Bulla

Bulla ampulla, copyright Erwin Köhler.


Belongs within: Cephalaspidea.

Bulla is a genus of relatively large bubble snails with a well-developed shell into which the animal is able to withdraw completely.

Characters (from Malaquias & Reid 2008): Shell ovoid, solid, mottled in drab colours. Spire involute. Aperture slightly longer than shell height. Cephalic shield produced antero-laterally, forming pair of siphon-like tentacles. Penis invaginable, formed by a long duct continuous with coiled prostate, ending in a narrow terminal blind caecum; all structures enclosed in thick muscular sheath, contiguous with a long tubular vestibular area; retractor muscle attached to proximal area of penial sheath. Anterior gonoduct slightly helicoid; fertilization chamber rounded, located at mid-length; seminal receptacle placed antero-ventrally, attached to wall of common genital duct. Rachidian tooth broad, denticulate, with central cusp usually smaller. Large gap between rachidian and laterals. Inner lateral claw-shaped, usually symmetrical with major central cusp and 3–4 lateral cusps on either side. Outer lateral with smooth vertical internal edge and denticulate convex outer edge with 4–10 cusps; base with denticle. Second outer lateral teeth reduced, plate-like. Gizzard plates uncalcified, smooth, with longitudinal keel.

<==Bulla Linnaeus 1758 [=Bullaria Rafinesque 1815, Vesica Swainson 1840] BR05
    |--*B. ampulla Linnaeus 1758 BR05 [=*Bullaria ampulla O27, *Vesica ampulla BR05]
    |--B. adamsi Menke 1850 [=Bullaria adamsi] H09
    |--B. ambigua Gmelin 1791 F27b
    |--B. ‘ambigua’ d’Orbigny 1842 non Gmelin 1791 F27b
    |--‘Bullaria’ australis F27a
    |--‘Bullaria’ botanica Hedley 1918 F27a
    |--B. elongata Phillips 1835 F27b
    |--‘Bullaria’ gouldiana Pilsbry 1893 O27
    |--B. incincta Mighels 1844 J49
    |--B. occulta Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
    |--B. pertenius Mighels 1843 J49
    |--B. punctostriata Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
    |--B. punctulata Adams 1850 [=Bullaria punctulata] H09
    |--‘Bullaria’ quoyana Dall 1919 [=Bulla quoyi Adams 1850 non Gray 1843] O27
    |--B. quoyi Gray 1843 [=Bullaria quoyi] F27a
    |--B. striata C60
    |--‘Bullaria’ tenuissima M54
    `--B. voluta Gmelin 1791 F27b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

Malaquias, M. A. E., & D. G. Reid. 2008. Systematic revision of the living species of Bullidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea), with a molecular phylogenetic analysis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 153 (3): 453–543.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

Diaphanidae

Diaphana globosa, copyright Manuel Antonio E. Malaquias.


Belongs within: Euopisthobranchia.

The Diaphanidae are a group of thin-shelled bubble snails lacking mantle parapodia, jaws or gizzard plates. The shell is transparent in life, less than five millimetres long, and has a truncate spire.

<==Diaphanidae BR05
    |--Bogasonia J96
    |--Rhinodiaphana J96
    |--Brocktonia Iredale 1915 O27
    |    `--B. polystrigma Dall 1908 O27
    |--Austrodiaphana Pilsbry 1896 P61, BR05 [Austrodiaphanidae]
    |    |--*A. brazieri (Angas 1877) BR17 [=Diaphana brazieri BR17, Aplustrum brazieri P61]
    |    |--A. colei Fleming 1848 P61
    |    `--A. maunganuica Powell 1952 P61
    `--Diaphana Brown 1827 [incl. Amphisphyra Lovén 1846; Amphisphyradae, Amphisphyridae, Diaphaninae] BR05
         |--*D. candida Brown 1827 BR17
         |--D. brunnea Dall 1919 O27
         |--D. californica Dall 1919 O27
         |--D. globosa Loven 1846 O27
         |--D. minuta Brown 1827 O27, J96
         |--D. moloti (Cossmann 1907) TTE93
         |--D. pellucida Brown 1827 [=*Amphisphyra pellucida] BR17
         `--D. truncata TTE93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[J96] Jensen, K. R. 1996. The Diaphanidae as a possible sister group of the Sacoglossa (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 231–247. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 5 September 2021.

Retusidae

Retusa truncatula, from here.


Belongs within: Euopisthobranchia.

The Retusidae, canoe shells, are a family of infaunal cephalaspid gastropods characterised by the lack of a radula. Instead, their diet of forams and minute molluscs is processed by gizzard plates.

<==Retusidae [Retusacea, Retusoidea]
    |--Ventomnestia girardi (Audouin 1827) [=Bulla girardi, Alicula girardi, Cylichna girardi] BD86
    `--Retusa Brown 1827 [Crypsibranchia] BR05
         |  i. s.: R. amphizosta (Watson 1883) [=Utriculus amphizosta] H09
         |         R. aupouria Powell 1937 P61
         |         R. complanata (Watson 1883) [=Utriculus complanatus] H09
         |         R. decapitata Dall 1896 F27
         |         R. mamillata M62
         |         R. murdochi (Suter 1913) P61
         |         R. nitida (Adams 1850) [=Bulla nitida] H09
         |         R. oruaensis (Webster 1908) P61 (see below for synonymy)
         |         R. ovata C60
         |         R. pachys (Watson 1883) P61
         |         R. pertenuis Mighels 1843 O27
         |         R. semen Reeve 1856 O27
         |         R. simillima (Watson 1883) [=Utriculus simillimus] H09
         |         R. succincta GAS03
         |--R. (Retusa) O27
         |    |--*R. (R.) obtusa (Montagu 1803) P61, O27 [=Bulla obtusa P61]
         |    `--R. (R.) truncatula (Bruguiere 1772) O27 (see below for synonymy)
         |--R. (Coleophysis Fischer 1883) O27
         |    `--R. (C.) harpa Dall 1871 O27
         `--R. (Sulcularia Dall 1920) O27
              `--R. (S.) xystrum Dall 1919 O27

Retusa oruaensis (Webster 1908) P61 [incl. R. biplicata Suter 1909 P61, R. charlottae Suter 1909 P61, R. cookiana Suter 1909 P61, Tornatina decapitata Suter 1909 F27, R. decapitata non Dall 1896 F27, R. suteri Finlay 1927 P61, R. tenuilirata Suter 1909 P61]

Retusa (Retusa) truncatula (Bruguiere 1772) O27 [=Bulla truncatula O27, B. truncata (l. c.) BR17, Cylichna truncata (l. c.) BR17]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

Last updated: 2 September 2021.

Haminoeidae

Atys naucum, copyright Erwin Köhler.


Belongs within: Cephalaspidea.

The Haminoeidae are a group of bubble snails that primarily graze on algal tissue and/or diatoms; the shell may be partially or entirely covered by lateral outgrowths of the mantle. The shell may be thin and fragile as in the genus Haminoea, or relatively solid and thick as in Atys.

Characters (from Too et al. 2014): Shell usually thin, translucent, fragile, occasionally solid and thick; varying from bulloid to cylindrical-elongate; spiral grooves may be present at ends or covering entire shell. Mantle and other body parts usually dull and cryptically coloured, occasionally colourful or capable of changing colour to suit environment. Muscular buccal bulb present containing chitinous jaws and radula formed by variably-shaped central tooth plus hook-shaped lateral teeth. Fizzard present with three plates containing pointed rods.

<==Haminoeidae
    |--Liloa curta (Adams 1850) MG-H11
    |--Haminoea Turton 1830 [Hamineinae, Haminoeinae] BR05
    |    |--*H. hydatis [=Bulla hydatis] O27
    |    |--H. arthuri Finlay 1927 [=Bulla ambigua Adams 1850 nec Gmelin 1791 nec d’Orbigny 1842, H. ambigua] F27
    |    |--H. olgae Dall 1919 O27
    |    |--H. vesicula Gould 1855 O27
    |    |--H. virescens Sowerby 1833 O27
    |    `--H. zelandiae Gray 1843 P61
    `--Atys Montfort 1810 [Atydidae, Atydinae, Atydoidea] BR05
         |--*A. naucum (Linnaeus 1758) O27, BR05 [=Bulla naucum BR05]
         |--A. casta Carpenter 1864 O27
         |--A. cheverti Brazier 1877 H09
         |--A. cylindricus (Helbling 1779) BW09 [=Bulla cylindrica H09]
         |--A. darnleyensis Brazier 1877 H09
         |--A. debilis Pease 1860 H09
         |--A. decora (Brazier 1877) [=Haminea decora] H09
         |--A. extensa Finlay 1927 [=Bulla elongata Adams 1850 non Phillips 1835, Atys elongata] F27
         |--A. monodonta (Adams 1850) [=Bulla monodonta] H09
         |--A. nonscripta (Adams 1850) [=Bulla nonscripta] O27
         |--A. solida (Bruguière 1792) [=Bulla solida] H09
         `--A. tortuosa (Adams 1850) [=Bulla tortuosa] H09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

Too, C. C., C. Carlson, P. J. Hoff & M. A. E. Malaquias. 2014. Diversity and systematics of Haminoeidae gastropods (Heterobranchia: Cephalaspidea) in the tropical West Pacific Ocean: new data on the genera Aliculastrum, Atys, Diniatys and Liloa. Zootaxa 3794 (3): 355–392.

Thecosomata

Limacina helicina, copyright Alexander Semenov.


Belongs within: Euopisthobranchia.
Contains: Cavoliniidae.

The Thecosomata, sea butterflies, are a group of pelagic marine gastropods that have the foot modified into a pair of wing-like parapodia used in swimming. Most Thecosomata retain a calcareous shell though the shell is demineralised or lost in some subgroups. Loss of the adult shell is found in the Cymbuliidae and Desmopterus within the Cymbulioidea.

See also: Crystal butterflies of the sea.

<==Thecosomata [Campyloconques, Eupteropoda]
    |  i. s.: Tiedemannia BR05
    |         Bovicornu Meyer 1886 CR13
    |--Cymbulioidea (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |    |--Desmopterus Chun 1889 CR13, BR05 [Desmopteridae]
    |    |    |--*D. papilio Chun 1889 BR17
    |    |    |--D. gardinieri CR13
    |    |    `--D. pacificus Essenberg 1919 O27
    |    `--+--Peraclidae [Peraclacea, Peraclididae] BR05
    |       |    |--Procymbulia Meisenheimer 1905 [Procymbuliidae] BR05
    |       |    |    `--*P. valdiviae Meisenheimer 1905 BR17
    |       |    `--Peracle Forbes 1844 CR13, BR05
    |       |         |--*P. physoides Forbes 1844 BR17
    |       |         |--P. apicifulva CR13
    |       |         |--P. bispinosa CR13
    |       |         |--P. depressa CR13
    |       |         |--P. moluccensis CR13
    |       |         |--P. reticulata P61
    |       |         |--P. triacantha CR13
    |       |         `--P. valdiviae CR13
    |       `--Cymbuliidae [Cymbuliadae, Subtestacea] BR05
    |            |--Cymbulia Péron & Lesueur 1810 CR13, BR05 [Cymbuliinae]
    |            |    |--*C. proboscidea Lamarck 1816 BR17
    |            |    |--C. parvidentata Pelseneer 1888 P61
    |            |    |--C. peroni P61
    |            |    `--C. sibogae CR13
    |            `--+--Gleba Forskål 1776 CR13, BR05 [Glebinae] BR05
    |               |    `--*G. cordata Forskål 1776 BR17
    |               `--Corolla Dall 1871 CR13, O27
    |                    |--*C. spectabilis Dall 1871 O27
    |                    |--C. calceaolaris CR13
    |                    |--C. chrysosticta CR13
    |                    |--C. cupula CR13
    |                    `--C. ovata CR13
    `--Euthecosomata BR17
         |--Cavolinioidea [Orthoconcha] BR05
         |    |  i. s.: Camptoceros Wenz 1929 CR13
         |    |--Cavoliniidae BR05
         |    |--Sphaerocina Jung 1971 [Sphaerocinidae] BR05
         |    |    `--*S. formae (Audenino 1897) [=Limacina formae] BR17
         |    |--Praecuvierina Janssen 2005 [Praecuvierinidae] BR17
         |    |    `--*P. lura (Hodgkinson 1992) [=Cuvierina lura] BR17
         |    `--Creseis Rang 1828 BR05 [Creseidae BR17, Creseinae]
         |         |--*C. acicula Rang 1828 BR17 [=Clio acicula H09]
         |         |--C. chierchae CR13
         |         |--C. conica B26
         |         `--C. virgula Rang 1828 P61 [=Clio virgula H09]
         `--Limacinidae [Limacinacea, Limacinoidea, Limacinoidei, Spiratellacea, Spiratellidae, Spiriconcha] BR17
              |--Altaspiratella CR13
              |--Embolus Jeffreys 1869 nec Haller 1768 (ICBN) nec Batsch 1783 (ICBN) P61
              |    `--*E. inflatus (d’Orbigny 1836) P61 [=Atlanta inflata H09, Limacina (Thilea) inflata CR13]
              |--Thielea Strebel 1908 P61
              |    `--T. helicoides [=Limacina helicoides; incl. *T. procera] P61
              |--Spirialis Eydoux & Souleyet 1840 [Spirialidae] BR05
              |    |--*S. trochiformis (d’Orbigny 1834) [=Atlanta trochiformis] BR17
              |    |--S. flemingii J64
              |    |--S. macandrei J64
              |    |--S. mercinensis Watelet & Lefèvre 1885 CR13
              |    `--S. retroversus N79
              `--Limacina Bosc 1817 [=Spiratella Blainville 1817] BR05
                   |--*L. helicina (Phipps 1774) BR17 [=Clio helicina BR17, *Spiratella helicina P61]
                   |    |--L. h. helicina CR13
                   |    `--L. h. antartica CR13 [=Spiratella antarctica O27]
                   |--L. arctica G20
                   |--‘Spiratella’ australis (Eydoux & Souleyet 1840) P61
                   |--‘Spiratella’ balea (Moeller 1841) P61
                   |--L. bulimoides (d’Orbigny 1836) H09 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--L. lesueurii d’Orbigny 1836 CR13, P61 [=Atlanta leseuri H09, L. (Thilea) lesueurii CR13]
                   |--L. mercinensis (Watelet & Lefèvre 1885) TTE93
                   |--‘Spiratella’ pacifica Dall 1871 O27
                   |--L. rangii B26
                   |--L. retroversa [incl. L. balea] B26
                   `--L. trochiformis [=L. (Munthea) trochiformis] CR13

Cymbulioidea [Cymbuliacea, Cymbulioidei, Peraclida, Peracliformes, Peracliformii, Peracloidei, Pseudothecosomata] BR05

Limacina bulimoides (d’Orbigny 1836) H09 [=Atlanta bulimoides H09, L. (Munthea) bulimoides CR13, Spiratella bulimoides P61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[CR13] Corse, E., J. Rampal, C. Cuoc, N. Pech, Y. Perez & A. Gilles. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis of Thecosomata Blainville, 1824 (holoplanktonic Opisthobranchia) using morphological and molecular data. PLoS One 8 (4): e59439.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. Report of the committee appointed for exploring the coasts of Shetland by means of the dredge. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 70–81.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 1 September 2021.

Philinidae

Philine scabra, copyright Daniel L. Geiger.


Belongs within: Euopisthobranchia.

The Philinidae are a group of headshield slugs with a delicate internal shell and a dorsal aspect divided between the four regions of head, visceral mass and lateral parapodial lobes. They commonly live infaunally in fine sediments; a smaller number of species live epifaunally.

Philinidae BR05
    |--Megistostoma gabbianum (Stoliczka 1868) TTE93
    |--Bullaea Lamarck 1801 [=Bullea (l. c.), Bullinia Rafinesque 1815; Bullaeana, Bullaeidae, Bullinitia] BR05
    |    |--*B. planciana Lamarck 1801 BR17
    |    |--B. ampulla [=Akera (Bullaea) ampulla] G20
    |    `--B. guamensis Quoy & Gaimard 1825 [incl. Bulla undata, Bullina undata] BR17
    `--Philine Ascanius 1772 BR05
         |--*P. quadripartita Ascanius 1772 BR17
         |--P. angasi Crosse & Fischer 1865 P61 [=Bullaea angasi H09]
         |--P. angulata N79
         |--P. aperta P61 [=Akera (Bullaea) aperta G20, BR05]
         |--P. auriformis Suter 1909 P61
         |--P. bakeri Dall 1919 O27
         |--P. catena (Montagu 1803) APS-P86
         |--P. constricta Murdoch & Suter 1906 P61
         |--P. denticulata (Adams 1800) APS-P86
         |--P. exigua Challis 1969 APS-P86
         |--P. finmarchica O27
         |--P. flexuosa N79
         |--P. gibba M62
         |--P. lima N79
         |--P. nitida N79
         |--P. polaris Aurivillius 1885 O27
         |--P. powelli PG98
         |--P. pruinosa N79
         |--P. punctata N79
         |--P. quadrata APS-P86
         |--P. scabra APS-P86
         |--P. scalpta L10
         |--P. schroeteri (Philippi 1844) [=Bullaea schroeteri] H09
         |--P. sinuata Stimpson 1850 APS-P86
         `--P. umbilicata Murdoch & Suter 1906 P61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[APS-P86] Arnaud, P. M., Cl. Poizat & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Marine-interstitial Gastropoda (including one freshwater interstitial species). In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 153–176. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[L10] Lebedev, E. B. 2010. Diversity of soft-bottom mollusks in the Far Eastern Marine Reserve (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 169–173. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 1 September 2021.

Gymnosomata

Hunting Clione limacina, copyright Alexander Semenov.


Belongs within: Euopisthobranchia.

The Gymnosomata are a group of shell-less, pelagic marine gastropods in which the foot has been modified into a pair of large parapodia used for swimming. The lateral position of the parapodia well behind the head has lead to their vernacular name of 'sea angels'.

<==Gymnosomata
    |--Hydromyloidea [Gymnoptera, Laginiopsina] BR05
    |    |--Laginiopsis Pruvot-Fol 1922 [Laginiopsidae] BR05
    |    |    `--*L. triloba Pruvot-Fol 1922 BR17
    |    `--Hydromyles Gistel 1848 (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |         |--*H. hemispherica (Rang 1827) [=*Euribia hemispherica] BR17
    |         |--*Cymodocea’ diaphana d’Orbigny 1836 [=*Pterocymodocea diaphana] BR17
    |         `--*Psyche’ globulosa Rang 1825 [=*Anopsia globulosa, *Halopsyche globulosa] BR17
    `--Clionoidea [Cliacea, Deutocephala] BR05
         |--Cliopsis Troschel 1854 [=Clionopsis (l. c.); Clionopsidae, Cliopsidae] BR05
         |    `--*C. krohnii Troschel 1854 BR17
         |--Notobranchaeidae BR05
         |    |--Notobranchaea Pelseneer 1886 [Notobranchaeinae] BR05
         |    |    `--*N. macdonaldi Pelseneer 1886 BR17
         |    `--Prionoglossa Tesch 1950 [Prionoglossinae] BR05
         |         `--*P. tetrabranchiata (Bonnevie 1913) [=Notobranchaea tetrabranchiata] BR17
         |--Pneumodermatidae [Micropterygia, Pneumodermonidae, Pneumonodermatidae, Pneumonodermoidae] BR05
         |    |--Crucibranchaea Pruvot-Fol 1942 [Crucibranchaeidae, Crucibranchaeinae] BR05
         |    |    `--*C. macrochira (Meisenheimer 1905) [=Pneumodermopsis macrochira] BR17
         |    |--Spongiobranchaea d’Orbigny 1840 P61
         |    |    `--*S. australis d’Orbigny 1840 P61
         |    `--Pneumoderma de Roissy 1805 [=Pneumodermon, Pneumonoderma, Pneumonodermon; Pneumodermites] BR05
         |         |--*P. peronii Cuvier 1816 BR17
         |         |--P. atlantica CR13
         |         |--P. pacifica Dall 1871 O27
         |         `--P. pygmaeum (Tesch 1903) H01
         `--Clionidae [Clionidia] BR05
              |--Thliptodontinae [Thliptodonidae, Thliptodontidae] BR05
              |    |--Cephalobrachia Bonnevie 1913 BR05, BR17 [Cephalobrachiinae, Cephalobrachinae]
              |    |    `--*C. macrochaeta Bonnevie 1913 BR17
              |    `--Thliptodon Boas 1886 [incl. Pteroceanis Meisenheimer 1902; Pteroceanidae] BR05
              |         |--*T. gegenbauri Boas 1886 BR17
              |         `--*Pteroceanis’ diaphana Meisenheimer 1902 BR17
              `--Clioninae [Cliodinae] BR05
                   |--Fowlerina Pelseneer 1906 [Fowlerinae, Fowlerininae] BR05
                   |    `--*F. zetesios Pelseneer 1906 BR17
                   `--Clione Pallas 1774 BR05
                        |--*C. borealis Pallas 1774 BR17
                        |--C. elegantissima Dall 1871 O27
                        `--C. limacina Phipps 1773 O27

Hydromyles Gistel 1848 BR05 [=Euribia Rang 1827 non Meigen 1800 BR05; incl. Anopsia Gistel 1848 BR05, Cymodocea d’Orbigny 1834 nec Rafinesque 1814 nec Lamouroux 1816 nec Leach 1818 BR05, Halopsyche Keferstein 1862 non de Saussure 1857 BR05, Psyche Rang 1825 (preoc.) BR17, Pterocymodocea Keferstein 1862 BR05; Anopsidae, Anopsiidae, Cymodoceadae, Cymodoceidae, Euribiacea, Euribiidae, Eurybiidae, Halopsychidae, Hydromylidae, Pterocymodoceidae, Sclerodermata]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: a case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106–156.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

Last updated: 31 August 2021.

Cavoliniidae

Clio pyramidata, copyright R. W. Gilmer and G. R. Harbison.


Belongs within: Thecosomata.

The Cavoliniidae are a group of sea butterflies with an uncoiled shell present at maturity. In members of the subfamily Cavoliniinae, the shell is dorsoventrally depressed whereas in basal forms the shell is conical (Corse et al. 2013).

<==Cavoliniidae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Styliola Gray 1847 CR13, BR05
    |    |--*S. recta P61
    |    |--S. falcata Gould 1852 O27
    |    `--S. subula (Quoy & Gaimard 1827) P61 [=S. sublata (l. c.) F27]
    `--+--Hyalocylis CR13
       |    |--H. haitensis CR13
       |    `--H. striata CR13
       `--+--Cuvierina Boas 1886 CR13, BR05 [=Cuvieria Rang 1827 non Lesueur & Petit 1807 BR05; Cuvierininae]
          |    |--*C. columnella (Rang 1827) [=*Cuvieria columnella] BR17
          |    |--C. spoeli CR13
          |    `--C. urceolaris F27
          `--Cavoliniinae CR13
               |  i. s.: Diacrolinia Rang 1827 CR13
               |         Gamopleura CR13
               |--+--Diacavolinia longirostris CR13
               |  `--Cavolinia Abildgaard 1791 CR13, BR05 [incl. Hyalaea Lamarck 1799 BR05; Dactyliobranchia]
               |       |  i. s.: *C. natans Abildgaard 1791 BR17
               |       |         ‘Cavolina’ longirostris (Lesueur 1821) [=Hyalaea longirostris] H09
               |       |         ‘Cavolina’ occidentalis Dall 1908 O27
               |       |         ‘Cavolina’ quadridentata (Lesueur 1821) [=Hyalaea quadridentata] H09
               |       |         ‘Cavolina’ strangulata Hedley 1907 P61
               |       |         ‘Cavolina’ telemus (Linnaeus 1758) P61
               |       |--C. gibbosa Rang 1836 CR13, P61 [=Hyalaea gibbosa H09]
               |       |--C. globulosa CR13
               |       |--C. inflexa (Lesueur 1813) CR13, P61 [=Hyalaea inflexa H09]
               |       |--C. labiata CR13
               |       |--C. plana CR13
               |       |--+--C. flava CR13
               |       |  `--C. gibboides CR13
               |       `--+--C. tridentata (Forskål 1775) CR13, BR17 [=Anomia tridentata P61, *Hyalaea tridentata BR17]
               |          `--C. uncinata (Rang 1836) CR13, P61 [=Hyalaea uncinata H09]
               `--+--Diacria Gray 1842 CR13, P61
                  |    |  i. s.: D. major CR13
                  |    |--D. quadridentata CR13
                  |    |    |--D. q. quadridentata CR13
                  |    |    `--D. q. dana CR13
                  |    `--+--*D. trispinosa (Lesueur 1821) P61 [=Hyalaea trispinosa P61, Cavolina trispinosa F27]
                  |       |--D. gracilis CR13
                  |       `--D. rampali CR13
                  `--Clio Linnaeus 1767 CR13, BR05 (see below for synonymy)
                       |  i. s.: C. annulata (Tate 1887) F27
                       |         C. antarctica C68
                       |         C. blinkae CR13
                       |         C. borealis CS77
                       |         C. compressa Souleyet 1852 P61
                       |         C. exacuta Gould 1852 O27
                       |         C. infundibulum N79 [=Cleodora infundibulum J64]
                       |         C. occidentalis Dall 1871 O27
                       |         C. rangiana F27
                       |         C. striata (Rang. 1828) [=Creseis striata] H09
                       |         C. subula (Quoy & Gaimard 1827) [=Cleodora subula] H09
                       |         C. sulcata (Pfeiffer 1879) P61
                       |         C. urenuiensis Suter 1917 F27
                       |         C. vasconiensis CR13
                       |--*C. pyramidata Linnaeus 1767 BR17, CR13, BR17 [=*Cleodora pyramidata BR17]
                       |--C. cuspidata CR13
                       `--+--C. convexa CR13
                          `--+--C. polita CR13
                             `--+--C. chaptali CR13
                                `--C. recurva CR13

Cavoliniidae incertae sedis:
  Cliodita caduceus Q. & G. 1825 F27
  Euchilotheca Fisher 1882 CR13
    `--E. ganensis Curry 1981 TTE93
  Camptoceratops priscus (Godwin-Austen 1882) TTE93
  Lornia Marwick 1926 F27
    `--*L. limata Marwick 1926 F27
  Triptera Quoy & Gaimard 1825 BR17
    `--*T. rosea Quoy & Gaimard 1825 BR17
  Vaginella Daudin 1800 CR13
    |--*V. depressa Daudin 1800 D00
    |--V. aucklandica Clarke 1903 F27
    |--V. torpedo Marshall 1918 F27
    `--V. urceolaris Moerch 1850 P61
  Bucanoides CR13
  Tibiella CR13
  Cheilocuspidata Hodgkinson 1992 CR13
  Loxobidens Hodgkinson 1992 CR13

Nomen nudum: Clio tatei Suter 1915 F27

Cavoliniidae [Cavolinidae, Cavoliniida, Cavoliniiformes, Cuvierinidae, Cuvieridae, Cuvieriidae, Hyalaeidae, Hyalinea, Tripteridae]

Clio Linnaeus 1767 CR13, BR05 [=Cleodora Péron & Lesueur 1810 BR05; Cleodoridae, Cliidae, Clioidae, Clioinae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C68] Chen, C. 1968. Zoogeography of thecosomatous pteropods in the west Antarctic Ocean. Nautilus 81 (3): 94–101.

[CR13] Corse, E., J. Rampal, C. Cuoc, N. Pech, Y. Perez & A. Gilles. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis of Thecosomata Blainville, 1824 (holoplanktonic Opisthobranchia) using morphological and molecular data. PLoS One 8 (4): e59439.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D00] Daudin, C. 1800. Nouveau genre de ver à tube calcaire, voisin des serpules et des dentales. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (43): 145.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. Report of the committee appointed for exploring the coasts of Shetland by means of the dredge. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 70–81.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 31 August 2021.

Systellommatophora

Warty slug Onchidium verruculatum, copyright Cory Pittman.


Belongs within: Heterobranchia.

The Systellommatophora are a group of slug-like gastropods including the marine Onchidiidae and the terrestrial Veronicelloidea. Members of this group have two pairs of contractile tentacles on the head, with the eyes at the tip of the upper pair, and have the anus and renal opening at the posterior end of the body (Burch & Pearce 1990). The dorsum is covered by a leathery covering, the notum. The Veronicelloidea are divided between the herbivorous Veronicellidae and the carnivorous Rathouisiidae, the latter family being characterised by narrow dagger-like radular teeth (Stanisic et al. 2010).

<==Systellommatophora (see below for synonymy) BR17
    |--Onchidiidae (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |    |--Scaphis Labbé 1934 non Eschw. 1824 (ICBN) [Scaphidae] BR05
    |    |--Peronia Fleming 1822 [Peroniadae, Peroniidae] BR05
    |    |    `--*P. peronii (Cuvier 1804) [=Onchidium peronii] BR17
    |    |--Watsoniella Hoffmann 1928 BR17 [=Hoffmannola Strand 1932 BR05; Hoffmannolidae, Hoffmannoloidea]
    |    |    `--*W. lesliei (Stearns 1892) [=Onchidium lesliei, *Hoffmannola lesliei] BR17
    |    |--Peronina Plate 1893 [Peroninidae] BR05
    |    |    `--*P. alta Plate 1893 BR17
    |    |--Oncis Plate 1893 BR17 [=Platevindex Baker 1938 BR05; Platevindecidae]
    |    |    `--*O. coriaceus (Semper 1880) [=Onchidium coriaceum, *Platevindex coriaceus] BR17
    |    |--Quoya Labbé 1934 BR17 [=Quoyella Starobogatov 1976 BR05; Quoyellidae]
    |    |    `--*Q. indica Labbé 1934 [=*Quoyella indica] BR17
    |    |--Onchidina Semper 1882 [Onchidinidae] BR05
    |    |    `--*O. australis Semper 1882 BR17
    |    |--Arctonchis Dall 1905 O27
    |    |    `--*A. borealis (Dall 1871) [=Onchidella borealis] O27
    |    |--Onchidella Gray 1850 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--*O. nigricans (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) [=Onchidium nigricans] BR17
    |    |    |--O. binneyi Stearns 1893 PP78
    |    |    |--O. campbelli Filhol 1880 P61
    |    |    |--O. celtica P61
    |    |    |--O. flavescens Wissel 1904 P61
    |    |    |--O. irrorata (Gould 1852) P61
    |    |    |--O. obscura Plate 1893 P61
    |    |    `--O. patelloides (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) P61
    |    `--Onchidium Buchanan 1800 [=Oncidium (l. c.) nec Sw. 1800 (ICZN) nec Nees 1823 (ICZN); Onchidiinae] BR05
    |         |--*O. typhae Buchanan 1800 BR17
    |         |--O. buetschlii Stantchinsky 1907 H09
    |         |--O. carpenteri C64
    |         |--O. daemelli Semper 1882 W78
    |         |--O. fungiforme Stantchinsky 1907 H09
    |         |--O. meriakrii Stantchinsky 1907 H09
    |         |--O. pallidipes Tapparone Canefri 1889 [=Oncidium pallidipes] TC89
    |         |--O. pallipes TC89
    |         |--O. punctatum Quoy & Gaimard 1832 H09
    |         |--O. tigrinum TC89
    |         |--O. tumidum Semper 1880 H09
    |         `--O. verruculatum Cuvier 1804 H09
    `--Veronicelloidea [Mesogoneata, Veronicellacea] SS10
         |--Rathouisiidae [Rathouisiadae] SS10
         |    |--Rathouisia Heude 1884 BR05
         |    |    `--*R. sinensis (Heude 1882) [=Vaginulus sinensis] BR17
         |    |--Prisma Simroth 1891 SS10
         |    |    `--P. prismatica (Tapparone-Canefri 1883) SS10
         |    `--Atopos Simroth 1891 SS10
         |         |--*A. semperi Simroth 1891 SS10
         |         `--A. australis (Heynemann 1876) SS10
         `--Veronicellidae [Imeriniinae, Sarasinulinae, Vaginuloidea, Veronicellida, Veronicelliformes] SS10
              |--Imerinia Cockerell 1891 BR05
              |    `--*I. grandidieri (Crosse & Fischer 1871) [=Vaginula grandidieri] BR17
              |--Veronicella Blainville 1817 [Veronicellinae] BR05
              |    |--*V. laevis Blainville 1817 BR17
              |    `--V. floridana R64
              |--Semperula Grimpe & Hoffmann 1925 [Semperulinae] BR05
              |    `--*S. idae (Semper 1885) [=Vaginula idae] BR17
              |--Sarasinula Grimpe & Hoffmann 1924 SS10
              |    `--*S. plebeia (Fischer 1868) BR17 [=Vaginula plebeia BR17; incl. V. hedleyi Simroth 1889 SS10]
              |--Leonardia Tapparone Canefri 1889 TC89
              |    `--*L. nevilliana Tapparone Canefri 1889 TC89
              |--Angustipes Colosi 1922 BP90
              |    `--A. ameghini BP90
              |--Diplosolenodes Thomé 1975 BP90
              |    `--D. occidentale BP90
              |--Pseudoveronicella Germain 1908 [Pseudoveronicellinae] BR05
              |    |--*P. gravieri (Germain 1908) [=Veronicella gravieri] BR17
              |    `--P. zootoca (Hoffmann 1927) TMT96
              |--Vaginulus Férussac 1821 [Anadenia, Euadenia, Mesotremata, Vaginulacea, Vaginulidae, Vaginulinae] BR05
              |    |--*V. taunaisii Férussac 1821 BR17
              |    |--V. natalensis G79b
              |    |--V. (Latipes) occidentalis (Guilding 1825) J68
              |    `--V. sloanii G79a
              |--Vaginula TC89
              |    |--V. andersoniana Tapparone Canefri 1889 TC89
              |    |--V. birmanica Theobald 1864 TC89
              |    `--V. proxima Tapparone Canefri 1889 TC89
              |--Laevicaulis Simroth 1913 (see below for synonymy) SS10
              |    |--*L. comorensis (Fischer 1883) [=Vaginula comorensis] SS10
              |    |--L. alte (Férussac 1821) [incl. Vaginula leydigi Simroth 1889] SS10
              |    |--‘Vaginula’ frauenfeldi Semper 1885 [=*Meisenheimeria frauenfeldi] BR17
              |    `--L. schnitzleri PB27
              `--Leidyula Baker 1925 BP90
                   |--L. floridana BP90
                   |--L. kraussi BP90
                   |--L. moreleti BP90
                   `--L. sloanei BP90

Laevicaulis Simroth 1913 [incl. Eleutherocaulis Simroth 1913, Meisenheimeria Grimpe & Hoffmann 1924; Meisenheimeriinae] SS10

Onchidella Gray 1850 BR05 [=Oncidiella Crosse & Fischer 1878 BR05; incl. Occidentella Hoffmann 1929 KM17; Onchidellidae, Onchidelloidea, Oncidiellidae]

Onchidiidae [Abranchiatae, Amphipneustea, Dendrobranchiatae, Onchidia, Onchidiacea, Onchidiida, Onchidiiformes, Onchidiiformii, Onchidioidei, Onchidioinei, Onchodoridae, Oncidiacea, Oncidiadae, Opisthotremata, Silicodermatae] BR05

Systellommatophora [Clasthurethra, Digonophora, Ditremata, Gymnomorpha, Gymnophila, Mesommatophora, Soleolifera, Teletremata] BR17

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201–309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[G79a] Gibbons, J. S. 1879a. Notes on the habits and distribution, &c., of certain W. Indian Pulmonifera. Journal of Conchology 2: 129–134.

[G79b] Gibbons, J. S. 1879b. Descriptions of two new species of land shells, and remarks on others collected on the East African coast. Journal of Conchology 2: 138–145.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J68] Jacobson, M. K. 1968. On a collection of terrestrial mollusks from Nicaragua. Nautilus 81 (4): 114–119.

[KM17] Korshunova, T., A. Martynov, T. Bakken, J. Evertsen, K. Fletcher, I. W. Mudianta, H. Saito, K. Lundin, M. Schrödl & B. Picton. 2017. Corrigenda: Polyphyly of the traditional family Flabellinidae affects a major group of Nudibranchia: aeolidacean taxonomic reassessment with descriptions of several new families, genera, and species (Mollusca, Gastropoda). https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.717.21885. ZooKeys 725: 139–141.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[R64] Ross, L. T. 1964. The land mollusks of Siesta Key, Sarasota County, Florida. Nautilus 78 (2): 50–52.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

[TMT96] Tillier, S., M. Masselot & A. Tillier. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of the pulmonate gastropods from rRNA sequences, and tempo and age of the stylommatophoran radiation. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 267–284. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[W78] Wells, F. E. 1978. Zonation of marine gastropods on a rocky intertidal shore in the Admiralty Gulf, Western Australia, with emphasis on the genus Nerita. Veliger 20 (3): 279–287.

Last updated: 21 August 2021.

Scaphopoda

Siphonodentalium lobatum, copyright Natural History Museum Rotterdam.


Belongs within: Rostroconchia.
Contains: Cadulus, Dentalium.

The Scaphopoda, tusk shells, are a group of benthic molluscs with a tubular shell that live buried in the sediment, feeding on micro-organisms. In members of the Dentaliida, the shell generally tapers evenly whereas Gadilida commonly have the shell constricted toward the mouth (Ludbrook 1960). Two pairs of dorsoventral muscles are present in Dentaliida whereas a single pair is found in Gadilida (Steiner 1996). Dentaliida have an encircling sheath around the foot that is expanded laterally and interrupted dorsally (Ludbrook 1960) and the pedal muscles are associated with the body wall along the entire length of the body (Steiner 1996). Gadilida have the foot simple and vermiform, or distally expanded into a symmetrical disc (Ludbrook 1960). The pedal muscles are separated from the integument in the distal part of the foot in Entalina and are entirely separate from the body wall in Gadilimorpha; instead, they occupy a central position in the body and attach to the dorsoventral muscles at the diaphragm between intestinal sinus and perianal sinus (Steiner 1996). The disc of the foot has a digitate periphery in the genus Entalina; the shell of Entalina is Dentalium-like and strongly ribbed (Ludbrook 1960).

Characters (from Ludbrook 1960): Marine, bilaterally symmetrical mollusks protected by an external elongate, tubular, tapering, calcareous shell, open at both ends and generally somewhat curved. Concave side of shell dorsal, convex side ventral; aperture or anterior opening larger, apex or posterior opening simple or variously slit or notched, some forms with terminal pipe. Shell substance of three distinct layers. Shell secreted by mantle of same shape, larger (anterior) opening of which is contracted by muscular thickening of mantle, giving egress to long conical foot; smaller (posterior) opening serving as outlet for organic waste and genital products. Mouth furnished with radula, borne on cylindrical snout and surrounded by rosette of lobes; a cluster of threadlike, distally enlarged appendages known as “captacula” springing from its base. No eyes or tentacles; otocysts present. Liver 2-lobed, symmetrical; gut strongly convoluted, anus ventral and somewhat anterior, kidney openings near it. Heart rudimentary; no gills, respiration performed by general integument. Nervous system with well-developed ganglia united by commissures. Gonad simple, sexes separate, reproduction without copulation.

<==Scaphopoda [Cirrhobranchiata, Lateribranchiata]
    |  i. s.: Paleodentalium Gentile 1974 PR79
    |         Quasidentalium Gentile 1974 PR79
    |         Throopella Greger 1933 [Throopellidae] L60
    |           `--*T. typa Greger 1933 L60
    |--Gadilida [Siphonodentaliidae] L60
    |    |--Entalina Monterosato 1872 GO06, L60 [incl. Eudentalium Cotton & Godfrey 1933 L60; Entalinidae]
    |    |    |--*E. tetragona (Brocchi 1814) L60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--E. platamodes (Watson 1879) [=Siphodentalium platamodes; incl. E. quadrata Henderson 1920] E52
    |    |    `--E. quinquangularis (Forbes 1843) L60, E52 [=Dentalium quinquangulare E52]
    |    `--Gadilimorpha [Siphonodentalioida] S96
    |         |--+--Cadulus GO06
    |         |  `--Pulsellum Stoliczka 1868 L60 [incl. Siphonentalis Sars 1878 L60; Pulsellidae S96]
    |         |       |--*P. lofotense (Sars 1864) [=Siphonodentalium lofotense] L60
    |         |       `--P. affine GO06
    |         `--+--Wemersoniellidae S96
    |            `--Gadilidae S96
    |                 |--Gadila Gray 1847 L60 (see below for synonymy)
    |                 |    |--*G. gadus (Montagu 1803) [=Dentalium gadus, Cadulus (*Gadila) gadus] L60
    |                 |    |--G. braziliensis (Henderson 1920) S11
    |                 |    |--‘Helonyx’ jeffreysii N79
    |                 |    `--G. tolmiei (Dall 1897) SW11, O27 [=Cadulus tolmei O27]
    |                 `--Siphonodentaliinae S96
    |                      |--Calstevenus Yancey 1973 SB93, PR79
    |                      |    `--C. arcturus Yancey 1973 SB93
    |                      `--Siphonodentalium Sars 1859 (see below for synonymy) L60
    |                           |--S. lobatum (Sowerby 1860) (see below for synonymy) L60
    |                           |--S. eboracense Watson 1879 H09
    |                           |--S. quadrifissatum Pilsbry 1898 O27
    |                           `--S. quinquangulare PP64
    `--Dentaliida [Dentalioida] S96
         |  i. s.: Laevidentaliidae S96
         |           |--Pseudantalis Monterosato 1884 PR79, L60
         |           |    `--*P. rubescens (Deshayes 1825) [=Dentalium rubescens] L60
         |           |--Rhytiodentalium Pojeta & Runnegar 1979 PR79
         |           |    `--*R. kentuckyensis Pojeta & Runnegar 1979 PR79
         |           |--Plagioglypta Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 SB93, L60
         |           |    |--*P. undulata (Münster 1844) [=Dentalium undulatum] L60
         |           |    `--P. iowaensis [=Coleolus iowaensis] PR79
         |           `--Laevidentalium Cossmann 1888 L60
         |                |--*L. incertum (Deshayes 1825) [=Dentalium incertum] L60
         |                |--L. arnoldi Lamprell & Healy 1998 MG-H11
         |                |--L. callipeplum (Dall 1889) [=Dentalium callipeplum] E52
         |                |--L. ecostatum (Kirk 1880) [=Dentalium (Laevidentalium) ecostatum] P61
         |                |--L. longitrorsum (Reeve 1842) MG-H11
         |                |--L. morganianum (Wilckens 1922) [=Dentalium (Laevidentalium) morganianum] S98
         |                `--L. perlongum (Dall 1881) [=Dentalium perlongum] E52
         |         Gadilina Foresti 1895 L60 [Gadilinidae S96]
         |           `--*G. triquetra (Brocchi 1814) [=Dentalium (*Gadilina) triquetrum] L60
         |         Omniglyptidae S96
         |--Rhabdus Pilsbry & Sharp 1897 L60 [Rhabdidae S96]
         |    `--*R. rectius (Carpenter 1865) [=Dentalium rectius] L60
         `--+--Fustiaria Stoliczka 1868 L60 [Fustiariidae S96]
            |    |--*F. circinata (Sowerby 1823) [=Dentalium circinatum] L60
            |    `--F. rubescens GO06
            `--Dentaliidae S96
                 |--Dentalium L60
                 `--Prodentalium Young 1942 L60
                      |--*P. raymondi Young 1942 L60
                      `--P. martini (Whitfield 1882) SB93

*Entalina tetragona (Brocchi 1814) L60 [=Dentalium tetragonum L60, Siphonodentalium tetragonum N79; incl. S. pentagonum Sars 1864 N79, Dentalium quinquangulatum Reeve 1872 N79]

Gadila Gray 1847 L60 [incl. Helonyx Stimpson 1865 L60, Loxoporus Jeffreys 1883 L60; Gadilinae S96]

Siphonodentalium Sars 1859 [=Siphodentalium Monterosato 1874; incl. Siphonodontum Locard 1886, Tubidentalium Locard 1886; Siphonopoda, Siphonopodidae] L60

Siphonodentalium lobatum (Sowerby 1860) [=Dentalium lobatum; incl. D. vitreum Sars 1851 non Gmelin 1791, *Siphonodentalium vitreum] L60

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E52] Emerson, W. K. 1952. The scaphopod mollusks collected by the first Johnson-Smithsonian deep-sea expedition. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (6): 1–14.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[L60] Ludbrook, N. H. 1960. Scaphopoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I37–I41. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PR79] Pojeta, J., Jr & B. Runnegar. 1979. Rhytiodentalium kentuckyensis, a new genus and new species of Ordovician scaphopod, and the early history of scaphopod mollusks. Journal of Paleontology 53 (3): 530–541.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SW11] Smith, S. A., N. G. Wilson, F. E. Goetz, C. Feehery, S. C. S. Andrade, G. W. Rouse, G. Giribet & C. W. Dunn. 2011. Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools. Nature 480: 364–367.

[S96] Steiner, G. 1996. Suprageneric phylogeny in Scaphopoda. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 329–335. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

Last updated: 11 August 2021.