Calenduleae

Cape marguerite Osteospermum ecklonis, copyright Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz.


Belongs within: Asteroideae.

The Calenduleae are a group of composite-flowered plants in which the receptacle is naked and which lack a pappus (Black & Robertson 1965).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Heads heterogamous-radiate; disk flowers usually bisexual but sterile; styles of sterile disk flowers shortly bifid or entire at summit; receptacle nake; anthers acute or acuminate at base; achenes comparatively large, variable in shape; pappus absent; leaves alternate.

<==Calenduleae BR65
    |--Eriachaenium S06
    |--Dimorphotheca (Vaillant) Moench. 1794 [incl. Gattenhoffia von Necker 1790 (nom. rej.)] BR65
    |    |--D. pluvialis [incl. D. annua] BR65
    |    `--D. sinuata H93
    |--Calendula BR65
    |    |--C. arvensis BR65
    |    `--C. officinalis BR65
    |--Chrysanthemoides Medik. 1789 BR65
    |    `--C. monilifera [=Osteospermum moniliferum] BR65
    |         |--C. m. ssp. monilifera WFS04
    |         `--C. m. ssp. rotundata WFS04
    `--Osteospermum BR65
         |--O. calendulaceum [=Oligocarpus calendulaceus] BR65
         |--O. clandestinum [=Tripteris clandestina] BR65
         |--O. ecklonis [=Dimorphotheca ecklonis] H93
         |--O. montanum CV06
         `--O. muricatum CV06
              |--O. m. ssp. muricatum CV06
              `--O. m. ssp. longiradiatum CV06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Distribución geográfica de la flora Argentina. Géneros de la familia de las compuestas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 303–309.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

Lumbricidae

Bimastos parvus, from here.


Belongs within: Lumbricoidea.

The Lumbricidae are a cosmopolitan family of earthworms including many human-associated species such as the nightcrawler Lumbricus terrestris.

Characters (from Schwert 1990): Clitellum beginning on or behind segment 19; male pores present on segment 15 (rarely segment 13); female pores on segment 14; eight setae per segment in regular longitudinal ranks.

Lumbricidae
    |--Eumenescolex proclitellatus Pérez-Onteniente & Rodríguez-Babío 2004 F05
    |--Spermophorodrilus albanianus Bouché 1975 S90
    |--Helodrilus J31
    |    |--H. constrictus [=Bimastus constrictus] J31
    |    `--H. roseus F92
    |--Eiseniella S90
    |    |--E. intermedius Jackson 1931 J31
    |    `--E. tetraedra (Savigny 1826) S90 [=Helodrilus (Eiseniella) tetraedrus M13]
    |--Eisenoides S90
    |    |--E. carolinensis (Michaelsen 1910) S90
    |    `--E. lonnbergi (Michaelsen 1894) S90
    |--Proctodrilus H09
    |    |--P. antipai (Michaelsen 1881) H09
    |    `--P. tuberculatus (Černosvitov 1935) H09
    |--Octolasion S90
    |    |--O. cyaneum (Savigny 1826) S90
    |    |--O. lacteum (Örley 1881) H09
    |    `--O. tyrtaeum (Savigny 1826) S90
    |--Dendrobaena S90
    |    |--D. mammalis (Savigny 1826) S90
    |    |--D. octaedra (Savigny 1826) S90
    |    `--D. rubida (Savigny 1826) [=Dendrodrilus rubidus] S90
    |--Allolobophora S90
    |    |--A. australiensis (Fletcher 1886) [=Lumbricus (Allolobophora) australiensis] F86b
    |    |--A. chlorotica (Savigny 1826) S90
    |    |--A. subrubicunda [incl. A. arborea] R89
    |    `--A. turgida G62
    |--Eisenia S90
    |    |--E. andrei Bouché 1972 RP07
    |    |--E. eiseni (Levinsen 1884) [=Lumbricus eiseni] S90
    |    |--E. fetida (Savigny 1826) S90 [=Allobophora foetidus J31, E. foetida S90]
    |    |--E. hortensis (Michaelsen 1890) S90
    |    |--E. rosea (Savigny 1826) S90 [=Aporrectodea rosea GH91]
    |    `--E. zebra Michaelsen 1902 S90
    |--Lumbricus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |    |--L. castaneus (Savigny 1826) S90
    |    |--L. festivus (Savigny 1826) S90
    |    |--L. novaehollandiae Kinberg 1866 F86a
    |    |--L. olidus F86a
    |    |--L. orthostichon F86a
    |    |--L. rubellus Hoffmeister 1843 S90
    |    `--L. terrestris Linnaeus 1758 S90
    |--Aporrectodea S90
    |    |--A. caliginosa (Savigny 1826) S90 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. icterica (Savigny 1826) S90
    |    |--A. limicola (Michaelsen 1890) S90
    |    |--A. longa (Ude 1885) S90
    |    |--A. muldali (Omodeo 1956) S90
    |    |--A. trapezoides (Dugès 1828) S90 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--A. tuberculata (Eisen 1874) S90
    `--Bimastos S90
         |--B. beddardi (Michaelsen 1894) S90
         |--B. gieseleri (Ude 1895) S90
         |--B. heimburgeri Smith 1928 S90
         |--B. longicinctus Smith & Gittins 1915 S90
         |--B. palustris Moore 1893 S90
         |--B. parvus (Eisen 1874) S90 [=Helodrilus parvus J31]
         |--B. tumidus (Eisen 1874) S90
         |--B. welchi (Smith 1917) S90
         `--B. zeteki Smith & Gittins 1915 S90

Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny 1826) S90 [=Allolobophora caliginosa S90, Helodrilus (Allolobophora) caliginosus J31, M07; incl. Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen 1873) S90]

Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès 1828) S90 [=Lumbricus trapezoides MR99, Allolobopora trapezoides MR99, Helodrilus (Allolobophora) caliginosus f. trapezioides M13]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[F86a] Fletcher, J. J. 1886a. Notes on Australian earthworms. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 523–574, pls 8–9.

[F86b] Fletcher, J. J. 1886b. Notes on Australian earthworms. Part II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 943–973, pl. 13.

[G62] Gates, G. E. 1962. Miscellanea megadrilogica. V–VI. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 137–144.

[GH91] Gjelstrup, P., & N. B. Hendriksen. 1991. Histiostoma murchiei Hughes & Jackson (Anoetidae) as a parasite in the cocoons of some Danish earthworms. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 441–445. Chapman & Hall: London.

[H09] Höser, N. 2009. Die Regenwurmfauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in zwei Querschnitten durch die Aue der Pleiße bei Windischleuba. Mauritiana 20 (3): 579–586.

[J31] Jackson, A. 1931. The Oligochaeta of south-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 17: 71–136.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M07] Michaelsen, W. 1907. Oligochaeta. Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens 1 (2): 115–232, 2 pls.

[M13] Michaelsen, W. 1913. Die Oligochäten von Neu-Caledonien und den benachbarten Inselgruppen. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 3 pp. 173–280. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[MR99] Mischis, C. C. de, & G. Righi. 1999. Contribution to knowledge of the oligochaete fauna (Annelida, Oligochaeta) from Argentina. Gayana 63 (2): 63–65.

[R89] Rosa, D. 1889. I lombrichi della Spedizione Antarctica Italiana del 1882. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 137–146.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[S90] Schwert, D. P. 1990. Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 341–356. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

Helichrysum

Helichrysum bellidioides, copyright Ghislain118.


Belongs within: Gnaphalieae.

Helichrysum is a genus of everlastings widespread throughout the Old World (Black & Robertson 1965).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Involucre from hemispherical to cylindrical, of many unequal bracts in several rows, bracts usually rigid and sometimes with spreading small or conspicuous coloured laminae; flowers either all bisexual, or majority bisexual with comparatively few female ones in usually one outer row; flowers usually shorter than or not longer than involucre; rarely heads clustered without any general involucre. Pappus-bristles simple or barbellate or sometimes plumose towards summit but not plumose from base, usually united in a short ring.

<==Helichrysum Linnaeus 1753 A61
    `--H. sect. Xerochlaena A61
         |--H. bellidioides (Forster) Willd. 1800 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |    |--H. b. var. bellidioides A61
         |    |--H. b. var. gracile Allan 1961 A61
         |    `--H. b. var. prostratum (Hooker) Kirk 1899 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |--H. filicaule Hooker 1853 A61 [=Gnaphalium filicaule Hooker 1864 A61; incl. G. parviflorum Col. 1884 C06]
         `--H. × purdiei Petrie 1890 C06, A61 [H. bellidioides × H. glomeratum A61]

Helichrysum incertae sedis:
  *H. orientale A61
  H. adenophorum BR65
  H. adnatum [=Ozothamnus adnatus Candolle 1837] BR65
  H. ambiguum Turczaninow 1851 [=Leptorhynchos ambiguus; incl. H. semicalvum von Mueller 1861] BR65
    |--H. a. var. ambiguum BR65
    `--H. a. var. paucisetum BR65
  H. amboense CV06
  H. anthemoides M99
  H. apiculatum BR65
    |--H. a. var. apiculatum BR65
    |--H. a. var. occidentale BR65
    `--H. a. var. racemosum BR65
  H. arenarium BR65
  H. ayersii BR65
  H. basedowii [incl. Leptorhynchos tetrachaetus var. penicillatus] BR65
  H. baxteri BR65
  H. bilobum Wakefield 1951 [incl. Ozothamnus retusus Sonder & von Mueller 1852 non H. retusum] BR65
    |--H. b. var. bilobum BR65
    `--H. b. var. scabrum (von Mueller) Robertson in Black & Robertson 1965 (see below for synonymy) BR65
  H. blandowskianum BR65
  H. bracteatum (Ventenat) Andrews 1805 BR65 (see below for synonymy)
  H. cassinianum [=Schoenia cassiniana] BR65
  H. catadromum Wakefield 1951 (see below for synonymy) BR65
  H. cinereum [=Ozothamnus cinereus] BR65
  H. corymbiflorumm M99
  H. cymosum C06
  H. deserticola CV06
  H. dockeri BR65
  H. erubescens CV06
  H. ferrugineum [=Ozothamnus ferrugineus] BR65
  H. floribundum M99
  H. foetidum C55
  H. × fowerakeri Cockayne 1916 [Ewartia sinclairii × H. bellidioides] A61
  H. frigidum C55
  H. gatesii BR65
  H. grandiflorum A27
  H. leucopsidium BR65
  H. luteoalbum LK14
  H. marlothianum CV06
  H. mellorianum BR65
  H. microglossum M99
  H. moschatum M99
  H. obtusifolium von Mueller & Sonder 1852 (see below for synonymy) BR65
  H. podolepideum BR65
  H. ramosissimum M99
  H. roseum (Lindley) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |--H. r. var. roseum BR65
    `--H. r. var. davenportii BR65
  H. rupestre R-CT01
  H. rupicola B00
  H. rutidolepis BR65
  H. scorpioides BR65
  H. semifertile BR65
  H. semipapposum BR65
  H. stoechas (Linnaeus) Moench 1794 PL04
    |--H. s. ssp. stoechas PL04
    `--H. s. ssp. barrelieri (Tenore) Nyman 1879 PL04
  H. strictum M99
  H. tephrodes Sweet 1827 BR65
  H. tepperi BR65

Helichrysum bellidioides (Forster) Willd. 1800 [=Xeranthemum bellidioides Forster 1786, Gnaphalium bellidioides Hooker 1853; incl. H. bellidioides var. erectum Kirk 1899] A61

Helichrysum bellidioides var. prostratum (Hooker) Kirk 1899 [=H. prostratum Hooker 1844, Gnaphalium prostratum Hooker 1853] A61

Helichrysum bilobum var. scabrum (von Mueller) Robertson in Black & Robertson 1965 [=Ozothamnus scaber von Mueller 1852, H. adnatum var. scabrum, H. decurrens var. scabrum] BR65

Helichrysum bracteatum (Ventenat) Andrews 1805 BR65 [=Xeranthemum bracteatum Ventenat 1804 BR65, Bracteantha bracteata B00; incl. Elichrysum lucidum Henckel 1806 BR65]

Helichrysum catadromum Wakefield 1951 [incl. Ozothamnus decurrens von Mueller 1857, H. decurrens von Mueller 1873 non Moench 1794] BR65

Helichrysum obtusifolium von Mueller & Sonder 1852 [incl. Ozothamnus tephrodes Turczaninow 1851 non H. tephrodes Sweet 1827] BR65

Helichrysum roseum (Lindley) Druce 1917 [=Lawrencella rosea Lindley 1839; incl. H. lawrencella von Mueller 1866] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Allan, H. H. 1927. The vegetation of Mount Peel, Canterbury, New Zealand. Part 2.—The grassland and other herbaceous communities. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 73–89.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Anaphalis

Pearl everlasting Anaphalis margaritacea, photographed by Pendragon39.


Belongs within: Gnaphalieae.

Anaphalis, the pearl everlastings, is a primarily Asian genus of composite-flowered plants whose inflorescences bear many scarious, usually white bracts surrounding the disk florets.

Characters (from Flora of China): Herbs, perennial, rarely annual or biennial, or subshrubs with somewhat woody rhizome. Stems erect or rosette-forming, simple or branching, densely white or ash-gray cottony tomentose. Leaves simple, alternate, rarely subopposite to opposite, sessile or petiolate or decurrent, oblong or lanceolate, entire. Capitula with many florets, 3-15 mm in diam., subglobose campanulate or subfunnelform, arranged in corymbiform or paniculate-corymbiform branched synflorescences, rarely solitary or 2 or 3 per synflorescence. Plants dioecious or heterogamous, having different types of florets: bisexual sterile florets with predominance of female florets arranged in many marginal rows and 1 to few central male florets, or many marginal rows of male florets and a few central female florets. Involucre campanulate, turbinate, or semispherical, base tomentose; phyllaries many seriate, imbricate, erect or expanding, scarious, lower parts brown, 1-veined, upper parts usually scarious, white or yellowish white or rarely pinkish. Receptacle subconvex or flat, alveolate, without squamules. Male florets: corolla tubular, 5-denticulate; stamens basally arrow-shaped with acerose tail; stigma with 2 short lobes, apex truncate. Female florets: corolla filiform, basally slightly dilated, 2-4-denticulate; style branches long, apex subrounded. Achene oblong or subrounded, with glandular hairs or mammilla or almost glabrous, in predominantly female capitula; achenes of male florets vestigial and usually absent in predominantly male capitula. Pappus in both florets consisting of 1 row of free deciduous white hairs, almost equal to corolla, scabrid, pinnate-incrassate at tip of apex in male florets, filiform and almost smooth or slightly scabrid at tip in female florets.

<==Anaphalis
    |--A. cavei O88
    |--A. contorta O88
    |    |--A. c. var. contorta O88
    |    `--A. c. var. flavescens O88
    |--A. keriensis B93
    |--A. margaritacea BS97
    |--A. royleana O88
    |--A. rupestris BS97
    |--A. subrigida B93
    |--A. subumbellata O88
    |--A. tenella O88
    |--A. trinervis BS97
    |--A. triplinervis B93
    |    |--A. t. var. triplinervis O88
    |    |--A. t. var. intermedia O88
    |    `--A. t. var. monocephala O88
    |--A. xylorhiza O88
    `--A. yunnanensis O88
         |--A. y. var. yunnanensis O88
         `--A. y. var. muliensis O88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B93] Breitwieser, I. 1993. Comparative leaf anatomy of New Zealand and Tasmanian Inuleae (Compositae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 111: 183–209.

[BS97] Breitwieser, I., & F. B. Sampson. 1997. Pollen characteristics of New Zealand Gnaphalieae (Compositae) and their taxonomic significance. Grana 36: 80–95.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

Raoulia

Raoulia australis, copyright Ghislain118.


Belongs within: Gnaphalieae.

Raoulia is an Australasian genus of low-growing, often mat- or cushion-forming herbs and subshrubs (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Low-growing tufted or creeping and rooting herbs or subshrubs, often forming cushions or mats, with small, usually crowded leaves. Capitula heterogamous, discoid, solitary, sessile or subsessile, terminal. Phyllaries scarious to membranous, with or without radiate, usually white, tips. Receptacle small, alveolate, nude. Outer florets pistillate, filiform, 2–5-toothed. Anthers sagittate at base, cells produced into fine tails. Style-arms of disk-florets truncate and papillate. Achenes more or less oblong, glabrous to pubescent or setose to papillose. Pappus-hairs in several series, 50–150, or 15–25 in one series.

<==Raoulia Hooker 1846 A61
    |--R. subg. Raoulia BW98 [incl. R. subg. Euraoulia Beauverd 1912 A61]
    |    |--R. sect. Raoulia BW98 [incl. R. sect. Radiatae A61]
    |    |    |--*R. australis Hooker in Raoul 1846 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |    |--R. glabra Hooker 1853 A61
    |    |    |--R. parkii Buchan. 1882 A61
    |    |    `--R. subsericea Hooker 1853 A61
    |    `--R. sect. Eradiatae BW98
    |         |--R. albosericea Colenso 1888 BW98, A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--R. apicinigra Kirk 1879 BW98, A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--R. beauverdii BW98
    |         |--R. cinerea Petrie 1913 A61
    |         |--R. haastii Hooker 1864 A61
    |         |--R. hookeri Allan 1961 A61
    |         |    |--R. h. var. hookeri A61
    |         |    `--R. h. var. laxa Allan 1961 A61
    |         |--R. monroi Hooker 1864 [incl. R. cheesemanii Beauverd 1912] A61
    |         `--R. tenuicaulis Hooker 1853 A61
    |              |--R. t. var. tenuicaulis A61
    |              |--R. t. var. dimorpha Allan 1961
    |              `--R. t. var. pusilla Kirk 1899 A61
    |--R. subg. Mistura Allan 1961 A61
    |    `--R. (subg. *M.) petriensis Kirk 1877 A61
    `--R. subg. Psychrophyton BW98
         |--R. sect. Acuminatae Allan 1961 A61
         |    `--R. (sect. *A.) subulata Hooker 1864 [=Psychrophyton subulatum Beauverd 1910] A61
         |--R. sect. Rotundatae BW98
         |    |--R. bryoides Hooker 1855 [=Psychrophyton bryoides Beauverd 1910] A61
         |    |--R. eximia Hooker 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |    `--R. mammillaris Hooker 1864 [=Psychrophyton mammillare Beauverd 1910] A61
         |--R. sect. Trinerves BW98
         |    |--R. grandiflora Hooker 1853 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |    |--R. hectori Hooker 1864 [=Psychrophyton hectori Beauverd 1910] A61
         |    |    |--R. h. var. hectori A61
         |    |    `--R. h. var. mollis Buchan. in Kirk 1899 A61
         |    `--R. youngii (Hooker) Beauverd 1912 (see below for synonymy) A61
         `--R. sect. Truncatae BW98
              |--R. buchananii Kirk 1899 A61
              |--R. goyenii Kirk 1884 [=Psychrophyton goyeni Beauverd 1910] A61
              `--R. rubra Buchan. 1882 [=Psychrophyton rubrum Beauverd 1910] A61

Raoulia albosericea Colenso 1888 BW98, A61 [=R. australis var. albo-sericea Kirk 1899 A61, R. hookeri var. albo-sericea (Colenso) Allan 1961 A61]

Raoulia apicinigra Kirk 1879 BW98, A61 [=R. australis var. apice-nigra Kirk 1899 A61, R. hookeri var. apice-nigra (Kirk) Allan 1961 A61; incl. R. beauverdii Cockayne 1914 A61, R. monroi Beauverd 1912 non Hooker 1864 A61]

*Raoulia australis Hooker in Raoul 1846 [incl. R. australis var. lutescens Kirk 1899, R. lutescens Beauverd 1910] A61

Raoulia eximia Hooker 1864 [=Psychrophyton eximium Beauverd 1910; incl. R. brownii Kirk 1899, Haastia greenii Hooker in Kirk 1899, R. eximia var. lata Kirk 1899] A61

Raoulia grandiflora Hooker 1853 [=Psychrophyton grandiflorum Beauverd 1910; incl. Gnaphalium (Helichrysum) fasciculatum Buchan. 1877, Raoulia grandiflora var. fasciculata (Buchan.) Cheeseman 1925] A61

Raoulia youngii (Hooker) Beauverd 1912 [=Gnaphalium (Helichrysum) youngii Hooker 1864, Helichrysum youngii Kirk 1899, Psychrophyton youngii Beauverd 1910] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BW98] Breitwieser, I., & J. M. Ward. 1998. Leaf anatomy of Raoulia Hook. f. (Compositae, Gnaphalieae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 126: 217–235.

Aster

Michaelmas daisy Aster amellus, copyright Hectonichus.


Belongs within: Astereae.

Aster is a Holarctic genus of composite-flowered herbs.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual or perennial from caudex or rhizome. Stem generally erect, 1–20 dm. Leaves basal, cauline, or both, alternate, generally entire; basally generally petioled. Inflorescence with heads generally radiate, solitary or in a cyme or panicle; involucre obconic to hemispheric; phyllaries in 2–6 series, outer generally smaller than inner, free, at least inner with pale, papery margins; receptacle more or less flat, naked. Ray florets 0–many; corolla violet to pink or white. Disk florets many; corolla and anthers generally yellow, tube generally narrower than throat; anther tips more or less triangular; style branches flat on inner face, base more or less warty, tip acute, hairy. Fruit generally rounded, more or less ribbed, more or less brown; pappus of bristles, white to brownish.

<==Aster
    |--*A. amellus Linnaeus 1753 P01, CD07
    |--A. abbreviatus C55
    |--A. ageratoides MH98
    |--A. albescens O88
    |--A. alpigenus H93
    |    |--A. a. var. alpigenus H93
    |    `--A. a. var. andersonii H93
    |--A. alpinus H09
    |--A. altaicus O88
    |--A. ascendens [=A. adscendens] H93
    |--A. asteroides O88
    |--A. barbellatus O88
    |--A. bellidiflorus C55
    |--A. bernardinus H93
    |--A. breweri [=Chrysopsis breweri] H93
    |--A. brickellioides H93
    |--A. brumalis C55
    |--A. campestris H93
    |--A. chilensis H93
    |--A. chinensis R00
    |--A. concinnatus C55
    |--A. diplostephioides O88
    |--A. dumosus C55
    |--A. eatonii H93
    |--A. engelmannii H93
    |--A. falconeri O88
    |    |--A. f. ssp. falconeri O88
    |    `--A. f. ssp. nepalensis O88
    |--A. flaccidus O88
    |--A. foliaceus H93
    |    |--A. f. var. foliaceus H93
    |    |--A. f. var. lyallii H93
    |    `--A. f. var. parryi [incl. A. foliaceus var. apricus] H93
    |--A. frondosus H93
    |--A. greatae [=A. greatai] H93
    |--A. heliopsis O88
    |--A. himalaicus O88
    |--A. imbricatus C06
    |--A. indamellus O88
    |--A. integrifolius H93
    |--A. laevigatus C55
    |--A. laevis C55
    |--A. lanceolatus V09
    |    |--A. l. ssp. lanceolatus H93
    |    `--A. l. ssp. hesperius H93
    |--A. ledophyllus H93
    |--A. lentus [=A. chilensis var. lentus; incl. A. chilensis var. sonomensis] H93
    |--A. leucanthemus C55
    |--A. mutabilis C55
    |--A. novae-angliae MS98
    |--A. novi-belgii C55
    |--A. occidentalis H93
    |    |--A. o. var. occidentalis [incl. A. o. var. delectabilis, A. o. var. intermedius, A. o. var. parishii] H93
    |    `--A. o. var. yosemitanus [incl. A. paludicola] H93
    |--A. oregonensis [incl. A. oregonensis ssp. californicus] H93
    |--A. parviflorus C55
    |--A. pauciflorus H93
    |--A. peirsonii H93
    |--A. radulinus H93
    |--A. rubricaulis C55
    |--A. salicifolius C55
    |--A. scopulorum H93
    |--A. squamatus Y98
    |--A. stracheyi O88
    |--A. subulatus BR65
    |    |--A. s. var. subulatus H93
    |    `--A. s. var. ligulatus H93
    |--A. tanacetifolius BT72
    |--A. tricephalus O88
    |--A. tripolium CS77
    `--A. versicolor C55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[MS98] Margulis, L., & K. V. Schwartz. 1998. Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth 3rd ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[P01] Pennisi, E. 2001. Linnaeus’s last stand? Science 291: 2304–2307.

[R00] Ramond, C. 1800. Suite des plantes inédites des Hautes-Pyrénées. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (42): 140–141.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Calotis

Purple burr-daisy Calotis cuneifolia, copyright Melburnian.


Belongs within: Astereae.

Calotis is a genus of composite-flowered herbs endemic to Australia (Black & Robertson 1965).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs with alternate leaves; fruiting heads usually globular and burr-like. Involucre mostly hemispherical, the bracts in about two rows nearly equal, with scarious margins; receptacle flat or convex, naked; ray-flowers ligulate, female, mostly in one row; disk-flowers tubular, bisexual but usually barren; anthers obtuse at base; style-branches linear in ray-flowers, lanceolate and coarsely papillate in disk-flowers, stigmatic lines only present in fertile florets; achenes compressed, narrowed towards base, sometimes winged; pappus of short awns or bristles, barbellate with reflexed or spreading hairs (barbules), and accompanied sometimes by narrow or broad scales.

<==Calotis
    |--C. ancyrocarpa BR65
    |--C. breviradiata [=C. multicaulis var. breviradiata] BR65
    |--C. breviseta LK14
    |--C. cuneifolia BR65
    |--C. cymbacantha BR65
    |--C. erinacea [incl. C. erinacea var. biaristata] BR65
    |--C. hispidula BR65
    |--C. inermis M99
    |--C. kempei BR65
    |--C. lappulacea BR65
    |--C. latiuscula BR65
    |--C. multicaulis (Turczaninow) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |--C. porphyroglossa BR65
    |--C. scabiosifolia BR65
    `--C. scapigera BR65

Calotis multicaulis (Turczaninow) Druce 1917 [=Goniopogon multicaule Turczaninow 1851; incl. C. plumulifera von Mueller 1859] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

Olearia

Twiggy daisy-bush Olearia ramulosa, copyright Melburnian.


Belongs within: Astereae.

Olearia, tree daisies, is a genus of composite-flowered trees and shrubs found in Australasia (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Shrubs or trees with alternate or opposite leaves, these mainly tomentose below. Capitula small to large, solitary, or inflorescence variously compound; receptacle alveolate, flat or convex; phyllaries imbricate in several series, margins dry or scarious. Ray-florets, if present, ligulate to filiform, pistillate; disk-florets perfect, tubular. Anther-cells usually acute at base; style-arms of disk-florets flattened, with short obtuse or acute unreceptive tips. Achenes ribbed or striate, usually pubescent to pilose; pappus of unequal barbellate bristles, often slightly thickened at tips.

<==Olearia Moench 1802 (nom. cons.) [incl. Shawia Forster & Forster 1776 (nom. rej.)] BR65
    |--O. sect. Adenotricha BR65
    |    |--O. calcarea BR65
    |    |--O. decurrens BR65
    |    |--O. glandulosa BR65
    |    |--O. hookeri (Sonder) Bentham 1852 BR65
    |    |--O. magniflora BR65
    |    |--O. muelleri BR65
    |    |--O. passerinoides Bentham 1851 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    `--O. teretifolia BR65
    |--O. sect. Dicerotricha BR65
    |    |--O. erubescens (Candolle) Dippel 1889 [=Eurybia erubescens, O. myrsinoides var. erubescens] BR65
    |    |--O. grandiflora [incl. Aster sonderi] BR65
    |    `--O. pannosa BR65
    |--O. sect. Eriotricha BR65
    |    |--O. arida Pritzel 1918 BR65
    |    |--O. axillaris BR65
    |    |--O. exiguifolia BR65
    |    |--O. floribunda [=Eurybia floribunda Hooker 1847; incl. Aster florulentus von Mueller 1865] BR65
    |    |--O. lepidophylla (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    |--O. microdisca BR65
    |    |--O. pimeleoides BR65
    |    |    |--O. p. var. pimeleoides BR65
    |    |    `--O. p. var. minor non O. insignis var. minor Cheeseman 1916 BR65
    |    |--O. ramulosa (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    |--O. subspicata [=Eurybia subspicata Hooker 1848; incl. Aster mitchellii von Mueller 1865] BR65
    |    `--O. tubuliflora BR65
    `--O. sect. Merismotricha BR65
         |--O. ciliata (Bentham) von Mueller 1865 (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |    |--O. c. var. ciliata BR65
         |    `--O. c. var. squamifolia BR65
         |--O. ferresii BR65
         |--O. picridifolia BR65
         |--O. rudis [=Eurybia rudis Bentham 1837; incl. Aster exul Lindley 1839, E. scabra Bentham 1837] BR65
         |    |--O. r. var. rudis BR65
         |    `--O. r. var. glabriuscula BR65
         `--O. stuartii von Mueller 1865 (see below for synonymy) BR65

Olearia incertae sedis:
  *O. tomentosa A61
  O. albida Hooker 1864 [=Eurybia albida Hooker 1853] A61
    |--O. a. var. albida A61
    `--O. a. var. angulata (Kirk) Allan 1961 [=O. angulata Kirk 1881] A61
  O. allomii Kirk 1871 A61
  O. angustifolia Hooker 1853 A61
  O. arborescens (Forster) Cockayne & Laing 1911 A61 (see below for synonymy)
  O. arguta LK14
    |--O. a. var. arguta LK14
    `--O. a. var. lanata LK14
  O. asterotricha BR65
  O. avicenniaefolia (Raoul) Hooker 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
  O. buchananii Kirk 1899 A61
  O. bullata Wilson & Garnock-Jones 1992 D95
  O. capillaris Buchan. 1871 A61 (see below for synonymy)
  O. chathamica Kirk 1891 [incl. O. chathamica var. dendyi Cockayne 1902] A61
  O. cheesemanii Cockayne & Allan 1926 (see below for synonymy) A61
  O. chrysophylla C08
  O. colensoi Hooker 1853 A61 [=Eurybia colensoi C06]
    |--O. c. var. colensoi A61
    |--O. c. var. argentea Allan 1961 A61
    `--O. c. var. grandis Simpson 1945 A61
  O. coriacea Kirk 1899 A61
  O. crosby-smithiana Petrie 1911 A61
  O. dampieri KM08
    |--O. d. ssp. dampieri G04b
    `--O. d. ssp. eremicola G04b
  O. elaeophila GK00
  O. × excorticata Buchanan 1874 [O. arborescens × O. lacunosa] A61
  O. fragrantissima Petrie 1891 A61
  O. furfuracea (Rich.) Hooker 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--O. f. var. furfuracea A61
    |--O. f. var. angustata Kirk 1899 [incl. O. f. var. a. subvar. dubia Kirk 1899] A61
    `--O. f. var. rubicunda Kirk 1899 A61
  O. glutinosa BR65
  O. × haastii Hooker 1864 [O. avicenniaefolia × O. moschata] A61
  O. hectori Hooker 1864 A61
  O. humilis G04a
  O. ilicifolia Hooker 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
  O. lacunosa Hooker 1867 [incl. O. alpina Buchanan 1887] A61
  O. lyallii Hooker 1853 A61 [=Eurybia lyallii C06]
  O. macrodonta Baker 1884 [incl. Eurybia dentata var. oblongifolia Hooker 1853] A61
  O. microphylla [=Aster microphyllus Ventenat 1804, O. ramulosa var. microphylla] BR65
  O. × mollis (Kirk) Cockayne 1911 [=O. ilicifolia var. mollis Kirk 1899; O. ilicifolia × O. lacunosa] A61
  O. moschata Hooker 1864 A61
  O. muricata KM08
  O. nummularifolia Hooker 1864 [=Eurybia nummularifolia Hooker 1853; incl. O. hillii Colenso 1888] A61
    |--O. n. var. nummularifolia A61
    `--O. n. var. cymbifolia Hooker 1867 [=O. cymbifolia (Hooker) Cheeseman 1907] A61
  O. occidentissima KM08
  O. odorata Petrie 1891 A61
  O. × oleifolia Kirk 1879 [O. avicenniaefolia × O. odorata; incl. O. wilcoxii Petrie 1913] A61
  O. oporina (Forster) Hooker 1853 A61 (see below for synonymy)
  O. pachyphylla Cheeseman 1910 A61
  O. paniculata (Forster & Forster) Druce 1917 A61 (see below for synonymy)
  O. paucidentata GK00
  O. phlogopappa KC83
  O. polita Wilson & Garnock-Jones 1992 D95
  O. ramosissima G04b
  O. rani (Cunn.) Druce 1917 A61 (see below for synonymy)
  O. semidentata Decaisne 1846 N88 (see below for synonymy)
  O. solandri Hooker 1864 [=Eurybia solandri Hooker 1853] A61
  O. stellulata BR65
  O. × suavis Cheeseman 1892 [O. arborescens × O. lacunosa] A61
  O. thomsonii Cheeseman 1925 A61
  O. townsonii Cheeseman 1925 A61
  O. × traillii Kirk 1884 [O. angustifolia × O. colensoi var. grandis] A61
  O. traversii (Muell.) Hooker 1867 [=Eurybia traversii Muell. 1864] A61
  O. virgata Hooker 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--O. v. var. virgata A61
    |--O. v. var. divaricata (Cockayne) Allan 1961 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |--O. v. var. implicita Simpson 1945 A61
    |--O. v. var. laxiflora (Kirk) Allan 1961 [=O. laxiflora Kirk 1899] A61
    |--O. v. var. lineata Kirk 1899 [=O. lineata (Kirk) Cockayne 1911] A61
    |--O. v. var. ramuliflora (Colenso) Kirk 1899 [=O. ramuliflora Colenso 1890] A61
    |--O. v. var. rugosa Simpson 1945 A61
    `--O. v. var. serpentina (Simpson) Allan 1961 [=O. serpentina Simpson 1945] A61
  O. xerophila EF04

Olearia arborescens (Forster) Cockayne & Laing 1911 A61 [=Solidago arborescens Forster 1786 A61, Shawia arborescens Raoul 1846 A61, Steiractis arborescens DC. 1836 A61; incl. Eurybia alpina Lindl. & Paxt. 1851 A61, Olearia arborescens var. cordatifolia Kirk 1899 A61, O. nitida var. cordatifolia C06, O. erythropappa Colenso 1890 A61, O. multiflora Colenso 1895 A61, O. nitida Hooker 1864 A61, O. populifolia Colenso 1885 A61, O. suborbiculata Colenso 1886 A61]

Olearia avicenniaefolia (Raoul) Hooker 1864 [=Shawia avicenniaefolia Raoul 1846, Eurybia avicenniaefolia Hooker 1853] A61

Olearia capillaris Buchan. 1871 A61 [=O. arborescens var. capillaris (Buchan.) Kirk 1899 A61, O. nitida var. capillaris C06]

Olearia cheesemanii Cockayne & Allan 1926 [=O. nitida var. angustifolia Cheeseman 1906 non O. angustifolia Hooker 1853, O. arborescens var. angustifolia Cheeseman 1925] A61

Olearia ciliata (Bentham) von Mueller 1865 [=Eurybia ciliata Bentham 1837; incl. Aster huegelii von Mueller 1865] BR65

Olearia furfuracea (Rich.) Hooker 1864 [=Aster furfuraceus Rich. 1832, Eurybia furfuracea DC. 1836, Haxtonia furfuracea Cunn. 1839, Shawia furfuracea Raoul 1846] A61

Olearia ilicifolia Hooker 1864 [incl. Eurybia dentata var. linearifolia Hooker 1853, O. multibracteolata Colenso 1885] A61

Olearia lepidophylla [=Aster lepidophyllus Persoon 1807; incl. A. microphyllus Labillardière 1806 non Ventenat 1804] Br65

Olearia oporina (Forster) Hooker 1853 A61 [=Arnica oporina Forster 1786 A61, Eurybia operina C06, Olearia operina A61; incl. O. oporina var. robusta Kirk 1899 A61]

Olearia paniculata (Forster & Forster) Druce 1917 A61 [=Shawia paniculata Forster & Forster 1776 A61 incl. O. paniculata var. elliptica Kirk 1899 A61, O. forsteri var. elliptica C06, Eurybia forsteri Hooker 1853 A61, O. forsteri Hooker 1864 A61, O. paniculata var. obtusa Kirk 1899 A61, O. uniflora Colenso 1888 C06, O. paniculata var. viscosa Simpson 1945 A61]

Olearia passerinoides Bentham 1851 [incl. Eurybia glutescens Sonder 1852, Aster glutescens (Sonder) von Mueller 1865, Olearia toppii Ewart & White 1908] BR65

Olearia ramulosa [=Aster ramulosus Labillardière 1806; incl. O. exilifolia, O. revoluta var. minor nec O. insignis var. minor Cheeseman 1916 nec O. pimeleoides var. minor, O. revoluta] BR65

Olearia rani (Cunn.) Druce 1917 A61 [=Brachyglottis rani Cunn. 1839 A61; incl. O. colorata Colenso 1880 A61, O. cunninghamii var. colorata C06, O. rani var. colorata (Colenso) Kirk 1899 A61, Eurybia cunninghamii Hooker 1853 A61, O. cunninghamii Hooker 1864 A61, O. rani var. minuta Kirk 1899 A61]

Olearia semidentata Decaisne 1846 N88 [=Eurybia semidentata Muell. 1864 A61; incl. O. semidentata var. albiflora Dorrien Smith 1910 A61]

Olearia stuartii von Mueller 1865 [=Eurybia stuartii von Mueller 1859; incl. Aster megalodontus von Mueller 1874] BR65

Olearia virgata Hooker 1864 [=Eurybia virgata Hooker 1853; incl. O. aggregata Colenso 1896, O. consimilis Colenso 1896, O. fasciculifolia Colenso 1893, O. parvifolia Colenso 1896, O. quinquefida Colenso 1896] A61

Olearia virgata var. divaricata (Cockayne) Allan 1961 A61 [=O. divaricata Cockayne 1909 A61; incl. O. macphersoni Cockayne 1925 CA27]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48–72.

[D95] Dawson, M. I. 1995. Contributions to a chromosome atlas of the New Zealand flora. 33. Miscellaneous species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33: 477–487.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63–79.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[KC83] Körner, C., & P. Cochrane. 1983. Influence of plant physiognomy on leaf temperature on clear midsummer days in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern Australia. Acta Œcologica Œcologiae Plantae 4 (2): 117–124.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[N88] Nelson, E. C. 1988. Holotype of Olearia semidentata Decne. New Zealand Journal of Botany 26: 465–466.

Erigeron

Mexican fleabane Erigeron karvinskianus, copyright Colsu.


Belongs within: Astereae.

Erigeron, the fleabane daisies, is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs and subshrubs with generally radiate heads, often borne in loose clusters (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual to perennial (subshrub). Stems generally erect. Leaves alternate, generally entire. Inflorescence with heads generally radiate, one to many in loose, panicle-like or flat-topped clusters; involucre hemispheric; phyllaries narrowly lanceolate, in two to several equal to strongly graded series; receptacle flat to steeply conic, naked, smooth to shallowly pitted. Ray florets, if present, generally ten to many; ligules generally white, pink, or blue (rarely yellow). Disk florets many; corollas generally narrow funnel-shaped, yellow; style tips 0.1–0.8 mm, more or less triangular. Fruit 0.5–3 mm, generally more or less oblong, compressed to more or less cylindric, generally two-ribbed, generally sparsely hairy; pappus, if present, generally of 6–50 longer inner bristles and shorter outer bristles, narrow scales, or short crown.

<==Erigeron
    |--E. aequifolius H93
    |--E. algidus [incl. E. petiolaris] H93
    |--E. aliceae H93
    |--E. alpinum C55
    |--E. angustatus H93
    |--E. annuus MH98
    |--E. aphanactis H93
    |    |--E. a. var. aphanactis H93
    |    `--E. a. var. congestus H93
    |--E. austiniae [=E. chrysopsidis ssp. austiniae] H93
    |--E. berbellulatus H93
    |--E. bellidioides O88
    |--E. biolettii [=E. inornatus var. biolettii] H93
    |--E. blochmaniae [=E. foliosus var. blochmaniae] H93
    |--E. bloomeri H93
    |    |--E. b. var. bloomeri [incl. E. bloomeri var. pubens] H93
    |    `--E. b. var. nudatus H93
    |--E. bonariensis Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |--E. breweri H93
    |    |--E. b. var. breweri H93
    |    |--E. b. var. bisanctus H93
    |    |--E. b. var. covillei [=E. foliosus var. covillei] H93
    |    |--E. b. var. jacinteus H93
    |    |--E. b. var. klamathensis H93
    |    `--E. b. var. porphyreticus H93
    |--E. calvus H93
    |--E. canadensis BR65
    |--E. cervinus [incl. E. delicatus] H93
    |--E. clokeyi H93
    |--E. compactus H93
    |--E. compositus [incl. E. compositus var. discoideus, E. compositus var. glabratus] H93
    |--E. concinnus H93
    |    |--E. c. var. concinnus [incl. E. pumilus ssp. concinnoides] H93
    |    `--E. c. var. condensatus H93
    |--E. coulteri H93
    |--E. decumbens H93
    |    |--E. d. var. decumbens H93
    |    `--E. d. var. robustior H93
    |--E. dissectus J87
    |--E. divergens H93
    |--E. domingensis J87
    |--E. eatonii H93
    |    |--E. e. var. eatonii H93
    |    |--E. e. var. nevadincola H93
    |    |--E. e. var. plantagineus H93
    |    `--E. e. var. sonnei H93
    |--E. elegantulus H93
    |--E. elmeri [=E. breweri var. elmeri] H93
    |--E. filifolius H93
    |    |--E. f. var. filifolius H93
    |    `--E. f. var. robustior non E. decumbens var. robustior H93
    |--E. floribundus BR65
    |--E. foliosus H93
    |    |--E. f. var. foliosus [incl. E. foliosus var. stenophyllus] H93
    |    |--E. f. var. confinis H93
    |    |--E. f. var. franciscensis H93
    |    |--E. f. var. hartwegii H93
    |    `--E. f. var. mendocinus H93
    |--E. glaucis MM96
    |--E. inornatus H93
    |    |--E. i. var. inornatus H93
    |    |--E. i. var. calidipetris H93
    |    `--E. i. var. keilii H93
    |--E. karvinskianus J87
    |--E. lassenianus H93
    |    |--E. l. var. lassenianus [incl. E. flexuosus] H93
    |    `--E. l. var. deficiens H93
    |--E. linearis H93
    |--E. lobatus H93
    |--E. mariposanus H93
    |--E. miser H93
    |--E. morrisonensis CP02
    |--E. multiceps H93
    |--E. multiradiatus O88
    |--E. parishii H93
    |--E. peregrinus H93
    |    |--E. p. var. peregrinus H93
    |    |--E. p. var. callianthemus [incl. E. peregrinus var. angustifolius] H93
    |    `--E. p. var. hirsutus H93
    |--E. peruvianus (Lam.) Cuatrecasas 1961 (see below for synonymy) C61
    |    |--E. p. var. peruvianus C61
    |    `--E. p. var. lineatus Cuatrecasas 1961 C61
    |--E. petrophilus H93
    |    |--E. p. var. petrophilus H93
    |    |--E. p. var. sierrensis H93
    |    `--E. p. var. viscidulus [=E. inornatus var. viscidulus] H93
    |--E. philadelphicus MH98
    |--E. pumilus H93
    |    |--E. p. var. pumilus H93
    |    `--E. p. var. intermedius H93
    |--E. pusillus MH98
    |--E. pygmaeus H93
    |--E. reductus H93
    |    |--E. r. var. reductus [=E. inornatus var. reductus] H93
    |    `--E. r. var. angustatus non E. angustatus [=E. inornatus var. angustatus] H93
    |--E. sanctarum H93
    |--E. serpentinus H93
    |--E. sessilifolius BR65
    |--E. sordidus D03
    |--E. strigosus H93
    |--E. sumatrensis MH98
    |--E. supplex H93
    |--E. tener H93
    |--E. tergoalbus Cuatrecasas 1961 C61
    |--E. uncialis H93
    |    |--E. u. var. uncialis H93
    |    `--E. u. var. conjugans H93
    |--E. uniflorus O88
    |--E. utahensis H93
    `--E. vagus H93

Erigeron bonariensis Linnaeus 1753 [incl. Conyza ambigua Candolle 1815, E. crispus Pourret 1788, E. linifolius Willdenow 1804] BR65

Erigeron peruvianus (Lam.) Cuatrecasas 1961 [=Doronicum peruvianum Lam. 1786, Arnica peruviana (Lam.) Pers. 1807, Aster peruvianus (Lam.) Cabrera 1959; incl. Liabum erigeroides Benth. 1845, Erigeron hybridus Hieron. 1895, E. lehmannii Hieron. 1894, E. loxensis Hieron. 1895, Aster pellitus HBK 1820, Celmisia pellita (HBK) Sch. Bip. 1856, Erigeron pellitum (HBK) Wedd. 1857, E. stuebelii Hieron. 1895] C61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP02] Chung, S.-W., & C.-I. Peng. 2002. Senecio kuanshanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from southern Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43: 155–159.

[C61] Cuatrecasas, J. 1961. Studies on Andean Compositae V. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 7–28.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

Celmisia subsection Angustatae

Celmisia gracilenta, copyright Ghislain118.


Belongs within: Celmisia.

The subsection Angustatae of the genus Celmisia is a group of New Zealand mountain daisies with lamina of a narrow-lanceolate to linear order (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Herbs arising from hard stocks; leaves in dense tufts, lamina of narrow-lanceolate to linear order. Disk-florets yellow.

<==Celmisia subsect. Angustatae Allan 1961 A61
    |--C. ser. Lineares Allan 1961 A61
    |    |--C. (subsect. *A. ser. *L.) longifolia A61 [incl. Aster celmisia C06, C. perpusilla Col. 1890 C06]
    |    |--C. alpina (Kirk) Cheeseman 1925 [=C. longifolia var. alpina Kirk 1895] A61
    |    |--C. gracilenta Hooker 1844 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--C. graminifolia Hooker 1844 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--C. insignis Martin 1935 [incl. C. insignis var. dura Simpson & Thomson 1943] A61
    |    `--C. spedenii Simpson 1945 A61
    `--C. ser. Lanceolatae Allan 1961 A61
         |--*C. lanceolata Cockayne 1912 A61
         |--C. adamsii Kirk 1895 A61
         |    |--C. a. var. adamsii A61
         |    `--C. a. var. rugulosa Cheeseman 1906 A61
         |--C. armstrongii Petrie 1894 A61
         |--C. lyallii Hooker 1864 A61
         |--C. major Cheeseman 1925 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |    |--C. m. var. major A61
         |    `--C. m. var. brevis Allan 1961 A61
         |--C. morganii Cheeseman 1914 A61
         `--C. petriei Cheeseman 1906 A61

Celmisia gracilenta Hooker 1844 [=C. longifolia var. gracilenta C06; incl. C. neo-zelandica Gandoger 1918, C. setacea Colenso 1889] A61

Celmisia graminifolia Hooker 1844 [=C. longifolia var. graminifolia Kirk 1899; incl. C. perpusila Colenso 1890] A61

Celmisia major Cheeseman 1925 [=C. longifolia var. major; incl. C. asteliaefolia Hooker 1844, C. longifolia var. asteliaefolia] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

Celmisia

Celmisia coriacea var. semicordata, copyright Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz.


Belongs within: Astereae.
Contains: Celmisia subsection Angustatae, Celmisia subsection Imbricatae, Celmisia subsection Rosulatae.

Celmisia, mountain daisies, is a genus of perennial herbs or subshrubs found primarily in New Zealand with a few species known from Australia (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Perennial herbs or subshrubs of diverse habit; leaves densely tufted or imbricate along brnaches; usually tomentose, at least on lower surface, petioled or lamina passing almost directly into persistent sheath. Capitula solitary on bracted scapes (rarely with branched scapes). Phyllaries usually numerous, imbricate in several to occasionally rather many series, narrow; receptacle pitted, sometimes strongly so, more or less convex. Ray-florets pistillate, usually in one row, often numerous; limb white, rarely flushed lilac to pale mauve or very pale yellow. Disk-florets perfect, numerous, corolla funnelform to tubular, five-toothed, yellow (rarely purple or very pale yellow). Anthers more or less sagittate, tails, if present, very short. Style-arms flattened, apically appendaged. Achenes usually more or less narrow-cylindric and ribbed, hairy to glabrous; pappus of usually numerous unequal strongly to weakly barbellate hairs.

<==Celmisia Cass. 1825 (nom. cons.) [incl. Elcismia Robinson 1913] A61
    |  i. s.: C. campbellensis Chapman 1891 (n. d.) [incl. C. chapmanii Kirk 1891] A61
    |         C. × compacta Cheeseman 1925 A61
    |         C. lechleri Sch. Bip. 1856 A61
    |         C. × linearis Armst. 1881 [C. gracilenta × C. sessiliflora] A61
    |         C. novae-zelandiae (Buchanan) Cheeseman 1925 (n. d.) [=Erigeron novae-zelandiae Buchanan 1885] A61
    |         C. polyvena Simpson & Thomson 1942 (n. d.) A61
    |         C. ruahinensis Colenso 1895 (n. d.) A61
    |--C. sect. Celmisia [=C. sect. Herbaceae Allan 1961 (nom. inv.)] A61
    |    |  i. s.: C. × boweana Petrie 1912 [C. coriacea × C. spectabilis] A61
    |    |         C. × christensenii Cockayne 1914 [C. spectabilis × C. traversii] A61
    |    |         C. × lanigera Petrie 1916 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |         C. × mollis Cockayne 1899 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |         C. × morrisonii Cockayne 1914 [C. coriacea × C. traversii] A61
    |    |         C. × pseudo-lyallii (Cheeseman) Cockayne 1910 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--C. subsect. Angustatae A61
    |    |--C. subsect. Caespitosae Allan 1961 non Veronica (Austriacae Wulff 1915) A61
    |    |    |--C. (subsect. *C.) bellidioides Hooker 1864 A61
    |    |    |--C. parva Kirk 1895 A61
    |    |    `--C. thomsonii Cheeseman 1916 A61
    |    |--C. subsect. Pelliculatae Allan 1961 A61
    |    |    |--C. (subsect. *P.) coriacea (Forster) Hooker 1844 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |    |    |--C. c. var. coriacea A61
    |    |    |    |--C. c. var. semicordata (Petrie) Cheeseman 1925 [=C. semicordata Petrie 1914] A61
    |    |    |    `--C. c. var. stricta Cockayne 1913 A61
    |    |    |--C. dubia Cheeseman 1906 A61
    |    |    `--C. monroi Hooker 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--C. subsect. Petiolatae Allan 1961 A61
    |    |    |--C. ser. Niveae Allan 1961 A61
    |    |    |    |--C. (subsect. *P. ser. *N.) petiolata Hooker 1864 A61
    |    |    |    |    |--C. p. var. petiolata A61
    |    |    |    |    `--C. p. var. membranacea Kirk 1899 non C. membranacea Colenso 1890 A61
    |    |    |    `--C. rutlandii Kirk 1895 A61
    |    |    |--C. ser. Acuminatae Allan 1961 A61
    |    |    |    `--C. (ser. *A.) mackaui Raoul 1846 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |    |--C. ser. Ferrugineae Allan 1961 A61
    |    |    |    |--C. (ser. *F.) traversii Hooker 1864 A61
    |    |    |    |--C. cordatifolia Buchan. 1879 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |    |    |    |--C. c. var. cordatifolia A61
    |    |    |    |    `--C. c. var. similis Martin 1935 A61
    |    |    |    |--C. praestans Allan 1947 A61
    |    |    |    `--C. rigida (Kirk) Cockayne 1909 [=C. petiolata var. rigida Kirk 1899] A61
    |    |    `--C. ser. Pallidae Allan 1961 A61
    |    |         |--C. (ser. *P.) verbascifolia Hooker 1853 [incl. C. brownii Chapman 1890] A61
    |    |         `--C. hookeri Cockayne 1915 A61
    |    |--C. subsect. Serratae Allan 1961 A61
    |    |    |--C. (subsect. *S.) holosericea (Forster) Hooker 1844 [=Aster holosericeus Forster 1786] A61
    |    |    |--C. dallii Buchan. 1882 A61
    |    |    `--C. hieracifolia Hooker 1853 A61
    |    |         |--C. h. var. hieracifolia A61
    |    |         |--C. h. var. gracilis Allan 1961 A61
    |    |         `--C. h. var. oblonga Kirk 1895 A61
    |    |--C. subsect. Spectabiles Allan 1961 A61
    |    |    `--C. (subsect. *S.) spectabilis Hooker 1844 [incl. C. spectabilis var. albo-marginata Martin 1935] A61
    |    |         |--C. s. var. spectabilis A61
    |    |         |--C. s. var. angustifolia Martin 1935 non C. angustifolia Cockayne 1915 A61
    |    |         `--C. s. var. magnifica Allan 1947 A61
    |    `--C. subsect. Stoloniferae Allan 1961 A61
    |         |--C. ser. Elongatae Allan 1961 A61
    |         |    |--C. (subsect. *S. ser. *E.) prorepens Petrie 1887 A61
    |         |    `--C. glabrescens Petrie 1915 A61
    |         |--C. ser. Abbreviatae Allan 1961 A61
    |         |    `--C. (ser. *A.) densiflora Hooker 1864 A61
    |         `--C. ser. Glandulosae Allan 1961 non Veronica Verwandtschaftsgruppe Glandulosa Römpp 1928 A61
    |              `--C. (ser. *G.) glandulosa Hooker 1853 [incl. C. membranacea Colenso 1890] A61
    |                   |--C. g. var. glandulosa [incl. C. glandulosa var. vera Cockayne 1917] A61
    |                   |--C. g. var. latifolia Cockayne 1917 A61
    |                   `--C. g. var. longiscapa Cockayne 1917 A61
    |--C. sect. Antarcticae Allan 1961 A61
    |    `--C. (sect. *A.) vernicosa Hooker 1844 A61
    |         |--C. v. var. vernicosa A61
    |         `--C. v. var. mollicula Allan 1961 A61
    `--C. sect. Lignosae Allan 1961 A61
         |--C. subsect. Imbricatae A61
         `--C. subsect. Rosulatae A61

Nomina nuda: Celmisia nigrescens A61
             Celmisia nobilis A61

Celmisia cordatifolia Buchan. 1879 [=C. petiolata var. cordatifolia (Buchan.) Kirk 1899; incl. C. cordatifolia var. brockettii Martin 1935] A61

Celmisia coriacea (Forster) Hooker 1844 [=Aster coriaceus Forster 1786; incl. C. coriacea f. corymbifera Kirk 1899, C. coriacea var. ensata Kirk 1899, C. flaccida Cockayne 1899, C. coriacea f. foliacea Kirk 1899, C. coriacea var. lancifolia Cheeseman 1925, C. martini Buchan. 1887] A61

Celmisia × lanigera Petrie 1916 [=C. coriacea var. lanigera (Petrie) Cheeseman 1925; C. petiolata × C. spectabilis] A61

Celmisia mackaui Raoul 1846 [incl. C. coriacea Raoul 1844 non Aster coriaceus Forster 1786] A61

Celmisia × mollis Cockayne 1899 [=C. spectabilis var. mollis (Cockayne) Cheeseman 1925; C. petiolata × C. spectabilis] A61

Celmisia monroi Hooker 1864 [incl. C. monroi var. conspicua Martin 1935, C. monroi var. robusta Martin 1935 non C. robusta Buchan. 1887] A61

Celmisia × pseudo-lyallii (Cheeseman) Cockayne 1910 [=C. lyallii var. pseudo-lyallii Cheeseman 1906; C. lyallii × C. spectabilis] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).