Reconstruction of Platycephalichthys bischoffi, copyright DiBgd.

Belongs within: Gnathostomata.
Contains: Dipnomorpha, Tetrapoda.

The Sarcopterygii are a clade of vertebrates including the four-legged Tetrapoda together with those fishes (commonly known as 'lobe-finned fishes') more closely related to the tetrapods than to the ray-finned fishes of the Actinopterygii. Living members of this clade differ from most living Actinopterygii in having fleshy, limb-like bases to the fins.

Synapomorphies (from Zhu et al. 2009): Parachordal plates separated from otic capsule by cartilage or persistent fissure; endolymphatic duct of supraotic cavity present.

<==Sarcopterygii [Crossopterygii, Urodelomorpha]
    |  i. s.: Canowindra grossi Thomson 1973 J98
    |--Meemannia Zhu, Yu et al. 2006 ZZ09, ZY06
    |    `--*M. eos Zhu, Yu et al. 2006 ZY06
    `--+--+--Guiyu Zhu, Zhao et al. 2009 ZZ09
       |  |    `--*G. oneiros Zhu, Zhao et al. ZZ09
       |  `--+--Psarolepis romeri ZZ09, ZYJ99
       |     `--Achoania ZZ09
       `--+--+--Onychodus [Onychodontida] ZZ09
          |  |    `--‘Phoebodus’ bryanti Wells 1944 W85
          |  `--+--Miguashaia ZZ09
          |     |--Whiteia ZY02
          |     |--Diplocercides ZY02
          |     `--Actinistia ZYJ99
          |          |--Rhabdoderma elegans (Newberry 1856) WO06 [incl. Coelacanthus lepturus H62]
          |          |--Mawsonia gigas Woodward 1907 WO06
          |          |--Axelrodichthys araripensis Maisey 1991 WO06
          |          `--Latimeria (see below for synonymy) WO06
          |               |--L. chalumnae Smith 1939 WO06
          |               `--L. manadoensis Pouyaud et al. 1999 WO06
          `--+--Styloichthys Zhu & Yu 2002 ZZ09, ZY02
             |    `--*S. changae Zhu & Yu 2002 ZY02
             `--Dipnotetrapodomorpha B-RB13
                  |--Dipnomorpha ZZ09
                  `--Tetrapodomorpha [Choanata, Osteolepiformes, Osteolepimorpha, Osteolepipoda, Rhipidistia] ZY02
                       |  i. s.: Cladarosymblema ZY02
                       |         Gyroptychius TC71
                       |         Rhizodopsidae B96
                       |         Megalichthys DSJ06
                       |         Gogonasus DFC12
                       |--Kenichthys ZZ09
                       |--Rhizodontidae [Rhizodontida, Rhizodontiformes, Rhizodontimorpha] ZYJ99
                       |    |--Strepsodus Young 1866 W06
                       |    |    `--S. decipiens Woodward 1906 [incl. Pteraspis mansfieldensis McCoy 1890 (n. n.)] W06
                       |    `--Gooloogongia loomesi Johanson & Ahlberg 1998 J98
                       `--+--Osteolepis [Osteolepidae] ZY02
                          `--+--Elpistostegalia [Panderichthyida, Panderichthyidae] DSJ06
                             |    |--Panderichthys rhombolepis (Gross 1930) AC08, RCQ03
                             |    `--+--Tetrapoda AC08
                             |       |--Elpistostege AC08
                             |       `--Tiktaalik Daeschler, Shubin & Jenkins 2006 AC08, DSJ06
                             |            `--*T. roseae Daeschler, Shubin & Jenkins 2006 DSJ06
                             `--Tristichopteridae [Eusthenopteridae] C03
                                  |--Tristichopterus Egerton 1861 C03
                                  |--Jarvikina Vorobyeva 1977 C03
                                  |--Spodichthys Jarvik 1985 C03
                                  |--Notorhizodon C03
                                  |--Eusthenodon Jarvik 1952 C03
                                  |    `--*E. wangsjoi Jarvik 1952 C03
                                  |--Hyneria Thomson 1968 C03
                                  |    `--H. lindae Thomson 1968 C03
                                  |--Mandageria Johanson & Ahlberg 1997 C03
                                  |    `--M. fairfaxi Johanson & Ahlberg 1997 J98
                                  |--Cabonnichthys Ahlberg & Johanson 1997 C02
                                  |    |--C. burnsi C03
                                  |    `--C. loomesi Ahlberg & Johanson 1997 J98
                                  |--Eusthenopteron Whiteaves 1881 ZY02, C03
                                  |    |--E. foordi Whiteaves 1881 RCQ03
                                  |    `--E. savesoderberghi C03
                                  `--Platycephalichthys Vorobyeva 1959 C03
                                       |--P. bischoffi C03
                                       `--P. skuenicus C03

Latimeria [Coelacanthidae, Coelacanthiformes, Coelacanthimorpha, Coelacanthini, Latimeriidae] WO06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AC08] Ahlberg, P. E., J. A. Clack, E. Lukševičs, H. Blom & I. Zupiņš. 2008. Ventastega curonica and the origin of tetrapod morphology. Nature 453: 1199–1204.

[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[C03] Clement, G. 2003. Large Tristichopteridae (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the late Famennian Evieux Formation of Belgium. Palaeontology 45: 577–593.

[DSJ06] Daeschler, E. B., N. H. Shubin & F. A. Jenkins, Jr. 2006. A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body plan. Nature 440: 757–763.

[DFC12] Davis, S. P., J. A. Finarelli & M. I. Coates. 2012. Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes. Nature 486: 247–250.

[H62] Hass, W. H. 1962. Conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W3–W69. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[J98] Johanson, Z. 1998. The upper Devonian fish Bothriolepis (Placodermi: Antiarchi) from near Canowindra, New South Wales, Australia. Records of the Australian Museum 50: 315–348.

[RCQ03] Ruta, M., M. I. Coates & D. L. J. Quicke. 2003. Early tetrapod relationships revisited. Biological Reviews 78: 251–345.

[TC71] Thomson, K. S., & K. S. W. Campbell. 1971. The structure and relationships of the primitive Devonian lungfish—Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Etheridge). Yale University Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin 38: 1–109.

[WO06] Weiss, F. E., & S. G. de Oliveira. 2006. Sobre a ocorrência de celacanto (Sarcopterygii: Actinistia) na Formação Pedra de Fogo, Permiano da Bacia do Parnaíba, Tocantins, Brasil. Comunicações do Museo de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Serie Zoologia 19 (1): 39–44.

[W85] Williams, M. E. 1985. The “cladodont level” sharks of the Pennsylvanian Black Shales of central North America. Palaeontographica Abt. A 190: 83–158.

[W06] Woodward, A. S. 1906. On a Carboniferous fish fauna from the Mansfield District, Victoria. Memoirs of the National Museum, Melbourne 1: 1–32, pl. I–XI.

[ZY02] Zhu, M., & X. Yu. 2002. A primitive fish close to the common ancestor of tetrapods and lungfish. Nature 418: 767–770.

[ZYJ99] Zhu, M., X. Yu & P. Janvier. 1999. A primitive fossil fish sheds light on the origin of bony fishes. Nature 397: 607–610.

[ZY06] Zhu, M., X. Yu, W. Wang, W. Zhao & L. Jia. 2006. A primitive fish provides key characters bearing on deep osteichthyan phylogeny. Nature 441: 77–80.

[ZZ09] Zhu, M., W. Zhao, L. Jia, J. Lu, T. Qiao & Q. Qu. 2009. The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome characters. Nature 458: 469–474.

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