Outer shell (above) and inner mould of Fordilla troyensis, from Walcott (1886).

Belongs within: Mollusca.
Contains: Daonella, Halobia, Thyasiridae, Leda, Gaimardiidae, Diplodontidae, Cyamiidae, Arcopagia, Epioblasma, Buchia, Ferganoconcha, Astartila, Deltopecten, Myonia, Perrierinidae, Leptonidae, Montacutidae, Nuculidae, Solemya, Nuculanoidea, Pteriomorphia, Anatinidae, Palaeoheterodonta, Heterodonta.

The Bivalvia are one of the main subgroups of the molluscs, readily distinguished from other classes by the division of the shell into two hinged lateral valves. Bivalves also lack a developed head, and mostly feed by filtering organic particles from the water (with some notable exceptions). In members of the clade Autolamellibranchiata, the gills are enlarged and folded within the mantle cavity to function in filter-feeding. More basal bivalve lineages have the gills as simple non-reflected lamellae that function for respiration only, with the labial palps as the main food-collecting organs. The valves of the shell are commonly connected at the hinge by a series of interlocking teeth; in basal bivalves, these teeth are all largely similar to each other but members of the clade Heteroconchia are characterised by the presence of a heterodont hinge with more or less differentiated cardinal and lateral teeth (Giribet & Wheeler 2002).

The earliest fossils that have been assigned to the bivalves come from the Early and Middle Cambrian, and include the genera Fordilla, Pojetaia and Arhouiella (Budd & Jensen 2000). These are small forms, only a few millimetres in length, that may have had a burrowing lifestyle similar to that of the modern Nuculidae (Morton 2012). Fordilla and Pojetaia both have laterally compressed, subequally valved and suboval shells with few teeth in the hinge.

See also: Pig's toes and water nymphs.

Characters (from Giribet & Wheeler 2002): Body laterally compressed with an external bivalved shell that is hinged dorsally. Valves connected by a partially calcified elastic ligament and held together by 1 or 2 adductor muscles. Buccal or radular apparatus absent, mantle lobes either joined or free ventrally. Mantle cavity spacious, extending upwards on each side of visceral mass and containing a pair of laterally suspended ctenidia. Ctenidia may be enlarged, lamellate and plicate. Mouth and anus located at opposite ends of body, gut typically convoluted. Pair of ciliated labial palps connecting ctenidia to the mouth, directing food particles into it. Foot extensible, either elongated or laterally compressed.

<==Bivalvia [Acephala, Nuculiformii, Nuculoida, Palaeotaxodonta, Pelecypoda, Protobranchia]
    |--Fordilla troyensis Barrande 1881 BJ00, M12
    |--Pojetaia Jell 1980 BJ00, M12
    `--+--+--Nuculidae GW02
       |  `--Solemya GW02
       `--+--Nuculanoidea GW02
          `--Autolamellibranchiata [Autobranchia, Lamellibranchia, Mesosyntheta, Mytiliformii] GW02
               |--Pteriomorphia GW02
               `--Heteroconchia [Dimyaria] GW02
                    |  i. s.: Anatinidae W77
                    |         Hyriopsis cumingii KC11
                    |--Palaeoheterodonta GW02
                    `--Heterodonta GW02

Bivalvia incertae sedis:
  Ctenodonta SV03
  Crytodonta saffordi PR79
  Pyrenomoeus EB01
  Lamellidens marginalis G01
  Batolites Montfort 1808 D-DP03
    `--B. organisans Montfort 1808 D-DP03
  Lapeirousiinae D-DP03
    |--Lapeirousia Bayle 1878 D-DP03
    |--Praelapeirousia D-DP03
    `--Lapeirousella D-DP03
  Plicatomytilus AV03
  Cataceramus HS03
    |--C. barabini (Morton 1834) HS03
    `--C. subcircularis (Meek 1876) HS03
  Horiopleura lamberti HS02
  Polyconites verneuili HS02
  Pseudotoucasia santanderensis HS02
  Praeradiolites HS02
  Sphaerulites HS02
  Durania HS02
    |--D. arnaudi HS02
    `--D. blayaci HS02
  Chondrodonta HS02
  Nodipecten nodosus TL03
  Axinopsida subquadrata GAS03
  Raeta Gray 1853 F27a
    |--R. canaliculata F27a
    |--R. perspicua F27a
    |--R. pulchella GAS03
    `--R. tenuiplicata Bartrum 1919 F27a
  Callithaca adamsi KBC03
  Swiftopecten swifti GAS03
  Liocyma fluctuosa GAS03
  Zirfaea crispata GAS03
  Alveinus ojianus GAS03
  Panomya arctica KBC03
  Sertifer keenae KBC03
  Gouldia minima M62
  Phestia Chernyshev 1951 H00
  Carolia placunoides G92
  Cubitostrea G92
  Nicaisolopha G92
  Devonia perrieri (Malard 1903) (see below for synonymy) BK77
  Halobiidae [Halobioidea] S04
    |--Daonella S04
    `--Halobia KI70
  Prospondylidae [Terquemiidae] TP02
    |--‘Placunopsis’ ostracina (von Schlotheim 1820) TP02, KL04
    `--‘Placunopsis’ plana TP02
  Natasia boliviensis SV03
    |--N. b. boliviensis SV03
    `--N. b. fragilis SV03
  Thyasiridae P61
  Guizhoupecten cheni P98
    |--G. c. cheni P98
    `--G. c. willisensis P98
  Arisaigia postornata P98
  Tuarangia MacKinnon 1982 M12
  Potamocorbula amurensis CH97
  Ryderia Wilton 1830 (see below for synonymy) H00
    |--*R. renevieri (Oppel 1856) [=Leda renevieri] H00
    |--‘Leda’ bellistriata Stevens 1858 [=*Culunana bellistriata] H00
    |--R. doris (d’Orbigny 1849) (see below for synonymy) H00
    |--‘Leda’ karagandensis Chernyshev 1951 [=*Polidevcia karagandensis] H00
    |--‘Polidevcia’ nodulosa Fletcher 1945 F71
    |--‘Nuculana’ ovata Laseron 1910 [=Polidevcia ovata] F71
    `--R. texturata (Terquem & Piette 1865) (see below for synonymy) H00
  Leda GW02
  Barnea GW02
    |--B. candida GW02
    `--B. similis HS01
  Pseudophytina rugifera GW02
  Mactromeris polynyma GR98
  Sarepta Adams 1860 [Sareptidae] DK08
    |--S. obolella (Tate 1886) [=Leda obolella) F27a
    `--S. planiuscula (Tate 1886) [=Leda planiuscula, Ovaleda planiuscula] DK08
  Modiolaria F27a
    |--M. cumingiana (Reeve 1857) [=Modiola cumingiana] H09
    |--M. cuneata Gould 1861 H09
    |--M. discors K-M02
    |--M. faba CS77
    |--M. miranda Smith 1884 H09
    |--M. perstriata Hedley 1906 H09
    `--M. splendida (Dunker 1856) [=Volsella splendida] H09
  Gaimardiidae P61
  Diplodontidae F27a
  Neolepton Monterosato 1875 F27a
    `--N. citrinum F27a
  Cyamiidae P61
  Saxicava F27a
    |--S. antarctica F27a
    |--S. australis F27a
    `--S. subalata F27a
  Barcoona Finlay 1927 [=Pachydomella Etheridge 1907 non Ulrich 1891] F27b
    `--*B. chutus (Etheridge 1907) [=*Pachydomella chutus] F27b
  Avicula F27b
    |--A. alata Kloeden 1834 F27b
    |--‘Cypricardia alata’ non Avicula alata Kloeden 1834 F27b
    |--A. barklyi Moore 1870 [incl. A. alata Etheridge 1872 non Kloeden 1834, Pseudavicula alata] F27b
    |--A. contorta Ku79
    `--A. volgensis F71
  Pleuromya milliformis E01
  Retroceramus marwicki E01
  Ruditapes AC97
    |--R. decussatus AC97
    |--R. largillierti HS01
    `--R. philippinarum SW11
  Irus reflexus HS01
  Modiolarca impacta HS01
  Pseudoarcopagia disculus HS01
  Varinucula gallinacea HS01
  Melina cumingii (Reeve 1858) [=Perna cumingii] H09
  Crenatula H09
    |--C. flammea Reeve 1858 H09
    `--C. picta (Gmelin 1791) [=Ostrea picta] H09
  Meleagrina H09
    |--M. anomioides (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula anomioides] H09
    |--M. flexuosa (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula flexuosa] H09
    |--M. lucunata (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula lucunata] H09
    |--M. margaritifera (Linnaeus 1758) [=Mytilus margaritiferus] H09
    |--M. maxima (Jameson 1901) [=Margaritifera maxima] H09
    |--M. sugillata (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula sugillata] H09
    `--M. tegulata (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula tegulata] H09
  Amusium H09
    |--A. pleuronectes (Linnaeus 1758) [=Ostrea pleuronectes] H09
    |--A. scitulum Smith 1885 H09
    `--A. torresi Smith 1885 H09
  Placunanomia H09
    |--P. incisura H86
    |--P. ione Gray 1850 H09
    `--P. neozelanica H86
  Aenigma aenigmatica [=Tellina aenigmatica] H09
  Placenta H09
    |--*P. placenta (Linnaeus 1758) [=Anomia placenta] H09
    `--P. lobata Soerby 1871 H09
  Myrina coppingeri Smith 1885 H09
  Coelodon elongatus Carpenter 1846 H09
  Crassatellites H09
    |--C. janus Hedley 1906 H09
    |--C. rhomboides (Smith 1885) [=Crassatella rhomboides] H09
    |--C. torresi (Smith 1885) [=Crassatella torresi] H09
    `--C. ziczac [=Crassatella ziczac] H09
  Carditella H09
    |--C. infans Smith 1885 H09
    `--C. torresi Smith 1885 H09
  Corbis H09
    |--C. elegans H09
    `--C. fimbriata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Venus fimbriata] H09
  Opisocardium subretusum (Sowerby 1841) [=Cardium subretusum] H09
  Clementia papyracea (Gmelin 1791) [=Venus papyracea] H09
  Petricola Lamarck 1801 H75
    |--P. lapicida (Gmelin 1791) [=Venus lapicida] H09
    |--P. lithophaga BBB-S95
    `--P. pholadiformis M79
  Isocardia moltkiana (Gmelin 1791) [=Chama moltkiana] H09
  Glaucomya H09
    |--G. desmoyersii H09
    `--G. rugosa Hanley 1828 [=Glauconomya rugosa] H09
  Arcopagia H09
  Metis H09
    |--M. meyeri (Philippi 1846) [=Tellina meyeri] H09
    `--M. spectabilis (Hanley 1844) [=Tellina spectabilis] H09
  Strigilla H09 [incl. Aeretica Dall 1900 H08]
    |--S. euronia Hedley 1908 H09
    |--S. grossiana Hedley 1908 H09
    |--S. senegalensis H08
    `--S. splendida (Anton 1839) [=Tellina splendida] H09
  Phylloda foliacea (Linnaeus 1758) [=Tellina foliacea] H09
  Sanguinolariidae P61
    |--Ascitellina Marwick 1928 P61
    |    |--*A. donaciformis P61
    |    `--A. urinatoria (Suter 1913) P61
    `--Sanguinolaria H09
         |--S. nuttallii S59
         |--S. tenuis (Deshayes 1855) [=Capsa tenuis] H09
         `--S. virescens (Deshayes 1855) [=Capsa virescens] H09
  Asaphis H09
    |--A. contraria (Deshayes 1863) [=Psammobia contraria] H09
    `--A. deflorata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Venus deflorata] H09
  Cultellus H09
    |--*C. cultellus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Solen cultellus] H09
    `--C. hanleyi Dunker 1861 H09
  Psammosolen H09
    |--P. australis (Dunker 1861) [=Macha australis] H09
    |--P. coarctatus (Gmelin 1791) [=Solen coarctatus] H09
    |--P. deshayesii (Dunker 1861) [=Macha deshayesii] H09
    |--P. minutus (Dunker 1861) [=Azor minutus] H09
    `--P. sulcatus (Dunker 1861) [=Macha sulcatus] H09
  Labiosa grayi (Adams 1872) [=Raeta grayi] H09
  Lutraria H09
    |--L. arcuata Reeve 1854 H09
    |--L. elongata Gray 1837 H09
    |--L. impar Reeve 1854 H09
    |--L. oblonga (Gmelin 1791) [=Mya oblonga] H09
    |--L. philippinarum Reeve 1854 H09
    |--L. solida H86
    `--L. sulcata H86
  Standella nicobarica (Gmelin 1791) [=Mactra nicobarica] H09
  Cardilia semisulcata (Lamarck 1819) [=Isocardia semisulcata] H09
  Mesodesmatidae BW09
    |--Mesodesma elongata Reeve 1854 H09
    `--Atactodea BW09
         |--A. glabrata (Gmelin 1791) [=Mactra glabrata] H09
         |--A. intermedia (Reeve 1854) [=Mesodesma intermedia] H09
         |--A. mitis (Reeve 1854) [=Mesodesma mitis] H09
         `--A. striata (Gmelin 1791) BW09 [=Mactra striata H09]
  Davila plana (Hanley 1843) [=Mesodesma plana] H09
  Ervilia bisculpta Gould 1861 H09
  Cryptomya elliptica (Adams 1851) [=Sphaenia elliptica] H09
  Anisodonta caledonica (Fischer 1886) [=Eucharis caledonica] H09
  Roccellaria pupina (Deshayes 1855) [=Gastrochaena pupina] H09
  Jouannetia Des Moulins 1828 H75
    |--J. cumingi Sowerby 1849 H09
    `--J. globosa Q. & G. 1832 H09
  Fistulana mumia (Spengler 1783) [=Gastrochaena mumia] H09
  Nausitoria H09
    |--N. manni Wright 1865 H09
    `--N. thoracites (Gould 1856) [=Calobates thoracites] H09
  Margarita Leach 1814 [Margaritidae] BR05
    `--M. minutissima Mighels 1843 J49
  Peloris Poli 1791 BR05
  ‘Venilia’ Morton 1833 non Rafinesque 1815 BR05
  Fasciculiconcha guangxiensis ZP86
  Pernopecten zhuzhouensis ZP86
  Edmondia ZP86
    |--E. goldfussi de Koninck 1885 ZP86
    |--E. rudis M’Coy 1853 ZP86
    `--E. sulcata (Phillips 1836) ZP86
  Aloidis [Aloididae] M54
    `--A. iredalei M54
  Conradilla caelata USDI77
  Epioblasma USDI77
  Dromus dromas USDI77
  Cyrtonaias tampicoensis USDI77
  Plethobasis USDI77
    |--P. cicatricosus USDI77
    `--P. cooperianus USDI77
  Eumorphotis TE01
    |--E. inaequicostata TE01
    |--E. multiformis TE01
    |--E. telleri Ku79
    `--E. venetiana Ku79
  Entolioides subdemissus TE01
  Eotrigonia semiundulata Q72
  Arhouiella BJ00
  Papyridea BD86
    |--P. australe (Sowerby 1834) BD86
    `--P. papyraceum (Gmelin 1791) BD86
  Bartlettia Adams 1866 [Aetheriidae] A66
    `--*B. stefanensis (Moricand 1856) [=Etheria stefanensis] A66
  Bathymodiolus brevior R01
  Buchiidae Ka79
    |--Buchia SY85
    `--Aucellina Ka79
         |--A. antulai Ka79
         |--A. aptiensis Ka79
         |--A. caucasica Ka79
         |--A. incurva (Etheridge 1902) [=Aucella incurva] F71
         |--A. kamtschatica Ka79
         `--A. pompeckji Ka79
  Mesosaccella Chavan 1946 SY85
  Danlengiconcha Lu 1978 K84
  Streblochondria F71
    |--S. englehardti (Etheridge & Dun 1906) [=Aviculopecten englehardti] F71
    |--S. parkesi (Fletcher 1929) [=Aviculopecten parkesi] F71
    `--S. ptychotis (M’Coy 1847) [=Pecten ptychotis, Aviculopecten ptychotis] F71
  Cyrtorostra jisuensis DX84
  Parallelodon licharewi DX84
  Palaeolima furcoplicata DX84
  Volsellina zhesiensis Liang in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
  Myalinella DX84
    |--M. falcata DX84
    `--M. verneuili DX84
  Ferganoconcha ZZ88
  Nakamuranaia ZZ88
    |--N. chingshanensis ZZ88
    |--N. subrotunda ZZ88
    `--N. zhejiangensis ZZ88
  Lanceolaria fusongensis ZZ88
  Sibireconcha ZZ88
    |--S. anodontoides ZZ88
    `--S. jenissejensis ZZ88
  Solenaia menyinensis ZZ88
  Tutuella chachlovi ZZ88
  Actinoceramus KK08
    |--A. concentricus KK08
    `--A. salomoni (d’Orbigny 1850) KK08
  Actinopterella F71
    |--A. lamellosa Sherrard 1959 F71
    `--A. minuta Sherrard 1959 F71
  Actinopteria F71 [incl. Clathrocoelia Hall 1879 F62]
    |--A. australis Dun 1896 F71
    `--A. decussata [incl. *Clathrocoelia eborica Hall 1879] F62
  Vacunella F71
    |--V. curvata (see below for synonymy) F71
    |--V. etheridgei [=Sanguinolites etheridgei] F71
    `--V. waterhousei (Dun 1932) [=Myonia waterhousei] F71
  Aphanaia gigantea F71
  Astartila F71
  Aucella hughendensis F71
  Limipecten F71
    |--L. flexicostatus (Mitchell 1924) (see below for synonymy) F71
    `--L. pincombei (Michell 1924) [=Aviculopecten pincombei; incl. A. andrewsi Mitchell 1924] F71
  Deltopecten F71
  Girtypecten tessellatus [=Aviculopecten tessellatus] F71
  Burrier dunii Laseron 1910 F71
  Cardinia F71
    |--C. cuneata Dana 1849 [=Stutchburia cuneata] F71
    `--C. exilis M’Coy 1847 F71
  Stutchburia F71
    |--S. compressa F71
    |--S. costata [=Cardinia costata] F71
    |--S. farleyensis Etheridge 1900 F71
    |--S. obliqua Etheridge 1900 F71
    |--S. praerupta (Dana 1849) [=Cypricardia praerupta] F71
    |--S. recta (Dana 1849) [=Cardinia recta] F71
    |--S. simplex (Dana 1849) [=Cypricardia simplex] F71
    `--S. veneris [=Cypricardia veneris] F71
  Chaenomya etheridgei Etheridge 1894 F71
  Megadesmus F71
    |--M. globosus Sowerby in Mitchell 1838 F71
    `--M. nobilissimus [=Edmondia nobilissima] F71
  Cleobis F71
    |--C. grandis (Dana 1849) (see below for synonymy) F71
    `--C. gryphoides [=Cardiomorpha gryphoides, Megadesmus (Megadesmus) gryphoides] F71
  Corimya primula F71
  Ctenostreon pectiniformis F71
  Merismopteria F71
    |--M. acutifrons (Dana 1849) [=Cypricardia acutifrons] F71
    |--M. arcodes (Dana 1849) [=Cypricardia arcodes] F71
    |--M. imbricata (Dana 1899) [=Cypricardia imbricata] F71
    `--M. macroptera [=Pterinea macroptera] F71
  Cypricardinia gregarius (Etheridge 1900) (see below for synonymy) F71
  Cyrtodonta lissa Sherrard 1959 F71
  Cytheria moorei F71
  Diaphragmella merismopteroides Etheridge 1918 F71
  Permopecten aviculatum [=Entolium aviculatum] F71
  Eurydesma Morris 1845 W60
    |--E. cordatum (see below for synonymy) F71
    `--E. hobartense F71
  Glyptodesma bundanoonensis Etheridge 1917 F71
  Glyptoleda F71
    |--G. glomerata Fletcher 1945 F71
    `--G. reidi Fletcher 1945 F71
  Grammatodon daintreei Etheridge 1907 F71
  Grammysioides declivis Sherrard 1959 F71
  Leptodomus nuciformis Etheridge 1895-1896 F71
  Limoptera permocarbonifera Etheridge 1900 F71
  Lyriopecten gracilis Dun 1898 F71
  Maccoyella F71
    |--M. barklyi F71
    |--M. corbiensis F71
    |--M. reflecta F71
    `--M. umbonalis F71
  Myonia F71
  Pyramus F71
    |--P. ellipticus Dana 1849 [=Maeonia (Pyramia) elliptica] F71
    |--P. laevis (Sowerby in Mitchell 1838) (see below for synonymy) F71
    |--P. myiformis Dana 1849 (see below for synonymy) F71
    `--P. undatus (Dana 1849) [=Pholadomya (Platymya) undata, Myonia undata] F71
  Nucundata darwini [=Nuculana darwini, Phestia darwini, Tellinomya darwini] F71
  Nuculites F71
    |--N. pseudodeltoides F71
    |--N. scissa Sherrard 1959 F71
    `--N. triangula Sherrard 1959 F71
  Oriocrassatella stokesi Etheridge 1907 F71
  Pachydomus sacculus M’Coy 1847 F71
  Pachymyonia etheridgei Dun 1932 F71
  Paracyclus obliqua Etheridge 1917 F71
  Prohyria F71
    |--P. eyrensis (Etheridge 1891) [=Unio eyrensis] F71
    `--P. johnstoni [=Unio johnstoni] F71
  Protovirgus F71
    |--P. dunstani (Etheridge 1888) [=Unio dunstani] F71
    `--P. flemingi McMichael 1956 F71
  Solenomya translineata Laseron 1910 F71
  Tancrediopsis F71
    |--T. delicatula Sherrard 1959 F71
    `--T. minuta Sherrard 1959 F71
  Tatella aptiana F71
  Nototrigonia cinctuta (Etheridge 1902) [=Trigonia cinctuta] F71
  Undulomya rugulata Fletcher 1946 F71
  Unionella F71
    |--U. bowralensis Etheridge 1888 F71
    |--U. carnei Etheridge 1888 F71
    `--U. wianamattensis (Etheridge 1888) [=Unio wianamattensis] F71
  Mysidioptera Salomon 1895 [=Latemaria Wilckens 1909] W60
    |--*M. ornata Salomon 1895 (see below for synonymy) W60
    |--M. exima Diener 1913 W60
    |--M. globosa Broili 1930 [=M. (Latemaria) globosa] W60
    |--M. globularis (Trechmann 1918) [=Megalodon globularis] W60
    |--M. kittlii Bittner 1895 [=M. (*Latemaria) kittlii] W60
    |--M. obliqua Broili 1903 W60
    |--M. riceae Waterhouse 1960 W60
    |--M. vixcostata W60
    `--M. woehrmanni Salomon 1895 W60
  Hokonuia Trechmann 1918 W60
    `--H. limaeformis Trechmann 1918 (see below for synonymy) W60
  Cardiomorpha nuggetensis Trechmann 1918 W60
  Pergamidea Bittner 1891 W60
    `--P. eumena [incl. P. attalea Bittner 1891] W60
  Foramelina exempla MG-H11
  Fissilunula clarkei H75
  Apidopholas Fischer 1887 H75
  Eopecten albertii M79
  Scrobicularia M79
    |--S. plana M79
    `--S. tenuis D56
  Cyprina islandica M79
  Schizothaerus nuttali M79
  Karadjalia venusta Hou79
  Monotis Ku79
    |--M. (Maorimonotis) calvata SG-M98
    |--M. iwaiensis Ku79
    |--M. ochotica Ku79
    |--M. pinensis Ku79
    |--M. salinaria Ku79
    |--M. scutiformis Ku79
    |--M. subcircularis Ku79
    |--M. typica Ku79
    `--M. zabaikalica Ku79
  Oxytoma Hol79
    |--O. cygnipes Hol79
    `--O. scanica Hol79
  Weyla Hol79
    |--W. alata Hol79
    `--W. ambongoensis Hol79
  Volviceramus Ka79
    |--V. exogyroides Ka79
    `--V. involutus Ka79
  Cremnoceramus Ka79
    |--C. inconstans Ka79
    |--C. koeneni Ka79
    `--C. wandereri Ka79
  Endocostea Ka79
    |--E. baltica Ka79
    `--E. typica Ka79
  Carunculina parva T59
  Enantiostreon difforme (Schlotheim 1820) KL04
  Pleuronectites laevigatus (Schlotheim 1820) KL04
  Cumingia tellenoides D56, T72
  Eurynia iris D56
  Babinka SB12
  Camya Hinz-Schallreuter 1995 M12
  Arhouriella Geyer & Streng 1998 M12
  Mixtipecten amuriensis (Woods 1917) S98
  Pectenoproductus Likharev 1930 M65
    `--*P. proprius Likharev 1930 M65
  Halophiala Koken 1925 KC60
  Hercynella Kayser 1878 (see below for synonymy) KC60
  Patinopecten yessoensis WL09
  Shaanxiconcha cliovata HH09
  Basterotia [Sportellidae] PP78
    `--B. (Basterotella) hertleini Durham 1950 PP78
  Perrierinidae P61
  Leptonidae P61
  Montacutidae P61
  Anthracosiidae G88
  Obovaria V16
    |--O. levigata (Rafinesque 1820) [=Unio levigata, Elliptio levigata; incl. Obovaria lens Lea 1831] V16
    |--O. olivaria (Rafinesque 1820) (see below for synonymy) V16
    |--O. retusa Lam. 1819 [incl. O. torsa Rafinesque 1820, Unio torsa] V16
    `--O. subrotunda (Rafinesque 1820) (see below for synonymy) V16
  Plagiola V16
    |--P. elegans Lea 1831 [incl. Unio metaplata Rafinesque 1831] V16
    `--P. lineolata (Rafinesque 1820) (see below for synonymy) V16
  Lastena lata (Rafinesque 1820) [=Anodonta lata] V16
  Symphynota viridis (Rafinesque 1820) [=Unio viridis, Elliptio viridis] V16
  Neaera kirki H86
  Hemimactra elongata H86
  Caecella neozelanica Deshayes 1854 [incl. Darina pusilla] H86
  Hiatula H86
    |--H. diphos F66
    `--H. incerta H86
  Mysia neozelanica H86
  Solenella H86
    |--S. australis [incl. Nucula ornata] H86
    `--S. funiculata H86
  Macrodon australis H86

Cleobis grandis (Dana 1849) [=Maeonia grandis, Megadesmus (Cleobis) grandis; incl. Pachydomus gigas M’Coy 1847, Maeonia gigas, Myonia gigas, Ma. gracilis Dana 1849, Megadesmus (Cleobis) gracilis, Myonia gracilis, Globicarina grossula Waterhouse 1965, Cleobis robusta Laseron 1910] F71

Cypricardinia gregarius (Etheridge 1900) [=Pleurophorus gregarius; incl. P. gregarius var. inflata Laseron 1910] F71

Devonia perrieri (Malard 1903) [=Synapticola perrieri, Entovalva perrieri; incl. Montacuta donacina Bateson 1923] BK77

Eurydesma cordatum [incl. E. elliptica Dana 1849, E. globosa Dana 1849, E. cordatum var. ovale Etheridge & Dun 1910, E. cordatum var. sacculum Dana 1849] F71

Hercynella Kayser 1878 [=Pilidion Perner 1911 non Wagler 1830, Pilidium Kayser 1878 nec Müller 1846 nec Forbes & Hanley 1849 nec Middendorff 1851] KC60

Hokonuia limaeformis Trechmann 1918 [incl. Nuggetia morganiana Wilckens 1927, H. parki Wilckens 1927, H. rotundata Trechmann 1918] W60

Limipecten flexicostatus (Mitchell 1924) [=Aviculopecten flexicostatus; incl. A. argutus Mitchell 1924, A. articulosus Mitchell 1924, A. fusiformis Mitchell 1924, A. perobliquatus Mitchell 1924, A. pyriformis Mitchell 1924, A. sparteus Mitchell 1924] F71

*Mysidioptera ornata Salomon 1895 [incl. M. ornata var. laevigata Bittner 1895, M. ornata var. lombardica Bittner 1895] W60

Obovaria olivaria (Rafinesque 1820) [=Amblema olivaria, Unio olivaria; incl. Obovaria ellipsis Lea 1828] V16

Obovaria subrotunda (Rafinesque 1820) [=Obliquaria subrotunda, Unio subrotunda; incl. Obovaria circulus Lea 1829, O. striata Rafinesque 1820, Unio striata] V16

Plagiola lineolata (Rafinesque 1820) [=Obliquaria lineolata, Unio lineolata; incl. O. depressa Rafinesque 1820, U. depressa, O. ellipsaria Rafinesque 1820, U. ellipsaria, Plagiola securis Lea 1829] V16

Pyramus laevis (Sowerby in Mitchell 1838) [=Megadesmus laevis; incl. M. antiquatus Sowerby in Mitchell 1838, Pachydomus antiquatus, M. cuneatus Sowerby in Mitchell 1838] F71

Pyramus myiformis Dana 1849 [=Clarkia myiformis; incl. Maeonia axina Dana 1849, Pyramus axina, Notomya clavata M’Coy 1847, N. securiformis M’Coy 1847, Cypricardia sinuosa Dana 1847] F71

Ryderia Wilton 1830 [incl. Culunana Lintz 1958, Nuculochlamys Paul 1941 (n. n.), Polidevcia Chernyshev 1951; Polidevciidae] H00

Ryderia doris (d’Orbigny 1849) [=Nucula doris, Nuculana doris; incl. Thracia aequata Tate 1870, Leda alpina Winkler 1859, L. banzensis Kuhn 1936, L. tenuistriata Piette 1856 non (Sowerby 1837), Nuculana (Dacryomya) toriyamae Hayami 1959] H00

Ryderia texturata (Terquem & Piette 1865) [=Leda texturata; incl. L. graphica Tate 1870, L. (Dacryomya) graphica, Nuculana (D.) konishii Hayami 1961, L. v-scripta Tate 1870] H00

Vacunella curvata [=Pholadomya (Homomya) curvatus; incl. P. (H.) audax Dana 1849, Allorisma audax, P. (H.) glendonensis Dana 1849] F71

*Type species of generic name indicated


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