Paraneoptera

Reconstruction of Zoropsocus itschetuensis, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).


Belongs within: Pterygota.
Contains: Hypoperlina, Strephocladina, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera.

The Paraneoptera are a group of insects characterised by a tendency to an elongate head, due to the enlargement of the postclypeus. The Middle Carboniferous to Permian Hypoperlida were regarded by Rasnitsyn (2002b) as stem-paraneopterans, citing the presence of a maxilla with detached, rod-like lacinia as a synapomorphy for this clade. Many hypoperlidans, however, are only known from wings.

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Postclypeus large, with large cibarial dilator muscles; labial palps reduced or lost; asymmetrical mandibles; maxillary laciniae slender, long, detached from stipes, independently movable; legs with three or fewer tarsomeres; winged forms usually with abdominal trichobothria; ganglia in abdomen fused into one large mass; cerci lost.

<==Paraneoptera [Cimiciformes, Hypoperlidea]
    |--Hypoperlida R02b
    |    |  i. s.: Rhynomaloptila R02b
    |    |         Rhipidioptera R02b
    |    |         Psoroptera R02b
    |    |         Homoeodictyon elongatum R02b, R02a
    |    |--Hypoperlina R02b
    |    |--Strephocladina R02b
    |    `--Perielytron mirabile R02b
    |--Miomoptera [Palaeomanteida, Palaeomanteidea] GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Saaromioptera R02d
    |    |--Metropator R02b [Metropatoridae GE05]
    |    |    `--M. pusillus R02b
    |    |--Archaemiopteridae R02d
    |    |    |--Archemioptera R02d
    |    |    `--Eodelopterum priscum GE05
    |    |--Palaeomantiscidae R02d
    |    |    |--Palaeomantina pentamera R02d
    |    |    `--Sellardiopsis [incl. Palaeomantisca] R02d
    |    |         `--S. conspicua [incl. Palaeomantisca lata] R02d
    |    |--Permosialidae [Perloblattidae, Tologopteridae] GE05
    |    |    |--Permonka R02d
    |    |    `--Permosialis [incl. Sarbalopterodes, Tologoptera] R02d
    |    |         |--P. asiatica R02d
    |    |         `--P. belmontensis Riek 1968 F71
    |    `--Palaeomanteidae R02d
    |         |--Epimastax soyanensis R02d
    |         |--Delopterum [incl. Miomatoneurella, Stephanomioptera] R02d
    |         |    `--D. rasnitsyni R02d
    |         `--Palaeomantis Handlirsch 1904 (see below for synonymy) R02d
    |              |--*P. schmidti R02d
    |              `--P. aestivus R02d
    `--+--Permopsocida [Permopsocina] GE05
       |    |--Permopsocidae GE05
       |    |--Archipsyllidae R02c
       |    `--Psocidiidae [Dichentomidae] GE05
       |         |--Eopsylla R02c
       |         |--Dichentomum R02c
       |         `--Parapsocidium uralicum R02c
       `--+--+--Montanuraliidae N02
          |  `--+--Psocoptera GE05
          |     `--Sojanopus Novokshonov 2002 [Sojanoperidae] N02
          |          `--*S. festivum Novokshonov 2002 N02
          `--Condylognatha GE05
               |--Hemiptera GE05
               `--Thripida Z02
                    |--Thysanoptera GE05
                    `--Lophioneuridae [Lophioneurida, Lophioneurina] GE05
                         |  i. s.: Vitriala Z02
                         |         Psococicadellopsis Z02
                         |         Surijokocypha Z02
                         |--Zoropsocinae Z02
                         |    |--Tschekardus hispidus Z02
                         |    |--Zoropsocoides Z02
                         |    `--Zoropsocus GE05
                         |         |--Z. itschetuensis GE05
                         |         `--Z. stanleyi Davis 1942 F71
                         `--Lophioneurinae Z02
                              |--Cyphoneura Z02
                              |--Cyphoneurodes patriciae Z02, PL12
                              |--Lophioneura ustulata Tillyard 1921 Z02, F71
                              |--Austrocypha abrupta Z02, F71
                              |--Undacypha [incl. Edgariekia Jell & Duncan 1986; Edgariekiidae] Z02
                              |--Jantardachus perfectus Z02
                              |--Burmacypha longicornis Z02
                              `--Lophiocypha Z02
                                   |--L. maxima Davis 1942 F71
                                   |--L. permiana F71
                                   `--L. stanleyi F71

Palaeomantis Handlirsch 1904 [incl. Miomatoneura Martynov 1927, Permodelopterum Kukalová 1963, Permonia Kukalová 1963, Permonikia Kukalová 1963, Perunopterum Kukalová 1963] R02d

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[N02] Novokshonov, V. G. 2002. New enigmatic insects (Insecta: Hypoperlidea?: Sojanoperidae) from the Upper Permian of northern Russia. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2002 (1): 51-53 (transl. Paleontological Journal 36 (1): 48-49).

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623-8628.

[R02a] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002a. Subclass Scarabaeona Laicharting, 1781. The winged insects (=Pterygota Lang, 1888). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 75-83. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02b] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002b. Cohors Cimiciformes Laicharting, 1781. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 104-115. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02c] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002c. Superorder Psocidea Leach, 1815. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 125-133. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02d] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002d. Cohors Scarabaeiformes Laicharting, 1781. The holometabolans (=Holometabola Burmeister, 1835, =Endopterygota Sharp, 1899, =Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1938). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 157-164. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Order Thripida Fallen, 1914. (=Thysanoptera Haliday, 1836) The thrips. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 133-143. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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