.

The Pyrginae, flats, are a cosmopolitan group of relatively large, robust and fast-flying skippers whose larvae feed on a wide range of dicotyledonous plants (Braby 2000a).

Characters (from Braby 2000a): Antenna more than half length of costa of fore wing; third segment of labial palp erect or porrect, short to medium in length, stout; fore wing with vein M2 straight near origin, arising midway between M1 and M3 or closer to M1 than M3; hind wing with cell normal, termen rounded; male may have costal gold or linear scent-pouch, containing numerous sex-scales, on costa near base of fore wing.

<==Pyrginae [Pyrgidae] J03
    |--Capila J03
    |--Telemiades J03
    |--Eagris J03
    |--Celaenorrhinus Hübner 1919 B00a
    |    `--C. fritzgaertneri (Balley 1880) FS54
    |--Exometoeca Meyrick 1888 B00a
    |    `--E. nycteris Meyrick 1888 B00a
    |--Euschemon Doubleday 1846 [Euschemoninae] B00a
    |    `--E. rafflesia (Macleay 1826) B00a
    |         |--E. r. rafflesia B00a
    |         `--E. r. alba Mabille 1903 B00a
    |--Netrocoryne Felder & Felder 1867 B00a
    |    |--N. repanda Felder & Felder 1867 B00a
    |    |    |--N. r. repanda B00a
    |    |    `--N. r. expansa Waterhouse 1932 B00a
    |    `--N. thaddaeus (Hewitson 1876) B00a
    |--Chaetocneme Felder 1860 B00a
    |    |--C. beata (Hewitson 1867) B00a
    |    |--C. critomedia (Guérin-Méneville 1831) B00a
    |    |    |--C. c. critomedia B00a
    |    |    `--C. c. sphinterifera (Fruhstorfer 1910) B00a
    |    |--C. denitza (Hewitson 1867) B00a
    |    `--C. porphyropsis (Meyrick & Lower 1902) B00a
    |--Tagiades Hübner 1819 B00a
    |    |--T. flesus B01a
    |    |--T. japetus (Stoll 1781) B00a
    |    |    |--T. j. japetus B00a
    |    |    `--T. j. janetta Butler 1870 B00a
    |    `--T. nestus (Felder 1860) B00b
    |         |--T. n. nestus B00b
    |         `--T. n. korela Mabille 1891 B00b
    `--Pyrgus Hübner 1819 BR05
         |--P. dromus B01a
         |--P. machacosa B01b
         |--P. maculatus (Bremer & Grey 1852) I92
         |--P. malvae (Linnaeus 1758) I92
         |--P. notata (Blanchard 1852) FS54
         |--P. orcus (Cramer 1782) S55
         `--P. syrichtus (Fabricius 1775) FS54
              |--P. s. syrichtus FS54
              `--P. s. montivagus (Reakirt 1866) FS54

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[B00a] Braby, M. F. 2000a. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B00b] Braby, M. F. 2000b. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B01a] Butler, A. G. 1901a. An account of a collection of butterflies made by the Rev. K. St. Aubyn Rogers between Mombasa and the forests of Taveta. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 22–35.

[B01b] Butler, A. G. 1901b. An account of a collection of butterflies obtained by Lord Delamere, chiefly at Munisu, near Mount Kenya. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 197–203.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75–87.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329–338.

Hesperilla

Silver sedge-skipper Hesperilla crypsargyra, copyright Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Hesperiidae.

Hesperilla, sedge-skippers, is a genus of skippers found in coastal and subcoastal regions of Australia, with larvae feeding on species of Cyperaceae (Braby 2000).

Characters (from Braby 2000): Club of antenna bent before middle, apiculus long and pointed; third segment of labial palp of moderate length; fore wing with vein CuA2 arising midway between end and base of cell, vein 1A+2A in male relatively straight; hind wing with vein CuA1 arising closer to M3 than CuA2; hind tibia with two pairs of spurs; male with linear patch of sex-scales. Pupal cap strongly produced and heavily sclerotised; abdominal segments of pupa containing long stiff setae.

<==Hesperilla Hewitson 1868 B00
    |--H. chrysostricha (Meyrick & Lower 1902) B00
    |    |--H. c. chrysotricha (see below for synonymy) B00
    |    `--H. c. cyclospila (Meyrick & Lower 1902) B00
    |--H. crypsargyra (Meyrick 1888) B00
    |    |--H. c. crypsargyra [incl. H. crypsargyra lesouefi Tindale 1953] B00
    |    `--H. c. hopsoni Waterhouse 1927 B00
    |--H. crypsigramma (Meyrick & Lower 1902) B00
    |--H. donnysa Hewitson 1868 B00
    |    |--H. d. donnysa (see below for synonymy) B00
    |    |--H. d. albina Waterhouse 1932 B00
    |    |--H. d. aurantia Waterhouse 1927 B00
    |    `--H. d. galena Waterhouse 1927 B00
    |--H. flavescens Waterhouse 1941 (see below for synonymy) B00
    |--H. furva Sands & Kerr 1973 B00
    |--H. idothea (Miskin 1889) B00
    |    |--H. i. idothea B00
    |    `--H. i. clara Waterhouse 1932 B00
    |--H. malindeva Lower 1911 [incl. H. malindeva dagoomba Johnson & Valentine 1994] B00
    |--H. mastersi Waterhouse 1900 B00
    |--H. ornata (Leach 1814) B00
    |    |--H. o. ornata B00
    |    `--H. o. monotherm Lower 1907 B00
    |--H. picta (Leach 1814) B00
    |--H. sarnia Atkins 1978 B00
    `--H. sexguttata Herrich-Schäffer 1869 B00

Hesperilla chrysotricha chrysotricha (Meyrick & Lower 1902) [incl. H. chrysotricha leucosia Waterhouse 1938, H. chrysotricha lunawanna Couchman 1949, H. chrysotricha naua Couchman 1949, H. chrysotricha plebeia Waterhouse 1927] B00

Hesperilla donnysa donnysa Hewitson 1868 [incl. H. donnysa delos Waterhouse 1941, H. donnysa diluta Waterhouse 1932, H. donnysa icaria Waterhouse 1941, H. donnysa patmos Waterhouse 1941, H. donnysa samos Waterhouse 1941] B00

Hesperilla flavescens Waterhouse 1941 [=H. donnysa flavescens; incl. H. donnysa flavia Waterhouse 1941, H. flavescens flavia] B00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

Hesperiinae

Western grass dart Taractrocera papyria agraulia, copyright Fred Hort.


Belongs within: Hesperiidae.
Contains: Telicota, Ocybadistes, Suniana.

The Hesperiinae are a cosmopolitan group of skippers whose larvae feed on species of monocotyledons, particularly on grasses (Braby 2000).

Characters (from Braby 2000): Length of antenna variable, less or greater than half length of costa of fore wing; labial palp with third segment porrect or erect, short and stout, or long and slender; fore wing with vein M2 downwardly curved near origin, arising closer to M3 than M1; hind wing with cell normal with discocellular vein between M2 and M3 angled or inclined towards tornus or termen, termen rounded or distinctly lobed and produced at tornus.

<==Hesperiinae J03
    |--+--Plastingia J03
    |  |--Prada J03
    |  `--Tiacellia J03
    |--Hesperia J03
    |    |--H. agna Moore 1865 WM66
    |    |--H. comma P01
    |    |--H. conjuncta R13
    |    |--H. divodasa Moore 1865 WM66
    |    |--H. evalthe [=Papilio evalthe] L02
    |    |--H. licas [=Papilio licas] L02
    |    |--H. lineola P01
    |    |--H. malvae L02
    |    `--H. proteus L02
    `--+--+--Pastria J03
       |  `--+--Oriens angustula (Herrich-Schäffer 1869) J03, B00
       |     `--Cephrenes Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 J03, B00
       |          |--C. augiades (Felder 1860) B00
       |          |    |--C. a. augiades B00
       |          |    `--C. a. sperthias (Felder 1862) B00
       |          `--C. trichopepla (Lower 1908) B12
       `--+--+--Banta J03
          |  |--Kobrona J03
          |  |--Telicota J03
          |  `--+--Mimene Joicey & Talbot 1917 J03, B00
          |     |    `--M. atropatene (Fruhstorfer 1911) B00
          |     `--Sabera Swinhoe 1908 J03, B00
          |          |--S. caesina (Hewitson 1866) B00
          |          |    |--S. c. caesina B00
          |          |    `--S. c. albifascia (Miskin 1889) B00
          |          |--S. dobboe (Plötz 1885) B00
          |          |    |--S. d. dobboe B00
          |          |    `--S. d. autoleon (Miskin 1889) B00
          |          `--S. fuliginosa (Miskin 1889) B00
          `--+--Arrhenes Mabille 1904 J03
             |    |--A. dschilus (Plötz 1885) B00
             |    |    |--A. d. dschilus B00
             |    |    `--A. d. iris (Waterhouse 1932) B00
             |    `--A. marnas (Felder 1860) B00
             |         |--A. m. marnas B00
             |         `--A. m. affinis (Waterhouse & Lyell 1912) B00
             `--+--Potanthus J03
                `--+--Ocybadistes J03
                   `--+--Suniana J03
                      `--Taractrocera Butler 1870 J03, B00
                           |--T. anisomorpha (Lower 1911) B12
                           |--T. dolon (Plötz 1884) B00
                           |    |--T. d. dolon B00
                           |    `--T. d. diomedes Waterhouse 1933 B00
                           |--T. ilia Waterhouse 1932 B00
                           |--T. ina Waterhouse 1932 B00
                           `--T. papyria (Boisduval 1832) B00
                                |--T. p. papyria B00
                                `--T. p. agraulia (Hewitson 1868) B00

Hesperiinae incertae sedis:
  Pelopidas Walker 1870 B00
    |--P. agna (Moore 1866) B12
    |    |--P. a. agna B00
    |    `--P. a. dingo Evans 1949 B00
    |--P. lyelli (Rothschild 1915) B12
    `--P. mathias VHK02
         |--P. m. mathias F92
         `--P. m. oberthueri F92
  Notocrypta de Niceville 1889 B00
    `--N. waigensis (Plötz 1882) B00
         |--N. w. waigensis B00
         `--N. proserpina (Butler 1883) B00
  Parnara Moore 1881 B00
    |--P. amalia (Semper 1879) B00
    |--P. bada (Moore 1878) [=P. naso bada] B00
    |    |--P. b. bada B00
    |    `--P. b. sida (Waterhouse 1934) B00
    |--P. guttata NI11
    |--P. mathias P01
    `--P. ogasawaraensis Matsumura 1906 I92
  Borbo Evans 1949 B00
    |--B. cinnara (Wallace 1866) B00
    `--B. impar (Mabille 1883) B00
         |--B. i. impar B00
         |--B. i. lavinia (Waterhouse 1932) B00
         `--B. i. tetragraphus (Mabille 1891) B00
  Pseudoborbo Lee 1966 B00
    `--P. bevani (Moore 1878) [=Borbo bevani] B00

Nomen nudum: Hesperia cinnara Moore in Wallace & Moore 1866 WM66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[NI11] Norhafiza, A. F., & A. B. Idris. 2011. A catalogue of Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 29–50.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

Riodinidae

Duke of Burgundy Hamearis lucina, copyright Gilles San Martin.


Belongs within: Obtectomera.
Contains: Nymphidiini.

The Riodinidae, metalmarks, are a group of butterflies that are most diverse in the Neotropical region.

Characters (from Braby 2000, as Riodininae): Male fore leg non-functional, less than half length of mid and hind legs, tarsus fused into single segment, rarely with claws; hind wing usually with basal vein along costal margin, tornus may be produced, lobed or dentate but rarely tailed; males rarely with sex-scales. Larva with prothorax bearing pair of vibratory papillae, metathorax bearing pair of dorsolateral eversible organs, pair of eversible nectary organs present on segment 8.

<==Riodinidae [Nemeobiidae]
    |--Hamearinae [Nemeobiinae] J03
    |    |--Abisara J03
    |    |--Zemeros J03
    |    `--Hamearis lucina [=Nemeobius lucina] RD77
    `--Riodininae HH02
         |  i. s.: Praetaxila Fruhstorfer 1914 B00
         |           `--P. segecia (Hewitson 1861) B00
         |                |--P. s. segecia B00
         |                |--P. s. punctaria (Fruhstorfer 1904) B00
         |                `--P. s. yaniya Fruhsorfer 1914 B00
         |         Styx [Styginae] B00
         |           `--S. infernalis Staudinger 1875 B00
         |         Semomesia capanea KP19
         `--Nymphidiini HH02

Riodinidae incertae sedis:
  Petrocerus catiena HH02
  Callistium HH02
  Emesis HH02
    |--E. guttata [=Audre guttata] HH02
    |--E. mandana (Cramer 1780) S55
    `--E. xanthosa HH02
  Calydna caieta HH02
  Stalachtis HH02
  Apodemia mormo HH02
    |--A. m. mormo USDI77
    `--A. m. langei USDI77
  Polystichtis S55
    |--P. emylius S55
    |    |--P. e. emylius S55
    |    `--P. e. crispinella Stichel 1911 S55
    `--P. lasthenes FS54
         |--P. l. lasthenes FS54
         `--P. l. zeurippa Boisduval 1836 FS54
  Calephelis virginiensis FS54
    |--C. v. virginiensis FS54
    `--C. v. laverna (Godman & Salvin 1886) FS54
  Lymnas FS54
    |--L. cephise (Ménétriés 1855) FS54
    `--L. pixe (Boisduval 1910) FS54
  Esthemopsis caeruleata (Godman & Salvin 1878) FS54
  Mesosemia S55
    |--M. jeziella S55
    |    |--M. j. jeziella S55
    |    `--M. j. thyestes Druce 1878 S55
    `--M. judicialis Butler 1874 S55
  Lyropteryx apollonia Westwood 1851 S55
  Cyrenia martia Westwood 1851 S55
  Ancyluris S55
    |--A. aulestes S55
    |    |--A. a. aulestes S55
    |    `--A. a. eryxo (Saunders 1858) S55
    `--A. inca GE05
  Rhetus S55
    |--R. arcius GE05
    `--R. periander (Cramer 1777) S55
  Caria S55
    |--C. mantinea (Felder 1861) S55
    `--C. trochilus S55
         |--C. t. trochilus S55
         `--C. t. arete (Felder 1861) S55
  Baeotis nesaea S55
    |--B. n. nesaea S55
    `--B. n. bacaenita Schaus 1902 S55
  Amarynthis meneria (see below for synonymy) S55
  Peplia lamis [incl. P. lamis f. molpe (Hübner 1816)] S55
  Helicopis GE05
    |--H. acis R13
    `--H. cupido GE05
  Riodinella nympha GE05
  Voltinia GE05
    |--V. danforthi V-W04
    |--V. dramba GE05
    `--V. umbra V-W04
  Euselasia GE05
  Mesenopsis melanochlora GE05
  Eurybiini HH02
    |--Alesa amesis HH02
    `--Eurybia S55
         |--E. nicaea (Fabricius 1775) S55
         `--E. patrona GE05

Amarynthis meneria [incl. A. meneria f. maecenas (Fabricius 1793), A. meneria f. micalia (Cramer 1776)] S55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75–87.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HH02] Hall, J. P. W., & D. J. Harvey. 2002. Basal subtribes of the Nymphidiini (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae): phylogeny and myrmecophily. Cladistics 18: 539–569.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329–338.

[USDI77] United States Department of the Interior. 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[V-W04] Vane-Wright, D. 2004. Butterflies at that awkward age. Nature 428: 477–480.

Macroheterocera

Small tolype moth Tolype notialis, copyright Ken Childs.


Belongs within: Obtectomera.
Contains: Drepanidae, Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, Bombycoidea, Lasiocampinae.

The Macroheterocera are a clade of mostly medium-sized to large moths united by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Kawahara et al. 2019). Many species in this clade possess sound-receptive tympanal organs, thought differences in location and structure imply non-homology. Drepanidae and Geometroidea have tympanal organs on the abdomen, Noctuoidea have them on the metathorax, usually with counter-tympanal cavities on the base of the abdomen that may have a prominent hood, and Bombycoidea lack tympanal organs.

<==Macroheterocera KP19
    |--Drepanoidea KP19
    |    |--Axia [Cimeliidae] KP19
    |    |    `--A. margarita KP19
    |    `--+--Drepanidae KP19
    |       `--Doa [Doidae] KP19
    `--+--Noctuoidea KP19
       `--+--Geometroidea KP19
          `--+--Bombycoidea KP19
             `--Lasiocampidae [Lasiocampoidea] KP19
                  |  i. s.: Aurivillia Tutt 1902 C92
                  |         Porela NS07
                  |           |--P. arida P27
                  |           `--P. notodontina (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Cosmotricha notodontina] NS07
                  |         Eriomorpha Fletcher 1982 (see below for synonymy) NO08
                  |         Euglyphis NS07
                  |           |--E. adusta (Walker 1855) [incl. Hydrias rubiginosa Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
                  |           |--E. grammophora (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hydrias grammophora] NS07
                  |           `--E. ochropyga (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hydrias ochropyga] NS07
                  |         Paralebeda crinodes (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Opsirhina crinodes] NS07
                  |         Bombycopsis Felder & Felder 1874 NS07
                  |           `--*B. ochroleuca Felder & Felder 1874 NS07
                  |         Titya abstersa Felder & Felder 1874 NS07
                  |         Eutricha capensis (Linnaeus 1767) [incl. Pachypasa ferruginea Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
                  |         Streblote aculeata (Walker 1865) [incl. Pachypasa scapulosa Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
                  |         Bombycomorpha Felder & Felder 1874 NS07
                  |           `--B. bifascia (Walker 1855) [incl. *B. nupta Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
                  |         Trichiura crataegi (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
                  |         Dendrolimus JP05
                  |           |--D. albolineatus F92
                  |           |--D. kikuchii F92
                  |           |--D. laricis F92
                  |           |--D. pini (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
                  |           |--D. punctatus F92
                  |           |--D. sibiricus F92
                  |           |--D. spectabilis PHK96
                  |           `--D. tabulaeformis F92
                  |         Pachypasa otus (Drury 1773) L-SSY04
                  |         Digglesia australasiae G84
                  |         Perna expansa C70
                  |         Malacosoma G05
                  |           |--M. americana RD77
                  |           |--M. californicum G05
                  |           |    |--M. c. californicum G05
                  |           |    `--M. c. fragile G05
                  |           |--M. castrensis F92
                  |           |--M. disstria G05
                  |           |--M. incurvum G05
                  |           `--M. neustria F92
                  |                |--M. n. neustria F92
                  |                `--M. n. testacea F92
                  |         Macrothylacia rubi RD77
                  |--Chionopsychinae ONE03
                  |--Chondrosteginae ONE03
                  |--Lasiocampinae NC91
                  |--Poecilocampa F92 [Poecilocampinae ONE03]
                  |    `--P. populi F92
                  |--Gastropachinae NC91
                  |    |--Pernattia pusilla NC91
                  |    `--Gastropacha DS73
                  |         |--G. populifolia DS73
                  |         `--G. quercifolia DS73
                  |              |--G. q. quercifolia DS73
                  |              `--G. q. alnifolia DS73
                  `--Macromphaliinae KP19
                       |--Artace rubripalpis (Felder & Felder 1874) KP19, NS07 [=Titya rubripalpis NS07]
                       |--Macromphalia Felder & Felder 1874 NS07
                       |    |--M. ancilla (Philippi 1859) [incl. *M. chilensis Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
                       |    `--M. dedecora (Feisthamel 1839) NS07
                       `--Tolype KP19
                            |--T. notialis KP19
                            `--T. picta (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Limacodilla picta] NS07

Eriomorpha Fletcher 1982 [=Lasiomorpha Turner 1932 non Joicey & Talbot in Joicey et al. 1916] NO08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G05] Grissell, E. E. 2005. A review of North American species of Microdontomerus Crawford (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 22–65.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121–123.

[NO08] Nässig, W. A., & R. G. Oberprieler. 2008. An annotated catalogue of the genera of Eupterotidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 53–80.

[NS07] Nässig, W. A., & W. Speidel. 2007. On the authorships of the Lepidoptera Atlas of the “Reise der Novara”, with a list of the taxa of Bombycoidea [s. l.] therein described (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 63–74.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[ONE03] Oberprieler, R. G., W. A. Nässig & E. D. Edwards. 2003. Ebbepterote, a new genus for the Australian ‘Eupterote’ expansa (T. P. Lucas), with a revised classification of the family Eupterotidae (Lepidoptera). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 99–110.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

Bombycoidea

Sphingognatha strix, copyright Eric van Schayck.


Belongs within: Macroheterocera.
Contains: Anthelinae, Sphingidae, Saturnioidea, Bombyx, Janinae, Striphnopteryginae, Eupterote.

The Bombycoidea are a diverse group of moths with broad wings and often strongly pectinate antennae. Many do not feed as adults and have the proboscis reduced or absent. Members include the Anthelidae, a group of moths restricted to Australia and New Guinea whose larvae feed on a variety of plant hosts, including Eucalyptus and Acacia species. The Eupterotidae are a primarily Old World family whose larvae bear dense, often branched secondary setae (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Bombycidae, silk moths, are a group of mostly large moths found in the Old World that encase themselves in a dense woven cocoon when pupating. The Brahmaeidae are another group of large moths found in the Old World tropics.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Medium sized to large; ocelli and chaetosemata absent; antennae often bipectinate, at least in male; maxillary palps small or absent; wings often broad; body stout, clothed with long hair-scales; tympanal organs absent. Egg of flat type, smooth. Larva with dense secondary setae, usually on verrucae, or with sparse setae, or scoli (fleshy processes bearing secondary setae), often with dorsal projection on abdominal segment 8, crochets usually biordinal in a mesoseries; feeding exposed in daytime. Pupa stout, usually in cocoon of silk sometimes mixed with larval hairs; not protruded at ecdysis.

Bombycoidea
    |--+--Endromidae KP19
    |  |    |--Endromis versicolor RD77
    |  |    |--Mustilizans dierli KP19
    |  |    `--Mirina christophi RD77
    |  `--+--+--Sphingidae KP19
    |     |  `--Saturnioidea KP19
    |     `--Bombycidae ONE03
    |          |  i. s.: Ocinara Walker 1856 NO08a
    |          |         Elachyophthalma Felder 1861 [incl. Calapterote Holland 1900] NO08a
    |          |           `--E. butleri (Holland 1900) [=*Calapterote butleri] NO08a
    |          |         Gastridiota Turner 1922 NO08a
    |          |           `--*G. adoxima (Turner 1902) [=Andraca adoxima] NO08a
    |          |         Sesquiluna Forbes 1955 [incl. Theophoba Fletcher & Nye 1982] NO08a
    |          |           |--*S. albilunata (Hampson 1910) [=Andraca albilunata] NO08a
    |          |           `--S. pendulans (Mell 1958) [=*Theophoba pendulans] NO08a
    |          |         Theophila huttoni P01
    |          |         Colla KP19
    |          |         Callochlora Packard 1864 E00
    |          |--Bombyx KP19
    |          |--Spanochroa Felder & Felder 1874 [Epiinae] NSp07
    |          |    `--*S. blandiatrix Felder & Felder 1874 NSp07
    |          `--Prismostictinae NO08a
    |               |--Mustilia Walker 1865 NO08a
    |               |--Prismosticta Butler 1880 NO08a
    |               |--Pseudandraca Miyata 1970 NO08a
    |               |--Oberthueria Staudinger 1892 NO08a
    |               `--Andraca Walker 1865 [incl. Pseudoeupterote Shiraki 1911] NO08a
    |                    |--*A. bipunctata Walker 1865 NO08a
    |                    `--‘Oreta’ theae Matsumura 1909 [=*Pseudoeupterote theae] NO08a
    `--+--Apatelodidae [Apatelodinae] NO08a
       |    |--Olceclostera Butler 1874 ONE03
       |    |--Hygrochroa firmiana [=Apatelodes firmiana] DW96
       |    `--Apatelodes Packard 1864 KP19, ONE03
       |         `--A. pithala KP19
       `--+--Lemoniidae RM01
          |    |--Sabalia Walker 1865 ONE03
          |    `--Lemonia Hübner 1820 ONE03
          |         `--L. dumi RM01
          |--Brahmaeidae RM01
          |    |--Dactyloceras Mell 1930 ONE03
          |    |--Spiramiopsis Hampson 1901 ONE03
          |    |--Acanthobrahmaea europaea RM01
          |    `--Brahmaea Walker 1855 KP19, ONE03
          |         |--B. certhia (Fabricius 1797) B66a (see below for synonymy)
          |         |--B. hearseyana B66b [incl. B. whitei Butler 1866 B66b, B66a]
          |         |--B. japonica Butler 1873 [incl. B. mniszechii Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
          |         |--B. lucina [=Phalaena attacus lucina, Bombyx lucina, Saturnia lucina] B66a
          |         `--B. lunulata Bremer 1852 [incl. B. petiveri Butler 1866, Saturnia undulata Bremer 1853] B66b
          `--Eupterotidae ONE03
               |--‘Hemijana’ variegata Rothschild 1917 NO08a
               |--Janinae NO08a
               |--Striphnopteryginae NO08a
               |--Pandala Walker 1855 NO08a
               |    `--*P. dolosa Walker 1855 NO08a
               |--Melanothrix Felder & Felder 1874 NO08a
               |    `--M. nymphaliaria (Walker 1866) (see below for synonymy) NO08a
               |--Pseudoganisa Schultze 1910 NO08a
               |    `--*P. currani Schultze 1910 [incl. Apha gonioptera (West 1932)] NO08a
               |--Ganisa Walker 1855 NO08a
               |    |--*G. postica Walker 1855 NO08a
               |    `--G. similis KP19
               |--Pseudojana Hampson 1893 NO08a
               |    |--*P. incandescens (Walker 1855) [=Jana incandescens] NO08a
               |    `--P. clemensi Schultze 1907 ONE03
               |--Poloma Walker 1855 [incl. Sarvena Walker 1865] NO08a
               |    |--*P. angulata Walker 1855 NO08a (see below for synonymy)
               |    `--P. nahor (Druce 1896) [=Phasicnecus nahor, Stenoglene nahor] NO08a
               |--Preptos Schaus 1892 NO08a
               |    |--*P. oropus Schaus 1892 [incl. P. norax Druce 1893] NO08a
               |    `--P. hidalgoensis Beutelspacher-B. 1983 NO08a
               |--Neopreptos Draudt 1930 NO08a
               |    |--*N. clazomenia (Druce 1886) [=Coloradia clazomenia] NO08a
               |    `--N. marathusa (Druce 1886) [=Coloradia marathusa] NO08a
               |--Apona Walker 1856 [incl. Pachyclea Gistel 1857] NO08a
               |    |--‘Gastropacha’ caschmirensis Kollar in Kollar & Redtenbacher 1844 (see below for synonymy) NO08a
               |    |--A. gyraleus (Orhant 2000) [=Ganisa gyraleus] NO08a
               |    `--A. ligustri (Mell 1930) NO08a
               |--Apha Walker 1855 [incl. Preptothauma Draudt 1931] NO08a
               |    |--*A. subdives Walker 1855 NO08a
               |    |--‘Brachytera’ aequalis Felder & Felder 1874 NO08a
               |    |--A. floralis Butler 1881 NO08a
               |    `--*Preptothauma’ oxydiata Draudt 1931 NO08a
               |--Panacela Walker 1865 (see below for synonymy) NO08a
               |    |--*P. rufescens Walker 1865 NO08a
               |    |--P. lewinae (Lewin 1805) (see below for synonymy) NO08a
               |    |--P. nyctopa (Turner 1922) [=*Mallodeta nyctopa] NO08a
               |    `--P. syntropha Turner 1922 ONE03
               `--Eupterotinae [Cotanini] NO08a
                    |--Eupterote KP19
                    |--Palirisa Moore 1884 NO08a
                    |    `--*P. lineosa (Walker 1855) [=Jana lineosa] NO08a
                    |--Dreata Walker 1855 NO08a
                    |    `--*D. hades Walker 1855 NO08a
                    |--Rarisquamosa Bethune-Baker 1910 NO08a
                    |    `--*R. arfaki Bethune-Baker 1910 NO08a
                    |--Sangatissa Moore 1883 NO08a
                    |    `--*S. subcurvifera (Walker 1865) NO08b (see below for synonymy)
                    |--Nisaga Walker 1855 NO08a
                    |    |--*N. simplex Walker 1855 NO08a
                    |    `--N. rufescens Hampson 1895 NO08a
                    |--Paracydas Bethune-Baker 1908 NO08a
                    |    |--*P. biagi Bethune-Baker 1908 NO08a
                    |    `--P. postpallida Rothschild 1917 NO08a
                    |--Lasiomorpha Joicey & Talbot in Joicey et al. 1916 NO08a
                    |    |--*L. noakesi Joicey & Talbot in Joicey et al. 1916 NO08a
                    |    `--L. meeki (Rothschild 1917) NO08a
                    |--Melanergon Bethune-Bake 1904 NO08a
                    |    `--M. vidua (Walker 1865) [=Cotana vidua; incl. *M. proserpina Bethune-Baker 1904] NO08a
                    |         |--M. v. vidua NO08a
                    |         `--M. v. fergussonis Rothschild 1917 NO08a
                    |--Cotana Walker 1865 (see below for synonymy) NO08a
                    |    |--*C. rubrescens Walker 1865 [incl. *Nervicompressa unistrigata Bethune-Baker 1904] NO08a
                    |    |--*Hypercydas’ calliloma Turner 1903 NO08a
                    |    |--‘Nervicompressa’ albomaculata Bethune-Baker 1904 (see below for synonymy) NO08a
                    |    `--C. serranotata (Lucas 1894) ONE03
                    `--Sphingognatha Felder & Felder 1874 NO08a
                         |--*S. asclepiades Felder & Felder 1874 NO08a
                         |--‘Pseudojana’ pallidipennis Hampson 1895 NO08a
                         |    |--P. p. pallidipennis NO08a
                         |    `--P. p. grandis Rothschild 1917 NO08a
                         `--S. strix (Bryk 1944) [=Apha strix] NO08a

Bombycoidea incertae sedis:
  Ratardidae DS73
  Oxytenidae NC91
  Cercophanidae NC91
  Carthaea Walker 1858 ONE03 [Carthaeidae DS73]
    `--C. saturnioides NC91
  Anthelidae ONE03
    |  i. s.: Omphaliodes Felder & Felder 1874 ONE03
    |         Nataxa flavescens (Walker 1865) [incl. Dicreagra ochrocephala Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
    |--Anthelinae NC91
    `--Munychryiinae NC91
         |--Gephyroneura Turner 1920 NC91, ONE03
         `--Munychryia Walker 1865 ONE03
              `--M. senicula Walker 1865 [incl. Hypochroma nyssiata Felder & Rogenhofer 1875] NSp07
  Citharoniidae RD77

Brahmaea certhia (Fabricius 1797) B66a [=Bombyx certhia B66a; incl. Bo. spectabilis Hope 1841 B66a, Bo. wallichii Gray 1832 B66a, Brahmaea wallichii DS73]

Cotana Walker 1865 [incl. Epicydas Bethune-Baker 1908, Hypercydas Turner 1903, Nervicompressa Bethune-Baker 1904] NO08a

‘Gastropacha’ caschmirensis Kollar in Kollar & Redtenbacher 1844 [=*Pachyclea caschmirensis; incl. *Apona pallida Walker 1856] NO08a

Melanothrix nymphaliaria (Walker 1866) [=Gnophos nymphaliaria; incl. *M. pulchricolor Felder & Felder 1874] NO08a

‘Nervicompressa’ albomaculata Bethune-Baker 1904 [incl. *Epicydas ovata Bethune-Baker 1908] NO08a

Panacela Walker 1865 [incl. Lewinibombyx Strand 1929, Mallodeta Turner 1922 non Butler 1876, Semuta Walker 1865; Panacelinae] NO08a

Panacela lewinae (Lewin 1805) [=Bombyx lewinae, *Lewinibombyx lewinae, Ocinara lewinae; incl. *Semuta pristina Walker 1865] NO08a

*Poloma angulata Walker 1855 NO08a [incl. *Sarvena incompta Walker 1865 NO08a, Homochroa janula Felder & Felder 1874 NSp07]

*Sangatissa subcurvifera (Walker 1865) NO08b [=Dreata subcurvifera NO08b, Messata subcurvifera NO08a]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B66a] Butler, A. G. 1866a. Note on the genus Brahmaea of Walker. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 118–121.

[B66b] Butler, A. G. 1866b. Corrections and addenda to certain papers on Lepidoptera published during the years 1865–66; with additional notes on some of the species described. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 451–458.

[DW96] Dangerfield, P. C., J. B. Whitfield, M. J. Sharkey, D. H. Janzen & I. Mercado. 1996. Hansonia, a new genus of cardiochiline Braconidae (Hymenoptera) from Costa Rica, with notes on its biology. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 592–596.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[E00] Engel, M. S. 2000. Classification of the bee tribe Augochlorini (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 250: 1–89.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[NO08a] Nässig, W. A., & R. G. Oberprieler. 2008a. An annotated catalogue of the genera of Eupterotidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 53–80.

[NO08b] Nässig, W. A., & R. G. Oberprieler. 2008b. Errata et addenda. Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 124.

[NS07] Nässig, W. A., & W. Speidel. 2007. On the authorships of the Lepidoptera Atlas of the “Reise der Novara”, with a list of the taxa of Bombycoidea [s. l.] therein described (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 63–74.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[ONE03] Oberprieler, R. G., W. A. Nässig & E. D. Edwards. 2003. Ebbepterote, a new genus for the Australian ‘Eupterote’ expansa (T. P. Lucas), with a revised classification of the family Eupterotidae (Lepidoptera). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 99–110.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[RM01] Regier, J. C., C. Mitter, T. P. Friedlander & R. S. Peigler. 2001. Re: phylogenetic relationships in Sphingidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera): initial evidence from two nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20 (2): 311–316.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.