Tulip tree Liriodendron tulipifera, photographed by Bruce Marlin.

Belongs within: Mesangiospermae.
Contains: Myristica, Annonaceae.

The Magnoliales are a clade of flowering plants well supported by molecular analyses, as well as by two morphological synapomorphies: midrib vasculature in shape of an arc with adaxial plate, and secondary phloem stratified into tangential bands (Chatrou 2003). Within the clade, the Myristicaceae are the sister group to all other taxa, the Magnoliineae. Myristicaceae are distinguished by the presence of tanniferous tubes, sympodially branched hairs, unisexual flowers and arillate seeds. Magnoliineae are supported by the presence of a eustele, solitary flowers, spiral stamen phyllotaxy, an extended connective apex, embedded pollen sacs and a multiplicative testa (Chatrou 2003).

<==Magnoliales [Annonineae]
    |  i. s.: Asimina BL04
    |--Myristicaceae [Myristicales, Mytristicineae] C03
    |    |--Myristica F78
    |    |--Knema F78
    |    |    |--K. attenuata SR07
    |    |    `--K. tomentella (Miq.) Warb. 1897 F78
    |    |--Broohoneura YY22
    |    |--Cephalosphaera YY22
    |    |--Coelocaryon YY22
    |    |--Compsoneura YY22
    |    |--Dialyanthera YY22
    |    |--Horsfieldia irya F78, P88
    |    |--Iryanthera YY22
    |    |--Mauloutchia YY22
    |    |--Osteophloeum YY22
    |    |--Pycnanthus YY22
    |    |--Scyphocephalium YY22
    |    |--Staudtia YY22
    |    |--Virola oleifera MP00
    |    `--Gymnacranthera paniculata F78
    |         |--G. p. var. paniculata F78
    |         `--G. p. var. zippeliana (Miq.) Sinclair 1958 (see below for synonymy) F78
    `--Magnoliineae C03
         |--+--+--Degeneriaceae C03
         |  |  `--Galbulimima C78b [Himantandraceae C03]
         |  |       `--G. belgraveana (Muell.) Sprague 1922 (see below for synonymy) C78b
         |  `--+--Annonaceae C03
         |     `--Eupomatia C78a [Eupomatiaceae C03, Eupomatiales]
         |          |--E. bennettii C78a
         |          `--E. laurina Brown 1914 C78a
         `--Magnoliaceae C03
              |  i. s.: Talauma C78c
              |           |--T. dodecapetula SWK87
              |           `--T. oreadum Diels 1916 [=Aromadendron oreadum (Diels) Kan. & Hat. 1943] C78c
              |         Elmerrillia papuana (Schltr) Dandy 1927 (see below for synonymy) C78c
              |--Liriodendron [Liriodendroideae] DS04
              |    |--L. chinense DS04
              |    `--L. tulipifera SK03
              `--+--Michelia DS04
                 |    |--M. alba C78c
                 |    |--M. champaca C78c
                 |    |--M. doltsopa D07
                 |    |--M. figo DS04
                 |    `--M. velutina D07
                 `--Magnolia [Magnolioideae] DS04
                      |--M. denudata [incl. M. conspicua] LO98
                      |--M. grandiflora DS04
                      |--M. kobus LO98
                      |--M. obovata [incl. M. hypoleuca] LO98
                      |--M. splendens SWK87
                      |--M. torresii Ettingshausen 1883 F71
                      `--M. virginiana Linnaeus 1753 CD07

Elmerrillia papuana (Schltr) Dandy 1927 [=Talauma papuana Schltr 1913; incl. E. papuana var. adpressa Dandy 1928, Michelia forbesii Bak. f. 1923, E. papuana var. glaberrima Dandy 1928, E. sericea White 1929] C78c

Galbulimima belgraveana (Muell.) Sprague 1922 [=Eupomatia belgraveana Muell. 1887, Himantandra belgraveana (Muell.) Diels 1912; incl. Galbulimima baccata Bailey 1894, G. nitida Sprague 1923, Himantandra nitida Bak. f. & Norman 1923, G. parviflora Sprague 1923, H. parviflora Bak. f. & Norman 1923] C78b

Gymnacranthera paniculata var. zippeliana (Miq.) Sinclair 1958 [=Myristica zippeliana Miq. 1865, G. zippeliana (Miq.) Warb. 1897] F78

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787-792.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[C03] Chatrou, L. W. 2003. Myristicineae, a new suborder within Magnoliales. Taxon 52: 277-279.

[C78a] Croft, J. R. 1978a. Eupomatiaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 123-125. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[C78b] Croft, J. R. 1978b. Himantandraceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 126-128. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[C78c] Croft, J. R. 1978c. Magnoliaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 129-134. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[F78] Foreman, D. B. 1978. Myristicaceae (excluding Horsfieldia). In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 175-215. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MP00] Machado, G., & M. A. Pizo. 2000. The use of fruits by the neotropical harvestman Neosadocus variabilis (Opiliones, Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Journal of Arachnology 28: 357-360.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[SK03] Snell, K. L., & H. W. Keller. 2003. Vertical distribution and assemblages of corticolous myxomycetes on five tree species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Mycologia 95 (4): 565-576.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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