Chaoboridae

Female Chaoborus flavicans, copyright Erick Adams.


Belongs within: Culicomorpha.

The Chaoboridae, phantom midges, are a cosmopolitan group of small, delicate flies with aquatic larvae found in standing freshwater habitats.

Characters (from Cook 1981, as Chaoborinae): Clypeus with numerous setae, shorter than two-thirds height of rest of head capsule. Lateral lobes of postpronotum separated medially by scutum and antepronotum. R1 terminating in C near wing apex, nearer to R2 than Sc. Larva with thorax rounded laterally; anal segment with longitudinal fan-like row of bristles; siphon absent or as long as anal segment, with pointed apex.

<==Chaoboridae [Chaoborinae] B09
    |--Hypsocorethra toficola BLM02
    |--Chachotosha probatus BLM02
    |--Mesocorethra S02
    |--Baleiomyia S02
    |--Manlayamyia litorina S02
    |--Astrocorethra gurvanica S02
    |--Praechaoborus S02
    |--Mochlonyx cinctipes C81
    |--Promochlonyx CM91
    |--Australomochlonyx CM91
    |--Chironomaptera BLM02
    |    |--C. collessi S02
    |    `--C. gregaria Grabau 1923 ZG05
    `--Chaoborus B09
         |--C. (Chaoborus) americanus C81
         |--C. braziliensis B09
         |--C. edulis P09
         |--C. exita C81
         |--C. festivus B09
         |--C. flavicans WP99
         |--C. (Sayomyia) punctipennis C81
         |--C. souzai B09
         |--C. tertiarius C81
         `--C. trivittatus B09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[B09] Borkent, A. 2009. Chaoboridae (phantom midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 365–367. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C81] Cook, E. F. 1981. Chaoboridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 335–339. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[ZG05] Zhang, J., V. B. Golub, Y. A. Popov & D. E. Shcherbakov. 2005. Ignotingidae fam. nov. (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingoidea), the earliest lace bugs from the Upper Mesozoic of eastern China. Cretaceous Research 26: 783–792.

Limnophilini

Hexatoma sp., copyright Edna Woodward.


Belongs within: Tipulidae.
Contains: Chioneini.

The Limnophilini are a group of crane flies with glabrous eyes and retaining tibial spurs (Alexander & Byers 1981).

Characters (from Alexander & Byers 1981, as Hexatomini): Eyes glabrous. Terminal segment of palpus short; nasus absent. Tibial spurs absent. Wings, if present, with Sc1 complete, free tip of Sc2 absent, tip of R1+2 present, R4 and R5 separate, CuA straight.

<==Limnophilini [Hexatomini, Limnophilinae] G09
    |--Dactylolabis WT11
    |    |--D. montana WT11
    |    `--D. (Eudactylolabis) vestigipennis AB81
    `--+--Chioneini WT11
       `--Hexatoma WT11
            |--H. (Eriocera) longicornis AB81
            `--H. megacera AB81

Limnophilini incertae sedis:
  Elephantomyia (Elephantomyia) G09
    |--E. (E.) orthorhabda G09
    `--E. (E.) westwoodi G09
  Atarba AB81
    |  i. s.: A. australasiae CM91 [=Ischnothrix australasiae CM70]
    |--A. (Atarba) G09
    |    |--A. (A.) bifilosa G09
    |    `--A. (A.) picticornis G09
    `--A. (Ischnothrix) G09
         |--A. (I.) patens G09
         `--A. (I.) voracis G09
  Ulomorpha pilosella AB81, A16
  Paradelphomyia (Oxyrhiza) oaxacensis AB81, G09
  Shannonomyia (Shannonomyia) AB81
    |--S. (S.) lenta G09
    `--S. (S.) lentoides G09
  Epiphragma (Epiphragma) AB81
    |--E. (E.) fascipenne [=E. fascipennis] G09
    |--E. (E.) gracilicorne G09
    |--E. (E.) imitans G09
    `--E. (E.) solatrix G09
  Phyllolabis encausta AB81
  Polymera AB81
    |--P. (Polymera) rogersiana G09
    `--P. (Polymerodes) conjuncta G09
  Prolimnophila areolata AB81
  Austrolimnophila AB81
    |--A. (Austrolimnophila) G09
    |    |--A. (A.) microsticta G09
    |    `--A. (A.) toxoneura G09
    `--A. (Limnophilella) G09
         |--A. (L.) schunkeana G09
         |--A. (L.) subvictor G09
         `--A. (L.) victor G09
  Pseudolimnophila AB81
    |--P. inornata AB81
    |--P. (Pseudolimnophila) luteipennis G09
    `--P. noveboracensis AB81
  Pilaria recondita AB81
  Limnophila AB81
    |  i. s.: L. alleni A16
    |         L. areolata A16
    |         L. brevifurca A16
    |         L. fuscovaria A16
    |         L. munda A16
    |         L. quadrata A16
    |         L. recondita A16
    |         L. rufibasis A16
    |         L. subcostata A16
    |         L. toxoneura A16
    |--L. (Limnophila) G09
    |    |--*L. (L.) pictipennis G09
    |    |--L. (L.) guttulatissima G09
    |    `--L. (L.) undulata G09
    |--L. (Dendrolimnophila) albomanicata AB81
    |--L. (Idiolimnophila) emmelina AB81
    |--L. (Phylidorea) adusta AB81
    `--L. (Prionolabis) rudimentis AB81
  Lecteria (Lecteria) G09
    |--L. (L.) acanthosoma G09
    `--L. (L.) armillaris G09
  Sigmatomera G09
    |--S. (Austrolimnobia) G09
    |    |--S. (A.) magnifica G09
    |    `--S. (A.) rufa G09
    `--S. (Sigmatomera) G09
         |--S. (S.) occulta G09
         `--S. (S.) seguyi G09
  Ellipteroides (Progonomyia) G09
    |--E. (P.) nigrobimbo G09
    |--E. (P.) quinqueplagiata G09
    `--E. (P.) slossonae G09
  Neognophomyia G09
    |--N. adara G09
    `--N. hirsuta G09
  Eriopterodes latipleura G09
  Gynoplistia apicalis CM91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A16] Alexander, C. P. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera, Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 458–514, pls 16–21.

[AB81] Alexander, C. P., & G. W. Byers. 1981. Tipulidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 153–190. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G09] Gelhaus, J. K. 2009. Tipulidae (crane flies, tipúlidos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 193–236. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Chioneini

Gonomyia sp., copyright John Rosenfeld.


Belongs within: Limnophilini.

The Chioneini are a group of crane flies characterised by bare eyes and legs lacking tibial spurs (Alexander & Byers 1981).

Characters (from Alexander & Byers 1981, as Eriopterini): Eyes glabrous. Terminal segment of palpus short; nasus absent. Tibial spurs absent. Wings, if present, with Sc1 complete, free tip of Sc2 absent, tip of R1+2 present, R4 and R5 separate, CuA straight. Larva with plane of spiracular disc roughly perpendicular to long axis of body, disc surrounded by five lobes.

<==Chioneini [Chioneinae, Eriopterini] G09
    |--Neolimnophila AB81
    |--Cladura AB81
    |--Neocladura AB81
    |--Idiognophomyia AB81
    |--Tasiocera AB81
    |--Phantolabis lacustris AB81
    |--Gonomyodes AB81
    |--Gonomyopsis doaneiana AB81
    |--Gonempeda AB81
    |--Empedomorpha empedoides AB81
    |--Hesperoconopa melanderi AB81
    |--Arctoconopa AB81
    |--Hoplolabis armata WT11 [=Erioptera (Hoplolabis) armata AB81]
    |--Chionea AB81
    |--Aymaramayia G09
    |--Quechamyia G09
    |--Lipsothrix AB81
    |    |--L. neotropica G09
    |    `--L. nigrilinea AB81
    |--Eugnophomyia AB81
    |    |--E. apache G09
    |    `--E. luctuosa G09
    |--Cryptolabis (Cryptolabis) AB81
    |    |--C. (C.) magnistyla G09
    |    `--C. (C.) paradoxa G09
    |--Ormosia AB81
    |    |--O. (Ormosia) manicata AB81
    |    `--O. monticola AB81
    |--Cheilotrichia AB81
    |    |--C. (Cheilotrichia) alicia AB81
    |    `--C. (Empeda) G09
    |         |--C. (E.) stygia G09
    |         `--C. (E.) tanneri G09
    |--Teucholabis AB81
    |    |--T. (Teucholabis) complexa G09
    |    |--T. (Euparatropesa) G09
    |    |    |--T. (E.) invenusta G09
    |    |    `--T. (E.) lindneri G09
    |    `--T. (Paratropesa) collaris G09
    |--Toxorhina AB81
    |    |--T. (Toxorhina) G09
    |    |    |--T. (T.) magna AB81
    |    |    `--T. (T.) muliebris G09
    |    `--T. (Ceratocheilus) G09
    |         |--T. (C.) americana G09
    |         `--T. (C.) caledonica G09
    |--Molophilus AB81
    |    |  i. s.: M. fluviatilis Bangerter 1947 TKM93
    |    |         M. hirtipennis G09
    |    |--M. (Molophilus) G09
    |    |    |--M. (M.) gracilis G09
    |    |    `--M. (M.) plagiatus G09
    |    `--M. (Promolophilus) nitidus AB81
    |--Gnophomyia AB81
    |    |--G. jacobsoni G09
    |    |--G. lugubris G09
    |    |--G. rubicundula G09
    |    |--G. toschiae AB81
    |    |--G. triceps G09
    |    `--G. tristissima AB81
    |--Symplecta G09
    |    |--S. (Symplecta) G09
    |    |    |--S. (S.) cana G09 [=Erioptera (S.) cana AB81]
    |    |    |--S. (S.) hybrida G09
    |    |    |--S. (S.) macroptera G09
    |    |    `--S. (S.) stictica [=Erioptera (S.) stictica] AB81
    |    `--S. (Trimicra) pilipes G09 [=Erioptera (T.) pilipes AB81]
    |--Rhabdomastix AB81
    |    |  i. s.: R. neolurida AB81
    |    |         R. subfascigera AB81
    |    |--R. (Rhabdomastix) G09
    |    |    |--R. (R.) californiensis G09
    |    |    |--R. (R.) nuttingi AB81
    |    |    `--R. (R.) plaumanni G09
    |    `--R. (Sacandaga) AB81
    |         |--R. (S.) californiensis AB81
    |         `--R. (S.) monticola AB81
    |--Erioptera AB81
    |    |  i. s.: E. caloptera A16
    |    |         E. venusta A16
    |    |         E. vespertina A16
    |    |--E. (Erioptera) G09
    |    |    |--E. (E.) acucuspis G09
    |    |    |--E. (E.) cladophoroides G09
    |    |    `--E. (E.) septemtrionis AB81
    |    `--E. (Mesocyphona) G09
    |         |--E. (M.) costalis G09
    |         |--E. (M.) eiseni G09
    |         |--E. (M.) knabi G09
    |         |--E. (M.) melanderiana AB81
    |         `--E. (M.) troglodyta G09
    `--Gonomyia AB81
         |--G. (Gonomyia) G09
         |    |--G. (G.) kansensis G09
         |    `--G. (G.) subcinerea AB81
         |--G. (Leiponeura) G09
         |    |--G. (L.) haploa G09
         |    |--G. (L.) manca G09
         |    |--G. (L.) puer G09
         |    |--G. (L.) sulphurella G09 [=G. (Lipophleps) sulphurella AB81]
         |    `--G. (L.) sulphurelloides G09
         |--G. (Neolipophleps) G09
         |    |--G. (N.) alexanderi G09
         |    |--G. (N.) cinerea G09
         |    |--G. (N.) helophila G09
         |    `--G. (N.) strigilis G09
         `--G. (Paralipophleps) pleuralis AB81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A16] Alexander, C. P. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera, Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 458–514, pls 16–21.

[AB81] Alexander, C. P., & G. W. Byers. 1981. Tipulidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 153–190. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[G09] Gelhaus, J. K. 2009. Tipulidae (crane flies, tipúlidos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 193–236. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[TKM93] Thaler, K., B. Knoflach & E. Meyer. 1993. Fragmenta faunistica Tirolensia—X. Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80: 311–325.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Tipulomorpha

Male winter crane fly Trichocera garretti, from Alexander (1981).


Belongs within: Diptera.
Contains: Tipulidae.

The Tipulomorpha are a clade of flies uniting the crane flies (Tipulidae) with the winter crane flies (Trichoceridae). Modern members of the lineage lack mandibles, and their wings have R2 joining R1, the stem of M tending to align with M3+4, and 2A very short and submarginal (Blagoderov et al. 2002).

<==Tipulomorpha WT11
    |--Vladiptera [Vladipteridae] BLM02
    |    `--V. kovalevi BLM02
    `--+--Tipulidae WT11
       `--+--Gnomuscidae GE05
          `--Trichoceridae [Petauristidae, Trichoceroidea] WT11
               |  i. s.: Mailotrichocera jurassica BLM02
               |--Kawasemyia [Kawasemyiinae] A81
               |--Paracladura [Paracladurinae] K09
               |    `--P. trichoptera A81
               `--Trichocerinae A81
                    |--Diazosma hirtipennis A81
                    |--Nothotrichocera cingulata A81, CM91
                    `--Trichocera K09
                         |  i. s.: T. annulata CM91
                         |         T. brevicornis WT11
                         |         T. columbiana M90
                         |         T. gigantea A81
                         |         T. maculipennis A81
                         |         T. mexicana K09
                         |         T. regelationis A81
                         |         T. saltator K09
                         `--T. (Metatrichocera) A81
                              |--T. (M.) alexanderi A81
                              |--T. (M.) colei A81
                              |--T. (M.) garretti A81
                              |--T. (M.) mackenzie A81
                              |--T. (M.) salmani A81
                              `--T. (M.) ursamajor A81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A81] Alexander, C. P. 1981. Trichoceridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 301–304. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K09] Krzemińska, E. 2009. Trichoceridae (winter crane flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 337–339. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Dicranomyia

Dicranomyia sp., copyright Martin Cooper.


Belongs within: Tipulidae.

Dicranomyia is a large cosmopolitan genus of moderately-sized crane flies with twelve flagellomeres.

<==Dicranomyia G09
    |  i. s.: D. chorca W01
    |         D. haeretica A16
    |         D. halterata A16
    |         D. liberta A16
    |         D. pubipennis A16
    |         D. pudica A16
    |--D. (Dicranomyia) G09
    |    |--D. (D.) aegrotans [=Limonia (D.) aegrotans] M83
    |    |--D. (D.) divisa G09
    |    |--D. (D.) gloriosa G09
    |    |--D. (D.) knabi G09
    |    `--D. (D.) omisa G09
    |--D. (Caenoglochina) G09
    |    |--D. (C.) apicata [=Limonia apicata] G09
    |    `--D. (C.) paniculata G09
    |--D. (Caenolimonia) G09
    |    |--D. (C.) distantia G09
    |    |--D. (C.) neorepanda [=Limonia neorepanda] G09
    |    `--D. (C.) translucida G09
    |--D. (Idioglochina) marmorata G09 [=Limonia (I.) marmorata AB81]
    |--D. (Neoglochina) G09
    |    |--D. (N.) insularis [=Limonia insularis] G09
    |    `--D. (N.) sciasma G09
    |--D. (Neolimnobia) diva G09
    |--D. (Neolimonia) G09
    |    |--D. (N.) cuzcoensis G09
    |    |--N. (N.) dumetorum G09
    |    `--D. (N.) gurneyi G09
    `--D. (Peripheroptera) G09
         |--D. (P.) arcuata G09
         |--D. (P.) eudorae G09
         `--D. (P.) nitens G09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A16] Alexander, C. P. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera, Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 458–514, pls 16–21.

[AB81] Alexander, C. P., & G. W. Byers 1981. Tipulidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 153–190. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[G09] Gelhaus, J. K. 2009. Tipulidae (crane flies, tipúlidos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera, vol. 1 pp. 193–236. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: features facilitating coexistence. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 121–135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Corynebacterium

Gram-stained Corynebacterium diphtheriae, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Belongs within: Actinomycetales.

Corynebacterium is a diverse genus of high G+C, rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria found in a wide range of habitats, including soil, aquatic habitats or in association with animal tissues (Vela et al. 2003).

Corynebacterium [Corynebacteriaceae]
    |  i. s.: C. dismutans PHK96
    |         C. insidiosum K-WK92
    |         C. manihot PHK96
    |         C. michisanense MN03
    |         C. mooreparkense Brennan et al. 2001 JC08
    |         C. nephridii Z92
    |         C. nigricans Shukla, Bernard et al. 2004VP IJSEM04
    |         C. poinsettiae PHK96 [=Co. flaccumfaciens ssp. poinsettiae K92, Curtobacterium poinsettiae K92]
    |         C. simplex PHK96
    |--+--C. amycolatum VM03
    |  `--+--C. freneyi VM03
    |     `--C. xerosis VM03
    `--+--+--+--C. terpenotabidum VM03
       |  |  `--C. variabile VM03
       |  `--+--C. bovis VM03
       |     `--+--+--C. auriscanis VM03
       |        |  `--C. suicordis Vela, Mateos et al. 2003 VM03
       |        `--+--C. urealyticum VM03
       |           `--+--C. falsenii VM03
       |              `--C. jeikeium VM03
       `--+--+--C. efficiens VM03
          |  `--+--C. callunae VM03
          |     `--C. glutamicum VM03
          `--+--+--+--C. ammoniagenes VM03
             |  |  `--C. casei Brennan et al. 2001 VM03, JC08
             |  `--+--C. flavescens VM03
             |     `--C. phocae VM03
             |--+--C. spheniscorum Goyache, Vela et al. 2003 GV03
             |  `--+--+--C. argentoratense VM03
             |     |  `--+--C. felinum VM03
             |     |     `--C. testudinoris VM03
             |     `--+--C. vitaeruminis VM03
             |        `--+--C. kutscheri VM03
             |           `--+--*C. diphtheriae GV03, VM03
             |              `--+--C. pseudotuberculosis VM03
             |                 `--C. ulcerans VM03
             `--+--+--+--C. durum VM03
                |  |  `--C. matruchotii VM03 [=Bacterionema matruchotii S92]
                |  `--+--+--+--C. cystitidis VM03
                |     |  |  `--C. pilosum VM03
                |     |  `--+--C. mastitidis VM03
                |     |     `--C. renale VM03
                |     `--+--+--C. glucuronolyticum VM03
                |        |  `--C. seminale VM03
                |        `--+--C. kroppenstedtii VM03
                |           `--Turicella otitidis VM03
                `--+--+--+--C. striatum VM03
                   |  |  `--+--C. aurimucosum Yassin et al. 2002 VM03, JC08
                   |  |     `--C. minutissimum VM03
                   |  `--+--+--C. accolens VM03
                   |     |  `--C. macginleyi VM03
                   |     `--+--C. propinquum VM03
                   |        `--C. pseudodiphtheriticum VM03
                   `--+--C. camporealensis VM03
                      `--+--+--C. riegelii VM03
                         |  `--+--C. sundsvallense VM03
                         |     `--C. thomssenii VM03
                         `--+--C. appendicis VM03
                            `--+--+--C. auris VM03
                               |  `--C. capitovis VM03
                               `--+--C. mycetoides VM03
                                  `--+--C. coyleae VM03
                                     `--+--C. afermentans VM03
                                        `--C. mucifaciens VM03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GV03] Goyache, J., A. I. Vela, M. D. Collins, C. Ballesteros, V. Briones, J. Moreno, P. Yorio, L. Domínguez, R. Hutson & J. F. Fernández-Garayzábal. 2003. Corynebacterium spheniscorum sp. nov., isolated from the cloacae of wild penguins. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 43–46.

[IJSEM04] IJSEM. 2004. Validation list no. 95. Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54: 1–2.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[K92] Kado, C. I. 1992. Plant pathogenic bacteria. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 659–674. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[K-WK92] Korn-Wendisch, F., & H. J. Kutzner. 1992. The family Streptomycetaceae. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 921–995. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[MN03] Moffitt, M. C., & B. A. Neilan. 2003. Evolutionary affiliations within the superfamily of ketosynthases reflect complex pathway associations. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 446-457.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[S92] Schaal, K. P. 1992. The genera Actinomyces, Arcanobacterium, and Rothia. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 850–905. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[VM03] Vela, A. I., A. Mateos, M. D. Collins, V. briones, R. A. Hutson, L. Domínguez & J. F. Fernández-Garayzábal. 2003. Corynebacterium suicordis sp. nov., from pigs. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2027–2031.

[Z92] Zumpft, W. G. 1992. The denitrifying prokaryotes. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 554–582. Springer-Verlag: New York.

Spiruromorpha

Rictularia sp., from Ranjabar et al. (2017). A: Anterior region and egg (camera lucida drawing); B: Anterior region showing sub ventral comb-like spine (10X); C: Anterior region showing teeth and egg; D: Anterior region showing glandular and muscular esophagus.


Belongs within: Secernentea.
Contains: Onchocercidae.

The Spiruromorpha are a group of parasitic nematodes with life cycles alternating between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.

Spiruromorpha [Spirurida]
    |  i. s.: Loa loa J02
    |         Wuchereria L02a
    |           |--W. bancrofti PB07 [incl. W. bancrofti var. pacifica Ge02]
    |           `--W. malayi MH96
    |--Desportesius [Acuariidae, Acuarioidea] LB02
    |--Camallanus H02 [Camallanidae, Camallanoidea LB02]
    |    `--C. lacustris H02
    |--Aproctoidea LB02
    |    |--Aproctidae LB02
    |    `--Desmidocercidae LB02
    |--Diplotriaenoidea LB02
    |    |--Diplotriaenidae LB02
    |    `--Oswaldofilariidae LB02
    |--Thelazoidea LB02
    |    |--Thelaziidae LB02
    |    |--Rhabdochonidae LB02
    |    `--Pneumospiruridae LB02
    |--Spiruroidea LB02
    |    |  i. s.: Physocephalus sexalatus Gi02
    |    |--Gongylonematidae LB02
    |    |--Spiruridae LB02
    |    |--Spirocercidae LB02
    |    `--Hartertiidae LB02
    |--Physalopteridae [Physalopteroidea] LB02
    |    |--Abbreviata paradoxa Gi02
    |    `--Physaloptera P89b
    |         |--P. abbreviata P89b
    |         |--P. gemina Gi02
    |         |--P. phrynsoma MM02
    |         |--P. retusa P89b
    |         `--P. varani Parona 1889 P89b
    |--Rictulariidae [Rictularoidea] LB02
    |    |--Pterygodermatites alphi [=Mesopectines alphi] Gi02
    |    `--Rictularia P89b
    |         |--R. bovieri Blanchard 1886 P89b
    |         |--R. cristata Frölich 1802 [=Ophiostomum cristatum] P89b
    |         |--R. dipodomis Tiner 1948 S69
    |         |--R. elvirae Parona 1889 P89b
    |         |--R. macdonaldi (Dobson 1880) [=Pterygodermatites macdonaldi, Ophiostoma macdonaldi] P89b
    |         `--R. plagiostoma (Weld 1861) (see below for synonymy) P89b
    |--Habronematoidea LB02
    |    |  i. s.: Parabronema indicum Gi02
    |    |         Procyrnea mansioni Gi02
    |    |--Habronematidae LB02
    |    |--Cystidicolidae LB02
    |    |    |--Ascarophis valentina Ferrer, Aznar et al. 2005 F05
    |    |    `--Cystidicola Fischer 1798 F98
    |    |         `--*C. farionis Fischer 1798 F98
    |    |--Hedrurus L02a [Hedruridae LB02]
    |    |    `--H. androphora L02a
    |    `--Tetrameres J02 [Tetrameridae LB02]
    |         `--T. columbicola J02
    `--Filarioidea LB02
         |  i. s.: Stephanofilaria Gi02
         |         Serratospiculum seurati Gi02
         |         Molinema dessetae [=Dipetalonema dessetae] J02
         |         Microfilaria M64
         |         Acanthocheilonema L02b
         |           |--A. setariosum J02
         |           `--A. viteae [=Dipetalonema viteae] J02
         |         Brugia L02b
         |           |--B. malayi PB07
         |           `--B. pahangi L02b
         |         Dirofilaria M64
         |           |--D. immitis (Leidy 1856) MW69
         |           |--D. repens Gi02
         |           `--D. roemeri v. Linstow 1905 M64
         |         Dipetalonema Gi02
         |           |--D. gracile Gi02
         |           |--D. ozzardi BSG09
         |           |--D. perstans [=Acanthocheilonema perstans] A71
         |           |--D. reconditum DM91
         |           |--D. repens N70
         |           `--D. streptocerca A71
         |--Onchocercidae LB02
         `--Filaria P89b [Filariidae LB02]
              |--F. bhamoensis Parona 1889 P89b
              |--F. flabellata P89b
              |--F. macrophallos Parona 1889 P89b
              |--P. nodulosa P89b
              `--F. obtusocaudata [incl. F. collurionis subcutanea] P89a

Rictularia plagiostoma (Weld 1861) [=Pterygodermatites plagiostoma; incl. Ophiostoma spinosa Willemoes-Suhm 1869] P89b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BSG09] Borkent, A., G. R. Spinelli & W. L. Grogan Jr. 2009. Ceratopogonidae (biting midges, purrujas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 407–435. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[DM91] Dunnet, G. M., & D. K. Mardon. 1991. Siphonaptera (fleas). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 705–716. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[F98] Fischer, M. 1798. Sur un nouveau genre de vers intestins. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (13): 98.

[Ge02] Gems, D. 2002. Ageing. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 413–455. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Gi02] Gibbons, L. M. 2002. General organisation. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 31–59. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[H02] Hope, I. A. 2002. Embryology, developmental biology and the genome. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 121–145. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[J02] Justine, J.-L. 2002. Male and female gametes and fertilisation. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 73–119. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02a] Lee, D. L. 2002a. Life cycles. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 61–72. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02b] Lee, D. L. 2002b. Cuticle, moulting and exsheathment. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 171–209. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[LB02] Ley, P. de, & M. Blaxter. 2002. Systematic position and phylogeny. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 1–30. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[MW69] Moss, W. W., & W. A. Webster. 1969. A numerical taxonomic study of a group of selected strongylates (Nematoda). Systematic Zoology 18 (4): 423–443.

[MM02] Munn, E. A., & P. D. Munn. 2002. Feeding and digestion. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 211–232. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[M64] Mykytowycz, R. 1964. A survey of the endoparasites of the red kangaroo Megaleia rufa (Desmarest). Parasitology 54: 677–693.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[P89a] Parona, C. 1889a. Intorno all’Ascaris halicoris, Owen, ed a qualche altro Nematode raccolti in Assab dal Dott. V. Ragazzi. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 751–764.

[P89b] Parona, C. 1889b. Sopra alcuni elminti di Vertebrati birmani raccolti da Leonardo Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 765–780.

[PB07] Philippe, H., H. Brinkmann, P. Martinez, M. Riutort & J. Baguña. 2007. Acoel flatworms are not Platyhelminthes: evidence from phylogenomics. PloS One 2 (8): e717.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

Petrophile

Prickly conesticks Petrophile sessilis, copyright Casliber.


Belongs within: Proteaceae.

Petrophile, conebushes, is an Australian genus of erect shrubs with deeply divided, often spiny leaves and cone-like inflorescences.

<==Petrophile
    |--P. acicularis GK00
    |--P. circinata G04
    |--P. divaricata GK00
    |--P. glauca G04
    |--P. heterophylla LK00
    |--P. longifolia GK00
    |--P. media GK00
    |--P. rigida OS04
    |--P. seminuda OS04
    |--P. serruriae RL05
    |--P. sessilis C08
    |--P. squamata OS04
    `--P. striata OS04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[LK00] Lowrie, A., & K. F. Kenneally. 2000. Three new species of Stylidium (Stylidiaceae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 13: 293–302.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

Anisotome

Anisotome latifolia, copyright Elizabeth Huang.


Belongs within: Apiaceae.

Anisotome is an Australasian genus of aromatic tufted herbs.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Small to large tufted herbs, sometimes rhizomatous, mostly glabrous or nearly so, aromatic; latex mostly copious. Stock usually well-developed, often multicipital, produced into stout deeply descending taproot. Umbels usually compound, rays usually many; involucral bracts various. Calyx-teeth very small, or obsolete; petals usually white, occasionally pinkish to mauve or reddish, incurved; stamens incurved. Fruit usually ± narrow-oblong in outline; mericarps usually distinctly compressed, with usually 5 sub-equal very narrowly winged ribs. Vittae usually 1 per furrow and 2 on commissural face.

<==Anisotome Hooker 1844 [incl. Calosciadium Endlicher ex Walp. 1840] A61
    |--A. acutifolia (Kirk) Cockayne 1919 [=Ligusticum acutifolium Kirk 1891, Aciphylla acutifolia Cockayne 1909] A61
    |--A. antipoda Hooker 1844 A61 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--A. aromatica Hooker 1852 [=Ligusticum aromaticum Hooker 1864] W96
    |    |--a. a. var. aromatica A61
    |    |--A. a. var. dissecta Allan 1961 non A. dissecta (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925 A61
    |    |--A. a. var. flabellifolia (Simpson) Allan 1961 [=A. flabellifolia Simpson 1952] A61
    |    |--A. a. var. incisa (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. a. var. lanuginosa (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925 [=Ligusticum aromaticum var. lanuginosum Kirk 1899] A61
    |    |--A. a. var. major Allan 1961 A61
    |    |--A. a. var. obtusa Allan 1961 A61
    |    `--A. a. var. pinnatisecta Allan 1961 A61
    |--A. brevistylis (Hooker) Poppelwell 1915 [=Ligusticum brevistyle Hooker 1864] A61
    |--A. capillifolia (Cheesem.) Cockayne 1919 [=Ligusticum capillifolium Cheesem. 1915] A61
    |--A. carnosula (Hooker) Cockayne & Laing 1911 [=Ligusticum carnosulum Hooker 1864] A61
    |--A. deltoidea Cheesem. 1925 [=Ligusticum deltoideum Cheesem. 1882] A61
    |--A. diversifolia (Cheeseman) Cockayne 1912 [=Ligusticum diversifolium Cheeseman 1906] A61
    |--A. enysii (Kirk) Laing 1912 [=Ligusticum enysii Kirk 1877] A61
    |--A. filifolia (Hooker) Cockayne & Laing 1911 [=Ligusticum filifolium Hooker 1864; incl. L. patulum Kirk 1899] A61
    |--A. flabellata (Kirk) Cockayne ex Crosby Smith 1914 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--A. haastii (Muell. ex Hooker) Cockayne & Laing 1911 [=Ligusticum haastii Muell. ex Hooker 1864] A61
    |--A. imbricata (Hooker) Cockayne 1921 [=Ligusticum imbricatum Hooker 1864] A61
    |    |--A. i. var. imbricata W91
    |    `--A. i. var. prostrata W91
    |--A. intermedia Hooker 1853 [=Ligusticum intermedium; incl. L. intermedium var. oblongifolium Kirk 1899] A61
    |--A. latifolia Hooker 1844 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--A. lyallii Hooker 1853 [=Ligusticum lyallii Hooker 1864] A61
    |--‘Ligusticum’ ovatum Wolff 1911 (n. d.) A61
    |--‘Ligusticum’ petraeum Cheeseman 1919 (n. d.) A61
    `--A. pilifera (Hooker) Cockayne & Laing 1911 (see below for synonymy) A61

Anisotome antipoda Hooker 1844 A61 [=Calosciadium antipodum Endl. ex Walp. 1850 A61, Gingidium antipodum C06, Ligusticum antipodum Homb. & Jacq. ex Decne 1853 A61]

Anisotome aromatica var. incisa (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925 A61 [=Ligusticum incisum Kirk 1899 A61, L. aromaticum var. incisum C06]

Anisotome flabellata (Kirk) Cockayne ex Crosby Smith 1914 [=Ligusticum flabellatum Kirk 1899, Aciphylla flabellata Cockayne 1909] A61

Anisotome latifolia Hooker 1844 [=Calosciadium latifolium (Hooker) Endl. ex Walp. 1850, Ligusticum latifolium Hooker 1864; incl. L. latifolium var. angustatum Kirk 1899] A61

Anisotome pilifera (Hooker) Cockayne & Laing 1911 [=Ligusticum piliferum Hooker 1864; incl. L. piliferum var. pinnatifidum Kirk 1899, Anisotome pilifera var. pinnatifida] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[W96] Webb, C. J. 1996. A rose by any other name: two problems of scent in the naming and typification of New Zealand plants. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34: 281–283.

[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317–330.

Aciphylla

Spaniard Aciphylla squarrosa, copyright Krzysztof Golik.


Belongs within: Apiaceae.

Aciphylla, spaniards, is an Australasian genus of alpine plants with a tufted or tussock-like growth form and often spiky leaves.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Glabrous very small to very large perennial herbs with stout, often multicipital stocks and slender to very stout, deeply descending taproots; rarely rhizomatous. Leaves usually all basal, mostly compound, with close-set imbricated sheaths (dead sheaths often long remaining as an investiture). Lamina petiolate or not, usually pinnate to decompound; leaflets mostly rigid and pungent-pointed. Flowers mostly unisexual, plants mostly dioecious; inflorescence of compound bracted umbels arranged along an elongate extension of the central stem (section Aciphylla) or on spreading peduncles at apex of stem (section Paniculatae). Umbels of male plants ususlly laxer than those of females. Calyx-teeth minute to obsolete; petals white to yellowish, incurved, small; stylopodia male depressed, of female erect. Fruit narrow-oblong in outline; mericarp ribs 5-4-3, winged; vittae 1-3 per furrow, 2-5 commissural.

<==Aciphylla Forster & Forster 1776 A61
    |--A. sect. Aciphylla [=A. sect. Elongatae Allan 1961 (nom. inv.)] A61
    |    |--*A. squarrosa Forster & Forster 1776 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. anomala Allan 1961 A61
    |    |--A. aurea Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. colensoi Hooker 1864 [incl. A. colensoi var. conspicua Kirk 1899] A61
    |    |--A. crenulata Armst. 1879 [=A. lyallii var. crenulata Cheesem. 1906] A61
    |    |--A. ferox Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. flexuosa Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. glaucescens Oliver 1956 [incl. A. squarrosa var. flaccida Kirk 1899] A61
    |    |--A. gracilis Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. hectori Buchan. 1882 [incl. A. poppelwellii var. major Petrie 1921, A. poppelwellii Petrie 1921] A61
    |    |--A. hookeri Kirk 1899 A61
    |    |--A. horrida Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. indurata Cheesem. 1915 A61
    |    |--A. inermis Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. intermedia Petrie 1912 A61
    |    |--A. kirkii Buchan. 1887 A61
    |    |--A. latibracteata Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. lyallii Hooker 1864 [incl. A. cuthbertiana Petrie 1915, A. montana Armstrong 1872] A61
    |    |--A. pinnatifida Petrie 1911 A61
    |    |--A. scott-thomsonii Cockayne & Allan 1927 [incl. A. colensoi var. maxima Kirk 1899] A61
    |    |--A. subflabellata Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. takahea Oliver 1956 A61
    |    |--A. townsonii Cheeseman 1906 A61
    |    |--A. traillii Kirk 1884 A61
    |    |    |--A. t. var. traillii A61
    |    |    `--A. t. var. cartilaginea (Petrie) Cheesem. 1925 [=A. cartilaginea Petrie 1915] A61
    |    |--A. traversii (Muell.) Hooker 1867 [=Gingidium traversii Muell. 1864] A61
    |    |--A. trifoliolata Petrie 1916 A61
    |    `--A. verticillata Oliver 1956 [incl. A. hectori Cheesem. 1925 non Buchan. 1882] A61
    `--A. sect. Paniculatae Allan 1961 A61
         |--A. (sect. *P.) spedenii Cheesem. 1913 A61
         |--A. congesta Cheesem. 1915 A61
         |--A. crosby-smithii Petrie 1915 A61
         |--A. dissecta (Kirk) Oliver 1956 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |--A. divisa Cheesem. 1923 A61
         |--A. dobsonii Hooker 1864 A61
         |--A. leighii Allan 1939 A61
         |--A. monroi Hooker 1855 A61 [=Gingidium monroi C06]
         |--A. multisecta Cheesem. 1915 A61
         |--A. polita (Kirk) Cheesem. 1906 [=Ligusticum politum Kirk 1899] A61
         |--A. similis Cheesem. 1915 A61
         `--A. simplex Petrie 1890 A61

Aciphylla dissecta (Kirk) Oliver 1956 [=Ligusticum dissectum Kirk 1899, Anisotome dissecta (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925] A61

*Aciphylla squarrosa Forster & Forster 1776 A61 [=Gingidium squarrosum C06; incl. Ligusticum aciphylla C06, A. squarrosa var. angustifolia Hooker 1853 A61, A. squarrosa var. latifolia Hooker 1853 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

Alismatanae

Marsh arrowgrass Triglochin palustre, from Wikimedia.


Belongs within: Monocotyledoneae.
Contains: Araceae, Alismataceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Potamogetonales.

The Alismatanae are a clade of monocotyledonous flowering plants supported by molecular data, many of which are aquatic or semi-aquatic.

<==Alismatanae
    |--Najadales HE80
    |    |--Zannichelliaceae HE80
    |    |    |--Zannichellia Linnaeus 1753 ME70
    |    |    |    |--Z. palustris Linnaeus 1753 ME70
    |    |    |    `--Z. pedunculata CS77
    |    |    `--Lepilaena Drum. ex Harv. 1855 ME70
    |    |         |--*L. australis Drum. ex Harv. 1855 ME70
    |    |         |--L. bilocularis Kirk 1896 ME70
    |    |         `--L. preissii ME70 [=Zannichellia preissii C06]
    |    `--Najas [Najadaceae] YY22
    |         |--N. flexilis B97
    |         |--N. foveolata LK14
    |         |--N. graminea LK14
    |         |--N. indica C55
    |         |--N. major C55
    |         |--N. malesiana LK14
    |         |--N. marina A02
    |         |--N. pseudograminea LK14
    |         `--N. tenuifolia LK14
    `--Alismatales [Helobieae] DS04
         |  i. s.: Maundia [Maundiaceae] APG16
         |         Posidonia S95 [Posidoniaceae APG16]
         |           |--P. australis PP64
         |           |--P. oceanica GFW98
         |           `--P. sinuosa S95
         |--Tofieldiaceae DS04
         |    |--Pleea tenuifolia DS04
         |    `--Tofieldia SR07
         |         |--T. calyculata DS04
         |         |--T. glutinosa (Michx.) Persoon 1805 CD07
         |         `--T. pusilla DS04
         `--+--Araceae SR07
            `--+--Alismataceae DS04
               `--+--Butomales HE80
                  |    |--Hydrocharitaceae HE80
                  |    |--Limnocharis P88 [Limnocharitaceae W03]
                  |    |    `--L. flava W03
                  |    `--Butomaceae DS04
                  |         |--Hydrocleys nymphoides (von Humboldt & Bonpland) Buchenau 1868 HE80
                  |         `--Butomus umbellatus SR07, DS04
                  `--+--Scheuchzeriaceae DS04
                     |    |--Tetroncium magellanicum YY22, CL85
                     |    `--Scheuchzeria palustris SR07, DS04
                     `--+--Potamogetonales DS04
                        `--Triglochin Linnaeus 1753 DS04, ME70 [Juncaginaceae, Juncaginales]
                             |--T. calcitrapum KM08
                             |--T. centrocarpum GK00
                             |--T. dubia LK14
                             |--T. huegelii GK00
                             |--T. lineare GK00
                             |--T. maritima DS04
                             |--T. minutissimum GK00
                             |--T. mucronata SM06
                             |--T. palustre Linnaeus 1753 ME70
                             |--T. striatum Ruiz & Pav. 1802 [incl. T. flaccidum Cunn. 1837] ME70
                             |    |--T. s. var. striatum C06
                             |    `--T. s. var. filifolium Buch. 1868 [incl. T. triandrum] C06
                             `--T. trichophora KM08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Able, K. W. 2002. Killifishes. Family Fundulidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 292–297. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[B97] Brown, K. M. 1997. Temporal and spatial patterns of abundance in the gastropod assemblage of a macrophyte bed. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 27–33.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CL85] Cokendolpher, J. C., & D. Lanfranco L. 1985. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago: new southern records for harvestmen. Journal of Arachnology 13: 311–319.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GFW98] Gattuso, J.-P., M. Frankignoulle & R. Wollast. 1998. Carbon and carbonate metabolism in coastal aquatic ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 405–434.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[S95] Scheltema, A. H. 1995. Falcidens poias, a new species of chaetoderm Aplacophora from Rottnest Island, Western Australia (Chaetodermomorpha, Chaetodermatidae). Molluscan Research 16: 45–49.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27–43.

[W03] Waterhouse, B. M. 2003. Know your enemy: recent records of potentially serious weeds in northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Papua (Indonesia). Telopea 10 (1): 477–485.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.