Paenecalyptonotus sp., from Biodiversity Institute of Ontario.

Belongs within: Hydryphantidae.
Contains: Anisitsiellidae, Sperchontidae, Limnesiidae, Oxidae, Lebertiidae, Torrenticolidae, Gretacarus, Uchidastygacarus, Momoniidae, Arrenuridae, Krendowskiidae, Hungarohydracaridae, Mideopsidae, Athienemanniidae, Chappuisididae, Neoacaridae, Nudomideopsis, Hydrachna, Hygrobatoidea.

The Neohydrachnidia are a clade of water mites characterised by the presence of aquatic larvae that seek out hosts without leaving the water after hatching. Larvae of neohydrachnidians have legs with five movable segments, with the basifemur and telofemur being fused together. Most neohydrachnidians except Hydrachna exhibit preparasitic attendance: larvae seek out the pupa of a host insect but wait for emergence of the imago before attaching to the host. Major subgroups include the Lebertioidea, characterised by adults having the genital acetabula borne in the gonopore beneath movable genital flaps (Wohltmann et al. 2001). The Arrenuroidea often have the palpi uncate, and genital acetabula lie in the gonopore, on acetabular plates flanking the gonopore, or both (Walter et al. 2009).

<==Neohydrachnidia [Hygrobatini]
    |--Lebertioidea DPD16
    |    |  i. s.: Anisitsiellidae ZF11
    |    |         Stygatonia WL09 [Stygotoniidae ZF11]
    |    |           `--S. ambigua WL09
    |    |         Rutripalpus WL09 [Rutripalpidae ZF11]
    |    |           |--R. canadensis WL09
    |    |           `--R. limicola WL09
    |    |         Bandakiopsis WL09 [Bandakiopsidae ZF11]
    |    |           `--B. fonticola WL09
    |    |         Acucapito WL09 [Acucapitidae G09]
    |    |           `--A. naso WL09
    |    |--+--Sperchontidae DPD16
    |    |  `--Teutoniidae DPD16
    |    |       |--Limnolegeria longiseta WL09
    |    |       `--Teutonia Koenike 1889 G04
    |    |            |--T. cometes DPD16
    |    |            `--T. lunata WL09
    |    `--+--Limnesiidae DPD16
    |       `--+--Oxidae DPD16
    |          `--+--Lebertiidae DPD16
    |             `--Torrenticolidae DPD16
    `--+--Arrenuroidea [Arrhenurini] DPD16
       |    |  i. s.: Gretacarus ZF11
       |    |         Uchidastygacarus ZF11
       |    |--Momoniidae WL09
       |    |--+--Arrenuridae WWO01
       |    |  |--Krendowskiidae WL09
       |    |  |--Hungarohydracaridae WL09
       |    |  `--Bogatiidae WL09
       |    |       |--Bogatia Motas & Tanasachi 1948 [Bogatiinae] S86
       |    |       |    `--B. maxillaris Motas & Tanasachi 1948 S86
       |    |       `--Horreolanus Mitchell 1955 [Horreolaniinae] S86
       |    |            `--H. orphanus Mitchell 1955 S86
       |    `--+--Mideopsidae WL09
       |       |--Athienemanniidae WL09
       |       |--Chappuisididae WL09
       |       |--Neoacaridae WL09
       |       |--Kantacarus Imamura 1959 S86 [Kantacaridae WL09]
       |       |    `--K. matsumotoi Imamura 1959 S86
       |       |--Harpagopalpus [Harpagopalpidae] WL09
       |       |    `--H. indicus WL09
       |       |--Amoenacarus [Amoenacaridae] WL09
       |       |    `--A. dixiensis WL09
       |       |--Laversia [Laversiidae] WL09
       |       |    `--L. berulophila WL09
       |       |--Midea [Mideidae] WL09
       |       |    |--M. expansa WL09
       |       |    `--M. orbiculata WL09
       |       |--Acalyptonotidae WL09
       |       |    |--Acalyptonotus neoviolaceus WL09
       |       |    `--Paenecalyptonotus fontinalis WL09
       |       |--Nudomideopsidae WL09
       |       |    |--Nudomideopsis WL09
       |       |    |--Paramideopsis susanae WL09
       |       |    `--Neomideopsis WL09
       |       |--Arenohydracarus Cook 1974 S86 [Arenohydracaridae WL09, Arenohydracarinae]
       |       |    |--A. eremitus Cook 1974 S86
       |       |    |--A. minimus Cook 1974 S86
       |       |    `--A. pseudominimus Orghidan & Gruia 1983 S86
       |       `--Nipponacarus Imamura 1957 S86 [Nipponacaridae WL09]
       |            |--N. (Nipponacarus) S86
       |            |    |--N. (N.) matsumotoi Imamura 1959 S86
       |            |    `--N. (N.) miurai Imamura 1957 S86
       |            `--N. (Hexanipponacarus Imamura 1959) S86
       |                 `--N. (H.) japonicus Imamura 1959 S86
       `--+--Hydrachnidae [Hydrachnidae, Hydrachnoidea] DPD16
          |    |--Hydrachna WL09
          |    |--Atax D01
          |    |    |--A. figuralis D01
          |    |    `--A. ypsilophora G64
          |    `--Curvipes D01
          |         |--C. carneus D01
          |         |--C. circularis D01
          |         |--C. conglobatus D01
          |         |--C. fuscatus D01
          |         |--C. longipalpis D01
          |         `--C. neumanni D01
          `--Hygrobatoidea DPD16

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DPD16] Dabert, M., H. Proctor & J. Dabert. 2016. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 75–90.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[G64] Garner, R. 1864. On a parasitical Acarus of the Anodon. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 114.

[G09] Gerecke, R. 2009. Revisional studies on the European species of the water mite genus Lebertia Neuman, 1880 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Lebertiidae). Abhandlungen der Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung 566: 1–144.

[G04] Goldschmidt, T. 2004. Untersuchungen über Wassermilben der Familie Anisitsiellidae Koenike 1910 aus der Neotropis (Arachnida, Acari, Actinedida, Hydrachnidia). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 113–150.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 652–696. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WWO01] Wohltmann, A., H. Witte & R. Olomski. 2001. Organismal patterns causing high potential for adaptive radiation in Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 83–99. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[ZF11] Zhang, Z.-Q., Q.-H. Fan, V. Pesic, H. Smit, A. V. Bochkov, A. A. Khaustov, A. Baker, A. Wohltmann, T. Wen, J. W. Amrine, P. Beron, J. Lin, G. Gabryś & R. Husband. 2011. Order Trombidiformes Reuter, 1909. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 129–138.

Last updated: 17 July 2022.

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