Reconstruction of Palaeomantina pentamera, from Rasnitsyn (2002d).

Belongs within: Pterygota.
Contains: Hypoperlina, Psocodea, Thripida, Euhemiptera, Protopsyllidiidae, Sternorrhyncha.

The Paraneoptera are a group of insects characterised by a tendency to an elongate head, due to the enlargement of the postclypeus. Living paraneopterans are divided between three major clades, the Psocodea, Thripida and Hemiptera. The Middle Carboniferous to Permian Hypoperlida were regarded by Rasnitsyn (2002b) as stem-paraneopterans, citing the presence of a maxilla with detached, rod-like lacinia as a synapomorphy for this clade. Many hypoperlidans, however, are only known from wings. The Miomoptera, another group of mostly minute insects known from the Late Carboniferous and Permian (Grimaldi & Engel 2005), have variously been regarded as stem-representatives of the Paraneoptera or their sister group, the Holometabola. The Permian Permopsocida have been suggested to be related to the Psocodea but the presence of some primitive features such as small cerci and four- or five-segmented tarsi (versus no cerci and no more than three tarsomeres in living paraneopterans) suggests they may be stem-paraneopterans (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

The Hemiptera, commonly known as bugs, are characterised by the possession of a sucking beak. The earliest hemipterans, the Archescytinidae, are known from the early Permian to the Triassic; members of this group had a long, thin and coiled ovipositor held underneath the abdomen that may have been used to insert eggs into plants (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Members of more derived groups are known from the Late Permian, indicating that the major lineages of the Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha and Heteropteroidea had diverged by that point (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002).

Earlier authors divided the Hemiptera between the suborders Heteroptera, with forewings often divided between a leathery corium and distal membrane, and Homoptera, with undivided wings. The 'Homoptera' are now recognised as paraphyletic, and are instead divided between the Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha and Coleorrhyncha with the latter two groups forming the Euhemiptera with the Heteroptera.

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Postclypeus large, with large cibarial dilator muscles; labial palps reduced or lost; asymmetrical mandibles; maxillary laciniae slender, long, detached from stipes, independently movable; legs with three or fewer tarsomeres; winged forms usually with abdominal trichobothria; ganglia in abdomen fused into one large mass; cerci lost.

<==Paraneoptera [Acercaria, Cimiciformes, Hypoperlidea]
    |  i. s.: Bruayaphis NR13
    |--Hypoperlida R02b
    |    |  i. s.: Rhynomaloptila R02b
    |    |         Rhipidioptera R02b
    |    |         Psoroptera [Psoropteridae] R02b
    |    |         Homoeodictyon [Homoeodictyidae] R02b
    |    |           `--H. elongatum R02a
    |    |--Hypoperlina R02b
    |    `--Perielytron Zalleskii 1948 R02b, KN13 [Perielytridae]
    |         `--P. mirabile R02b
    |--Miomoptera [Palaeomanteida, Palaeomanteidea] GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Saaromioptera R02d
    |    |--Metropator R02b [Metropatoridae GE05]
    |    |    `--M. pusillus R02b
    |    |--Archaemiopteridae R02d
    |    |    |--Archemioptera R02d
    |    |    `--Eodelopterum priscum Schmidt 1962 IB11
    |    |--Palaeomantiscidae R02d
    |    |    |--Palaeomantina pentamera R02d
    |    |    `--Sellardiopsis [incl. Palaeomantisca] R02d
    |    |         `--S. conspicua [incl. Palaeomantisca lata] R02d
    |    `--Palaeomanteidae R02d
    |         |--Epimastax [Epimastacidae] R02d
    |         |    `--E. soyanensis R02d
    |         |--Palaeomantis Handlirsch 1904 (see below for synonymy) R02d
    |         |    |--*P. schmidti R02d
    |         |    `--P. aestivus R02d
    |         `--Delopterum [incl. Miomatoneurella, Stephanomioptera] R02d
    |              |--D. kaltanicum R70
    |              |--D. rasnitsyni R02d
    |              `--D. sinuosum K-P91
    `--+--Permopsocida [Permopsocina] GE05
       |    |--Archipsyllidae R02c
       |    |--Permopsocus R70 [Permopsocidae GE05]
       |    |    `--P. latipennis R70
       |    `--Psocidiidae [Dichentomidae] GE05
       |         |--Eopsylla R02c
       |         |--Dichentomum tinctum K-P91
       |         `--Parapsocidium uralicum R02c
       `--+--+--Montanuraliidae N02
          |  `--+--Psocodea GE05
          |     `--Sojanopus Novokshonov 2002 [Sojanoperidae] N02
          |          `--*S. festivum Novokshonov 2002 N02
          `--Condylognatha [Aphidii] GE05
               |--Thripida Z02
               `--Hemiptera [Arthroidignatha, Cimicida, Homoptera, Rhynchota] GE05
                    |  i. s.: Mesanthocoris ZBH03
                    |         Pseudatomoscelis seriatus WS01
                    |         Bagrada cruciferum G01
                    |         Perignerus maidis G01
                    |         Nasonovia ribisnigri A71
                    |         Kikihia subalpina H05
                    |         Heterotrephes admorsus Esaki & Miyamoto 1959 Iw92
                    |         Suisha coreana (Matsumura 1927) Iw92
                    |         Nipponosemia terminalis (Matsumura 1913) Iw92
                    |         Asclepios shiranui (Esaki 1924) Iw92
                    |         ‘Odius’ Stål 1867 non Lilljeborg 1866 C92
                    |         Terioaphis trifolii C81
                    |         Amphisalta zelandica H97
                    |         Phera Stål 1864 K03
                    |         Luederwaldtia Schmidt 1922 KO06
                    |         Atopozelus pallens M07
                    |         Poppea evelyna MG06
                    |         Archiconiopteryx GE05
                    |         Laodelphax striatellus R96
                    |         Cephaloxys Signoret 1847 B83
                    |         Anacornutipo lignosa S61
                    |         Metastemma quinquemaculata Lucas 1847 E12
                    |         Haematoloecha Stäl 1874 D56
                    |         ‘Limonia’ Carvalho 1985 nec Meigen 1803 nec Agassiz 1846 KA-Z11
                    |         Liops Fieber 1870 KA-Z11
                    |         Umbronia spinosa Im92
                    |         Sagotylus confluentus Im92
                    |         Graphocephala BM76
                    |           |--G. coccinea BM76
                    |           `--G. versuta E66
                    |         Proceiphilus tesselatus BM76
                    |         Agrioaphis kuricola BM76
                    |         Macropis viridis BM76
                    |         Coenocorixa expleta WL09
                    |         Laccogrypota grandis BMW13
                    |         Prosapia bicincta BMW13
                    |         Anacanthopus Montandon 1894 HW92
                    |         Poekillopteridae K08
                    |           |--Vanua vitiensis Kirkaldy 1907 K08
                    |           |--Plestia marginata K08
                    |           `--Euricania tristicula K08
                    |         Amaurus Burmeister 1835 C96
                    |         Naematopus albithorax Boisduval 1835 B35
                    |         Archijassus [Archijassidae] RJ93
                    |           `--A. plurinervis Zhang 1985 RJ93
                    |         Chiliocyclidae RJ93
                    |         Granulidae RJ93
                    |         Magnacicadidae RJ93
                    |         Prosbolecicada [Prosbolecicadidae] RJ93
                    |           `--P. gondwanica Pinto 1987 RJ93
                    |         Hotinus R13
                    |           |--H. candelarius R13
                    |           `--H. pyrorrhynchus R13
                    |         Idiocorinae B50
                    |           |--Paskia B50
                    |           `--Idiocoris B50
                    |         Plecophlebus Cockerell 1917 P92
                    |           `--*P. nebulosus Cockerell 1917 P92
                    |         Praecoris dominicana P92
                    |         ‘Richteria’ Tode 1966 nec Jones 1874 nec Girault 1920 EH19
                    |--Euhemiptera NR13
                    |--+--Protopsyllidiidae GE05
                    |  `--Sternorrhyncha GE05
                    `--Archescytinidae [Archescytinina, Archescytinoidea, Palaeohemiptera, Paleorrhyncha] GE05
                         |--Permothrips [Permothripidae] SP02
                         |--Maueria SP02
                         |--Permoscytina SP02
                         |--Archescytina permiana K-P91
                         `--Protopincombea obscura Evans 1943 RJ93, F71

Palaeomantis Handlirsch 1904 [incl. Miomatoneura Martynov 1927, Permodelopterum Kukalová 1963, Permonia Kukalová 1963, Permonikia Kukalová 1963, Perunopterum Kukalová 1963] R02d

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B83] Bolton, B. 1983. The Afrotropical dacetine ants (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (4): 267–416.

[B50] Brooks, J. L. 1950. Speciation in ancient lakes (concluded). Quarterly Review of Biology 25: 131–176.

[BMW13] Buckman, R. S., L. A. Mound & M. F. Whiting. 2013. Phylogeny of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) based on five molecular loci. Systematic Entomology 38: 123–133.

[C96] Calder, A. A. 1996. Click beetles: genera of the Australian Elateridae (Coleoptera). CSIRO Australia: Collingwood.

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213–232.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[EH19] Énay, R., & M. K. Howarth. 2019. Part L, revised, volume 3B, chapter 7: Systematic descriptions of the Perisphinctoidea. Treatise Online 120: 1–184.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H05] Harris, A. C. 2005. An unusual 11-celled nest of Sphictostethus nitidus (Fabricus) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae: Pepsinae). Weta 29: 24–26.

[H97] Hicks, B. J. 1997. Food webs in forest and pasture streams in the Waikato region, New Zealand: A study based on analyses of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and fish gut contents. New Zealand Journal of Freshwater and Marine Research 31: 651–664.

[HW92] Houston, W. W. K., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Melolonthinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 174–358. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[IB11] Ilger, J.-M., & C. Brauckmann. 2011. The smallest Neoptera (Baryshnyalidae fam. n.) from Hagen-Vorhalle (early Late Cretaceous: Namurian B; Germany). ZooKeys 130: 91–102.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[KN13] Kirejtshuk, A. G., & A. Nel. 2013. Skleroptera, a new order of holometabolous insects (Insecta) from the Carboniferous. Zoosystematica Rossica 22 (2): 247–257.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. A new species of Pherania Strand, 1942 from southern Brazil (Arachnida: Opiliones: Gonyleptidae). Zootaxa 363: 1–8.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the "Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)". Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[KO06] Kury, A. B., & V. G. D. Orrico. 2006. A new species of Lacronia Strand, 1942 from the highlands of Rio de Janeiro (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 13: 147–153.

[M07] Machado, G. 2007. Maternal or paternal egg guarding? Revisiting parental care in triaenonychid harvestmen (Opiliones). Journal of Arachnology 35: 202–204.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[NR13] Nel, A., P. Roques, P. Nel, A. A. Prokin, T. Bourgoin, J. Prokop, J. Szwedo, D. Azar, L. Desutter-Grandcolas, T. Wappler, R. Garrouste, D. Coty, D. Huang, M. S. Engel & A. G. Kirejtshuk. 2013. The earliest known holometabolous insects. Nature 503: 257–261.

[N02] Novokshonov, V. G. 2002. New enigmatic insects (Insecta: Hypoperlidea?: Sojanoperidae) from the Upper Permian of northern Russia. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2002 (1): 51–53 (transl. Paleontological Journal 36 (1): 48–49).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R02a] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002a. Subclass Scarabaeona Laicharting, 1781. The winged insects (=Pterygota Lang, 1888). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 75–83. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02b] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002b. Cohors Cimiciformes Laicharting, 1781. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 104–115. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02c] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002c. Superorder Psocidea Leach, 1815. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 125–133. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02d] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002d. Cohors Scarabaeiformes Laicharting, 1781. The holometabolans (=Holometabola Burmeister, 1835, =Endopterygota Sharp, 1899, =Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1938). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 157–164. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Fossil history. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 168–186. Melbourne University Press.

[R96] Roff, D. A. 1996. The evolution of threshold traits in animals. Quarterly Review of Biology 71 (1): 3–35.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WS01] Wilson, L. J., & V. O. Sadras. 2001. Host plant resistance in cotton to spider mites. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 314–327. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Order Thripida Fallen, 1914. (=Thysanoptera Haliday, 1836) The thrips. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 133–143. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[ZBH03] Zhou, Z., P. M. Barrett & J. Hilton. 2003. An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem. Nature 421: 807–814.

Last updated: 29 December 2021.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS