Vollenhovia

Vollenhovia emeryi colony, copyright Alex Wild.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

Vollenhovia is an Indo-Australian genus of ants most commonly found in forest habitats in association with rotting wood and logs.

Characters (from Terayama 1999): Small to moderate-sized ants, total length of workers around 2–8 mm. Frontal carina and antennal scrobe absent. Clypeus more or less longitudinally bicarinate. Antenna with 12 segments, rarely 11 segments, the funicles ending in a 3-segmented club. Frontal lobe present. Maxillary palp with 1–3 segments, usually 2 segments. Eye present, relatively large. Ventral processes distinct on meso- and metasternum. Middle and hind legs without tibial spur. Petiole sessile or subsessile. Subpetiolar process present, often blade-like. Petiole not particularly more voluminous than postpetole in dorsal view.

<==Vollenhovia Mayr 1865 (see below for synonymy) Z01
    |--*V. punctatostriata Mayr 1865 T99
    |--V. amamiana T99
    |--V. benzai T99
    |--V. brachycera Emery 1914 [=V. brevicornis Emery 1897 non Monomorium brevicorne Emery 1893] E14
    |--V. brevicornis (Emery 1893) [=Monomorium brevicorne] E14
    |--V. denticulata Emery 1914 E14
    |--V. emeryi Wheeler 1906 Z01
    |--V. nipponica T99
    |--V. oblonga (Smith 1860) [=Myrmica oblonga] TB85
    |    |--V. o. oblonga E14
    |    |--V. o. alluaudi E14
    |    |--V. o. dispar E14
    |    |--V. o. laevithorax Emery 1889 E14, B03
    |    `--V. o. pedestris [incl. V. pedestris var. bandarensis] E14
    |--V. okinawana T99
    |--V. rufescens E14
    |--V. sakishimana T99
    `--V. yambaru Terayama 1999 T99

Vollenhovia Mayr 1865 [=Vollenhovenia Forel 1893; incl. Acalama Smith 1949, Dorothea Donisthorpe 1948, Dyomorium Donisthorpe 1947, Gauromyrmex Mennozzi 1933, Heteromyrmex Wheeler 1920, Propdomyrma Wheeler 1915, Solenomyrma Karavajew 1935] Z01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[T99] Terayama, M. 1999. Taxonomic studies of the Japanese Formicidae, part 7. Supplement to the genus Vollenhovia Mayr. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 109–112.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Meranoplus

Meranoplus bicolor worker tending leafhopper, copyright Kalesh Sadasivan.


Belongs within: Meranoplini.

Meranoplus is a palaeotropical genus of ants characterised by nine-segmented antenna together with the dorsum of the anterior mesosoma being flattened and projecting to form a shield, often with regular protruding edges separated by translucent 'windows'.

<==Meranoplus Smith 1854 TB85
    |--*M. bicolor (Guérin-Meneville 1844) Z01 (see below for synonymy)
    |--M. aureolus Crawley 1921 TB85
    |    |--M. a. aureolus TB85
    |    |--M. a. doddi Santschi 1928 TB85
    |    `--M. a. linae Santschi 1928 TB85
    |--M. barretti Santschi 1928 TB85
    |--M. belli Forel 1902 B03
    |--M. dichrous Forel 1907 TB85
    |--M. dimidiatus Smith 1867 TB85
    |--M. diversus Smith 1867 TB85
    |    |--M. d. diversus TB85
    |    |--M. d. duyfkeni Forel 1915 TB85
    |    |--M. d. oxleyi Forel 1915 TB85
    |    `--M. d. unicolor Forel 1902 TB85
    |--M. excavatus Clark 1938 TB85
    |--M. fenestratus Smith 1867 TB85
    |--M. ferrugineus Crawley 1922 TB85
    |--M. froggatti Forel 1913 TB85
    |--M. hilli Crawley 1922 TB85
    |--M. hirsutus Mayr 1876 TB85
    |    |--M. h. hirsutus TB85
    |    |--M. h. minor Forel 1902 TB85
    |    `--M. h. rugosa Crawley 1922 TB85
    |--M. hospes Forel 1910 TB85
    |--M. laeviventris Emery 1889 B03
    |--M. leveillei Emery 1883 E14
    |--M. malaysianus N-ZLI11
    |--M. mars Forel 1902 TB85
    |    |--M. m. mars TB85
    |    `--M. m. ajax Forel 1915 TB85
    |--M. mcarthuri H09
    |--M. minimus Crawley 1922 (see below for synonymy) TB85
    |--M. mjobergi Forel 1915 TB85
    |--M. mucronatus Smith 1857 B03
    |--M. oceanicus Smith 1862 TB85
    |--M. pubescens (Smith 1854) [=Cryptocerus pubescens] TB85
    |--M. puryi Forel 1902 TB85
    |    |--M. p. puryi TB85
    |    `--M. p. curvispina Forel 1910 TB85
    |--M. radamae BS06
    |--M. rothneyi Forel 1902 B03
    |--M. rugosus H09
    |--M. similis Viehmeyer 1922 TB85
    `--M. testudineus McAreavey 1956 TB85

*Meranoplus bicolor (Guérin-Meneville 1844) Z01 [=Cryptocerus bicolor TB85; incl. Me. dimicans Walker 1859 B03, Myrmica tarda Jerdon 1851 Z01, Me. villosus Motsch. 1859 B03]

Meranoplus minimus Crawley 1922 [=M. crawleyi Viehmeyer 1925, M. minor Crawley 1918 non M. hirsutus minor Forel 1902] TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Cardiocondyla

Cardiocondyla wroughtonii, copyright April Nobile.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

Cardiocondyla is a genus of small, mostly soil-dwelling ants found in warmer regions of the Old World.

Characters (from Terayama 1999): Total length of workers around 1.5–3.5 mm. Head rectangular with rounded posterior margin. Mandible triangular, usually with five teeth. Clypeus widely projecting anteriorly, covering base of mandible. Eye relatively well-developed. Antenna with twelve segments (eleven in some species), the apical three segments forming a club. Palpal formula 5,3. Dorsal outline of mesosoma almost straight in profile. Propodeal spine varying from absent to long. Petiole slender in most species, with peduncle and subpetiolar process. Postpetiole depressed in profile, broad in dorsal view, wider than long, wider than petiole. Dorsal areas of head and mesosoma lacking hairs. Legs short; middle and hind legs without tibial spurs.

<==Cardiocondyla Emery 1869 T99 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*C. elegans Emery 1869 T99 [incl. C. elegans var. ulianini Emery 1889 E89]
    |--C. atalanta Forel 1915 H09, TB85 [=C. nuda atalanta TB85]
    |--C. batesii S09
    |--C. bulgarica S09
    |--C. ectopia WW90
    |--C. emeryi T99
    |--C. insutura Zhou 2001 Z01
    |--C. kagutsuchi Terayama 1999 T99
    |--C. mauritanica Forel 1890 FT08
    |--C. monardi Z01
    |--C. nuda (Mayr 1866) [=Leptothorax nuda; incl. C. nuda var. minutior Forel 1899] Z01
    |    |--C. n. nuda TB85
    |    `--C. n. nereis Wheeler 1927 TB85
    |--C. obscurior S09
    |--C. parvinoda Forel 1902 B03
    |--C. tsukuyomi Terayama 1999 T99
    |--C. wroughtonii (Forel 1890) (see below for synonymy) Z01
    `--C. yamauchii Terayama 1999 T99

Cardiocondyla Emery 1869 T99 [incl. Dyclona Santschi 1930 Z01, Emeryia Forel 1890 Z01, Loncyda Santschi 1930 Z01, Prosopidris Wheeler 1935 Z01, Xenometra Emery 1917 Z01]

Cardiocondyla wroughtonii (Forel 1890) [=Emeryia wroughtonii; incl. C. bicolor Donisthorpe 1930, C. wroughtonii var. bimaculata Wheeler 1929, C. emeryi chlorotica Menozzi 1930, C. wroughtonii var. hawaiensis Forel 1899] Z01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Intorno ad alcune formiche della fauna palearctica. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 439–443.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[S09] Seifert, B. 2009. Cryptic species in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) revisited: we need a change in the alpha-taxonomic approach. Myrmecological News 12: 149–166.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[T99] Terayama, M. 1999. Taxonomic studies of the Japanese Formicidae, part 6. Genus Cardiocondyla Emery. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 99–107.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Leptothorax

Leptothorax acervorum, copyright April Nobile.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

Leptothorax is a Holarctic genus of small ants with monomorphic workers (Terayama & Onoyama 1999).

Characters (from Terayama & Onoyama 1999): Mandibles usually each with five teeth (six in some species); apical tooth largest; basal smallest. Palpal formula 5,3. Median area of clypeus broad, extending between frontal lobes. Anterior margin of clypeus varying in shape from weakly convex to strongly produced medially. Frontal carinae short. Antennae 11- or 12-segmented; apical three segments forming a club. Eyes medium to large in size, situated at mid length or slightly forwards on sides of head. Anterolateral corners of pronotum round to angulate in dorsal view. Metanotal groove varying from deeply impressed to obscure or absent. Propodeum with posterodorsal spines or teeth (rarely absent). Body hairs usually short, stout and erect, sometimes long or absent.

<==Leptothorax Mayr 1855 TO99 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*L. acervorum (Fabricius 1793) (see below for synonymy) TO99
    |--L. anira Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. antera Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. arimensis Azuma 1977 TO99
    |--L. australis Wheeler 1934 [=L. (Goniothorax) australis] TB85
    |--L. basara Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. bikara Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. carinatus WW90
    |--L. carvispinosus Mayr 1866 [=L. (*Myrafant) carvispinosus] TO99
    |--L. chamberlini [=Symmyrmica chamberlini] WW90
    |--L. clypeatus (Mayr 1853) [=Myrmica clypeata] TB85
    |--L. confucii TO99
    |--L. congruus Smith 1874 [=L. (Myrafant) congruus] TO99
    |--L. fultoni Forel 1902 B03
    |--L. haira Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. hispidus WW90
    |--L. indra Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. inermis Forel 1902 B03
    |--L. kinomurai Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. koreanus Teranishi 1940 [=L. (Nesomyrmex) koreanus] TO99
    |--L. kubira Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. kutteri S09
    |--L. makora Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. muscorum BS06
    |--L. nitens M93
    |--L. obliquicanthus WW90
    |--L. pacis S09
    |--L. rothneyi Forel 1902 B03
    |--L. santra Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. schurri Forel 1902 [=L. rothneyi schurri] B03
    |--L. spinosior Forel 1901 [=L. congruus var. spinosior, L. (Myrafant) congruus var. spinosior] TO99
    |--L. stenotyle WW90
    |--L. taylori Forel 1902 B03
    `--L. tuscaloosae WW90

Leptothorax Mayr 1855 TO99 [=Mychothorax Ruzsky 1904 TO99; incl. Antillaemyrmex Mann 1920 Z01, Caulomyrma Forel 1914 Z01, Croesomyrmex Mann 1920 Z01, Dichothorax Emery 1895 Z01, Goniothorax Emery 1896 Z01, Icothorax Hamann & Klemm 1967 Z01, Limnomyrmex Arnold 1948 Z01, Macromischa Roger 1863 Z01, Myrafant Smith 1950 TO99, Myrmammophilus Menozzi 1925 Z01]

*Leptothorax acervorum (Fabricius 1793) [=Formica acervorum, L. (*Mychothorax) acervorum; incl. L. acervorum kamtschaticum Rzusky 1920, Myrmica lacteipennis Zetterstedt 1838, Mychothorax acervorum orientalis Kuznetsov-Ugamsky 1928] TO99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[S09] Seifert, B. 2009. Cryptic species in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) revisited: we need a change in the alpha-taxonomic approach. Myrmecological News 12: 149–166.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[TO99] Terayama, M., & K. Onoyama. 1999. The ant genus Leptothorax Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Japan. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 71–97.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Orectognathus

Orectognathus antennatus, copyright April Nobile.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

Orectognathus is an Australasian genus of ants with long and thin trap-jaw mandibles.

Characters (from Bolton 1983): Eyes laterally placed on head; antennal scrobes absent; antennae five-segmented, second funicular segment the longest except scape; palp formula 5,3.

<==Orectognathus Smith 1854 TB85 [incl. Arnoldidris B83; Orectognathiti]
    |--*O. antennatus Smith 1854 [incl. O. antennatus septentrionalis Forel 1910] TB85
    |--O. alligator Taylor 1980 TB85
    |--O. clarki Brown 1953 TB85
    |--O. coccinatus Taylor 1980 TB85
    |--O. darlingtoni Taylor 1977 TB85
    |--O. elegantulus Taylor 1977 TB85
    |--O. howensis Wheeler 1927 [=O. antennatus howensis] TB85
    |--O. kanangra Taylor 1980 TB85
    |--O. mjobergi Forel 1915 [incl. O. mjobergi unicolor Forel 1915] TB85
    |--O. nanus Taylor 1977 TB85
    |--O. nigriventris Mercovich 1958 TB85
    |--O. parvispinus Taylor 1977 TB85
    |--O. phyllobates Brown 1958 TB85
    |--O. robustus Taylor 1977 TB85
    |--O. rostratus Lowery 1967 TB85
    |--O. sarasini Emery 1914 E14
    |--O. satan Brown 1953 TB85
    |--O. sexspinosus Forel 1915 TB85
    `--O. versicolor Donisthorpe 1940 TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B83] Bolton, B. 1983. The Afrotropical dacetine ants (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (4): 267–416.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Plagiolepis

Plagiolepis alluaudi, copyright Brian Heterick.


Belongs within: Plagiolepidini.

Plagiolepis is an Old World genus of minute predatory ants.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Antenna 11-segmented; palps long, palpal formula 6-4; propodeum smooth, unarmed; acidipore present.

Plagiolepis Mayr 1861 [incl. Anacantholepis Santschi 1914, Aporomyrmex Faber 1969, Paraplagiolepis Faber 1969] Z01
    |--*P. pygmaea (Latreille 1798) [=Formica pygmaea] TB85
    |--P. alluaudi Forel 1894 FT08
    |--P. custodiens A61
    |--P. dichroa Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. exigua Forel 1894 FT08
    |    |--P. e. exigua TB85
    |    `--P. exigua quadrimaculata Forel 1902 TB85
    |--P. jerdoni Forel 1894 B03
    |--P. lucidula Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |--P. moelleri Bingham 1903 B03
    |--P. pissina Roger 1863 B03
    |--P. rogeri Forel 1894 B03
    |--P. rothneyi Forel 1894 [=Acantholepis (Lepisiota) rothneyi] Z01
    |--P. squamosula Wheeler 1934 TB85 [incl. P. clarki Wheeler 1934 H09, TB85, P. nynganensis McAreavey 1949 H09, TB85]
    |    |--P. s. squamosula TB85
    |    `--P. ‘clarki’ impasta Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |--P. taurica ES12
    |--P. vindobonensis ES12
    |--P. watsoni Forel 1894 [=P. rothneyi watsoni] B03
    `--P. wroughtoni Forel 1902 [=P. rothneyi wroughtoni] B03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[ES12] Espadaler, X., & S. Santamaria. 2012. Ecto- and endoparasitic fungi on ants from the Holarctic region. Psyche 2012: 168478.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Lasiini

Paraparatrechina glabra, copyright Erin Prado.


Belongs within: Formicinae.
Contains: Lasius, Nylanderia, Prenolepis.

The Lasiini are a clade of formicine ants united by molecular phylogenetic analysis, as well as the possession of a circular or subcircular propodeal spiracle and widely separated hind coxae.

<==Lasiini [Acanthomyopsini, Prenolepidii] WBF16
    |  i. s.: Glaphyromyrmex WBF16
    |--Cladomyrma petalae WBF16
    `--+--+--Lasius BS06
       |  `--Myrmecocystus Wesm. 1838 BS06, B03
       |       |--*M. melligera B03
       |       |--M. albicans G89
       |       |--M. cursor MS01
       |       |--M. flaviceps BS06
       |       |--M. mimicus ES12
       |       |--M. setipes Forel 1894 [=M. viaticus setipes] B03
       |       `--M. viaticus MS01
       `--+--+--Nylanderia WBF16
          |  `--+--Pseudolasius Emery 1887 [incl. Nesolasius Wheeler 1935] LBS10
          |     |    |--*P. familiaris (Smith 1861) [=Formica familiaris] Z01
          |     |    |--P. australis Forel 1915 TB85
          |     |    |--P. cibdelus Z01
          |     |    |--P. emeryi Forel 1911 Z01
          |     |    |--P. risii Forel 1894 Z01
          |     |    |--P. similus Zhou 2001 Z01
          |     |    `--P. typhlops [=P. (*Nesolasius) typhlops] LBS10
          |     `--+--Euprenolepis Emery 1906 [incl. Chapmanella Wheeler 1930] LBS10
          |        |    |--*E. procera [=Prenolepis (*Euprenolepis) procera] LBS10
          |        |    |--E. negrosensis LBS10
          |        |    |--E. varigata N-ZLI11
          |        |    `--E. wittei N-ZLI11
          |        `--Paratrechina Motschoulsky 1863 LBS10, T99
          |             |  i. s.: P. aseta (Forel 1902) [=Prenolepis aseta, Pa. (Nylanderia) aseta] Z01
          |             |         P. opisopthalmos Zhou & Zheng 1998 Z01
          |             |--P. longicornis (Latreille 1802) WBF16, FT08 (see below for synonymy)
          |             `--+--P. antsingy WBF16
          |                `--P. zanjensis WBF16
          `--+--+--Prenolepis WBF16
             |  `--Zatania albimaculata WBF16
             `--+--‘Prenolepis’ albimaculata LBS10
                `--Paraparatrechina Donisthorpe 1947 WBF16, LBS10
                     |  i. s.: *P. pallida (Donisthorpe 1947) T99 [=Paratrechina (*Paraparatrechina) pallida LBS10]
                     |         P. albipes [=Paratrechina albipes] LBS10
                     |         P. bufonus [=Pseudolasius bufonus] LBS10
                     |         P. butteli [=Paratrechina butteli] LBS10
                     |           |--P. b. butteli LBS10
                     |           |--P. b. bryanti [=Paratrechina butteli bryanti] LBS10
                     |           `--P. b. malaccana [=Paratrechina butteli malaccana] LBS10
                     |         P. caledonica [=Paratrechina caledonica] LBS10
                     |         P. dichroa [=Paratrechina dichroa] LBS10
                     |         P. emarginata [=Paratrechina emarginata] LBS10
                     |         P. foreli [=Paratrechina foreli] LBS10
                     |           |--P. f. foreli LBS10
                     |           `--P. f. nigriventris [=Paratrechina nigriventris] LBS10
                     |         P. iridescens [=Paratrechina iridescens] LBS10
                     |         P. koningsbergeri [=Paratrechina koningsbergeri] LBS10
                     |         P. lecamopteridis [=Paratrechina lecamopteridis] LBS10
                     |         P. minutula (Forel 1901) LBS10, FT08 (see below for synonymy)
                     |           |--P. m. minutula LBS10
                     |           `--P. m. buxtoni LBS10
                     |         P. nana (Santschi 1928) LBS10, TB85 [=Paratrechina (Nylanderia) nana LBS10, TB85]
                     |         P. nettae [=Paratrechina nettae] LBS10
                     |         P. opaca [=Paratrechina opaca] LBS10
                     |           |--P. o. opaca LBS10
                     |           `--P. o. metallescens [=Paratrechina opaca metallescens] LBS10
                     |         P. pusillima [=Paratrechina pusillima] LBS10
                     |         P. sauteri (Forel 1913) LBS10, Z01 (see below for synonymy)
                     |         P. subtilis [=Paratrechina subtilis] LBS10
                     |           |--P. s. subtilis LBS10
                     |           `--P. s. termitophila [=Paratrechina subtilis termitophila] LBS10
                     |         P. tapinomoides [=Paratrechina tapinomoides] LBS10
                     |--P. oceanica [=Paratrechina oceanica] LBS10
                     `--+--P. glabra [=Paratrechina glabra] LBS10
                        `--P. weissi [=Pseudolasius weissi] LBS10

Paraparatrechina minutula (Forel 1901) LBS10, FT08 [=Prenolepis minutula TB85, Paratrechina minutula LBS10, Pr. (Nylanderia) minutula E14]

Paraparatrechina sauteri (Forel 1913) LBS10, Z01 [=Prenolepis (Nylanderia) minutula r. sauteri Z01, Paratrechina (N.) sauteri LBS10, Z01]

Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille 1802) WBF16, FT08 [=Formica longicornis B03, Prenolepis (Nylanderia) longicornis E14; incl. *Paratrechina currens Motschoulsky 1863 T99, Formica gracilescens Nylander 1856 Z01, Paratrechina longicornis hagemanni (Forel 1901) LBS10, F. vagans Jerdon 1851 Z01]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[ES12] Espadaler, X., & S. Santamaria. 2012. Ecto- and endoparasitic fungi on ants from the Holarctic region. Psyche 2012: 168478.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[LBS10] LaPolla, J. S., S. G. Brady & S. O. Shattuck. 2010. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Prenolepis genus-group of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 35: 118–131.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[T99] Terayama, M. 1999. Taxonomic studies of the Japanese Formicidae, part 5. Genus Paratrechina Motschulsky. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 49–64.

[WBF16] Ward, P. S., B. B. Blaimer & B. L. Fisher. 2016. A revised phylogenetic classification of the ant subfamily Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with resurrection of the genera Colobopsis and Dinomyrmex. Zootaxa 4072 (3): 343–357.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Prolasius

Prolasius sp., from AntWiki.


Belongs within: Melophorini.

Prolasius is an Australasian genus of ants mostly found nesting under rocks and logs.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Clypeus bulbous; antennae twelve-segmented, sockets close to posterior margin of clypeus, scapes exceeding posterior margin of head capsule by more than one third of their length; outline of mesosoma smooth; pronotum bearing at most two pairs of closely placed stout setae; propodeal spiracle located near posterior face of propodeum; metapleural gland present.

Prolasius Forel 1892 TB85
    |--*P. advenus (Smith 1862) [=Formica advena, Melophorus (*Prolasius) advenus] TB85
    |--P. abruptus Clark 1934 TB85
    |--P. antennatus McAreavey 1947 [=P. antennata] TB85
    |--P. bruneus McAreavey 1947 [=P. brunea] TB85
    |--P. clarki MacAreavey 1947 TB85
    |--P. convexus McAreavey 1947 TB85
    |--P. depressiceps (Emery 1914) [=Melophorus depressiceps] TB85
    |    |--P. d. depressiceps TB85
    |    `--P. d. similis McAreavey 1947 TB85
    |--P. flavicornis Clark 1934 TB85
    |    |--P. f. flavicornis TB85
    |    `--P. f. minor McAreavey 1947 TB85
    |--P. flavidiscus McAreavey 1947 TB85
    |--P. hellenae McAreavey 1947 TB85
    |--P. hemiflavus Clark 1934 TB85
    |    |--P. h. hemiflavus TB85
    |    `--P. h. wilsoni McAreavey 1947 TB85
    |--P. mjoebergella (Forel in Santschi 1916) (see below for synonymy) TB85
    |--P. niger Clark 1934 TB85
    |--P. nigriventris McAreavey 1947 TB85
    |--P. nitidissimus (André 1896) [=Formica nitidissima] TB85
    |    |--P. n. nitidissimus TB85
    |    `--P. n. formicoides (Forel 1902) [=Melophorus formicoides] TB85
    |--P. pallidus Clark 1934 TB85
    |--P. quadratus McAreavey 1947 [=P. quadrata] TB85
    |--P. reticulatus McAreavey 1947 TB85 [=P. reticulata TB85; incl. P. wheeleri McAreavey 1947 H09, TB85]
    `--P. robustus McAreavey 1947 TB85

Prolasius mjoebergella (Forel in Santschi 1916) [=Prenolepis mjobergella, Pre. mjobergi Forel 1915 non P. vividula mjobergi Forel 1908] TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Calomyrmex

Calomyrmex sp., copyright Farhan Bokhari.


Belongs within: Camponotini.

Calomyrmex is an Australasian genus of iridescently coloured formicine ants possessing a metapleural gland and lacking spines on the mesosoma.

Calomyrmex Emery 1895 TB85
    |--*C. laevissimus (Smith 1859) [=Formica laevissima] TB85
    |--C. albertisi (Emery 1887) [=Camponotus albertisi] TB85
    |--C. albopilosus (Mayr 1876) [=Camponotus albopilosus] TB85
    |    |--C. a. albopilosus TB85
    |    `--C. a. wienandsi (Forel 1910) [=Camponotus (Calomyrmex) albopilosus wienandsi] TB85
    |--C. glauerti Clark 1930 TB85
    |--C. impavidus (Forel 1893) [=Camponotus impavidus] TB85
    |--C. purpureus (Mayr 1876) [=Camponotus purpureus] TB85
    |    |--C. p. purpureus TB85
    |    `--C. p. smaragdina Emery 1898 TB85
    |--C. similis (Mayr 1876) [=Camponotus similis] TB85
    `--C. splendidus (Mayr 1876) [=Camponotus splendidus] TB85
         |--C. s. splendidus TB85
         |--C. s. mutans (Forel 1910) [=Camponotus (Calomyrmex) splendidus mutans] TB85
         `--C. s. viridiventris Forel 1915 TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Opisthopsis

Haddon's strobe ant Opisthopsis haddoni, copyright Ajay Narendra.


Belongs within: Camponotini.

Opisthopsis, strobe ants, is an Australasian genus of formicine ants with very large eyes placed high on the head at the posterior corners of the capsule.

Opisthopsis Emery 1893 [=Myrmecopsis Smith 1865 non Newman 1850] TB85
    |--*O. respiciens (Smith 1865) [=Formica (*Myrmecopisis) respiciens] TB85
    |    |--O. r. respiciens TB85
    |    `--O. r. moestus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |--O. diadematus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |    |--O. d. diadematus TB85
    |    `--O. d. dubius Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |--O. haddoni Emery 1893 TB85
    |    |--O. h. haddoni TB85
    |    `--O. h. rufoniger Forel 1910 TB85
    |--O. lienosus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |--O. major Forel 1902 TB85
    |--O. maurus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |--O. pictus Emery 1895 TB85
    |    |--O. p. pictus TB85
    |    |--O. p. bimaculatus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |    |--O. p. lepidus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    |    `--O. p. palliatus Wheeler 1918 TB85
    `--O. rufithorax Emery 1895 TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Bothriomyrmex

Bothriomyrmex meridionalis, copyright Claude Lebas.


Belongs within: Dolichoderinae.

Bothriomyrmex is an Old World genus of ants with the gaster anteriorly gibbous and overhanging the petiole which bears a low, anteriorly inclined node (Bingham 1903).

Characters (from Bingham 1903): Worker with head nearly square, almost as broad in front as posteriorly, cheeks straight and not convex; mandibles when closed hidden under anterior margin of clypeus; antennae 12-segmented, apical segment as long as preceding three segments; eyes small. Mesosoma broad in Front, compressed posteriorly; pronotum longer than mesonotum; pro-meso- and meso-metanotal sutures distinct; metanotum with short basal portion and obliquely truncate apical portion; legs short and stout. Pedicel and abdomen short and broad, node of pedicel small and low but distinct, inclined obliquely forwards. Queen with mandibles triangular, with six teeth; clypeus wide, bisinuate along anterior margin; frontal area triangular, depressed, longer than broad, antennal and clypeal hollows confluent; antennal carinae short, wide apart; antennae 12-segmented, somewhat massive. Pedicel with erect node. Wings with one cubital and one discoidal cell. Male with mandibles narrower than in queen, acute; clypeus trapezoidal, convex; eyes very large, ocelli prominent; antennae with 13 segments, the segments much longer proportionately than in queen. Pedicel with node thick, rounded above.

<==Bothriomyrmex Emery 1869 [incl. Chronoxenus Sanntschi 1920] Z01
    |--B. meridionalis (Roger 1863) [=Tapinoma meridionale, *B. costae Emery 1869] TB85
    |--B. dalyi Forel 1895 [=B. wroughtoni dalyi] B03
    |--B. decapitans A71
    |--B. flavus Crawley 1922 TB85
    |--B. myops Forel 1895 B03
    |--B. pusillus (Mayr 1876) [=Tapinoma pusillum] TB85
    |    |--B. p. pusillus TB85
    |    `--B. p. aequalis Forel 1902 TB85
    |--B. scissor Crawley 1922 TB85
    |--B. walshi Forel 1895 B03
    |--B. wilsoni Clark 1934 TB85
    `--B. wroughtoni Forel 1895 B03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Tapinoma

Ghost ants Tapinoma melanocephalum, copyright Kalesh Sadasivan.


Belongs within: Dolichoderinae.

Tapinoma is a cosmopolitan genus of very small, mostly arboreal ants. They are characterised by a petiole with a greatly reduced, more or less obsolete node, and a gaster with four visible tergites (Heterick 2009).

<==Tapinoma Förster 1850 FT08 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*T. erraticum (Latreille 1798) [=Formica erratica, T. collina Förster 1850] TB85
    |--T. ambiguum H09
    |--T. annandalei H09
    |--T. fragile H09
    |--T. indicum Forel 1895 [=T. melanocephalum indicum] Z01
    |--T. litorale H09
    |--T. melanocephalum (Fabricius 1793) FT08 (see below for synonymy) Z01
    |--T. minutum Mayr 1862 FT08
    |    |--T. m. minutum TB85
    |    |--T. m. broomense Forel 1915 [=T. minutum broomensis] TB85
    |    |--T. m. cephalicum Santschi 1928 [=T. (Micromyrma) minutum cephalicum] TB85
    |    `--T. m. integrum Forel 1902 TB85
    |--T. nigerrimum A71
    |--T. pallipes H09
    |--T. pomone H09
    |--T. sessile H09
    |--T. subtile H09
    `--T. williamsi H09

Tapinoma Förster 1850 FT08 [incl. Micromyrma Dufour 1857 Z01, Neoclystopsenella Kurian 1955 Z01, Tapinoptera Santschi 1925 Z01, Zatapinoma Wheeler 1928 Z01]

Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius 1793) FT08 [=Formica melanocephala Z01, Micromyrma melanocephala Z01; incl. Tapinoma (Micromyrma) melanocephalum var. australis Santschi 1928 Z01, T. (M.) melanocephalum var. australe Z01, Formica nana Jerdon 1851 non Latreille 1802 Z01, Myrmica pellucida Smith 1858 Z01]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Technomyrmex

White-footed ant Technomyrmex albipes, copyright Scot Nelson.


Belongs within: Dolichoderinae.

Technomyrmex is a genus of smaller, mostly arboreal ants found in warmer regions of the Old World.

Characters (from Bingham 1903): Worker with head more or less cordate, occiput emarginate, generally broader than anterior margin of head; mandibles broad, triangular, masticatory margin equal in length to outer margin, the former armed with numerous small teeth; clypeus broad, convex in the middle, extending angularly up between antennal carinae; frontal area indistinct; antennal carinae short, wide apart, parallel; scape moderately long, flagellum thickening slightly towards apex; eyes comparatively large, placed in front of transverse middle line of head. Thorax moderately broad, viewed in profile deeply emarginate at meso-metanotal suture; pro-mesonotal suture distinct but not incised; mesonotum convex, raised slightly above pronotum, the two together forming a convex gibbosity; metanotum convex, basal portion slightly sloping forward, apical portion much longer and sloping backwards; legs comparatively short and stout, calcaria pectinate, claws simple. Pedicel without a proper elevated node, simply with an oval flat thickening in the middle; abdomen at base very much produced, raised and gibbous, overhanging pedicel, posteriorly conical, with an apical cloacal aperture. Queen closely resembling worker except head proportionately broader posteriorly; ocelli present and distinct though small; thorax more massive; mesonotum and scutellum nearly flat, very slightly convex; slight constriction present behind wings; fore wing with a radial and one cubital cell; metanotum broad, sloping obliquely back to apex, only slightly convex, nearly flat; pedicel very short, together with abdomen as in worker.

<==Technomyrmex Mayr 1872 FT08 [incl. Aphantolepis Wheeler 1930 Z01, Engramma Forel 1905 Z01]
    |--*T. strenuus Mayr 1872 TB85
    |--T. albipes (Smith 1861) (see below for synonymy) Z01
    |    |--T. a. albipes TB85
    |    `--T. a. cedarensis Forel 1915 TB85
    |--T. antennus Zhou 2001 Z01
    |--T. bicolor Emery 1893 TB85
    |    |--T. b. bicolor TB85
    |    `--T. b. antonii Forel 1902 TB85
    |--T. brunneus Forel 1895 [=T. albipes brunneus] B03
    |--T. difficilis BS06
    |--T. elatior Forel 1902 [=T. mogdiliani elatior] B03
    |--T. horni N-ZLI11
    |--T. jocosus Forel 1910 TB85
    |--T. kraepelini N-ZLI11
    |--T. modiglianii N-ZLI11
    |--T. quadricolor (Wheeler 1930) [=*Aphantolepis quadricolor] TB85
    |--T. sophiae Forel 1902 TB85
    `--T. vitiensis Mann 1921 FT08

Technomyrmex albipes (Smith 1861) [=Formica (Tapinoma) albipes; incl. Tapinoma albitarse Motschulsky 1863, Ta. nigrum Mayr 1862, Technomyrmex albipes st. rufescens Santschi 1928, Te. albipes var. vitiensis Mann 1921] Z01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Leptomyrmex

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus, copyright Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Dolichoderinae.

Leptomyrmex, spider ants, is an Australasian genus of slender-bodied, long-legged ants with long antennal scapes exceeding the vertex by more than half their length.

<==Leptomyrmex Mayr 1862 TB85
    |--*L. erythrocephalus (Fabricius 1775) [=Formica erythrocephala] TB85
    |    |--L. e. erythrocephalus TB85
    |    |--L. e. basirufus Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    |--L. e. brunneiceps Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    |--L. e. clarki Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    |--L. e. cnemidatus Wheeler 1915 TB85
    |    |--L. e. decipiens Wheeler 1915 TB85
    |    |--L. e. mandibularis Wheeler 1915 TB85
    |    |--L. e. rufithorax Forel 1915 TB85
    |    |--L. e. unctus Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    `--L. e. venustus Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |--L. darlingtoni Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    |--L. d. darlingtoni TB85
    |    |--L. d. fascigaster Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    `--L. d. jucundus Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |--L. froggatti Forel 1910 TB85
    |--L. mjobergi Forel 1915 TB85
    |--L. nigriventris (Guérin-Meneville 1831) [=Formica nigriventris] TB85
    |    |--L. n. nigriventris TB85
    |    |--L. n. hackeri Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    `--L. n. tibialis Emery 1895 TB85
    |--L. pallens Emery 1883 [incl. L. p. var. geniculata Emery 1914, L. p. var. nigriceps Emery 1914] E14
    |--L. unicolor Emery 1895 TB85
    |--L. varians Emery 1895 TB85
    |    |--L. v. varians TB85
    |    |--L. v. angusticeps Santschi 1929 TB85
    |    |--L. v. quadricolor Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |    |--L. v. rothneyi Forel 1902 TB85
    |    |--L. v. ruficeps Emery 1895 TB85
    |    `--L. v. rufipes Emery 1895 TB85
    `--L. wiburdi Wheeler 1915 TB85
         |--L. w. wiburdi TB85
         `--L. w. pictus Wheeler 1915 TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Masarinae

Paragia vespiformis, from Carpenter (1996).


Belongs within: Vespidae.

The Masarinae, pollen wasps, are a group of wasps found primarily on the southern continents that provision their nests with pollen and nectar. They can be distinguished from other vespids by the lack of a trochantellus on the mid femur.

<==Masarinae [Masaridae, Masarides] HH07
    |--Gayellini [Gayellinae] C96
    `--Masarini C96
         |--Ceramius Latreille 1810 C96, S86
         |    |--C. beyeri C96
         |    |--C. caffer OK99
         |    |--C. capicola R13
         |    |--C. hispanicus RL09
         |    |--C. karooensis R13
         |    |--C. lichtensteinii GS61
         |    |    |--C. l. lichtensteinii GS61
         |    |    `--C. l. macrocephalus Saussure 1855 GS61
         |    `--C. metanotalis OK99
         `--+--Masaris L02 [Masarina C96]
            |    |--M. aegyptiacus PK17
            |    |--M. carli C96
            |    `--M. vespiforms L02
            `--Paragiina [Paragiini] C96
                 |--Ceramiopsis Zavattari 1910 S86
                 |--Metaparagia Meade-Waldo 1911 (see below for synonymy) C96
                 |    |--+--M. maculata (Meade-Waldo 1910) C96, C85 [=Paragia maculata C85, *Rolandia maculata C85]
                 |    |  `--+--*M. pictifrons (Smith 1857) S86, C96, S86 [=Paragia pictifrons S86]
                 |    |     `--M. doddi Meade-Waldo 1911 C96, S86 [=Paragia doddi C85]
                 |    `--+--+--M. confluens (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=Paragia confluens C96, Riekia confluens C96]
                 |       |  `--M. nocatunga (Richards 1962) C96, C85 [=*Riekia nocatunga C85]
                 |       `--+--M. hua (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=*Ammoparagia hua S86]
                 |          `--+--M. borreriae (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=Rolandia borreriae S86]
                 |             `--+--M. angulata (Richards 1968) C96, S86 [=Riekia angulata S86, Rolandia angulata S86]
                 |                `--M. houstoni (Snelling 1986) C96, S86 [=Rolandia houstoni S86]
                 `--Paragia Shuckard 1837 (see below for synonymy) C96
                      |--*P. decipiens Shuckard 1837 S86
                      |    |--P. d. decipiens C85
                      |    `--P. d. aliciae Richards 1962 C85
                      |--P. australis Saussure 1853 [=P. (Paragiella) australis] C85
                      |    |--P. a. australis C85
                      |    `--P. a. borealis Richards 1962 C85
                      |--P. bicolor Saussure 1853 [=P. (Paragiella) bicolor] C85
                      |--P. calida Smith 1865 [=P. (Paragiella) calida] C85
                      |--P. deceptrix Smith 1862 [=P. deceptor, [=P. (Paragiella) deceptrix] C85
                      |--P. generosa Richards 1962 [=P. (Paragiella) generosa] C85
                      |--P. hirsuta Meade-Waldo 1911 [=P. (Paragiella) hirsuta] C85
                      |--P. magdalena Turner 1908 [=P. (Paragiella) magdalena] C85
                      |--P. mimetica Richards 1968 [=P. (Paragiella) mimetica] C85
                      |--P. monocesta Snelling 1986 S86
                      |--P. morosa Smith 1868 [=P. (Paragiella) morosa] C85
                      |--P. nasuta Smith 1868 [=P. (Paragiella) nasuta] C85
                      |--P. odyneroides Smith 1850 (see below for synonymy) C85
                      |--P. oligomera Snelling 1986 S86
                      |--P. perkinsi Meade-Waldo 1911 [=P. (Paragiella) perkinsi] C85
                      |--P. propodealis Richards 1968 [=P. (Paragiella) propodealis] C85
                      |--P. schulthessi Turner 1936 C85
                      |--P. smithii Saussure 1854 C85
                      |--P. sobrina Smith 1869 [=P. (Paragiella) sobrina; incl. P. excellens Smith 1869] C85
                      |--P. tricolor Smith 1850 [=P. saussurii Smith 1857] C85
                      |--P. venusta Smith 1865 [=P. (Paragiella) venusta; incl. P. concinna Smith 1868] C85
                      |--P. vespiformis Smith 1865 [=P. (*Cygnaea) vespiformis] S86
                      `--P. walkeri Meade-Waldo 1910 [=P. (Paragiella) walkeri] C85

Masarinae incertae sedis:
  Trimeria C96
    |--T. americana C96
    |--T. howardi CC85
    `--T. rhachiphora HH07
  Pseudomasaris HH07
    |--P. phaceliae HH07
    `--P. vespoides JB13
  Celonites Latreille 1802 L02
    |--*C. apiformis [=Masaris apiformis] L02
    |--C. cyprius C96
    `--C. varipennis C96
  Masarina Richards 1962 G05
    |--M. aptosimi Gess 2005 G05
    |--M. ceres G05
    |--M. familiaris G05
    |--M. hermanniae Gess 2005 G05
    |--M. hyalinipennis G05
    |--M. mixta G05
    |--M. mixtoides G05
    |--M. namaqua G05
    |--M. parvula G05
    |--M. peliostomi G05
    |--M. roberti Gess 2005 G05
    |--M. strucki G05
    `--M. tylecodoni G05

Metaparagia Meade-Waldo 1911 [incl. Ammoparagia Snelling 1986, Riekia Richards 1962, Rolandia Richards 1962] C96

Paragia Shuckard 1837 [incl. Alpha Dalla Tore 1904 non Saussure 1854, Beta Dalla Torre 1904 non Saussure 1854, Cygnaea Richards 1962, Paragiella Richards 1962] C96

Paragia odyneroides Smith 1850 [=P. (*Paragiella) odyneroides; incl. P. bidens Saussure 1855, P. praedator Saussure 1855] C85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[C96] Carpenter, J. M. 1996. Generic classification of the Australian pollen wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Masarinae. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 69 (4 suppl.): 384–400.

[CC85] Carpenter, J. M., & J. M. Cumming. 1985. A character analysis of the North American potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Eumeninae). Journal of Natural History 19 (5): 877–916.

[G05] Gess, F. W. 2005. Three new species of Masarina Richards, 1962 from southern Africa with a key to all species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Masarinae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 7–14.

[GS61] Giordani Soika, A. 1961. Hymenoptera (Aculeata): Vespidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 440–451. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O'Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295–3299.

[JB13] Johnson, B. R., M. L. Borowiec, J. C. Chiu, E. K. Lee, J. Atallah & P. S. Ward. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[OK99] OConnor, B. M., & J. S. H. Klompen. 1999. Phylogenetic perspectives on mite-insect associations: the evolution of acarinaria. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 63–71. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[RL09] Ren, D., C. C. Labandeira, J. A. Santiago-Blay, A. Rasnitsyn, C. Shih, A. Bashkuev, M. A. V. Logan, C. L. Hotton & D. Dilcher. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326: 840–847.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[S86] Snelling, R. R. 1986. The taxonomy and nomenclature of some Australian paragiine wasps (Hymenoptera: Masaridae). Contributions in Science 378: 1–19.

Stenodyneriellus

Stenodyneriellus sp., copyright djhiker.


Belongs within: Eumeninae.

Stenodyneriellus is an Indo-Australian genus of potter wasps in which the dorsal surface of the propodeum is well developed behind the postscutellum, so that the latter is entirely or almost entirely separate from the posterior face of the mesosoma, and the superior transverse carina of the propodeum is usually well developed (or, if not, there is still a distinct separation between the dorsal and posterior faces of the propodeum). The first metasomal tergite is about twice as wide as long and nearly as wide as the second tergite (Giordani Soika 1962).

<==Stenodyneriellus Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--*S. turneriellus Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--S. bicoloratus (Saussure 1856) [=Odynerus bicoloratus] C85
    |--S. brisbanensis Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--S. carnarvonensis Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--S. darnleyensis Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--S. novempunctatus Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--S. pseudancistrocerus (Giordani Soika 1962) [=Pseudonortonia pseudancistrocerus] C85
    |--S. punctatissimus Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--S. spinosiusculus Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--S. tricoloratus Giordani Soika 1962 C85 [=Pseudepipona tricolorata GS62]
    |--S. turneriellus Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    `--S. yanchepensis (Giordani Soika 1962) [=Australodynerus yanchepensis] C85
         |--S. y. yanchepensis C85
         `--S. y. nigrithorax (Giordani Soika 1962) [=Australodynerus yanchepensis nigrithorax] C85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[GS62] Giordani Soika, A. 1962. Gli Odynerus sensu antiquo del continente Australiano e della Tasmania. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 57–202.

Australodynerus

Australodynerus punctiventris, copyright Museum Victoria.


Belongs within: Eumeninae.

Australodynerus is an Australian genus of smallish potter wasps characterised by a relatively long, depressed propodeum with well-defined lateral carinae, and a small difference only in the width of the first and second metasomal segments (Giordani Soika 1962).

Characters (from Giordani Soika 1962): Size mediocre. Mesosoma elongate, sub-cylindrical, slightly depressed dorsally, slightly wider anteriorly than posteriorly. Postscutellum with short horizontal dorsal face not well separated from posterior oblique face, which is part of the posterior face of the mesosoma. Propodeum elongate, depressed, with dorsal face continuing regularly onto the posterior face; lateral carinae well developed, rectilinear, forming a right or acute angle at rear where they meet with lower carinae. First tergite broad, dome-shaped; second tergite a little swollen.

<==Australodynerus Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |--*A. pusillus (Saussure 1855) [=Odynerus pusillus; incl. O. (Leionotus) macilentus Saussure 1867] C85
    |--A. convexus Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--A. merredinensis Giordani Soika 1962 C85
    |    |--A. m. merredinensis C85
    |    |--A. m. everardensis Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |    `--A. m. victoriensis Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    |--A. punctiventris Giordani Soika 1977 C85
    `--A. pusilloides Giordani Soika 1962 C85
         |--A. p. pusilloides C85
         `--A. p. impudicus Giordani Soika 1962 C85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Giordani Soika, A. 1962. Gli Odynerus sensu antiquo del continente Australiano e della Tasmania. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 57–202.