Specimen of Mya truncata with protruded siphons, photographed by Claude Nozères.

Belongs within: Neoheterodontei.
Contains: Corbula.

The Myoidea, soft-shell clams, are a group of infaunal bivalves first recorded from the Upper Jurassic. Within the group, the Myidae have the shells elongate and chalky with a wide posterior gape. Corbulidae have sturdier shells with inequilateral valves and usually with a resilifer in one valve. Some Corbulidae species on the western coast of North America inhabit brackish environments and the Middle Palaeocene Bicorbula mactriformis appears to have been entirely freshwater (Gray 1988).

    |--Myidae [Myacidae] GW02
    |    |--Platyodon cancellatus [=Mya cancellata; incl. Cryptodonta myoides Nuttall ms] C64
    |    |--Cryptomya JB12
    |    |    |--C. californica [=Sphaenia californica] C64
    |    |    |--C. elliptica (Adams 1851) [=Sphaenia elliptica] H09
    |    |    |--C. ovalis Conrad 1856 C64
    |    |    `--C. truncata JB12
    |    |--Sphenia BD86
    |    |    |--S. bilirata C64
    |    |    |--S. binghami N79
    |    |    |--S. fragilis (Adams & Adams 1854) PP78
    |    |    |--S. leptomorpha Cossmann 1891 SB93
    |    |    |--S. luticola [=Corbula luticola] C64
    |    |    |--S. ovalis C64
    |    |    |--S. ovoidea Carpenter 1864 C64
    |    |    |--S. perversa Lynge 1909 TW07
    |    |    `--S. rueppelli Adams 1850 [incl. Cuspidaria adenensis Jousseaume 1888] BD86
    |    `--Mya Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |         |  i. s.: M. antarctica C96
    |         |         M. crispata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |         |         M. edentula D99
    |         |         M. gigas Lightfoot 1786 K65
    |         |         M. montereyana C64
    |         |         M. subsinuata C64
    |         |--M. (Mya) C66
    |         |    |--M. (M.) priapus C66
    |         |    |--M. (M.) pseudoarenaria C66
    |         |    `--M. (M.) truncata Linnaeus 1758 C66, L70 (see below for synonymy)
    |         `--M. (Arenomya) C66
    |              |--M. (A.) arenaria Linnaeus 1758 C66, L58
    |              |--M. (A.) elegans [incl. M. crassa, M. intermedia, M. profundior] C66
    |              `--M. (A.) japonica Jay 1856 C66, C64 [incl. M. oonogai C66]
    `--Corbulidae GW02
         |--Bicorbula mactriformis G88
         |--Anisorhynchus Meek in Hayden 1871 B65b [=Anisorhyncus Conrad 1874 B65b, Ursirivus Vokes 1945 G88, B65b]
         |    `--*A. cuneiformis [=Pachydon cuneiformis] B65b
         |--Lentidium mediterraneum JB12, PP64 [=Corbula mediterranea PP64]
         |--Corbulomima SB93
         |--Caryocorbula Gardner 1926 DK08
         |    `--C. pixidata (Tate 1887) [=Corbula pixidata] DK08
         |--Varicorbula GW02
         |    |--V. disparilis (Orbigny in Sagra 1853) GW02, B65a [=Corbula disparilis B65a]
         |    |--V. limatula (Conrad 1846) [=Corbula limatula] B65a
         |    |--V. operculata (Philippi 1848) [=Corbula operculata] B65a
         |    `--V. speciosa (Reeve 1843) [=Corbula (Varicorbula) speciosa] PP78
         |--Notocorbula Iredale 1930 P61
         |    |  i. s.: N. fortisulcata (Smith 1878) MG-H11
         |    |         N. hydropica Iredale 1930 MG-H11
         |    |         N. operculata (Philippi 1848) C94
         |    |         N. smithiana (Brazier 1879) MG-H11
         |    |         N. stolata (Iredale 1930) MG-H11
         |    |--*N. (Notocorbula) vicaria P61
         |    `--N. (Anisocorbula Iredale 1930) P61
         |         |--N. (*A.) macgillivrayi (Smith 1885) P61, MG-H11 [=Corbula macgillivrayi P61]
         |         `--N. (A.) zelandica (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) P61 [=Corbula zelandica HS01]
         |--Neaera C64
         |    |--N. costellata N79
         |    |--N. cuspidata N79
         |    |--N. jugosa Wood 1856 [incl. N. lamellosa Sars 1868] N79
         |    |--N. kirki H86
         |    |--N. obesa Lovén 1846 N79
         |    |--N. pectinata Carpenter 1864 C64
         |    `--N. rostrata N79
         |--Corbula G79
         `--Bothrocorbula Gabb 1873 B65a
              `--‘Corbula (Caryocorbula)’ contracta B65a

Mya (Mya) truncata Linnaeus 1758 C66, L70 [incl. M. aldrovandi C64, M. praecisa C64, M. truncata var. uddevalensis N79]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B65a] Baker, H. B. 1965a. Corbula limatula again. Nautilus 78 (3): 104–105.

[B65b] Baker, H. B. 1965b. Anisorhynchus vs. Ursirivus. Nautilus 78 (3): 105.

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C94] Cedhagen, T. 1994. Taxonomy and biology of Hyrrokkin sarcophaga gen. et sp. n., a parasitic foraminiferan (Rosalinidae). Sarsia 79: 65–82.

[C66] Corgan, J. X. 1966. Mya on the Alaska Peninsula. Nautilus 80 (1): 13–16.

[C96] Crame, J. A. 1996. Evolution of high-latitude molluscan faunas. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 119–131. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[D99] Daudin, C. 1799. Sur un nouveau genre de coquille bivalve nommée cyrtodaire. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 22: 170.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[K65] Kay, E. A. 1965. The Reverend John Lightfoot, Daniel Solander, and the Portland Catalogue. Nautilus 79 (1): 10–19.

[L70] Leloup, E. 1970. Recherches sur l’ostreiculture dans le bassin de chasse d’Ostende en 1968. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (6): 1–24.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

Last updated: 26 February 2022.

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