Cuspicona

Green potato bug Cuspicona simplex, from Brisbane Insects.


Belongs within: Pentatominae.

Cuspicona is a genus of shield bugs found in Australasia and insular southeast Asia, most commonly found feeding on Solanaceae or on Eremophila (Gross 1976).

Characters (from Gross 1976): Small to moderate size, rather oval or kite-shaped. In life greenish fading to yellowish or yellowish-brown. Densely punctate on head and pronotum. Head wider across eyes than long, disc flattened or somewhat convex. Pronotum at least twice as wide across lateral angles as long, lateral angles acute, produced into a conical or spinose process or obtuse, anterolateral margins in front of this region straight but diverging posteriorly, marginate or narrowly obtuse. Scutellum triangular, apex narrow or broad, anteriorly only faintly raised. Posterior exterior angles of laterotergites armed with short acute spine or unarmed, those of seventh laterotergites not strongly produced posteriorly. Metasternal-mesosternal keels moderately elevated, their inferior margins only greatly sinuated and apically not or hardly surpassing apex of prosternum. Tibiae generally cylindrical or only flattened apically. Abdomen broadly V- or U-shaped in posterior view.

<==Cuspicona Dallas 1851 G76
    |--*C. thoracica [=Rhynchocoris thoracica] G76
    |--C. carneola Van Duzee 1905 G76
    |--C. cooperi Gross 1975 G76
    |--C. equisignata Gross 1975 G76
    |--C. eremophilae Gross 1975 G76
    |--C. intacta Walker 1868 G76
    |--C. longispina Gross 1975 G76
    |--C. obesula Gross 1975 G76
    |--C. ooldeae Gross 1975 G76
    |--C. privata [=Ocirrhoe privata] G76
    |--C. procallosa G76
    |--C. simplex Walker 1867 G76
    `--C. strenuella Walker 1868 G76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G76] Gross, G. F. 1976. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part II. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

Cephaloplatus


Cephaloplatus pertyi, copyright Glenda Walter.


Belongs within: Pentatominae.

Cephaloplatus is an Australian genus of moderately-sized shield bugs with a broad head bearing expanded juga (Gross 1976).

Characters (from Gross 1976): Rather oval, moderate-sized, reddish-brown, yellowish-brown, or blackish-brown in colour. Head rather large, apically flattened or concave. Juga laterally expanded, produced well in front of anteclypeus, anterior margins rounded or truncate, lateral margins sometimes produced into prominent lobe or spine in front of eyes. Antennae slender. Bucculae not reaching base of head. Pronotum rather flat, anterior margin strongly concave, lateral margin explanate and produced into flattened angulate or lobate process reaching forward to at least posterior margin of eye and lying just exteriorly of true anterior angle; anterolateral margins behind this may be expanded laminately, frequently crenulate or serrate. Scutellum substantially triangular, relatively large. Hemelytra always wider than abdomen in basal half, generally narrowing apically. Prosternum shallowly depressed, mesosternum little convex with median longitudinal raised line or flattened ridge. Laterotergites unarmed. Male pygophore with posterior V-shaped or arcuate raised ridge below.

<==Cephaloplatus White 1842 (Cephaloplatus) G76
    |--*C. (C.) pertyi (White 1842) [=Dryptocephalus (*C.) pertyi] G76
    |--C. (C.) australis G76
    |--C. (C.) bellus Gross 1970 G76
    |--C. (C.) clementi G76
    |--C. (C.) granulatus Bergroth 1895 G76
    |--C. (C.) minchami Gross 1976 G76
    |--C. (C.) nubifer Bergroth 1916 G76
    |--C. (C.) pallipes Walker 1868 G76
    |--C. (C.) pellewensis G76
    `--C. (C.) reticulatus Bergroth 1895 G76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G76] Gross, G. F. 1976. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part II. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

Poecilometis

Poecilometis patruelis, from Brisbane Insects.


Belongs within: Pentatominae.

Poecilometis is an Australian genus of shield bugs usually found under the bark of Eucalyptus and other native trees (Gross 1976).

Characters (from Gross 1976): Generally largish, oval to somewhat lanceolate in outline. Anteclypeus protruding beyond apices of juga, the latter apically rounded or oblique and their lateral margins sometimes somewhat elevated, behind apices of antennifers the lateral margins of the head somewhat obtuse. Eyes prominent, often touching anterior margins of pronotum, basal region of head behind eyes somewhat swollen. Antennifers unarmed exteriorly, antennae four- or 'five'-segmented, the first segment thicker than rest and slightly bowed. Pronotum strongly hexagonal, lateral angles obtuse, acute, or armed with a short slender spine. Anterior margin excavate behind collum, exterior to this obtuse and obliquely truncate. Anterolateral margins marginate, crenulate, or denticulate and somewhat concavely angulate. Posterolateral and posterior margins almost straight or very slightly sinuate. Scutellum constricted towards apex. Hemelytra concealing most of abdomen, coriaceous parts longer than membrane. Venation of membrane mostly longitudinal, arising from vein running parallel to apical margin of corium. Upper surface mostly covered with coarse punctations, the punctation beneath finer and less regular. Bucculae well elevated, higher anteriorly than posteriorly and not reaching base of head. Rostrum long, reaching to at least base of third abdominal segment. Legs relatively long and slender, tibiae concave on outer surfaces, first segment of tarsi as long or nearly as long as remaining two together. Abdomen below shallowly sulcate on at least first visible segment medially, laterotergites armed with spine posteriorly, or unarmed. Male pygophore varying in shape, generally produced into two posteriorly directed lobes, one on either side of midline, these lobes sometimes notched or further subdivided.

<==Poecilometis Dallas 1851 [incl. Eumecopus Dallas 1851] G76
    |--*P. strigatus (Westwood 1837) [=Halys strigata] G76
    |--P. acanthopygius (Stål 1876) [=Eumecopus acanthopygius] G76
    |--P. alienus Walker 1876 G76
    |--P. apicalis (Westwood 1837) [=Halys apicalis] G76
    |    |--P. a. apicalis G76
    |    |--P. a. abdominalis G76
    |    `--P. a. conspersus G76
    |--P. armatus C91 [=Eumecopus armatus C70]
    |--P. borealis G76
    |    |--P. b. borealis G76
    |    `--P. b. obesus Gross 1972 G76
    |--P. calidus Walker 1867 G76
    |--P. callosus Gross 1972 G76
    |--P. extraneus Gross 1972 G76
    |--P. fuscescens (Stål 1876) [=Eumecopus fuscescens] G76
    |--P. histricus G75
    |--P. horni (Bergroth 1916) [=Eumecopus horni] G76
    |--P. longicornis G76
    |--P. nigriventris G76
    |    |--P. n. nigriventris G76
    |    `--P. n. superbus (Distant 1899) [=Eumecopus superbus] G76
    |--P. parilis Gross 1972 G76
    |--P. patruelis Stål 1859 G76
    |    |--P. p. patruelis G76
    |    `--P. p. ynigrum (Bergroth 1916) [=Eumecopus ynigrum] G76
    |--P. punctiventris (Stål 1876) [=Eumecopus punctiventris] G76
    |--P. spenceri Bergroth 1916 G76
    `--P. vermiculatus (Bergroth 1916) [=Eumecopus vermiculatus] G76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C70] CSIRO. 1970. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne University Press.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[G76] Gross, G. F. 1976. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part II. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

Hadrinae

Rhagada convicta, copyright G. & Ph. Poppe.


Belongs within: Helicoidei.

The Hadrinae are a group of land snails found in Australia and southeast Asia united by molecular analysis. Members of this clade either lack a head wart or have the head wart (positioned between and just behind the ommatophores) exposed and not eversible (Solem 1997).

<==Hadrinae [Hadridae, Sinumeloninae] BR17
    |--Micromelon Solem 1992 S97
    |--Lacustrelix Iredale 1937 S97
    |--Basedowena Iredale 1937 S97
    |--Tatemelon Solem 1993 S97
    |--Eximiorhagada Iredale 1933 S97
    |--Montanomelon Solem 1993 S97
    |--Chloritis Beck 1837 BR17, BR05 [Chloritidae]
    |    `--*C. ungulina (Linnaeus 1758) [=Helix ungulina] BR17
    |--Papuina Martens 1860 BR17, BR05 [Papuinidae, Papuininae]
    |    `--*P. lituus (Lesson 1831) [=Helix lituus] BR17
    |--Calycia Adams 1865 BR17, BR05 [Calyciidae]
    |    `--*C. crystallina (Reeve 1848) [=Bulimus crystallinus] BR17
    |--Planispira Beck 1837 BR17, BR05 [Planispiridae]
    |    `--*P. zonaria (Linnaeus 1767) [=Helix zonaria] BR17
    |--Minimelon Solem 1993 S97
    |    `--M. colmani Solem 1993 S97
    |--Falspleuroxia Solem 1997 S97
    |    `--*F. overlanderensis Solem 1997 S97
    |--Promonturconchum Solem 1997 S97
    |    `--*P. superbum Solem 1997 S97
    |--Caperantrum Solem 1997 S97
    |    `--*C. polygyrum Solem 1997 S97
    |--Cristovala Clench 1958 BR17, BR05 [Cristovalinae]
    |    `--*C. tricolor (Pfeiffer 1849) [=Helix tricolor] BR17
    |--Granulomelon Iredale 1933 S97
    |    |--G. arcigerens (Tate 1894) S97
    |    `--G. gilleni Solem 1993 S97
    |--Strepsitaurus Solem 1997 S97
    |    |--*S. rugus (Cotton 1953) [=Pleuroxia ruga] S97
    |    |--S. cardabius Solem 1997 S97
    |    |--S. milyeringus Solem 1997 S97
    |    |--S. ningaloo Solem 1997 S97
    |    `--S. williami Solem 1997 S97
    |--Plectorhagada Iredale 1933 [incl. Idamera Iredale 1939] S97
    |    |--*P. plectilis (Benson 1853) S97 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. carcharias (Pfeiffer 1864) W08 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. gascoynensis (Smith 1894) (see below for synonymy) S97
    |    |--P. meilgana Solem 1997 S97
    |    |--P. rovina Iredale 1939 [=P. (*Idamera) rovina] S97
    |    `--P. scolythra Solem 1997 S97
    |--Hadra Martens 1860 BR17 [incl. Micardista Iredale 1933 SS10]
    |    |--*H. bipartita (Férussac 1823) [=Helix bipartita] SS10
    |    |--H. barneyi (Cox 1873) SS10
    |    |--H. bartschi (Marshall 1927) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |    |--H. brunodavidi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |    |--H. funiculata (Reeve 1854) SS10
    |    |--H. semicastanea (Pfeiffer 1849) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |    |--H. webbi (Pilsbry 1900) [incl. H. webbi incallida Iredale 1933] SS10
    |    `--H. wilsoni Solem 1979 S97
    |--Xanthomelon Martens 1860 [Xanthomelontidae, Xanthomelontinae] BR17
    |    |--*X. pomum (Pfeiffer 1842) [=Helix pomum] SS10
    |    |--X. distractum Iredale 1938 SS10
    |    |--X. jannellei (Le Guillou 1842) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |    |--X. magnidicum Iredale 1938 [=X. pachystylum magnidicum] SS10
    |    |--X. obliquirugosa (Smith 1894) [=Globorhagada obliquirugosa] S97
    |    |--X. pachystylum (Pfeiffer 1845) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |    |--X. prudhoensis (Smith 1894) [=Globorhagada prudhoensis] S97
    |    `--X. saginatum Iredale 1938 [=X. pachystylum saginatum] SS10
    |--Sinumelon Iredale 1930 BR05 [incl. Notobadistes Cotton & Godfrey 1932 S97]
    |    |--*S. nullaboricum (Tate 1879) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--‘Helix’ bitaeniata Cox 1868 [=*Notobadistes bitaeniatus] S97
    |    |--S. gawleri Solem 1992 S97
    |    |--S. jimberlanensis Solem 1997 S97
    |    |--S. kalgum Iredale 1939 [incl. S. lennum Iredale 1939, S. lennum mutuum Iredale 1939] S97
    |    |--S. tarcoolanum Solem 1992 S97
    |    |--S. vagente Iredale 1939 S97
    |    `--S. wilpenensis (Tate 1894) S97
    |--Pleuroxia Ancey 1887 (see below for synonymy) S97
    |    |--*P. cyrtopleura (Pfeiffer 1862) [=Helix cyrtopleura] S97
    |    |--P. abstans Iredale 1939 [=P. (*Gantomia) abstans] S97
    |    |--P. adcockiana (Bednall 1894) S97
    |    |--P. bethana Solem 1997 S97
    |    |--P. carmeena Solem 1993 S97
    |    |--P. elfina Iredale 1939 [=P. polypleura elfina] S97
    |    |--P. everardenis (Bednall 1892) S97
    |    |--P. hinsbyi (Gude 1916) S97
    |    |--P. italowiana Solem 1992 S97
    |    |--P. oligopleura (Tate 1894) (see below for synonymy) S97
    |    |--P. phillipsiana (Angas 1873) S97
    |    |--P. polypleura (Tate 1899) [=Helix polypleura, Angasella polypleura; incl. P. commenta Iredale 1939] S97
    |    `--P. radiata (Hedley 1905) S97
    `--Rhagada Martens 1860 BR17 [incl. Bellrhagada Iredale 1938 S97, Tumegada Iredale 1939 S97; Rhagadidae, Rhagadinae]
         |  i. s.: *R. reinga (Gray 1846) BR17 [=Helix reinga BR17, Thersites (*Rhagada) reinga S97]
         |         R. angulata Solem 1997 S97
         |         R. basedowana Iredale 1939 S97
         |         R. biggeana GK12
         |         R. bulgana Solem 1997 S97
         |         R. crystalla Solem 1985 S97
         |         R. cygna Solem 1997 S97
         |         R. dampierana Solem 1997 S97
         |         R. dominica GYD14
         |         R. dringi (Pfeiffer 1846) [=Helix dringi, Bellrhagada dringi] S97
         |         R. elachystoma (von Martens 1878) [=Helix elachystoma, Thersites (Rhagada) elachystoma] S97
         |         R. felicitas GK12
         |         R. globosa Solem 1997 S97
         |         R. harti Solem 1985 S97
         |         R. herberti JHF06
         |         R. intermedia Solem 1997 S97
         |         R. kessneri GK12
         |         R. minima Solem 1997 S97
         |         R. primigena GK12
         |         R. radleyi Preston 1908 S97
         |         R. richardsonii (Smith 1874) (see below for synonymy) S97
         |         R. sheaei GK12
         |         R. supracostulata Schepman 1892 S97
         |         R. tescorum (Benson 1853) [=Helix tescorum] S97
         |         R. torulus (Férussac 1819) [=Helix torulus, Thersites (Rhagada) torulus] S97
         |--+--R. barrowensis Johnson, Stankowski et al. 2013 JS13
         |  `--+--R. convicta (Cox 1870) JS13, S97 (see below for synonymy)
         |     `--R. pilbarana Solem 1997 JS13, S97
         `--+--R. capensis Solem 1997 JS13, S97
            `--+--R. perprima Iredale 1939 JS13, S97 [=R. convicta perprima S97]
               `--R. plicata Preston 1914 JS13, S97 [=*Bellrhagada plicata S97]

Hadra bartschi (Marshall 1927) [incl. Thersites (Hadra) bartschi cepa Marshall 1927, T. (H.) dalli Marshall 1927, T. (H.) bartschi diva Marshall 1927, T. (H.) bartschi elfa Marshall 1927, T. (H.) bartschi fama Marshall 1927, T. (H.) bartschi mobiagensis Marshall 1927, T. (H.) bartschi murrayensis Marshall 1927, T. (H.) bartschi nesia Marshall 1927, T. (H.) bartschi nura Marshall 1927, T. (H.) bartschi oma Marshall 1927, T. (H.) bartschi paulensis Marshall 1927, T. (H.) bastschi quaesita Iredale 1937, T. (H.) waltoni Marshall 1927, T. (H.) bartschi yamensis Marshall 1927] SS10

Hadra semicastanea (Pfeiffer 1849) [incl. Thersites (Hadra) semicastanea alma Marshall 1927, Hadra blighi Iredale 1937, T. (H.) lizardensis Marshall 1927, T. (H.) lizardensis rada Marshall 1927, T. (H.) lizardensis suma Marshall 1927] SS10

Plectorhagada carcharias (Pfeiffer 1864) W08 [=Helix carcharias S97, H. (Dorcasia) carcharias S97, Thersites (Rhagada) carcharias S97]

Plectorhagada gascoynensis (Smith 1894) [=Helix (Trachia) gascoynensis, Planispira gascoynensis, Pleuroxia gascoynensis] S97

*Plectorhagada plectilis (Benson 1853) S97 [=Helix plectilis S97, Amplirhagada plectilis W08, H. (Dorcasia) plectilis S97, Thersites (Rhagada) plectilis S97; incl. H. paleata Reeve 1854 S97]

Pleuroxia Ancey 1887 [incl. Angasella Adams 1864 non Angasiella Crosse 1864, Angasietta Iredale 1939, Gantomia Iredale 1939] S97

Pleuroxia oligopleura (Tate 1894) [=Hadra oligopleura, Angasella oligopleura; incl. A. lemani Gude 1916, Pleuroxia lemani, P. oligopleura numba Iredale 1939] S97

Rhagada convicta (Cox 1870) JS13, S97 [=Helix convicta S97, R. (*Tumegada) convicta S97, Thersites (Rhagada) convicta S97]

Rhagada richardsonii (Smith 1874) [=Helix richardsonii, Thersites (Rhagada) richardsonii; incl. Rhagada convicta strella Iredale 1939, R. convicta tambra Iredale 1939] S97

*Sinumelon nullaboricum (Tate 1879) BR17 [=Helix nullaborica BR17, H. (Xanthomelon) nullarborica S97, Notobadistes nullarborica S97, Thersites (Badistes) nullarborica S97; incl. Sinumelon datum Iredale 1939 S97]

Xanthomelon jannellei (Le Guillou 1842) [=Helix jannellei; incl. H. pachystyla daemeli von Martens 1869, H. pachystyloides Cox 1868] SS10

Xanthomelon pachystylum (Pfeiffer 1845) [incl. X. pachystylum noscitum Iredale 1938, Thersites pachystyla subfuscozonata Cox 1894] SS10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[GK12] Gibson, L. A., & F. Köhler. 2012. Determinants of species richness and similarity of species composition of land snail communities on Kimberley islands. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 41–66.

[GYD14] Gibson, L. A., S. Yates & P. Doughty (eds) 2012–2014. Biodiversity Values on Selected Kimberley Islands, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81.

[JHF06] Johnson, M. S., Z. R. Hamilton & J. Fitzpatrick. 2006. Genetic diversity of Rhagada land snails on Barrow Island. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (2): 45–50.

[JS13] Johnson, M. S., S. Stankowski, C. S. Whisson, R. J. Teale & Z. R. Hamilton. 2013. Camaenid land snails on Barrow Island: distributions, molecular phylogenetics and taxonomic revision. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 159–171.

[S97] Solem, A. 1997. Camaenid land snails from Western and central Australia (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Camaenidae). VII. Taxa from Dampierland through the Nullarbor. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 50: 1461–1906.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[W08] Wilson, B. 2008. Terrestrial gastropods of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 21–24.

Trochomorphidae

Trochomorpha planorbis, copyright G. & Ph. Poppe.


Belongs within: Limacoidei.

The Trochomorphidae are a group of small to medium-sized, herbivorous snails found in humid tropical forests and vine thickets in southeast Asia, northern Australia and the western Pacific (Stanisic et al. 2010).

Characters (from Stanisic et al. 2010): Shell small to medium-sized (2–25 mm in diameter), translucent to opaque; generally trochoidal, lens-shaped to discoidal or occasionally conical, usually with strongly keeled whorls, whorl count may be very high; smooth or with strong spiral and occasionally radial ornamentation; base umbilicate to almost imperforate; aperture generally with thickened lip, apertural barriers may be present. Foot usually undivided with weak pedal groove, occasionally sole tripartite; caudal horn may be present.

<==Trochomorphidae [Trochomorphinae] BR05
    |--Kondoa Baker 1941 S88
    |--Hogolua Baker 1941 S88
    |--Brazieria Ancey 1887 S88
    |--Foxidonta stevensoni Clench 1950 S88
    |--Coliolus Tapparone-Canefri 1887 S88
    |--Paratrochus Pilsbry 1893 S88
    |--Ludificator Baker 1941 S88
    |--Videna Adams & Adams 1858 S88
    |    `--V. (Liravidena) lacerata (Semper 1874) S88
    |--Theskelomensor Iredale 1933 SS10
    |    |--*T. lizardensis (Pfeiffer 1863) [=Helix lizardensis] SS10
    |    `--T. creon Solem 1958 SS10
    |--Geotrochus van Hasselt 1823 [Geotrochidae, Geotrochinae] BR05
    |    |--*G. conus (Pfeiffer 1841) [=Helix conus] BR17
    |    `--G. scenoma (Benson 1863) [=Helix (Geotrochus) scenoma] TC89
    `--Trochomorpha Albers 1850 BR05
         |--*T. ‘trochiformis’ (Pfeiffer 1842) [=Helix trochiformis non Montagu 1803] BR17
         |--T. melvillensis Solem 1989 S97
         `--T. planorbis Lesson 1831 (preoc.) S88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455–604.

[S97] Solem, A. 1997. Camaenid land snails from Western and central Australia (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Camaenidae). VII. Taxa from Dampierland through the Nullarbor. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 50: 1461–1906.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

Impatiens

Busy Lizzie Impatiens walleriana, copyright Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz.


Belongs within: Ericales.

Impatiens, busy Lizzies, is a genus of usually fleshy-stemmed plants found in Eurasia and North America that bear fleshy fruits that dehisce explosively when touched to scatter seeds.

Characters (from Flora of China): Annual or perennial herbs (rarely epiphytic or subshrubs). Stems usually succulent. Leaves simple. Flowers bisexual, protandrous, zygomorphic. Petals 5, free, lateral petals united in pairs. Stamens 5, alternating with petals, connate or nearly so into a ring surrounding ovary and stigma, falling off in one piece before stigma ripens; filaments short, flat with a scale-like appendage inside; anthers 2-celled, connivent, opening by a slit or pore. Gynoecium 4- or 5-carpellate, syncarpous; ovary superior, 4- or 5-loculed, each locule with 2 to many anatropous ovules; style 1, very short or more or less absent; stigmas 1–5. Fruit a 4- or 5-valved loculicidal fleshy capsule, usually dehiscing elastically. Seeds dispersed explosively from opening valves, without endosperm; testa smooth or tuberculate.

Impatiens [Balsaminaceae]
    |--I. balsamina C55a
    |--I. clavicornu VM03
    |--I. eubotrya H03
    |--I. fulva [incl. I. biflora] C55b
    |--I. griffithii P88
    |--I. modesta VM03
    |--I. noli-tangere C55a
    |--I. occultans O88
    |--I. oncidioides P88
    |--I. parviflora C55b
    |--I. platyphylla P88
    |--I. ridleyi P88
    |--I. sakeriana M04
    |--I. sarcantha P88
    |--I. steenisii H03
    |--I. sulcata O88
    |--I. tirunelvelica Viswanathan & Manikandan 2003 VM03
    |--I. walleriana PT01
    `--I. wallichii O88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[M04] Mayr, G. 2004. Old World fossil record of modern-type hummingbirds. Science 304: 861–864.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[VM03] Viswanathan, M. B., & U. Manikandan. 2003. A new species of Balsaminaceae, Impatiens tirunelvelica, from peninsular India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 189–194.

Primula

Mountain cowslip Primula auricula, copyright Octopus.


Belongs within: Primulales.

Primula, the primroses, is a group of perennial herbs and subshrubs found primarily in northern temperate regions (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Perennial, rhizomed, sometimes stoloned. Leaves basal or crowded on branches near ground, sessile. Inflorescence an umbel, one per scapose peduncle, terminal, subtended by bracts. Flower parts in fives; calyx tube angled; corolla funnel-shaped or salverform, lobes spreading or erect, entire or notched at tip; stamens included, filaments short, anthers oblong, obtuse; ovary superior. Fruit five-valved, elliptic to ovate. Seeds many, peltate, dotted.

<==Primula
    `--P. subg. Auriculastrum sect. Auricula PS98
         |  i. s.: P. × pubescens [P. auricula × P. hirsuta] PS98
         |         P. recubariensis Prosser & Scortegagna 1998 PS98
         |         P. × vallarsae Prosser & Scortegagna 1998 [P. auricula ssp. ciliata × P. recubariensis] PS98
         |--P. (subsect. Arthritica) spectabilis PS98
         |--P. subsect. Brevibracteatae PS98
         |    |--P. albenensis PS98
         |    |--P. carniolica PS98
         |    |--P. latifolia PS98
         |    `--P. marginata PS98
         |--P. subsect. Erythrodorsum PS98
         |    |--P. apennina PS98
         |    |--P. daonensis PS98
         |    |    |--P. d. var. daonensis PS98
         |    |    `--P. d. var. judicariae Widmer 1891 PS98
         |    |--P. hirsuta PS98
         |    |--P. pedemontana PS98
         |    `--P. villosa PS98
         |--P. (subsect. Euauricula) auricula PS98
         |    |--P. a. ssp. auricula PS98
         |    `--P. a. ssp. ciliata PS98
         `--P. (subsect. Rhopsidium) tyrolensis PS98

Primula incertae sedis:
  P. atrodentata O88
  P. aureata O88
    |--P. a. ssp. aureata O88
    `--P. a. ssp. fimbriata O88
  P. bellidifolia O88
  P. buryana O88
    |--P. b. var. buryana O88
    `--P. b. var. purpurea O88
  P. calderiana O88
    |--P. c. ssp. calderiana O88
    `--P. c. ssp. strumosa O88
  P. capitata O88
    |--P. c. ssp. capitata O88
    `--P. c. ssp. crispata O88
  P. caveana O88
  P. concinna O88
  P. cortusoides C55
  P. denticulata O88
  P. deuteronana O88
  P. dickieana O88
  P. didyma O88
  P. edgeworthii O88
  P. elatior D51
  P. farinosa T30 [incl. P. decipiens C55, P. scotica T30]
  P. floribunda D51
  P. gambeliana O88
  P. geraniifolia O88
  P. glabra O88
  P. glandulifera O88
  P. glomerata O88
  P. gracilipes O88
  P. hookeri O88
  P. involucrata O88
  P. japonica JK80
  P. juliae MH98
  P. kewensis D51
  P. macrophylla O88
    |--P. m. var. macrophylla O88
    `--P. m. var. moorcroftiana O88
  P. megalocarpa O88
  P. minutissima O88
  P. mistassinica A16
  P. muscoides O88
  P. obliqua O88
  P. poluninii O88
  P. primulina O88
  P. prolifera H03
  P. pulchra O88
  P. ramzanae O88
  P. reidii O88
    |--P. r. var. reidii O88
    `--P. r. var. williamsii O88
  P. reptans O88
  P. reticulata O88
  P. rotundifolia O88
  P. sapphirina O88
  P. sharmae O88
  P. sieboldii KIW98
  P. sikkimensis O88
  P. sinensis D37
  P. soldanelloides O88
  P. spathulifolia O88
  P. stirtoniana O88
  P. stricta T30
  P. stuartii O88
  P. suffrutescens H93
  P. tanneri O88
    |--P. t. ssp. tanneri O88
    `--P. t. ssp. nepalensis O88
  P. tenuiloba O88
  P. tibetica O88
  P. uniflora O88
  P. veitchiana NDA05
  P. veris PT01
  P. verticillata D51
  P. vulgaris D51
  P. walshii O88
  P. wigramiana O88
  P. wollastonii O88
  P. wulfeniana H09
    |--P. w. ssp. wulfeniana H09
    `--P. w. ssp. baumgarteniana H09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A16] Alexander, C. P. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera, Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 458–514, pls 16–21.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[JK80] John, J., & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241–248.

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83–112.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the "Maltese mushroom" Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[PS98] Prosser, F., & S. Scortegagna. 1998. Primula recubariensis, a new species of Primula sect. Auricula Duby endemic to the SE Prealps, Italy. Willdenowia 28: 27–46.

[T30] Taylor, G. 1930. Scottish plants growing in their native habitats. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 30–31.

Polemoniaceae

Spreading Jacob's ladder Polemonium reptans, copyright Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz.


Belongs within: Ericales.
Contains: Phlox, Navarretia, Gilia, Linanthus, Eriastrum.

The Polemoniaceae are a group of mostly herbaceous, often strong-smelling plants native to Eurasia and the Americas.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annuals, perennials, shrubs, or vines. Leaves simple or compound, cauline (or most in basal rosette), alternate or opposite; stipules absent. Inflorescences are cymes, heads, or flowers solitary. Flower with calyx generally five-ribbed, ribs often connected by translucent membranes that are generally torn by growing fruit; corolla generally five-lobed, radial or bilateral, salverform to bell-shaped, throat often well defined; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, attached at same or different levels, filaments of same or different lengths, pollen white, yellow, blue, or red; ovary superior, chambers generally 3, style 1, stigmas generally 3. Fruit a capsule. Seeds 1–many, gelatinous or not when wet.

<==Polemoniaceae
    |--Acanthogilia [Acanthogilioideae] T00
    |--Cobaeoideae T00
    |    |--Bonplandia T00
    |    |--Cantua T00
    |    `--Cobaea T00
    `--Polemonium D37 [Polemonioideae T00]
         |--P. acutiflorum CS77
         |--P. californicum H93
         |--P. carneum H93
         |--P. chartaceum H93
         |--P. elegans H93
         |--P. eximium H93
         |--P. micranthum H93
         |--P. occidentale [incl. P. caeruleum ssp. amygdalinum] H93
         |--P. pulcherrimum H93
         |    |--P. p. var. pulcherrimum H93
         |    `--P. p. var. pilosum H93
         `--P. reptans D37

Polemoniaceae incertae sedis:
  Phlox BR65
  Navarretia H93
  Gilia MD82
  Ipomopsis WMS97
    |--I. aggregata WMS97
    |    |--I. a. ssp. aggregata WMS97
    |    |--I. a. ssp. bridgesii H93
    |    `--I. a. ssp. formosissima WMS97
    |--I. arizonica [=I. aggregata ssp. arizonica] H93
    |--I. congesta H93
    |    |--I. c. ssp. congesta H93
    |    |--I. c. ssp. montana H93
    |    `--I. c. ssp. palmifrons H93
    |--I. depressa H93
    |--I. effusa H93
    |--I. macrosiphon WMS97
    |--I. polycladon H93
    |--I. tenuifolia [=Loeselia tenuifolia] H93
    `--I. tenuituba WMS97
         |--I. t. ssp. tenuituba WMS97
         `--I. t. ssp. latiloba WMS97
  Collomia C06
    |--C. coccinea C06
    |--C. diversifolia H93
    |--C. gracilis D03
    |--C. grandiflora C55b
    |--C. heterophylla H93
    |--C. larsenii [=C. debilis var. larsenii] H93
    |--C. linearis H93
    |--C. tinctoria H93
    `--C. tracyi H93
  Linanthus H93
  Allophyllum H93
    |--A. divaricatum H93
    |--A. gilioides H93
    |    |--A. g. ssp. gilioides H93
    |    `--A. g. ssp. violaceum H93
    |--A. glutinosum H93
    `--A. integrifolium H93
  Eriastrum H93
  Gymnosteris H93
    |--G. nudicaulis H93
    `--G. parvula H93
  Langloisia setosissima H93
    |--L. s. ssp. setosissima H93
    `--L. s. ssp. punctata H93
  Leptodactylon H93
    |--L. californicum (see below for synonymy) H93
    |--L. jaegeri H93
    `--L. pungens [incl. L. pungens ssp. hallii, L. pungens ssp. hookeri, L. pungens ssp. pulchriflorum] H93
  Loeseliastrum H93
    |--L. matthewsii [=Langloisia matthewsii] H93
    `--L. schottii [=Langloisia schottii] H93

Leptodactylon californicum [incl. L. californicum ssp. brevitrichomum, L. californicum ssp. glandulosum, L. californicum ssp. leptotrichomum, L. californicum ssp. tomentosum] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[MD82] Mishler, B. D., & M. J. Donoghue. 1982. Species concepts: a case for pluralism. Systematic Zoology 31 (4): 491–503.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WMS97] Wolf, P. G., R. A. Murray & S. D. Sipes. 1997. Species-independent, geographical structuring of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in a montane herb Ipomopsis (Polemoniaceae). Molecular Ecology 6: 283–291.

Bothriuridae

Black scorpion Bothriurus bonariensis, photographed by Gustavo Schmidt.


Belongs within: Iurida.

The Bothriuridae is a group of scorpions found in Australia and South America characterised by legs with two pedal spurs, a vertically compressed sternum, and pedipalps with chelal trichobothrium Et2 on the ventral surface and ib at the extreme base of the fixed finger or on the palm.

Bothriuridae [Bothriuroidae, Bothriuroidea]
    |--Vachonianinae K77
    |--Brachistosternus Pocock 1893 OA02b [Brachistosterninae K77]
    |    |  i. s.: B. andinus Chamberlin 1916 OA02b
    |    |         B. ehrenbergii (Gervais 1841) OA02b [incl. B. ehrenbergi var. politus AO02]
    |    |         B. ferrugineus (Thorell 1877) AO02
    |    |         B. holmbergi Carbonell 1923 OA02b
    |    |         B. peruvianus Piza 1974 OA02b
    |    `--B. (Leptosternus Maury 1973) OA02b
    |         |--B. (L.) castroi Mello-Leitão 1940 OA02b
    |         |--B. (L.) intermedius Lönnberg 1902 OA02b
    |         |--B. (L.) montanus Roig Alsina 1977 OA02b
    |         |--B. (L.) quiscapata Ochoa & Acosta 2002 OA02b
    |         |--B. (L.) titicaca Ochoa & Acosta 2002 OA02b
    |         `--B. (L.) weijenberghii (Thorell 1876) OA02b
    `--Bothriurinae [Cercophoninae] K77
         |--Cercophonius Peters 1861 [incl. Acanthochirus Peters 1861] K77
         |    `--*C. squama (Gervais 1844) (see below for synonymy) K77
         |--Urophonius Pocock 1893 K77
         |    |--U. brachycentrus (Thorell 1877) K77
         |    `--U. jeheringi Pocock 1893 K77
         |--Timogenes Simon 1880 K77
         |    |--T. dorbignyi (Guérin-Méneville 1843) [=Scorpio dorbignyi] AO02
         |    |--T. elegans (Mello-Leitão 1931) AO02
         |    `--T. haplochirus Maury & Roig Alsina 1977 CFS14
         `--Bothriurus Peters 1861 CFS14
              |--B. araguayae Vellard 1934 FM11
              |--B. asper Pocock 1893 [=B. bonariensis asper] AO02
              |--B. bocki Kraepelin 1911 AO02
              |--B. bonariensis (Koch 1843) AO02
              |--B. bucherli (San Martin 1965) K77
              |--B. burmeisteri Kraepelin 1894 CFS14
              |--B. chacoensis Maury & Acosta 1993 AO02
              |--B. dumayi AO02
              |--B. flavidus (Maury 1971) K77
              |--B. inermis Maury 1981 AO02
              |--B. maculatus Kraepelin 1911 [=B. bonariensis var. maculata] AO02
              |--B. olaen Acosta 1997 AO02
              |--B. prospicuus A02
              |--B. rochensis K77
              |--B. trivittatus Werner 1939 AO02
              `--B. vittatus Guérin-Méneville 1838 AO02

Bothriuridae incertae sedis:
  Orobothriurus Maury 1976 OA02a
    |--O. alticola (Pocock 1899) OA02a
    |--O. atiquipa Ochoa & Acosta 2002 OA02a
    |--O. calchaqui Ochoa et al. 2011 CFS14
    |--O. compagnucci Ochoa et al. 2011 CFS14
    |--O. curvidigitus (Kraepelin 1911) OA02a [incl. Bothriurus lampei Werner 1916 J98]
    |--O. famatina Acosta & Ochoa 2001 CFS14
    |--O. grismadoi Ojanguren-Affilastro et al. 2009 CSF14
    |--O. iskay Acosta & Ochoa 2001 AO02
    |--O. paessleri (Kraepelin 1911) OA02a
    `--O. wawita Acosta & Ochoa 2000 AO02
  Tehuankea Cekalovic 1973 K77

*Cercophonius squama (Gervais 1844) [=Scorpio (Telegonus) squama; incl. C. granulosus Kraepelin 1908, C. kershawi Glauert 1930, C. michaelseni Kraepelin 1908, C. sulcatus Kraepelin 1908, *Acanthochirus testudinarius Peters 1861] K77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Acosta, L. E. 2002. Patrones zoogeográficos de los Opiliones Argentinos (Arachnida: Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 6: 69–84.

[AO02] Acosta, L. E., & J. A. Ochoa. 2002. Lista de los escorpiones bolivianos (Chelicerata: Scorpiones), con notas sobre su distribución. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 61 (3–4): 15–23.

[CSF14] Campón, F. F., S. L. Silnik & L. A. Fedeli. 2014. Scorpion diversity of the Central Andes in Argentina. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 163–169.

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[K77] Koch, L. E. 1977. The taxonomy, geographic distribution and evolutionary radiation of Australo-Papuan scorpions. Records of the Western Australian Museum 5 (2): 83–367.

[OA02a] Ochoa, J. A., & L. E. Acosta. 2002a. Orobothriurus atiquipa, a new bothriurid species (Scorpiones) from Lomas in southern Peru. Journal of Arachnology 30: 98–103.

[OA02b] Ochoa, J. A., & L. E. Acosta. 2002b. Two new Andean species of Brachistosternus Pocock (Scorpiones: Bothriuridae). Euscorpius 2: 1–13.

Buthinae

Marbled scorpion Lychas marmoreus, copyright Reiner Richter.


Belongs within: Buthoidea.

The Buthinae are a pantropical group of scorpions with oblique, non-overlapping rows of tooth-like granules on the movable finger of the pedipalp.

<==Buthinae K77
    |--Isometroides Keyserling 1885 K77
    |    `--*I. vescus (Karsch 1880) [=Isometrus vescus; incl. Isometroides angusticaudus Keyserling 1885] K77
    |--Buthus F04
    |    |--B. cyaneus D57
    |    |--B. eupeus [incl. B. eupeus var. cognatus] K01
    |    |--B. gibbosus F04
    |    |--B. grammurus Thorell 1889 T89
    |    |--B. groutii Wood 1869 W69
    |    |--B. hottentotae T89
    |    |--B. martensi Karsch 1879 [incl. B. confucius Sim. 1880] K01
    |    |--B. occitanus GK04
    |    |--B. reticulatus D57
    |    `--B. tamulus K77
    |--Isometrus Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1828 [=Atreus Walckenaer & Gervais 1844] K77
    |    |--I. maculatus (De Geer 1778) SP10 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--I. acanthurus Pocock 1899 K77
    |    |--I. antillanus T89
    |    |--I. assamensis Oates 1888 K77
    |    |--I. atomarius T89
    |    |--I. basilicus Karsch 1879 K77
    |    |--I. brachycentrus Pocock 1899 K77
    |    |--I. feae Thorell 1889 T89
    |    |--I. formosus Pocock 1893 K77
    |    |--I. fuscus T89
    |    |--I. madagassus Roewer 1943 K77
    |    |--I. melanodactylus (Koch 1867) (see below for synonymy) K77
    |    |--I. perfidus Koch & Keyserling 1884-1885 KK90
    |    |--I. phipsoni T89
    |    |--I. rigidulus Pocock 1897 K77
    |    |--I. shoplandii Oates 1888 T89
    |    |--I. thurstoni Pocock 1893 K77
    |    |--I. thwaitesii Pocock 1897 K77
    |    `--I. vittatus Pocock 1900 K77
    `--Lychas Koch 1850 [incl. Archisometrus Kraepelin 1891, Hemilychas Hirst 1911] K77
         |--*L. scutilus Koch 1845 K77 [=Isometrus scutilus T89]
         |--L. albimanus Henderson 1919 K77
         |--L. alexandrinus Hirst 1911 (see below for synonymy) K77
         |--L. feae (Thorell 1889) K77
         |--L. flavimanus (Thorell 1888) K77
         |--L. gravelyi Henderson 1913 K77
         |--L. guineensis Lucas 1858 SP10 [=Scorpio (Lychas) guineensis K77]
         |--L. hendersoni (Pocock 1897) K77
         |--L. infuscatus (Pocock 1890) K77
         |--L. laevifrons (Pocock 1897) K77
         |--L. marmoreus (Koch 1845) (see below for synonymy) K77
         |--L. mucronatus (Fabricius 1798) K77 (see below for synonymy)
         |--L. nigrimanus (Kraepelin 1898) K77
         |--L. nigristernis (Pocock 1899) K77
         |--L. perfidus (Keyserling 1887) K77
         |--L. rugosus (Pocock 1897) K77
         |--L. scaber (Pocock 1893) K77
         |--L. shelfordi (Borelli 1904) K77
         |--L. shoplandi Oates 1888 K77
         |--L. tweediei Kopstein 1937 K77
         `--L. variatus (Thorell 1877) (see below for synonymy) K77

Isometrus maculatus (De Geer 1778) SP10 [=Scorpio maculatus K77, Lychas maculatus K77; incl. S. americanus Herbst 1800 K77, Centrurus (Isometrus) americanus K77, Lychas americanus K77, Scorpio dentatus Herbst 1800 K77, Buthus (*Isometrus) filum Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1828 K77, S. (*Atreus) filum KK90, K77, S. (Lychas) gabonensis Lucas 1858 K77]

Isometrus melanodactylus (Koch 1867) [=Lychas melanodactylus; incl. I. gracilis Thorell 1877, I. melanodactylus inflatus Glauert 1925, I. papuensis Werner 1916] K77

Lychas alexandrinus Hirst 1911 [=L. (*Hemilychas) alexandrinus; incl. L. annulatus Glauert 1925, L. mjobergi Kraepelin 1916, L. truncatus Glauert 1925] K77

Lychas marmoreus (Koch 1845) [=Tityus marmoreus, *Archisometrus marmoreus, Lychas marmoreus typicus; incl. Isometrus bituberculatus Pocock 1891, Archisometrus bituberculatus, Lychas jonesae Glauert 1925, L. marmoreus nigrescens Kraepelin 1916, L. marmoreus obscurus Kraepelin 1916, L. marmoreus splendens Kraepelin 1916] K77

Lychas mucronatus (Fabricius 1798) K77 [=Scorpio mucronatus T94, Archisometrus mucronatus T94, Isometrus mucronatus T89; incl. Tityus varius Koch 1845 T89, I. varius T89]

Lychas variatus (Thorell 1877) [=Isometrus variatus, Archisometrus variatus, Lychas marmoreus variatus; incl. Isometrus armatus Pocock 1890, Archisometrus armatus, Lychas armatus, L. spinatus besti Glauert 1925, L. marmoreus kimberleyanus Kraepelin 1916, L. lappa Glauert 1954, L. spinatus pallidus Glauert 1925, Isometrus variatus papuanus Thorell 1888, L. papuanus, L. spinatus Kraepelin 1916, Isometrus thorelli Keyserling 1885] K77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, pls 1–2.

[F04] Fritsch, A. 1904. Palaeozoische Arachniden. Selestverlag: Prague.

[GK04] Gantenbein, B., & P. D. Keightley. 2004. Rates of molecular evolution in nuclear genes of east Mediterranean scorpions. Evolution 58 (11): 2486–2497.

[K77] Koch, L. E. 1977. The taxonomy, geographic distribution and evolutionary radiation of Australo-Papuan scorpions. Records of the Western Australian Museum 5 (2): 83–367.

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[SP10] Santos, R., & C. E. Prieto. 2010. Los Assamiidae (Opiliones: Assamiidae) de Río Muni (Guinea Ecuatorial), con la descripción de ocho nuevas especies. Revista de Biologia Tropical 58 (1): 203–243.

[T89] Thorell, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XXI.—Aracnidi Artrogastri Birmani raccolti da L. Fea nel 1885–1887. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 521–729.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt 4 (4): 1–63.

[W69] Wood, H. C., Jr. 1869. On the Phalangia and Pedipalpi collected by Professor Orton in western South America, with the description of new African species, accompanied with a plate. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 13: 435-442, pl. 17.

Lerista

Pilbara flame-tailed slider Lerista flammicauda, copyright Jordan Vos.


Belongs within: Scincidae.

Lerista, sliders, is an Australian genus of mostly burrowing skinks found in loose soil or sand under cover (Cogger 2018).

Characters (from Cogger 2018): Supranasals absent. Nasals enlarged, usually in contact medially. Prefrontals small and widely separated or absent. Parietal shields in contact behind interparietal. Lower eyelid with transparent disc, movable or fused above to form permanent spectacle. Ear opening small but always distinct. Single pair of enlarged pre-anals. Limbs varying from well developed and pentadactyle through various degrees of reduction in length and number of digits to a minute style or completely absent, always separated if present by at least several scale legs when adpressed.

<==Lerista Bell 1833 C18
    |--L. aericeps Storr 1986 C18
    |--L. allanae (Longman 1937) C18
    |--L. allochira Kendrick 1989 C18
    |--L. ameles Greer 1979 C18
    |--L. amicorum Smith & Adams 2007 C18
    |--L. apoda Storr 1976 C18
    |--L. arenicola Storr 1972 C18
    |--L. axillaris Storr 1991 C18
    |--L. baynesi Storr 1971 C18
    |--L. bipes (Fischer 1882) C18
    |--L. borealis Storr 1971 C18
    |--L. bougainvillii (Gray 1839) C18
    |--L. bunglebungle Storr 1991 C18
    |--L. carpentariae Greer 1983 C18
    |--L. chordae Amey, Kutt & Hutchinson 2005 C18
    |--L. christinae Storr 1979 C18
    |--L. cinerea Greer, McDonald & Lawrie 1983 C18
    |--L. clara Smith & Adams 2007 C18
    |--L. colliveri Couper & Ingram 1992 C18
    |--L. connivens Storr 1971 C18
    |--L. desertorum (Sternfeld 1919) C18
    |--L. distinguenda (Werner 1910) C18
    |--L. dorsalis Storr 1985 C18
    |--L. edwardsae Storr 1982 C18
    |--L. elegans (Gray 1845) ADD0
    |--L. elongata Storr 1990 C18
    |--L. emmotti Ingram, Couper & Donnellan 1993 C18
    |--L. eupoda Smith 1996 C18
    |--L. flammicauda Storr 1985 C18
    |--L. fragilis (Günther 1876) C18
    |--L. frosti (Zietz 1895) C18
    |--L. gascoynensis Storr 1986 C18
    |--L. gerrardii (Gray 1864) C18
    |--L. greeri Storr 1982 C18
    |--L. griffini Storr 1982 C18
    |--L. haroldi Storr 1983 C18
    |--L. hobsoni Amey, Couper & Worthington Wilmer in Couper, Amey & Worthington Wilmer 2016 C18
    |--L. humphriesi Storr 1971 C18
    |--L. ingrami Storr 1991 C18
    |--L. ips Storr 1980 C18
    |--L. jacksoni Smith & Adams 2007 C18
    |--L. kalumburu Storr 1976 C18
    |--L. karlschmidti (Marx & Hosmer 1959) C18
    |--L. kendricki Storr 1991 C18
    |--L. kennedyensis Kendrick 1989 C18
    |--L. kingi Smith & Adams 2007 C18
    |--L. labialis Storr 1971 C18
    |--L. lineata Bell 1833 C18
    |--L. lineopunctulata (Duméril & Bibron 1839) ADD08
    |--L. macropisthopus (Werner 1903) C18
    |    |--L. m. macropisthopus ADD08
    |    |--L. m. fusciceps Storr 1991 ADD08
    |    |--L. m. galea C18
    |    `--L. m. remota C18
    |--L. maculosa Storr 1991 C18
    |--L. micra Smith & Adams 2007 ADD08
    |--L. microtis (Gray 1845) C18
    |    |--L. m. microtis C18
    |    `--L. m. schwaneri C18
    |--L. muelleri (Fischer 1881) C18
    |--L. neander Storr 1971 C18
    |--L. nevinae Smith & Adams 2007 C18
    |--L. nichollsi (Loveridge 1933) C18
    |--L. occulta Smith & Adams 2007 C18
    |--L. onsloviana Storr 1984 C18
    |--L. orientalis (De Vis 1889) C18
    |--L. petersoni Storr 1976 C18
    |--L. picturata (Fry 1914) C18
    |--L. planiventralis (Lucas & Frost 1902) C18
    |    |--L. p. planiventralis ADD08
    |    |--L. p. decora (Storr 1978) ADD08
    |    `--L. p. maryani ADD08
    |--L. praefrontalis Greer 1986 C18
    |--L. praepedita (Boulenger 1887) ADD08
    |--L. punctatovittata (Günther 1867) C18
    |--L. puncticauda Storr 1991 C18
    |--L. quadrivincula Shea 1991 C18
    |--L. robusta Storr 1990 C18
    |--L. rochfordensis Amey & Couper 2009 C18
    |--L. rolfei Smith & Adams 2007 C18
    |--L. separanda Storr 1976 C18
    |--L. simillima Storr 1984 C18
    |--L. speciosa Storr 1990 C18
    |--L. stictopleura Storr 1985 C18
    |--L. storri Greer, McDonald & Lawrie 1983 C18
    |--L. stylis (Mitchell 1955) C18
    |--L. taeniata Storr 1986 C18
    |--L. talpina Storr 1991 C18
    |--L. terdigitata (Parker 1926) C18
    |--L. timida (De Vis 1888) C18
    |--L. tridactyla Storr 1990 C18
    |--L. uniduo Storr 1984 C18
    |--L. vanderduysi Amey, Couper & Worthington Wilmer in Couper, Amey & Worthington Wilmer 2016 C18
    |--L. varia Storr 1986 ADD08
    |--L. verhmens Smith & Adams 2007 C18
    |--L. vermicularis Storr 1982 C18
    |--L. viduata Storr 1991 C18
    |--L. vittata Greer, McDonald & Lawrie 1983 C18
    |--L. walkeri (Boulenger 1891) C18
    |--L. wilkinsi (Parker 1926) C18
    |--L. xanthura Storr 1986 C18
    |--L. yuna Storr 1991 C18
    |--L. zietzi Wells & Wellington 1985 C18
    `--L. zonulata Storr 1991 C18

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ADD08] Aplin, K., S. Donnellan & J. Dell. 2008. The herpetofauna of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 39–53.

[C18] Cogger, H. G. 2018. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia updated 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

Proceratiinae

Probolomyrmex filiformis, copyright April Nobile.


Belongs within: Formicidae.

The Proceratiinae are a group of small ants characterised by fully or nearly fully exposed antennal sockets close to the anterior margin of the head, together with a single petiolar segment and a fused promesonotal suture (Heterick 2009).

<==Proceratiinae
    |--Probolomyrmex Mayr 1901 TB85 [Probolomyrmecini H09]
    |    |  i. s.: *P. filiformis Mayr 1901 TB85
    |    |         P. bidens SGH12
    |    |         P. maryatiae SGH12
    |    |         P. okinawensis Terayama & Ogata 1988 I92
    |    |         P. tani RBV08
    |    |         P. vieti SGH12
    |    |--P. greavesi group SGH12
    |    |    |--P. greavesi Taylor 1965 TB85
    |    |    |--P. latalongus Shattuck, Gunawardene & Heterick 2012 SGH12
    |    |    `--P. salomonis SGH12
    |    `--P. longinodus group SGH12
    |         |--P. aliundus Shattuck, Gunawardene & Heterick 2012 SGH12
    |         |--P. longinodus Terayama & Ogata 1988 I92
    |         |--P. newguinensis Shattuck, Gunawardene & Heterick 2012 SGH12
    |         `--P. simplex Shattuck, Gunawardene & Heterick 2012 SGH12
    `--Proceratiini H09
         |--Proceratium Roger 1863 TB85
         |    |--*P. silaceum Roger 1863 TB85
         |    |--P. californicum WW90
         |    |--P. papuanum Emery 1897 TB85
         |    `--P. stictum Brown 1958 TB85
         `--Discothyrea Roger 1863 H09, KT99 (see below for synonymy)
              |--*D. testacea Roger 1863 KT99
              |--D. bidens Clark 1928 TB85
              |--D. crassicornis Clark 1926 TB85
              |--D. kamiteta Kubota & Terayama 1999 KT99
              |--D. leae Clark 1934 TB85
              |--*Pseudosysphincta’ poweri Arnold 1916 KT99
              |--D. sauteri KT99
              |--D. turtoni Clark 1934 TB85
              `--D. velutina (Wheeler 1916) TB85 [=*Prodiscothyrea velutina KT99]

Discothyrea Roger 1863 H09, KT99 [incl. Prodiscothyrea Wheeler 1916 KT99, Pseudosysphincta Arnold 1916 KT99, Pseudosphincta (l. c.) KT99]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[KT99] Kubota, M. & M. Terayama. 1999. A description of a new species of the genus Discothyrea Roger from the Ryukyus, Japan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 1–5.

[RBV08] Rabeling, C., J. M. Brown & M. Verhaagh. 2008. Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (39): 14913–14917.

[SGH12] Shattuck, S. O., N. R. Gunawardene & B. Heterick. 2012. A revision of the ant genus Probolomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Proceratiinae) in Australia and Melanesia. Zootaxa 3444: 40–50.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.