Ixieae

Ixia amethystina, from Lambley Nursery.


Belongs within: Iridaceae.

The Ixieae are a group of iridaceous plants in which the rootstock forms a corm; flowers are sessile, subtended basally by paired bracts, and usually arranged in distichous spikes.

<==Ixieae [Ixioideae]
    |--Gladiolus Linné 1753 M99, G77
    |    |--G. byzantinus HE80
    |    |--G. × cardinalis HE80
    |    |--G. caryophyllaceus RL05
    |    |--G. italicus [incl. G. seqetum] H93
    |    |--G. natalensis (Ecklon) Hooker 1831 [incl. G. psittacinus] HE80
    |    |--G. tristis H93
    |    `--G. undulatus Linnaeus 1767 [incl. G. cuspidatus] HE80
    `--Ixia MG06
         |  i. s.: I. maculata Linnaeus 1763 HE80
         |         I. paniculata HE80
         |         I. polystachya Linnaeus 1762 HE80
         `--I. sect. Dichone MG06
              |--I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt 2006 MG06
              |--I. brevituba MG06
              |--I. curvata MG06
              `--I. trifolia MG06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G77] Geerinck, D. J. L. 1977. Iridaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 77–84.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[MG06] Manning, J. C., & P. Goldblatt. 2006. New species of Iridaceae from the Hantam-Roggeveld Centre of Endemism, and the Bokkeveld, Northern Cape, South Africa. Bothalia 36 (2): 139–145.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

Heliothinae

Heliocheilus cramboides, copyright Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Noctuidae.
Contains: Heliothis.

The Heliothinae, bollworms and related forms, are a group of moths whose larvae feed mostly on the reproductive organs (flowers, fruits and seeds) of plants, with some species being significant horticultural pests.

Characters (from Matthews 1999): Small to medium-sized, robust moths. Frons generally rounded, bulging with well-developed ventral lip. Labial palps moderately long, weakly upcurved. Antennal filiform or minimally biserrate in male, filiform in female. Compound eye smooth, unlashed. Head and thorax covered with mixed hairlike and spathulate scales. Hind wing venation trifine; vein M2, if present, reduced and lying in median fold of hind wing. Male genitalia with valve usually simple and strap-like, quite long and narrow, rather flat, often curved distally, usually lacking processes except sometimes with a small ampulla; apical corona usually consisting of one or more rows of spine-like setae, occasionally absent; sacculus generally not well distinguished. Aedeagus short or long, straight or slightly curved, often bearing a denticulate 'scobinate' patch at apex; scobinate patch may occur at base of vesica; vesica varying from simple and sac-like to long and coiled, usually a number of diverticula present from a 'basal pouch'; vesica may bear cornuti. Female genitalia with papillae anales (ovipositor) varying from soft and pad-like with may setae to sclerotised and knife-like with fewer setae; ductus bursae varying from short to long, opening posteriorly through ostium bursae, variably ribbed and sclerotised; appendix bursae usually present, with ductus seminalis lying at apex; fundus bursae usually bearing from one to four signa. Larvae with spiny skin; prothoracic lateral setae with transverse position in later instars.

Heliothinae [Heliothidae] M99
    |  i. s.: Eutricopis nexilis M99
    |         Heliothodes diminutiva M99
    |         Periphanes ZK11
    |--Pyrrhia umbra (Hufnagel 1766) M99, JP05
    |--Melaporphyria M99
    |--+--Protadisura M99
    |  `--+--+--Heliolonche M99
    |     |  `--Schinia M99
    |     |       |--S. dobla M99
    |     |       `--S. florida M99
    |     `--Adisura Moore 1881 [incl. Astonycha Turner 1920] M99
    |          |--*A. atkinsoni Moore 1881 M99
    |          |--A. cana M99
    |          |--A. litarga (Turner 1920) [=*Astonycha litarga] M99
    |          |--A. marginalis (Walker 1858) (see below for synonymy) M99
    |          |--A. parva M99
    |          `--A. stigmatica M99
    `--+--Heliothis M99
       |--+--Australothis Matthews 1991 [=Australoverpa Matthews 1991] M99
       |  |    |--*A. rubrescens (Walker 1858) (see below for synonymy) M99
       |  |    |--A. exopisso Matthews 1999 M99
       |  |    |--A. tertia (Roepke 1941) [=Heliothis tertia] M99
       |  |    `--A. volatilis M99
       |  `--Helicoverpa Hardwick 1965 M99
       |       |  i. s.: H. assulta (Guenée 1852) (see below for synonymy) M99
       |       |         H. fletcheri M99
       |       |         H. hardwicki Matthews 1999 M99
       |       |         H. prepodes (Common 1985) [=Heliothis prepodes] M99
       |       |--H. punctigera (Wallengren 1860) [=Heliothis punctigera; incl. Chloridea marmada Swinhoe 1918] M99
       |       `--+--H. gelotopoeon M99
       |          `--+--H. hawaiiensis M99
       |             `--+--*H. armigera (Hübner 1803–1808) M99 (see below for synonymy)
       |                `--+--H. confusa M99
       |                   `--H. zea M99
       `--Heliocheilus Grote 1865 [incl. Canthylidia Butler 1886, Raghuva Moore 1881, Rhodosea Grote 1883] M99
            |--*H. paradoxus Grote 1865 M99
            |--H. abaccheutus Matthews 1999 M99
            |--H. aberrans (Butler 1886) [=Heliothis aberrans] M99
            |--H. albipunctella M99
            |--H. albivenata (Montague 1914) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. aleurota (Lower 1902) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. atrilinea (Turner 1943) [=Canthylidia atrilinea] M99
            |--H. canusina (Swinhoe 1901) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. cistella (Swinhoe 1901) [=Canthylidia cistella] M99
            |--H. cladotus Swinhoe 1901 (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. confertissima (Walker 1865) [=Leucania confertissima, *Raghuva confertissima] M99
            |--H. confundens (Warren 1913) [=Canthylidia confundens] M99
            |--H. cramboides (Guenée 1852) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. eodora (Meyrick 1902) [=Heliothis eodora; incl. Canthylidia tenuistria Turner 1902] M99
            |--H. ferruginosa (Turner 1911) [=Canthylidia ferruginosa; incl. C. epigrapha Turner 1920] M99
            |--H. flavitincta (Lower 1908) [=Melicleptria flavitincta] M99
            |--H. halimolimnus Matthews 1999 M99
            |--H. ionola (Swinhoe 1901) [=Adisura ionola, Melicleptria ionola] M99
            |--*Rhodosea’ julia Grote 1883 M99
            |--H. melibaphes (Hampson 1903) [=Melicleptria melibaphes] M99
            |--H. mesoleuca (Lower 1902) [=Canthylidia mesoleuca, Melicleptria mesoleuca] M99
            |--H. moribunda (Guenée 1852) M99 (see below for synonymy)
            |--H. neurota (Lower 1903) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. pallida (Butler 1886) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. puncticulata (Warren 1913) [=Canthylidia puncticulata] M99
            |--H. ranalaetensis Matthews 1999 M99
            |--H. rhodopolia (Turner 1911) [=Canthylidia rhodopolia] M99
            |--H. thelycritus Matthews 1999 M99
            `--H. vulpinotatus Matthews 1999 M99

Adisura marginalis (Walker 1858) [=Anthophila marginalis; incl. Heliothis delicia Felder & Rogenhofer 1874, A. dulcis Moore 1881, A. purgata Warren 1913, A. similis Moore 1881] M99

*Australothis rubrescens (Walker 1858) [=Thalpophila rubrescens; incl. Chloridea aresca Turner 1911, C. caesia Warren 1913, Heliothis hyperchroa Turner 1920, C. rufa Warren 1913] M99

*Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner 1803–1808) M99 [=Noctua armigera M99, Heliothis (Helicoverpa) armigera M83; incl. N. barbara Fabricius 1794 (nom. rej.) M99, Helicoverpa armigera commoni Hardwick 1965, Heliothis conferta Walker 1857 M99, Helic. armigera conferta M99, Heliothis armigera ab. fusca Cockerell 1889 M99, Heliothis guidelii Costantino 1922 M99, Heliothis obsoleta (Fabricius 1793) M99, GM79, Heliothis pulverosa Walker 1857 M99, Heliothis rama Bhattacharjee & Gupta 1972 M99, Chloridea obsoleta ab. rufa Warren 1911 non C. rufa Warren 1913 M99, Heliothis uniformis Wallengren 1860 M99]

Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée 1852) [=Heliothis assulta; incl. Helic. assulta afra Hardwick 1965, Heliothis separata Walker 1857, Heliothis succinea Moore 1881, Heliothis temperata Walker 1857] M99

Heliocheilus albivenata (Montague 1914) [=Melicleptria albivenata; incl. M. bipartita Strand 1924, M. stramineipicta Strand 1924, Canthylidia zorophanes Turner 1929, C. zurophanes (l. c.)] M99

Heliocheilus aleurota (Lower 1902) [=Melicleptria aleurota, Canthylidia alleurota (l. c.); incl. C. cana Turner 1943, C. aleurota ab. spissata Warren 1913] M99

Heliocheilus canusina (Swinhoe 1901) [=Canthylidia canusina; incl. C. anemodes Lower 1902, C. canusina ab. intacta Warren 1913] M99

Heliocheilus cladotus Swinhoe 1901 [incl. Canthylidia cladotus ab. densata Warren 1913, C. cladotus ab. hyalina Warren 1913, C. cladotus ab. hyalosticta Warren 1913, C. cramboides ab. semigrisea Warren 1913] M99

Heliocheilus cramboides (Guenée 1852) [=Leucania cramboides; incl. Canthylidia capnoneura Turner 1932, C. discolor Warren 1913, Heliocheilus discolor, C. cramboides ab. intensa Warren 1913, C. nervosa Turner 1943, Heliothis neurias Meyrick 1902, Heliocheilus neurias, C. cramboides ab. semiochrea Warren 1913, C. sericea Warren 1913, C. sulphurea Warren 1913, C. sumbensis Warren 1913, C. venata Warren 1913, Heliocheilus venata] M99

Heliocheilus moribunda (Guenée 1852) M99 [=Leucania moribunda M99, Canthylidia moribunda P27; incl. C. arenosa Turner 1943 M99, Leucania invaria Walker 1856 M99, C. invaria pallescens Warren 1913 M99]

Heliocheilus neurota (Lower 1903) [=Tarache neurota; incl. Canthylidia clathrata Warren 1913, C. crocopepla Turner 1925, Oruza crocotoschema Turner 1936, C. eurhythma Turner 1915, C. clathrata ab. exesa Warren 1913, C. clathrata ab. notata Warren 1913, C. clathrata ab. pallida Warren 1913 non C. pallida Butler 1886] M99

Heliocheilus pallida (Butler 1886) [=*Canthylidia pallida; incl. C. albida Warren 1913, H. osmidus Swinhoe 1901, C. rosea Warren 1913] M99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

Rubiaceae

Luculia gratissima, copyright A. J. T. Johnsingh.


Belongs within: Gentianales.
Contains: Canthium, Rubioideae, Ixoroideae, Cinchonoideae.

The Rubiaceae are a cosmopolitan group of flowering plants usually bearing radial flowers with four-lobed corollas, often associated in tight cymes or clusters.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual, perennial, shrub, vine, or tree. Leaves generally opposite, entire; stipules generally on stalk, sometimes leaf-like (then leaves apparently whorled and stipules considered leaves), adjacent pairs sometimes fused. Inflorescence a cyme, panicle, cluster, or flower solitary, generally terminal and more or less axillary. Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally more or less four-lobed, sometimes absent; corolla generally radial, four-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate with corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1, more or less fused if 2. Fruit two or four nutlets or a berry, drupe, or capsule.

<==Rubiaceae [Cinchoneae, Coffeoideae, Coptosapelteae]
    |--Luculia RB01
    |    |--L. grandifolia RB01
    |    |--L. gratissima SK02
    |    `--L. pinceana RB01
    `--+--Rubioideae RB01
       |--Coptosapelta RB01
       |    |--C. diffusa BM00
       |    `--C. flavescens RB01
       `--+--Ixoroideae RB01
          `--Cinchonoideae RB01

Rubiaceae incertae sedis:
  Atractogyne YY22
  Siphonandrium YY22
  Alibertia edulis BJ99
  Amajoua YY22
  Anthispermum YY22
  Basanacantha YY22
  Byrsophyllum YY22
  Crocyllis YY22
  Duroia YY22
  Garapatica YY22
  Kotchubaea YY22
  Melanopsidium YY22
  Morindopsis YY22
  Stachyarrhena YY22
  Thieleodoxa YY22
  Bataprine YY22
  Bobea YY22
  Cuviera YY22
  Hodgkinsonia YY22
  Myonima YY22
  Pachystylus YY22
  Timonius timon YY22, WP99
  Bathysa YY22
  Pouchetia Richard ex de Candolle 1830 FT93
    `--P. gilletii BJ99
  Psydrax LK14
    |--P. odorata LK14
    |    |--P. o. ssp. odorata LK14
    |    `--P. o. ssp. arnhemica LK14
    |--P. pendulina LK14
    `--P. suaveolens G04
  Rutidea orientalis BM00
  Schenckia blumenaviensis BM00
  Aidia BJ99
    |--A. micrantha BJ99
    `--A. racemosa VT13
  Aoranthe penduliflora BJ99
  Bertiera breviflora BJ99
  Burchellia bubalina BJ99
  Calochone redingii BJ99
  Canthium BJ99
  Casasia clusiifolia BJ99
  Chomelia BJ99
  Cremaspora triflora BJ99
  Cubanola domingensis BJ99
  Didymosalpinx norae BJ99
  Euclinia longiflora BJ99
  Feretia aeruginescens BJ99
  Genipa americana BJ99
  Glossostipula concinna BJ99
  Gonzalagunia affinis BJ99
  Heinsia crinita BJ99
  Hippotis BJ99
  Kailarsenia ochreata BJ99
  Keetia zanzibarica BJ99
  Kraussia floribunda BJ99
  Ladenbergia pavonii BJ99
  Leptactina platyphylla BJ99
  Massularia acuminata BJ99
  Meyna BJ99
    |--M. laxiflora P03
    `--M. tetraphylla BJ99
  Oxyanthus BJ99
    |--O. pyriformis BJ99
    `--O. zanguebaricus BJ99
  Paracoffea melanocarpa BJ99
  Porterandia crosbyi BJ99
  Posoqueria latifolia BJ99
  Pseudosabicea arborea BJ99
  Psilanthus mannii BJ99
  Rachicallis americana BJ99
  Ramosmania rodriguesii BJ99
  Randia BJ99
    |--R. aculeata BJ99
    |--R. benthamina WB-P93
    |--R. fitzalani [=Atractocarpus fitzalani] BJ99
    |--R. karstenii MM96
    `--R. moorei BJ99
  Rosenbergiodendron longiflorum BJ99
  Rothmannia longiflora BJ99
  Sabicea BJ99
    |--S. speiosa M09
    `--S. villosa BJ99
  Sukunia longipes BJ99
  Tamridaea capsulifera BJ99
  Tarenna BJ99
    |--T. cymosa BJ99
    |--T. dallachiana LK14
    |    |--T. d. ssp. dallachiana LK14
    |    `--T. d. ssp. expandens LK14
    |--T. neurophylla BJ99
    `--T. pentamera LK14
  Tricalysia BJ99
    |--T. cryptocalyx BJ99
    |--T. malaccensis J06
    `--T. ovalifolia BJ99
  Plectronia Linnaeus 1767 BR65
    `--P. latifolia [=Canthium latifolium] BR65
  Mastixiodendron pachyclados (Sch.) Melch. 1925 [=Fagraea pachyclados Sch. in Sch. & Laut. 1905] C95
  Chione venosa J87
  Stevensia hotteana J87
  Xeromphis spinosa KJ05
  Thecagonum ovalifolium P03
  Wendlandia P03
    |--W. exserta P03
    `--W. tinctoria P03
  Caelospermum reticulatum B00
  Kelloggia galioides H93
  Ixorophyllum anceps CBH93
  Paleorubiaceophyllum eocenicum (Berry) Roth & Dilcher 1979 CBH93
  Rubiaceocarpum markgrafii Kräusel 1939 [=R. markgrafi] CBH93
  ‘Triporotetradites’ nachterstedtensis CBH93
  Retiniphyllum AS02
  Ravnia triflora [incl. Lagenanthus parviflorus Ewan 1952] SK02
  Didymochlamys Hook. 1872 KC01
  Disperma Gmel. 1792 KC01
  Higginsia Pers. 1805 KC01
  Jackia Wall. 1823 KC01
  Piringa Juss. 1820 KC01
  Psathyra Spreng. 1818 KC01
  Schachtia Karst. 1859 KC01
  ‘Ludwigia’ erigata Linné 1767 [incl. L. triflora Desr. in Lamk 1792 (nom. illeg.)] R77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS02] Albert, V. A., & L. Struwe. 2002. Gentianaceae in context. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 1–20. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny—case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413–435.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Loganiaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 132–188. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115–132.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 121–130.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[R77] Raven, P. H. 1977. Onagraceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 98–113.

[RB01] Razafimandimbison, S. G., & B. Bremer. 2001. Tribal delimitation of Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae): inference from molecular and morphological data. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71: 515–538.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

[WB-P93] Walter, D. E., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 1993. Systematics and ecology of Adhaesozetes polyphyllos sp.nov. (Acari: Oribatida: Licneremaeoidea), a leaf-inhabiting mite from Australian rainforests. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 1024–1040.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Morindeae

Noni Morinda citrifolia, copyright Wilfredor.


Belongs within: Rubioideae.

The Morindeae are a group of rubiaceous plants bearing flowers in head inflorescences, and fleshy drupes with one or two ovules per carpel.

<==Morindeae
    |--Morindinae BM00
    |    |  i. s.: Gynochthodes coriacea BM00
    |    |         Pogonolobus BM00
    |    |--Appunia guatemalensis BM00
    |    `--+--Coelospermum balansanum BM00
    |       `--Morinda BM00
    |            |--M. canthoides LK14
    |            |--M. citrifolia RB01
    |            |--M. elliptica P88
    |            `--M. jasminoides LK14
    `--+--+--Mitchella repens BM00
       |  `--Damnacanthus indicus BM00
       `--Prismatomerinae BM00
            |--Renellia [incl. Didymoecium] BM00
            |--Motleyia BM00
            `--Prismatomeris BM00
                 |--P. beccarianum BM00
                 `--P. labordei BM00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RB01] Razafimandimbison, S. G., & B. Bremer. 2001. Tribal delimitation of Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae): inference from molecular and morphological data. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71: 515–538.

Coussareeae

Faramea cf. multiflora, copyright Scott Zona.


Belongs within: Rubioideae.

The Coussareeae are a small but morphologically diverse group of flowering plants found in the Americas, many of which have tetramerous flowers, flattened berry-like or thin-walled capsular fruits, and flattened seeds (Bremer & Manen 2000).

Characters (from Bremer & Manen 2000): Herbs (creeping in Coccocypselum), subshrubs, shrubs, or small trees. Stipules entire, cleft, as a ridge with appendages, or deeply bilobed. Flowers homo- or heterostylous, often tetramerous, white, blue, or bright yellow (Cruckshanksia, Oreopolus). Ovary 1–2-1ocular, with 1–2 or many (Coccocypselum) ovules per locule. Fruits often flattened (not Coccocypselum), fleshy, white (Coussarea) or often blue (Faramea, Coccocypselum) berries, schizocarps (Declieuxia), or thin-walled capsules (Cruckshanksia, Oreopolus), with 1–2 or many seeds, often flattened. Pollen 3-colporate or 2–4-porate. Chromosome basic number x = 10, 11? with 2- or 4-ploidy level.

<==Coussareeae [Coccocypseleae, Cruckshanksieae]
    |  i. s.: Cruckshanksia hymenodon BM00
    |         Oreopolus glacialis BM00
    |         Declieuxia fruticosa BM00
    |         Heterophyllaea BM00
    |         Schizocolea BM00
    |--Coccocypselum hirsutum BM00
    `--+--Coussarea BM00
       |    |--C. contracta BM00
       |    `--C. macrophylla BM00
       `--Faramea BM00
            |--F. multiflora BM00
            `--F. porophylla BM00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

Crusea

Mountain saucer-flower Crusea diversifolia, copyright Sue Carnahan.


Belongs within: Spermacoceae.

Crusea, saucer flowers, is a genus of small annual plants found in southern North America.

<==Crusea
    |--C. coronata F79
    `--+--+--C. coccinea F79
       |  |    |--C. c. var. breviloba F79
       |  |    `--+--C. c. var. coccinea F79
       |  |       `--C. c. var. chiriquensis F79
       |  `--C. megalocarpa F79
       `--+--C. diversifolia F79
          `--+--C. lucida F79
             `--+--C. parvifolia F79
                |--C. psyllioides F79
                `--+--C. calcicola F79
                   |--C. setosa F79
                   `--+--C. wrightii var. wrightii F79
                      `--+--C. longiflora F79
                         `--+--C. wrightii var. angustifolia F79
                            `--+--C. calocephala F79
                               `--C. hispida F79
                                    |--C. h. var. hispida F79
                                    `--C. h. var. grandiflora F79

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F79] Farris, J. S. 1979. Review: Cladistics and Plant Systematics. Systematic Zoology 28 (3): 400–411.

Epicriidae

Epicrus canestrinii, copyright Matthew Shepherd.


Belongs within: Gamasina.

The Epicriidae are a group of mites known from the Northern Hemisphere with species found in habitats such as moss, leaf litter, decaying wood or animal nests (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Female and male dorsal shield entire, usually expanded laterally and consolidated with peritrematic shields, which in turn are expanded posteriorly onto the ventrolateral surface behind coxae IV, ornamented with 11–19 pairs of dorsal glands and a network of large bi-, tri-, or qundrifurcate tubercles. Stigmata prominent, typically on protuberances, peritremes vestigial or lacking. Tritosternum reduced to stubby base and abbreviated laciniae. Sternal setae I on paired jugular plates, poroids may be absent. Female sternal shield with 2–3 pairs of setae, apparently without poroids; 4th sternal setae usually free on soft integument or rarely inserted on metasternal plates or on posterior edge of sternal shield; epigynal shield with two pairs (occasionally one pair) of setae and well separated posteriorly from an anal or small ventrianal shield. Males with sternitigenital shield separated from ventral and anal shields or from ventrianal or anal shield (the latter sometimes integrated with posterior margin of dorsal shield). Posterior margins of coxae IV with single or multiple inguinal glands. Leg I elongated, without tarsal claws and with two to several setae that are more or less elongated and minutely clubbed apically. Peripodomeric suture of tarsi II–IV usually with a dorsal intercalary sclerite bearing two setae. Femur I with thirteen setae, including four ventral setae and five dorsal setae; tibia I with four ventral setae, six dorsal setae, and 2 anterolateral setae; tibia III with nine setae (2 1/1, 2/1 2); genu III with ten setae, including two ventral setae. Palptarsal claw three-tined (occasionally two-tined). Corniculi small, slender, much shorter than internal malae. Female tocospermous. Male with genital aperture located between coxae III and without spurs or modified spinelike setae on legs II–IV; male chelicerae not obviously elaborated for sperm transfer. Larva lacking pygidial shield; protonymphal pygidial shield with eight pairs of setae, setae S4S5 on shield; dorsal shield of deutonymph entire.

<==Epicriidae [Epicrioidea] LKW09
    |--Neoepicrius LKW09
    |--Adenoepicrius LKW09
    |--Berlesiana Turk 1943 ET79
    |    |--*B. cirrata (Berlese 1916) [=Epicrius cirratus] ET79
    |    `--B. denticulata ET79
    `--Epicrius Canestrini & Fanzago 1878 (see below for synonymy) FH93
         |--E. mollis (Kramer 1876) [=Gamasus mollis; incl. *E. geometricus Canestrini & Fanzago 1887] ET79
         |--E. canestrinii S61
         |--E. menzeli Schweizer 1922 S61
         |--E. spinituberculatus ET79
         `--E. washingtonianus Berlese 1916 FH93

Epicrius Canestrini & Fanzago 1878 [incl. Diepicrius Berlese 1916, Epicriella Willmann 1953, Eugamasus Absolon 1899 non Berlese 1892, Parasejus Trägårdh 1910] FH93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

Pachylaelapidae

Pachylaelaps sp., copyright Matthew Shepherd.


Belongs within: Eviphidoidea.

The Pachylaelapidae are a group of predatory mites found in soil habitats such as litter or animal nests; dispersal is often by means of phoresy in association with beetles (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Tarsus II in female and male usually with one or two of the distal setae enlarged into stout spines (if lacking such spines, female with a genitiventral shield closely bordered by an anal shield or with peritrematic-exopodal shields extending posteriorly beyond coxae IV to fuse with metapodal plates); tibia III and genu and tibia IV each with one anterolateral seta.

<==Pachylaelapidae [Neoparasitidae, Pachylaelaptini]
    |--Pachyseius Berlese 1910 ET79
    |    |--*P. humeralis Berlese 1910 ET79
    |    `--P. adeliensis P94
    |--Sphaerolaelaps Berlese 1903 ET79
    |    `--*S. holothyroides (Leonardi 1896) [=Laelaps holothyroides] ET79
    |--Meliponapachys Turk 1948 FH93
    |    `--M. pallidus Turk 1948 FH93
    |--Neoparasitus Oudemans 1901 FH93 [incl. Brachylaelaps Berlese 1910 V25]
    |    |--N. oudemansi Oudemans 1901 [incl. Pachyseius molussus Berlese 1923, P. quartus Vitzthum 1924] V25
    |    `--*Brachylaelaps’ rotundus Berlese 1910 V25
    |--Megalolaelaps Berlese 1882 FH93
    |    |--M. enceladus (Berlese 1910) [=Hypoaspis enceladus; incl. Pachylaelaps ornata Keegan 1946] FH93
    |    `--M. spinirostris Berlese 1910 V25
    |--Olopachys LKW09
    |    |--O. skalri LKW09
    |    `--O. vysotskaja LKW09
    |--Zygoseius Berlese 1916 FH93
    |    |--Z. furciger Berlese 1916 FH93 [=Lasioseius (Zygoseius) furciger V25]
    |    `--Z. sarcinulus Halliday 1997 H98
    |--Pseudolaelaps Berlese 1916 LKW09, ET79 [Pseudolaelapinae]
    |    |--*P. doderoi (Berlese 1910) [=Laelaps (Hoplolaelaps) doderoi] ET79
    |    |--P. gamaselloides LKW09
    |    `--P. paulseni LKW09
    |--Onchodellus Berlese 1904 ET79
    |    |--*O. reticulatus (Berl. 1904) [=Pachylaelaps (*Onchodellus) reticulatus] ET79
    |    |--O. antillanus Turk 1948 FH93
    |    |--O. eurasius (Vitzthum 1925) [=Pachylaelaps (Onchodellus) eurasius] V25
    |    `--O. hispani (Berlese 1908) [=Pachylaelaps (Onchodellus) hispani] V25
    `--Pachylaelaps Berlese 1888 H98
         |--*P. pectinifer (Canestrini & Canestrini 1881) [=Gamasus pectinifer] ET79
         |--P. aegypticus LKW09
         |--P. australicus Womersley 1942 H98
         |--P. cluozzai Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. furcifer Oudemans 1903 FH93
         |--P. haeros Berlese 1888 V25 [incl. P. haeros var. mexicanus Stoll 1893 FH93]
         |--P. hamifer Trägårdh 1931 T31
         |--P. humusorum Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. jurassicus Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. laeuchli Schweizer 1922 S61
         |--P. latus Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. littoralis Halbert 1915 H66
         |--P. longipalpoides (Felt in Lintner 1896) (see below for synonymy) FH93
         |--P. longisetis ET79
         |--P. magnus S61 [=P. pectinifer var. magnus S22]
         |--P. penicilliger Berlese 1920 H98
         |--P. purcheri Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. regularis Berlese 1920 S61
         |--P. sculptus Berlese 1920 S61
         |--P. siculus [=P. strigifer var. siculus] S61
         |--P. singularis Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. stabelchodai Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. strigifer S61
         |--P. tablasoti Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. tesselatus Berlese 1920 S61
         `--P. trupchumi Schweizer 1961 S61

Pachylaelaps longipalpoides (Felt in Lintner 1896) [=Gamasus longipalpoides; incl. P. sellnicki Hirschmann & Kraus 1965] FH93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H66] Hirschmann, W. 1966. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 15. Gänge von Litoralmilben und neue Litoralmilbenarten. Acarologie: Schriftenreihe für Vergleichende Milbenkunde 9: 25–44.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[P94] Pugh, P. J. A. 1994. Non-indigenous Acari of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 110: 207–217.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

[T31] Trägårdh, I. 1931. Acarina from the Juan Fernandez Islands. Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Islands 3 (4): 553–628.

[V25] Vitzthum, H. 1925. Fauna sumatrensis. (Beitrag no. 5). Acarinae. Supplementa Entomologica 11: 1–79.

Melicharidae

Rhinoseius females collected phoretic on hummingbirds, from Ramos et al. (2019).


Belongs within: Gamasina.
Contains: Proctolaelaps (Proctolaelaps).

The Melicharidae are an ecologically diverse group of mesostigmatan mites, including predatory, fungivorous and flower-feedings species (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Deutonymphs and adults with dorsal shield setae J1 present; fixed cheliceral digit with pilus dentilis modified to a hyaline flap; movable cheliceral digit usually with a pointed process (mucro) on its mid-ventral face; peritrematic shield of adults free posteriorly from, or narrowly attached to, exopodal plate beside coxa IV; female with laelapid-type sperm access system, lacking a sclerotized spermathecal calyx and associated minor duct, epigynal shield gently rounded posteriorly, third pair of sternal poroids off sternal shield and associated with sternal setae st4, usually with an oval or elliptical anal shield bearing only the three anal setae (or rarely expanded to capture the nearest pair of opisthogastric setae); male with endopodal strips beside coxae III–IV fully integrated with sternitigenital shield.

<==Melicharidae [Melicharini] LKW09
    |--Mycolaelaps maxinae LKW09
    |--Xanthippe clavisetosa CN99
    |--Mucroseius Lindquist 1962 LKW09, FH93
    |--Tropicoseius Baker & Yunker 1964 LKW09, FH93
    |    |--T. braziliensis CN99
    |    |--T. colwelli CN99
    |    |--T. fuentesi LKW09
    |    `--T. wetmorei Baker & Yunker 1964 LKW09, FH93 [=Rhinoseius wetmorei FH93]
    |--Melichares Hering 1838 [incl. Garmania Nesbitt 1951, Orolaelaps De Leon 1963] FH93
    |    |--*M. agilis Hering 1838 ET79 [incl. Typhlodromus domesticus Oudemans 1929 FH93, *Garmania domestica E57]
    |    |--M. bombophila (Westerboer in Stammer 1963) [=Garmania (Garmaniella) bombophila] FH93
    |    |--M. grandis Chant 1963 FH93
    |    |--M. juradaeus (Schweizer 1949) [=Lasioseius juradaeus; incl. Proctolaelaps robustus Evans 1958] FH93
    |    |--M. monochami (Lindquist 1962) [=Mucroseius monochami] FH93
    |    `--M. quisqualis (De Leon 1963) [=Orolaelaps quisqualis] FH93
    |--Rhinoseius Baker & Yunker 1964 LKW09, FH93
    |    |--R. bakeri (Dusbábek & Černy 1970) [=Tropicoseius bakeri] FH93
    |    |--R. bisacculatus Fain, Hyland & Aitken 1977 FH93
    |    |--R. changensis (Baker & Yunker 1964) [=Tropicoseius changensis] FH93
    |    |--R. chiriquensis (Baker & Yunker 1964) [=Tropicoseius chiriquensis] FH93
    |    |--R. colwelli Hunter 1972 FH93
    |    |--R. eisenmanni (Baker & Yunker 1964) [=Tropicoseius eisenmanni] FH93
    |    |--R. epoecus Colwell & Naeem 1979 FH93
    |    |--R. erro (Baker & Yunker 1964) [=Tropicoseius erro] FH93
    |    |--R. fairchildi (Baker & Yunker 1964) [=Tropicoseius fairchildi] FH93
    |    |--R. heliconiae (Baker & Yunker 1964) [=Tropicoseius heliconiae] FH93
    |    |--R. mathewsoni Hyland, Fain & Moorhose 1978 FH93
    |    |--R. peregrinator (Baker & Yunker 1964) [=Tropicoseius peregrinator] FH93
    |    |--R. phaethornis Fain, Hyland & Aitken 1977 FH93
    |    |--R. phoreticus Fain, Hyland & Aitken 1977 FH93
    |    |--R. rafinskii CN99
    |    |--R. richardsoni Hunter 1972 FH93
    |    |--R. tiptoni Baker & Yunker 1964 FH93
    |    |--R. trinitatis Fain, Hyland & Aitken 1977 FH93
    |    `--R. venezuelensis (Baker & Yunker 1964) [=Tropicoseius venezuelensis] FH93
    `--Proctolaelaps Berlese 1923 LKW09, ET79 (see below for synonymy)
         |  i. s.: P. antennatus Karg 1985 H98
         |         P. antiquus Treat & Niederman 1967 FH93
         |         P. australis Stone 1988 H98
         |         P. belemensis Fain, Hyland & Aitken 1977 FH93
         |         P. bickleyi (Bram 1956) (see below for synonymy) FH93
         |         P. brevicomis De Leon 1963 FH93
         |         P. coffeae Karg & Rodgriguez 1984 FH93
         |         P. cossi (Dugès 1834) LKW09, E57 [=Gamasus cossi E57, *Jordensia cossi E57]
         |         P. cubanus Karg & Rodriguez 1984 FH93
         |         P. glaucis Fain, Hyland & Aitken 1977 FH93
         |         P. hystrix (Vitzthum 1923) [=Lasioseius hystrix] FH93
         |         P. juradeus W88
         |         P. kirmsei Fain, Hyland & Aitken 1977 FH93
         |         P. lobatus De Leon 1963 FH93
         |         P. longanalis (Westerboer 1963) [=Garmania longanalis] FH93
         |         P. longisetosus (Westerboer in Stammer 1963) [=Garmania (Garmaniella) longisetosa] FH93
         |         P. mariposus (Fox 1946) [=Borinquolaelaps mariposus] FH93
         |         P. mexicanus Hyland, Fain & Moorhouse 1978 FH93
         |         P. micropilis De Leon 1963 FH93
         |         P. nauphoetae (Womersley 1956) [=Blattilaelaps nauphoetae] FH93
         |         P. nemathrix Krantz 1962 FH93
         |         P. neptunis De Leon 1963 FH93
         |         P. nesbitti (Womersley 1956) [=Garmania nesbitti] H98
         |         P. novineus El-Banhawy & Nasr 1984 FH93
         |         P. ornatus (Westerboer in Stammer 1963) [=Garmania (Garmaniella) ornata] FH93
         |         P. pacificus Chant 1963 FH93
         |         P. parvanalis (Thor 1930) [=Lasioseius parvanalis] FH93
         |         P. pomorum (Oudemans 1929) [=Typhlodromus pomorum] FH93
         |         P. pygmaeus (Müller 1859) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
         |         P. regalis De Leon 1963 FH93
         |         P. scolyti Evans 1958 FH93
         |         P. spencerae Domrow 1979 H98
         |         P. spiralis Hyland, Fain & Moorhouse 1978 FH93
         |         P. vandenbergi (Ryke 1954) [=Garmania vandenbergi] FH93
         |         P. xyloteri Samšiňák 1960 FH93
         |--P. (Proctolaelaps) FH93
         `--P. (Proctofissus) orbicularis Karg 1985 FH93

Proctolaelaps Berlese 1923 LKW09, ET79 [incl. Blattilaelaps Womersley 1956 ET79, Chamolaelaps Hull in Turk & Turk 1952 ET79, Garmaniella Westerboer & Bernhard in Stammer 1963 FH93, Jordensia Oudemans 1936 ET79, Seiopsis Berlese 1923 ET79]

Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram 1956) [=Garmania bickleyi; incl. P. garmanis McGregor 1956, P. lewisi Garman & McGregor 1956, P. striatus Westerboer in Stammer 1963] FH93

Proctolaelaps pygmaeus (Müller 1859) FH93 [=Gamasus pygmaeus FH93; incl. Lasioseius alpinus Schweizer 1949 S61, Typhlodromus bulbicolus Oudemans 1929 FH93, Garmania bulbicola WL89, Hypoaspis hypudaei Oudemans 1902 H98, Garmannia hypudaei S61, Jordensia hypudaei S61, Proctolaelaps hypudaei LKW09, L. innumerabilis Berlese 1918 S61, L. ventritrichosus Schweizer 1949 S61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CN99] Colwell, R. K., & P. Naskrecki. 1999. The evolution of host-plant affiliation, body size and sexual dimorphism in hummingbird flower mites (Ascidae: Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius). In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 79–86. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[E57] Evans, G. O. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Acarina) with keys to families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 43: 203–259.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

[W88] Walter, D. E. 1988. Nematophagy by soil arthropods from the shortgrass steppe, Chihuahuan desert and Rocky Mountains of the central United States. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 24: 307–316.

[WL89] Walter, D. E., & E. E. Lindquist. 1989. Life history and behavior of mites in the genus Lasioseius (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae) from grassland soils in Colorado, with taxonomic notes and description of a new species. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67: 2797–2813.

Halolaelapidae

Drawings of Halolaelaps marinus by Anthonie C. Oudemans.


Belongs within: Gamasina.

The Halolaelapidae are a group of mesostigmatan mites found primarily in damp organic microhabitats, such as compost, manure or intertidal debris (Evans & Till 1979).

Characters (from Evans & Till 1979): Dorsum of idiosoma in deuteronymph and adult with two subequal shields; metasternal setae free on unsclerotised cuticle or on metasternal shields posterior to the sternal shield; leg II of male spurred; tibia and genu of leg I with two anterolateral setae; tibia I of deuteronymph and adult with three ventral setae; genu IV normally with 5 dorsal setae in deuteronymph and adult; palp apotele three-tined.

<==Halolaelapidae
    |--Halodarcia Karg 1969 FH93
    |    `--H. incideta KA90
    |--Saprosecans Karg 1964 FH93
    |    |--S. baloghi Karg 1964 FH93
    |    |--S. bialoviensis Gwiazdowicz 2001 G01
    |    `--S. lateroplumosa Joerger 1987 G01
    |--Leitneria Evans 1957 FH93
    |    `--*L. granulata (Halbert 1923) [=Gamasellus (Protolaelaps) granulatus] ET79
    |--Saintdidieria Oudemans 1939 ET79
    |    `--*S. sexclavata (Oudemans 1902) [=Parasitus sexclavatus] ET79
    |--Saprolaelaps Leitner 1946 ET79
    |    |--*S. subtilis Leitner 1946 ET79
    |    `--S. punctulatus ET79
    |--Dinychella Berlese 1888 G01
    `--Halolaelaps Berlese & Trouessart 1889 ET79
         |  i. s.: H. celticus ET79
         |--H. (Halolaelaps) H66
         |    |--*H. (H.) marinus (Brady 1875) ET79 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--H. (H.) gerlachi Hirschmann 1966 H66
         |    `--H. (H.) schusteri Hirschmann 1966 H66
         `--H. (Saprogamasellus Goetz in Willmann 1957) ET79
              |--H. (*S.) strenzkei Goetz in Willmann 1957 [=H. (Saprolaelaps) strenzkei] ET79
              `--H. (S.) nodosus ET79

*Halolaelaps (Halolaelaps) marinus (Brady 1875) ET79 [=Gamasus marinus ET79; incl. H. glabriusculus Berlese & Trouessart 1889 E57]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E57] Evans, G. O. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Acarina) with keys to families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 43: 203–259.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[G01] Gwiazdowicz, D. J. 2001. Saprosecans bialoviensis sp. n. (Acari, Halolaelapidae) from Poland. Biologia 56 (2): 149–153.

[H66] Hirschmann, W. 1966. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 15. Gänge von Litoralmilben und neue Litoralmilbenarten. Acarologie: Schriftenreihe für Vergleichende Milbenkunde 9: 25–44.

[KA90] Krantz, G. W., & B. D. Ainscough. 1990. Acarina: Mesostigmata (Gamasida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 583–665. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

Androlaelaps

Female Androlaelaps casalis, from here.


Belongs within: Laelapidae.

Androlaelaps is a genus of laelapid mites found in animal nests, characterised by the presence of a genital shield and separate anal shield in females, together with a long pilus dentilis and ten setae (including seta pl2) on genu IV (Evans & Till 1979).

<==Androlaelaps Berlese 1903 H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: *A. hermaphrodita (Berlese 1887) ET79, H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |         A. alexandrini (Fox 1946) [=Ischnolaelaps alexandrini] FH93
    |         A. anticlea (Domrow 1972) [=Haemolaelaps anticlea] H98
    |         A. calypso (Domrow 1966) [=Haemolaelaps calypso] H98
    |         A. casalis (Berlese 1887) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
    |         A. centrocarpus R96
    |         A. circularis (Ewing 1933) [=Cyclolaelaps circularis] FH93
    |         A. cleptusa (Domrow 1972) [=Haemolaelaps cleptusa] H98
    |         A. crowei (Jameson 1947) [=Eubrachylaelaps jamesoni] FH93
    |         ‘Haemolaelaps’ cubicularis S61
    |         A. debilis (Jameson 1950) [=Eubrachylaelaps debilis] FH93
    |         A. domrowi (Womersley 1958) [=Haemolaelaps domrowi] H98
    |         A. fahrenholzi (Berlese 1911) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
    |         ‘Haemolaelaps’ fenilis (Mégnin 1876) H98
    |         A. flagellatus (Womersley 1958) [=Haemolaelaps flagellata, H. flagellatus] H98
    |         A. frontalis (Banks 1910) [=Gamasus frontalis; incl. A. sinuosa Furman 1954] FH93
    |         A. geomys (Strandtmann 1949) [=Haemolaelaps geomys] FH93
    |         A. grandiculatus Eads 1951 FH93
    |         A. hattenae (Domrow 1963) [=Haemolaelaps hattenae] H98
    |         A. hollisteri (Ewing 1925) [=Laelaps hollisteri, *Eubrachylaelaps hollisteri] fH93
    |         A. jamesoni (Furman 1955) [=Eubrachylaelaps jamesoni] FH93
    |         A. johnstoni Eads & Hightower 1951 FH93
    |         A. laertes (Domrow 1972) [=Haemolaelaps laertes] H98
    |         A. leviculus Eads 1951 FH93
    |         A. machaeratus (Domrow 1957) [=Haemolaelaps machaeratus] H98
    |         A. marsupialis (Berlese 1910) H98 (see below for synonymy) H98
    |         A. martini (Jameson 1951) [=Eubrachylaelaps martini] FH93
    |         A. morlani (Strandtmann 1949) [=Haemolaelaps morlani] FH93
    |         ‘Haemolaelaps’ neoflagellata D81
    |         A. pachyptilae (Zumpt & Till 1956) [=Haemolaelaps pachyptilae] H98
    |         A. penelope (Domrow 1964) [=Haemolaelaps penelope] H98
    |         A. pilosus Baker 1992 S95
    |         A. quartus (Domrow 1961) [=Haemolaelaps quartus] H98
    |         A. rotundus (Fonseca 1936) L07
    |         A. schusteri Hirschmann 1966 H66
    |         A. sisyphus (Domrow 1981) [=Haemolaelaps sisyphus] H98
    |         A. spinosulus (Berlese 1920) [=Hypoaspis (Haemolaelaps) spinosulus] FH93
    |         A. spinosus (Furman 1955) [=Eubrachylaelaps spinosus] FH93
    |         A. sternalis (Ewing 1922) [=Ichoronyssus sternalis] FH93
    |         A. telemachus (Domrow 1964) [=Androlaelaps telemachus] H98
    |         A. ulixes (Domrow 1972) [=Haemolaelaps ulixes] H98
    |         A. ulysses (Domrow 1961) [=Haemolaelaps ulysses] H98
    |         A. zaheri E-KO07
    `--‘Haemolaelaps’ mesopicos group D81
         |--‘Haemolaelaps’ dendropicos D81
         |--‘Haemolaelaps’ haydocki D81
         |--‘Haemolaelaps’ mesopicos D81
         |--‘Haemolaelaps’ palaniae Domrow 1981 D81
         |--‘Haemolaelaps’ steyni D81
         `--‘Haemolaelaps’ wilkini D81

Androlaelaps Berlese 1903 H98 [incl. Atricholaelaps Ewing 1929 FH93, Cyclolaelaps Ewing 1933 FH93, Eubrachylaelaps Ewing 1929 FH93, Haemolaelaps Berlese 1910 FH93, Ischnolaelaps Fonseca 1936 FH93, Turkiella Zumpt & Till 1953 FH93, Zygolaelaps Tipton 1957 FH93]

Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese 1887) FH93 [=Iphis casalis FH93, Haemolaelaps casalis H98; incl. Hypoaspis freemani Hughes 1948 FH93, Ha. haemorrhagicus Asanuma 1952 FH93, Atricholaelaps megaventralis Strandtmann 1947 FH93, Ha. molestus Oudemans 1929 FH93, Hypoaspis oculatus Oudemans 1915 FH93, Hy. soarianus Hull 1925 FH93]

Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese 1911) FH93 [=Laelaps (Haemolaelaps) fahrenholzi FH93; incl. La. californicus Ewing 1925 FH93, Haemolaelaps cricetophilus Vitzthum 1930 FH93, Hypoaspis (Haemolaelaps) eos Zumpt & Patterson 1951 FH93, Laelaps glasgowi Ewing 1925 FH93, Haemolaelaps glasgowi MZ91, Hypoaspis microti Oudemans 1926 FH93, Ha. mohrae Oudemans 1928 FH93, Ischnolaelaps rhabdomys Radford 1939 FH93, Ha. scalopi Keegan 1946 FH93, Liponyssus setiger Ewing 1920 FH93, Atricholaelaps sigmodoni Strandtmann 1946 FH93, Lelaps (l. c.) stegemoni Hefley 1935 FH93, At. strandtmanni Fox 1947 FH93, Laelaps virginianus Ewing 1925 FH93]

*Androlaelaps hermaphrodita (Berlese 1887) ET79, H98 [=Laelaps (Iphis) hermaphrodita ET79, A. hermaphroditus H98; incl. A. setosus Fox 1946 FH93]

Androlaelaps marsupialis (Berlese 1910) H98 [=Laelaps marsupialis H98, *Haemolaelaps marsupialis D81; inl. Hypoaspis perameles Derrick et al. 1939 (n. n.) H98]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D81] Domrow, R. 1981. Oriental Mesostigmata (Acari). 6. A Malesian member of the mesopicos group (Haemolaelaps). Acarologia 22 (2): 115–119.

[E-KO07] El-Kammah, K. M., & L. M. I. Oyoun. 2007. Taxonomic records of mite species associated with animal and poultry farms in the Nile delta, vally and N. Sinai Egypt. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 223–232. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H66] Hirschmann, W. 1966. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 15. Gänge von Litoralmilben und neue Litoralmilbenarten. Acarologie: Schriftenreihe für Vergleichende Milbenkunde 9: 25–44.

[L07] Lareschi, M. 2007. Seasonal occurrence of ectoparasites associated with the water rat Scapteromys aquaticus (Muridae, Sigmodontinae) from Punta Lara, Argentina. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 233–240. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[MZ91] Meng Y.-C., Zhuge H.-X., Lan M.-Y. & Zhou H.-F. 1991. Experimental study on transmission of haemorrhagic fever with remal syndrome virus by mites, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 35–39. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[R96] Ruf, A. 1996. Life-history patterns in soil-inhabiting mesostigmatid mites (Dermanyssina, Parasitina). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 621–628. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

[S95] Strong, K. L. 1995. A new species of Hypoaspis (Acarina: Laelapidae) associated with funnel-web spiders (Araneae: Hexathelidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 219–223.

Rhinonyssidae

Female Ptilonyssus cerchneis, dorsal view, from here.


Belongs within: Gamasina.

The Rhinonyssidae are a group of endoparasitic mites found in the respiratory tracts of birds (Evans & Till 1979).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Sternal shield reduced or absent but with distinct, and often distinctive, sternal setae, epigynal shield well developed or reduced, stigmata dorsal, peritremes greatly reduced or absent. Tibia and genu I each with two anterolateral setae.

<==Rhinonyssidae [Rhinonyssinae] LKW09
    |--Neonyssus LKW09
    |    |--N. columbae Crossley 1950 [=Mesonyssus columbae, Tinaminyssus columbae] H98
    |    `--N. intermedius H23
    |--Cas angrensis (de Castro 1948) LKW09, H98 [=Rhinonyssus angrensis H98, Ptilonyssus angrensis H98]
    |--Larinyssus Strandtmann 1948 H98
    |    |--L. benoiti Fain 1961 H98
    |    `--L. orbicularis Strandtmann 1948 H98
    |--Rhinoecius Cooreman 1946 ET79
    |    |--*R. oti Cooreman 1946 ET79
    |    `--R. cooremani Strandtmann 1952 H98
    |--Ruandanyssus Fain 1957 H98
    |    |--R. artami Domrow 1969 H98
    |    `--R. terpsiphonei Fain 1957 H98
    |--Rallinyssus Strandtmann 1948 H98
    |    |--R. caudistigmus Strandtmann 1948 H98
    |    |--R. congolensis Fain 1956 H98
    |    `--R. gallinulae Fain 1960 H98
    |--Rhinonyssus Trouessart 1894 ET79
    |    |  i. s.: R. himantopus Strandtmann 1951 H98
    |    |         R. minutus (Bregetova 1950) [=Sternostomum minutum] H98
    |    |         R. poliocephali Fain 1956 H98
    |    |         R. rhinolethrum (Trouessart 1895) [=Sternostomum rhinolethrum, R. rhinolethrus] H98
    |    |--*R. (Rhinonyssus) coniventris Trouessart 1894 ET79
    |    |    |--R. c. coniventris ET79
    |    |    `--R. c. echinipes ET79
    |    `--R. (Neonyssoides Hirst 1923 H23
    |         `--R. (*N.) nucifragae Hirst 1923 H23
    |--Sternostoma Berlese & Trouessart 1889 ET79 [=Sternostomum Trouessart 1895 E57]
    |    |--*S. cryptorhynchum Berlese & Trouessart 1889 ET79
    |    |--S. cooremani Fain 1956 H98
    |    |--S. cuculorum Fain 1956 [incl. S. zosteropus Domrow 1966] H98
    |    |--S. dureni Fain 1956 H98
    |    |--S. gliciphilae Domrow 1966 H98
    |    |--S. loxiae ET79
    |    |--S. neosittae domrow 1969 H98
    |    |--S. paddae Fain 1958 H98
    |    |--S. technaui Vitzthum 1935 [=Sternostomum technaui] H98
    |    |--S. thienponti Fain 1956 H98
    |    `--S. tracheacolum Lawrence 1948 H98
    |--Tinaminyssus Strandtmann & Wharton 1958 H98
    |    |--T. aprosmicti (Domrow 1964) [=Mesonyssoides aprosmicti; incl. M. platycerci Domrow 1964] H98
    |    |--T. belopolskii (Bregetova 1950) [=Neonyssus belopolskii, Mesonyssus belopolskii] H98
    |    |--T. daceloae (Domrow 1965) [=Mesonyssus daceloae] H98
    |    |--T. geopeliae (Fain 1964) [=Mesonyssus geopeliae] H98
    |    |--T. halcyonus (Domrow 1965) [=Mesonyssus halcyonus] H98
    |    |--T. hirtus (Wilson 1966) [=Mesonyssus hirtus] H98
    |    |--T. kakatuae (Domrow 1964) [=Mesonyssoides kakatuae, Mesonyssus kakatuae] H98
    |    |--T. macropygiae (Wilson 1966) [=Mesonyssus macropygiae] H98
    |    |--T. megaloprepiae Domrow 1969 H98
    |    |--T. melloi (de Castro 1948) [=Neonyssus melloi, Mesonyssus melloi] H98
    |    |--T. myristicivorae Domrow 1969 H98
    |    |--T. ocyphabus (Domrow 1965) [=Mesonyssus ocyphabus] H98
    |    |--T. phabus (Domrow 1965) [=Mesonyssus phabus] H98
    |    |--T. tanysipterae (Wilson 1966) [=Mesonyssus tanysipterae] H98
    |    |--T. trichoglossi (Domrow 1964) [=Mesonyssoides trichoglossi, Mesonyssus trichoglossi] H98
    |    `--T. welchi Domrow 1969 H98
    `--Ptilonyssus Berlese & Trouessart 1889 [incl. Rhinonyssoides Hirst 1921] H98
         |--*P. echinatus Berlese & Trouessart 1889 ET79
         |--P. acrocephali Fain 1964 H98
         |--P. ailuroedi Domrow 1964 H98
         |--P. astridae Fain 1956 [=Paraneonyssus astridae] H98
         |--P. balimoensis Sakakibara 1968 H98
         |--P. bradypteri (Fain 1962) [=Passeronyssus bradypteri] H98
         |--P. buloloensis Sakakibara 1968 H98
         |--P. capitatus (Strandtmann 1956) [=Paraneonyssus capitatus] H98
         |--P. cerchneis Fain 1957 [=Rhinonyssoides cerchneis] H98
         |--P. cinnyris Zumpt & Till 1955 [=Rhinonyssoides cinnyris] H98
         |--P. colluricinclae Domrow 1964 H98
         |--P. condylocoxa Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
         |--P. conopophilae Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
         |--P. corcoracis Domrow 1969 H98
         |--P. cractici Domrow 1964 H98
         |--P. dicaei Domrow 1966 H98
         |--P. dicruri Fain 1956 [=Passeronyssus dicruri, Ptilonyssoides dicruri] H98
         |--P. dioptrornis Fain 1956 [=Ptilonyssoides dioptrornis] H98
         |--P. emberizae Fain 1956 [=Paraneonyssus emberizae] H98
         |--P. gerygonae Domrow 1969 H98
         |--P. gliciphilae Domrow 1966 H98
         |--P. grallinae Domrow 1964 H98
         |--P. hirsti (de Castro & Periera 1947) [=Neonyssus hirsti, Paraneonyssus hirsti] H98
         |--P. lymozemae Domrow 1965 H98
         |--P. macclurei Fain 1963 H98
         |--P. maluri Domrow 1965 H98
         |--P. meliphagae Domrow 1964 H98
         |--P. microecae Domrow 1966 H98
         |--P. monarchae Domrow 1969 H98
         |--P. motacillae Fain 1956 [incl. P. estrildicola taeniopygiae Fain 1963] H98
         |--P. myzanthae Domrow 1964 H98
         |--P. myzomelae Domrow 1965 H98
         |--P. neochmiae Domrow 1969 H98
         |--P. ohioensis LKW09
         |--P. orthonychus Domrow 1969 H98
         |--P. philemoni Domrow 1964 [incl. P. pentagonicus Fain & Lukoschus 1979] H98
         |--P. pittae Domrow 1964 H98
         |--P. pseudothymanzae Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
         |--P. psophodae Domrow 1964 H98
         |--P. rhipidurae Domrow 1966 H98
         |--P. ruandae Fain 1956 H98
         |--P. setosae Domrow 1969 H98
         |--P. sittae Fain 1965 H98
         |--P. sphecotheris Domrow 1964 H98
         |--P. stomioperae Domrow 1966 H98
         |--P. struthideae Domrow 1969 H98
         |--P. sturnopastoris Fain 1963 H98
         |--P. terpsiphonei Fain 1956 H98
         |--P. thymanzae Domrow 1964 H98
         |--P. triscutatus (Vitzthum 1935) [=Ptilonyssoides triscutatus] H98
         `--P. trouessarti (Hirst 1921) [=Rhinonyssoides trouessarti] H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E57] Evans, G. O. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Acarina) with keys to families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 43: 203–259.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H23] Hirst, S. 1923. On some new or little-known species of Acari. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1923: 971–1000.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.