Crotalarieae

Silver pea Lebeckia sericea, copyright Gawie Malan.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.
Contains: Crotalaria.

The Crotalarieae are a primarily African group of leguminous plants united by molecular analyses, distinguished from the closely related Genisteae by the absence of bilabiate calyces with a bifid upper lip and a trifid lower lip (Cardoso et al. 2013).

<==Crotalarieae CP13
    |--+--Euchlora hirsuta CP13
    |  `--+--Bolusia amboensis CP13
    |     `--Crotalaria CP13
    `--+--Lebeckia CP13
       |    |--L. dinteri CV06
       |    |--L. obovata CV06
       |    `--L. sericea CP13
       `--+--Rafnia angulata CP13
          `--Aspalathus CP13
               |--A. linearis K02
               `--A. pinguis CP13

Crotalarieae incertae sedis:
  Calobota CP13
  Ezoloba CP13
  Leobordea CP13
  Listia CP13
  Lotononis CP13
    |--L. bracteosa CV06
    |--L. mirabilis CV06
    |--L. pachycarpa CV06
    |--L. pallidirosea CV06
    `--L. schreiberi CV06
  Pearsonia CP13
  Robynsiophyton CP13
  Wiborgia CP13
  Wiborgiella CP13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[K02] Krüger, M. 2002. Revision of the Afrotropical Ennominae of the Drepanogynis group IV: the genus Drepanogynis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Transvaal Museum Monograph 13: 1–220.

Baphieae

African sandalwood Baphia nitida, copyright Mokkie.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.

The Baphieae are a group of leguminous plants found in Africa and southern Asia, bearing flowers with free stamens and poorly differentiated lower petals (Cardoso et al. 2013).

Characters (from Cardoso et al. 2013): Leaves simple or unifoliolate; calyx splitting to base either down one side only, appearing spathaceous, or down both sides and thus becoming bilabiate; lower petals poorly differentiated, flowers sometimes appearing radially symmetrical; stamens free, anthers more or less basifixed.

<==Baphieae CP13
    |  i. s.: Dalhousiea CP13
    |         Leucomphalos CP13
    |--+--‘Baphia’ nitida CP13
    |  `--Airyantha CP13
    |       |--A. borneensis K03
    |       `--A. schweinfurthii CP13
    `--Baphia CP13
         |--B. leptobotrys CP13
         `--+--+--B. madagascariensis CP13
            |  `--B. massaiensis CP13
            `--+--Baphiopsis parviflora CP13
               `--+--Baphiastrum brachycarpum CP13
                  `--Bowringia mildbraedii CP13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

Gompholobium

Gompholobium cf. capitatum, copyright Jan Thomas Johansson.


Belongs within: Mirbelieae.

Gompholobium, glory peas, is an Australian genus of leguminous shrubs commonly bearing trifoliolate leaves with narrow leaflets.

Characters (from New South Wales Flora Online): Shrubs. Leaves alternate, either simple, 3-foliolate, palmate or pinnate with the terminal leaflet sessile; leaflets usually narrow, margins entire; stipules small or absent. Inflorescences terminal, or rarely axillary, racemes, sometimes reduced to 1 or 2 flowers; bracts usually small, lanceolate; bracteoles small, lanceolate or bristly, inserted more or less below the base of the calyx or absent. Calyx tube more or less short, the teeth lanceolate, more or less equal, longer than tube. Petals shortly clawed; standard circular to reniform, larger than the other petals; wings oblong, more or less falcate; keel obtuse, slightly broader than wings. Stamens free. Ovary glabrous, sessile or shortly stipitate; ovules 2–many; style incurved or filiform. Pod turgid, more or less globose to obliquely oblong; seeds without an aril.

<==Gompholobium
    |--G. aristatum GK00
    |--G. burtonioides GK00
    |--G. capitatum GK00
    |--G. confertum GK00
    |--G. ecostatum B00
    |--G. glabratum H87a
    |--G. gompholobioides G04
    |--G. grandiflorum H87a
    |--G. huegelii H87b
    |--G. karijini MLP09
    |--G. knightianum GK00
    |--G. marginatum OS04
    |--G. minus CP13
    |--G. ovatum GK00
    |--G. pinnatum H87a
    |--G. polymorphum GK00
    |--G. polyzygum EF04
    |--G. preissii RL05
    |--G. scabrum GK00
    |--G. subulatum LK14
    |--G. tomentosum OS04
    `--G. viscidulum G04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63–79.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87a] Haviland, E. 1887a. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[H87b] Haviland, E. 1887b. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MLP09] McKenzie, N. L., S. van Leeuwen & A. M. Pinder. 2009. Introduction to the Pilbara Biodiversity Survey, 2002–2007. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 3–89.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

Trifolium

Subterranean clover Trifolium subterraneum, copyright Harry Rose.


Belongs within: Fabeae.
Contains: Trifolium section Eulagopus, Trifolium section Euamoria, Trifolium section Galearia.

Trifolium, clovers, is a cosmopolitan genus of herbaceous plants with commonly trifoliolate leaves.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual or perennial, unarmed. Leaves generally palmately compound; stipules conspicuous, partly fused to petiole; leaflets generally 3, sometimes 5-9, more or less serrate or dentate. Inflorescence a raceme (often umbel-like), head, or spike, axillary or terminal, gen many-flowered, often involucred, generally peduncled; flowers bracted or not. Flowers generally spreading to erect, often becoming reflexed; corolla generally purple to pale lavender, sometimes yellow, persistent after flower; 9 filaments fused, 1 free. Fruit generally indehiscent, but often breaking, short, plump, generally included in corolla; base often stalk-like. Seeds 1-6.

<==Trifolium [Trifoliae]
    |--T. subg. Lagopus BF49
    |    |--T. (sect. Calycomorphum) subterraneum Linnaeus 1753 BF49
    |    |    |--T. s. f. subterraneum BF49
    |    |    |--T. s. f. brachycladum BF49
    |    |    |--T. s. f. genuinum BF49
    |    |    `--T. s. f. oxaloides BF49
    |    `--T. sect. Eulagopus BF49
    `--T. subg. Trifoliastrum BF49
         |--T. sect. Chronosemium BF49
         |    |--T. filiforme Linnaeus 1753 BF49
         |    |--T. minus [=T. filiforme var. minus (Relhan) Cout. 1939] BF49
         |    `--T. procumbens Linnaeus 1755 BF49
         |         |--T. p. f. procumbens BF49
         |         |--T. p. f. majus (Koch) de Basto Folque 1949 BF49
         |         |--T. p. f. minus (Koch) de Basto Folque 1949 BF49
         |         `--T. p. f. nanum (Seringe) de Basto Folque 1949 BF49
         |--T. sect. Euamoria BF49
         |--T. sect. Galearia BF49
         |--T. (sect. Involucraria) laevigatum BF49
         |    |--T. l. f. laevigatum BF49
         |    `--T. l. f. minus (Rouy) de Basto Folque 1949 BF49
         `--T. (sect. Mistylus) spumosum BF49
              |--T. s. f. spumosum BF49
              `--T. s. f. minus de Basto Folque 1949 BF49

Trifolium incertae sedis:
  T. agrarium C55b
  T. albopurpureum H93
    |--T. a. var. albopurpureum H93
    |--T. a. var. dichotomum H93
    `--T. a. var. olivaceum H93
  T. alexandrinum BF49
  T. amoenum H93
  T. andersonii H93
    |--T. a. var. andersonii H93
    `--T. a. var. beatleyae [incl. T. monoense] H93
  T. aureum H93
  T. barbigerum H93
    |--T. b. var. barbigerum H93
    `--T. b. var. andrewsii [incl. T. grayi] H93
  T. beckwithii H93
  T. bifidum H93
    |--T. b. var. bifidum H93
    `--T. b. var. decipiens H93
  T. bolanderi H93
  T. bonannii BF49
    |--T. b. var. bonannii BF49
    `--T. b. var. aragonense BF49
  T. breweri H93
  T. buckwestiorum H93
  T. campestre von Schreber 1804 PL04
  T. ciliolatum H93
  T. cyathiferum H93
  T. depauperatum H93
    |--T. d. var. depauperatum H93
    |--T. d. var. amplectens H93
    |--T. d. var. hydrophilum [=T. amplectens var. hydrophilum] H93
    `--T. d. var. truncatum [=T. amplectens var. truncatum] H93
  T. dubium LNB03
  T. elegans C55b
  T. eriocephalum H93
  T. fucatum [incl. T. fucatum var. gambelii, T. fucatum var. virescens] H93
  T. glanduliferum WR-SG01
  T. gracilentum H93
    |--T. g. var. gracilentum [incl. T. gracilentum var. inconspicuum] H93
    `--T. g. var. palmeri H93
  T. grandiflorum PT98
  T. gymnocarpon H93
    |--T. g. var. gymnocarpon H93
    `--T. g. var. plummerae H93
  T. howellii H93
  T. hybridum LNB03
  T. kingii H93
    |--T. k. var. kingii H93
    `--T. k. var. productum H93
  T. lemmonii H93
  T. longipes H93 [=T. subterraneum f. longipes]
    |--T. l. var. longipes H93
    |--T. l. var. atrorubens H93
    |--T. l. var. elmeri H93
    |--T. l. var. nevadense H93
    |--T. l. var. oreganum H93
    `--T. l. var. shastense [incl. T. longipes var. multipedunculatum] H93
  T. macilentum H93
    |--T. m. var. macilentum H93
    `--T. m. var. dedeckerae H93
  T. macraei H93
  T. microdon [incl. T. microdon var. pilosum] H93
  T. monanthum H93
    |--T. m. var. monanthum [incl. T. monanthum var. eastwoodianum, T. monanthum var. parvum] H93
    `--T. m. var. grantianum H93
  T. obtusiflorum H93
  T. oliganthum H93
  T. parryi GS99
  T. purpureum PT98
  T. reflexum KIW98
  T. saxatile C55a
  T. trichocalyx H93
  T. variegatum (see below for synonymy) H93
  T. wildenovii [incl. T. tridentatum var. aciculare, T. tridentatum] H93
  T. wormskioldii H93

Trifolium variegatum [incl. T. appendiculatum, T. geminiflorum, T. variegatum var. melananthum, T. polyodon, T. appendiculatum var. rostratum, T. variegatum var. trilobatum] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BF49 Basto Folque, N. A. P. de. 1949. Subsídios para o estudo do género Trifolium L. em Portugal. Melhoramento 1 (2): 11–120, pls 1–23.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[GS99] Galen, C., & M. L. Stanton. 1999. Seedling establishment in alpine buttercups under experimental manipulations of growing-season length. Ecology 80: 2033–2044.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83–112.

[LNB03] Ledeganck, P., I. Nijs & L. Beyens. 2003. Plant functional group diversity promotes soil protist diversity. Protist 154 (2): 239–249.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[WR-SG01] Wang, S. F., T. J. Ridsdill-Smith & E. L. Ghisalberti. 2001. Resistance in pasture legumes to redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Acari: Penthaleidae). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 328–341. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Hedysareae

Siberian peashrub Caragana arborescens, copyright Ural-66.


Belongs within: Hologalegina.

The Hedysareae are a group of leguminous plants bearing loments, indehiscent legumes breaking apart at constrictions between each seed.

<==Hedysareae CP13
    |--+--+--Tibetia yunnanensis CP13
    |  |  `--Gueldenstaedtia CP13
    |  |       |--G. himalaica O88
    |  |       `--G. stenophylla CP13
    |  `--Chesneya CP13
    |       |--C. elegans CP13
    |       |--C. nubigena O88
    |       `--C. polystichoides O88
    |            |--C. p. ssp. polystichoides O88
    |            `--C. p. ssp. bhutanica O88
    `--+--+--+--Calophaca pskemica CP13
       |  |  `--Halimodendron halodendron CP13
       |  `--Caragana CP13
       |       |--C. arborescens CP13
       |       |--C. frutescens [=Robinia frutescens] C55
       |       |--C. gerardiana O88
       |       |--C. jubata O88
       |       |--C. tragacanthoides O88
       |       |    |--C. t. var. tragacanthoides O88
       |       |    `--C. t. var. himalaica O88
       |       `--C. versicolor O88
       `--+--Alhagi CP13
          |    |--A. graecorum AGF98
          |    |--A. maurorum KU02
          |    |--A. pseudalhagi [incl. A. camelorum] H93
          |    `--A. sparsifolia CP13
          `--+--Ebenus cretica CP13
             `--+--Taverniera glauca CP13
                |--Onobrychis CP13
                |    |--O. aequidentata PT98
                |    |--O. caput-galli PT98
                |    |--O. cornata KU02
                |    |--O. montana CP13
                |    |--O. sativus S00
                |    `--O. viciifolia H93
                `--Hedysarum CP13
                     |--H. boreale CP13
                     |--H. campylocarpon O88
                     |--H. gyrans A93
                     |--H. kumaonense O88
                     |--H. manaslense O88
                     |--H. sikkimense O88
                     `--H. spinosissimum PT98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[A93] Anonymous. 1793. Physique végétale. Bulletin de la Société Philomatique, a ses Correspondans 29: 2–3.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KU02] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2002. The stigmaeid mites of Iran (Acari: Stigmaeidae). International Journal of Acarology 28 (4): 317–339.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Oxytropis

Purple locoweed Oxytropis lambertii, copyright Matt Lavin.


Belongs within: Astragaleae.

Oxytropis is a genus of hairy perennials found in Eurasia and North America (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Perennial, unarmed, hairy. Leaves odd-1-pinnate, basal, sometimes also cauline; stipules gen partly fused to petiole, initially forming a sheath, or free. Inflorescence a raceme, generally scapose, spike- or head-like, or one- to two-flowered; bracts generally persistent. Flower with calyx lobes shorter than tube, corolla pink-purple, white, or yellowish, keel tip beaked; 9 filaments fused, 1 free; style glabrous. Fruit ascending or reflexed, generally persistent, lanceolate or inflated, more or less 2-chambered, septum arising from upper suture, more or less incomplete.

<==Oxytropis
    |--O. arenae-ripariae O88
    |--O. borealis H93
    |    |--O. b. var. borealis H93
    |    `--O. b. var. viscida H93
    |--O. cyanea C55
    |--O. deflexa CL86
    |    |--O. d. var. deflexa H93
    |    `--O. d. var. sericea H93
    |--O. duthieana O88
    |--O. fasciculiflorum O88
    |--O. foetida C55
    |--O. graminetorum O88
    |--O. humifusa O88
    |--O. hypoglottoides (Baker) Ali 1973 [=Astragalus hypoglottoides Baker in Hooker 1876] CS05
    |--O. kansuensis O88
    |--O. lambertii CP13
    |--O. lapponica CS05
    |--O. microphylla O88
    |--O. morenarum O88
    |--O. nepalensis O88
    |--O. oreophila H93
    |--O. parryi H93
    |--O. torrentium O88
    |--O. uralensis C55
    `--O. williamsii O88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[CS05] Chauhan, A., D. K. Singh, S. K. Srivastava & S. K. Murti. 2005. Oxytropis hypoglottoides (Baker) Ali: a new record for India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 185–188.

[CL86] Collins, E. I., & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85–93.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

Lotus

Bird's-foot trefoil Lotus corniculatus, copyright Robert Flogaus-Faust.


Belongs within: Hologalegina.

Lotus is a genus of leguminous herbs and shrubs often with 5-foliolate leaves and yellow flowers.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual, perennial, or shrub, unarmed. Leaves generally odd-1-pinnate (sometimes more or less palmately compound, rarely some or most simple); stipules conspicuous or not; leaflets 3–many, often irregularly arranged. Inflorescence an umbel or one- or two-flowered, axillary, generally peduncled, often bracted. Corolla generally yellow (sometimes white or pink), fading darker; 9 filaments fused, 1 free. Fruit dehiscent or not, exserted from calyx or not, ovoid to oblong, more or less beaked. Seeds 1—several.

<==Lotus
    |--L. aboriginus [=L. aboriginum (l. c.)] H93
    |--L. angustissimus GK00
    |--L. argophyllus H93
    |    |--L. a. var. argophyllus [incl. L. argophyllus var. decorus] H93
    |    |--L. a. var. adsurgens H93
    |    |--L. a. var. argenteus [incl. L. argophyllus var. ornithopus] H93
    |    |--L. a. var. fremontii H93
    |    `--L. a. var. niveus H93
    |--L. argyraeus H93
    |    |--L. a. var. argyraeus H93
    |    |--L. a. var. multicaulis H93
    |    `--L. a. var. notitius H93
    |--L. australis P09
    |--L. benthamii H93
    |--L. conimbricensis Y98
    |--L. corniculatus BB99
    |--L. crassifolius H93
    |    |--L. c. var. crassifolius H93
    |    `--L. c. var. otayensis H93
    |--L. creticus A-GF98
    |--L. cruentus KM08
    |--L. cytisoides PT98
    |--L. dendroideus H93
    |    |--L. d. var. dendroideus [=L. scoparius var. dendroideus] H93
    |    |--L. d. var. traskiae [=L. scoparius var. traskiae] H93
    |    `--L. d. var. veatchii [=L. scoparius var. veatchii] H93
    |--L. denticulatus H93
    |--L. formosissimus H93
    |--L. grandiflorus H93
    |    |--L. g. var. grandiflorus H93
    |    `--L. g. var. macranthus H93
    |--L. hamatus H93
    |--L. haydonii H93
    |--L. heermannii H93
    |    |--L. h. var. heermannii H93
    |    `--L. h. var. orbicularis [incl. L. heermannii var. eriophorus] H93
    |--L. humistratus PB83
    |--L. incanus [incl. L. neo-incanus] H93
    |--L. japonicus MM03
    |--L. junceus H93
    |    |--L. j. var. junceus H93
    |    `--L. j. var. biolettii H93
    |--L. micranthus H93
    |--L. nevadensis H93
    |    |--L. n. var. nevadensis [incl. L. douglasii] H93
    |    `--L. n. var. davidsonii H93
    |--L. nuttallianus H93
    |--L. oblongifolius H93
    |    |--L. o. var. oblongifolius [incl. L. oblongifolius var. nevadensis non L. nevadensis] H93
    |    `--L. o. var. cupreus H93
    |--L. peregrinus
    |--L. pinnatus H93
    |--L. procumbens H93
    |    |--L. p. var. procumbens H93
    |    `--L. p. var. jepsonii H93
    |--L. purshianus [incl. L. purshianus var. glaber] H93
    |--L. rigidus H93
    |--L. rubriflorus H93
    |--L. salsuginosus H93
    |    |--L. s. var. salsuginosus H93
    |    `--L. s. var. brevivexillus H93
    |--L. scoparius H93
    |    |--L. s. var. scoparius H93
    |    `--L. s. var. brevialatus H93
    |--L. stipularis H93
    |    |--L. s. var. stipularis H93
    |    `--L. s. var. ottleyi H93
    |--L. strigosus [incl. L. strigosus var. hirtellus. L. tomentellus] H93
    |--L. suaveolens GK00
    |--L. tenuis H93
    |--L. uliginosus [incl. L. major, L. pedunculatus] BB99
    |--L. wrangelianus H93
    `--L. yollabolliensis H93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A-GF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[BB99] Blumenthal, M. J., A. M. Bowman, A. Cole, R. M. Jones, W. M. Kelman, T. E. Launders & H. I. Nicol. 1999. Establishment, growth and persistence of greater lotus (Lotus uliginosus) at six sites in eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 39: 819–827.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[MM03] Madsen, E. B., L. H. Madsen, S. Radutoiu, M. Olbryt, M. Rakwalska, K. Szczyglowski, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, S. Tabata, N. Sandal & J. Stougaard. 2003. A receptor kinase gene of the LysM type is involved in legume perception of rhizobial signals. Nature 425: 637–640.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[P09] Petrie, J. M. 1909. The rôle of nitrogen and its compounds in plant-metabolism. Part I.—Historical. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 801–834.

[PB83] Price, M. V., & J. H. Brown. 1983. Patterns of morphology and resource use in North American desert rodent communities. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 7: 117–134.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Carmichaelieae

Carmichaelia petriei, copyright John Barkla.


Belongs within: Astragaleae.

The Carmichaelieae are a group of leguminous plants, often with few or no leaves, found in New Zealand and nearby islands.

<==Carmichaelieae
    |--Streblorrhiza speciosa H98
    `--Carmichaelia Br. 1825 A61 [incl. C. sect. Nana H98]
         |  i. s.: C. muelleriana Regel 1887 (n. d.) C06
         |         C. stricta Lehm. 1852 (n. d.) A61
         |         C. subulata Kirk 1899 (n. d.) A61
         |--C. subg. Kirkiella Simpson 1945 A61
         |    `--C. kirkii Hooker 1881 H98, A61 [incl. C. gracilis Armst. 1881 A61]
         |         |--C. k. var. kirkii A61
         |         `--C. k. var. strigosa Simpson 1945 A61
         `--+--+--+--C. subg. Suterella Simpson 1945 non Suterella Iredale 1915 (ICZN) H98, A61
            |  |  |    |--C. corrugata Colenso 1883 H95
            |  |  |    `--C. uniflora Kirk 1884 (see below for synonymy) H95
            |  |  `--C. subg. Monroella Simpson 1945 H98, A61
            |  |       |--C. astonii Simpson 1945 H95
            |  |       |--C. monroi Hooker 1864 [incl. C. monroi var. longecarinata Simpson 1945] H95
            |  |       `--C. vexillata Heenan 1995 H95
            |  `--+--C. subg. Huttonella Simpson 1945 H98, A61 [=Huttonella Kirk 1899 A61]
            |     |    |--+--C. compacta Petrie 1885 H98, H95 (see below for synonymy)
            |     |    |  `--C. curta Petrie 1893 H98, H95 (see below for synonymy)
            |     |    `--C. juncea Hooker 1852 H98, H95 (see below for synonymy)
            |     |         |--C. j. var. juncea H95
            |     |         `--C. j. var. parviflora Bentham in Hooker 1852 (n. d.) H95
            |     `--+--Notospartium Hooker 1857 H98, A61
            |        |    |--N. glabrescens Petrie 1921 H98, A61
            |        |    `--+--N. carmichaeliae Hooker 1857 H98, A61
            |        |       `--N. torulosum Kirk 1899 H98, A61
            |        `--+--Chordospartium Cheesem. 1911 H98, A61
            |           |    |--C. muritai H98
            |           |    `--C. stevensonii Cheesem. 1911 A61
            |           `--Corallospartium Armstrong 1881 H98, A61
            |                `--*C. crassicaule (Hooker) Armstrong 1881 C06, A61 (see below for synonymy)
            |                     |--C. c. var. crassicaule A61
            |                     `--C. c. var. racemosum Kirk 1899 [=C. racemosum (Kirk) Cockayne & Allan 1926] A61
            `--+--+--+--C. hollowayi Simpson 1945 H98, A61
               |  |  `--C. subg. Enysiella Simpson 1945 A61
               |  |       `--C. nana (Hooker) Hooker 1867 H98, - (see below for synonymy)
               |  `--+--C. subg. Petriea Simpson 1945 A61
               |     |    |--C. petriei Kirk 1899 A61 H98, A61
               |     |    |    |--C. p. var. petriei A61
               |     |    |    `--C. p. var. minor Simpson 1945 A61
               |     |    |--C. ramosa Simpson 1945 A61
               |     |    `--C. virgata Kirk 1899 A61
               |     `--C. subg. Thompsoniella Simpson 1945 H98, A61
               |          |--C. angustata Kirk 1899 [incl. C. grandiflora var. divaricata Kirk 1899] A61
               |          |    |--C. a. var. angustata A61
               |          |    `--C. a. var. pubescens Simpson 1945 A61
               |          |--C. arborea (Forster) Druce 1917 H98, A61 (see below for synonymy)
               |          |--C. glabrata Simpson 1945 A61
               |          |--C. grandiflora (Benth.) Hooker 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
               |          `--C. odorata Col. ex Hooker 1852 A61
               |               |--C. o. var. odorata A61
               |               `--C. o. var. pilosa (Col.) Kirk 1899 [=C. pilosa Col. ex Hooker 1852] A61
               `--C. subg. Carmichaelia [incl. C. subg. Carmichaeliella Simpson 1945] A61
                    |  i. s.: C. aligera Simpson 1945 (see below for synonymy) A61
                    |         C. arenaria Simpson 1945 A61
                    |         C. cunninghamii Raoul 1846 A61
                    |         C. egmontiana (Cockayne & Allan) Simpson 1945 (see below for synonymy) A61
                    |         C. flagelliformis Col. ex Hooker 1852 A61
                    |           |--C. f. var. flagelliformis A61
                    |           |--C. f. var. acuminata (Kirk) Cheesem. 1906 [=C. acuminata Kirk 1899] A61
                    |           `--C. f. var. corymbosa (Col.) Kirk 1899 [=C. corymbosa Col. 1889] A61
                    |         C. hookeri Kirk 1899 [=C. flagelliformis var. hookeri (Kirk) Cheesem. 1906] A61
                    |         C. micrantha Colenso 1894 (n. d.) A61
                    |         C. multicaule Colenso 1893 (n. d.) A61
                    |         C. ovata Simpson 1945 A61
                    |         C. rivulata Simpson 1945 A61
                    |         C. robusta Kirk 1899 (see below for synonymy) A61
                    |         C. silvatica Simpson 1945 A61
                    |         C. solandri Simpson 1945 A61
                    |         C. violacea Kirk 1899 A61
                    |--+--C. appressa Simpson 1945 H98, A61
                    |  `--C. australis Br. 1825 H98, A61 [=Genista compressa ms A61; incl. Bossiaea scolopendrina C06]
                    `--+--C. exsul H98
                       `--C. williamsii Kirk 1880 H98, A61

Carmichaelia aligera Simpson 1945 [incl. C. australis var. alata Kirk 1899, C. australis var. strictissima Kirk 1899] A61

Carmichaelia arborea (Forster) Druce 1917 H98, A61 [=Lotus arboreus Forster 1786 A61; incl. C. paludosa Cockayne 1915 A61]

Carmichaelia compacta Petrie 1885 H98, H95 [=Huttonella compacta (Petrie) Kirk 1885 H95; incl. C. compacta var. procumbens Simpson 1945 H95]

Carmichaelia curta Petrie 1893 H98, H95 [=Huttonella curta (Petrie) Kirk 1899 H95; incl. C. diffusa Petrie 1893 H95, C. curta var. glabra Simpson 1945 H95]

Carmichaelia egmontiana (Cockayne & Allan) Simpson 1945 [=C. australis var. egmontiana Cockayne & Allan 1926] A61

Carmichaelia grandiflora (Benth.) Hooker 1864 [=C. australis var. grandiflora Benth. in Hooker 1852; incl. C. grandiflora var. alba Kirk 1899] A61

Carmichaelia juncea Hooker 1852 H98, H95 [=Huttonella juncea C06; incl. C. fieldii Cockayne 1918 H95, C. floribunda Simpson 1945 H95, C. lacustris Simpson 1945 H95, C. nigrans Simpson 1945 H95, C. prona Kirk 1895 H95, Huttonella prona (Kirk) Kirk 1899 H95, C. nigrans var. tenuis Simpson 1945 H95]

Carmichaelia nana (Hooker) Hooker 1867 H98, H95 [=C. australis var. nana Hooker 1852 H95; incl. C. enysii var. ambigua Simpson 1945 H95, C. enysii Kirk 1884 H95, C. orbiculata Colenso 1890 H95, C. enysii var. orbiculata (Colenso) Kirk 1899 H95]

Carmichaelia robusta Kirk 1899 [=C. petriei var. robusta (Kirk) Cheesem. 1906; incl. C. grandiflora var. dumosa Kirk 1899] A61

Carmichaelia uniflora Kirk 1884 [incl. C. suteri Colenso 1891, C. uniflora var. suteri (Colenso) Simpson 1945, C. uniflora Buchanan 1884 non Kirk 1884] H95

*Corallospartium crassicaule (Hooker) Armstrong 1881 C06, A61 [=Carmichaelia crassicaulis Hooker 1864 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[H95] Heenan, P. B. 1995. A taxonomic revision of Carmichaelia (Fabaceae—Galegeae) in New Zealand (part I). New Zealand Journal of Botany 33: 455–475.

[H95] Heenan, P. B. 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of the Carmichaelia complex, Clianthus, and Swainsona (Fabaceae), from Australia and New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 36: 21–40.

Millettieae

Tuba Derris elliptica, copyright Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.
Contains: Tephrosia.

The Millettieae are a predominantly tropical group of legumes of which most species are woody with conspicuously banded parenchyma, flowers bearing fused keel petals, and seeds containing nonprotein amino acids.

<==Millettieae CP13
    |--+--‘Millettia’ grandis CP13
    |  `--+--Philenoptera eriocalyx CP13
    |     `--Leptoderris CP13
    |          |--L. brachyptera CP13
    |          `--L. fasciculata DP72
    `--+--Ophrestia radicosa CP13
       `--+--+--Apurimacia dolichocarpa CP13
          |  `--+--Tephrosia CP13
          |     `--+--Mundulea sericea CP13
          |        `--Ptycholobium biflorum CP13
          `--+--Piscidia piscipula CP13
             `--+--+--Brachypterum robustum CP13
                |  `--Fordia splendidissima CP13
                `--+--+--Lonchocarpus CP13
                   |  |    |--L. blackii CGW91
                   |  |    `--L. lanceolatus CP13
                   |  `--+--Deguelia dasycalyx CP13
                   |     `--Muellera campestris CP13
                   `--+--+--Pongamiopsis amygdalina CP13
                      |  |--Neodunnia richardiana CP13
                      |  `--Millettia CP13
                      |       |--M. auriculata P03
                      |       |--M. megasperma B00
                      |       |--M. nieuwenhuisii K03
                      |       |--M. sericea B88
                      |       `--M. thonningii CP13
                      `--+--Paraderris elliptica CP13
                         `--Derris CP13
                              |--D. elliptica B88
                              |--D. heterophylla [incl. D. uliginosa] P88
                              |--D. indica P03
                              |--D. laxiflora CP13
                              |--D. malaccensis P88
                              `--D. trifoliata B00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1–110.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

Indigofera

Indigo Indigofera tinctoria, copyright Kurt Stüber.


Belongs within: Papilionoideae.

Indigofera is a genus of leguminous plants found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world.

Characters (from Flora of China): Shrubs, shrublets, perennial herbs, or rarely annual herbs or small trees; trichomes typically medifixed (T-shaped), equally to very unequally 2-branched and sometimes crisped, or rarely simple multicellular hairs present with glandular tips. Stipules persistent or caducous. Leaves usually imparipinnate but for some species simple or reduced to 1 leaflet; stipels present or absent; leaflet blades usually opposite but sometimes subopposite or alternate, rarely with glands, margin entire. Racemes axillary; bracts usually caducous. Calyx campanulate or cup-shaped; teeth 5, subequal or abaxial one longer. Corolla usually reddish, sometimes white or yellow; standard usually covered outside with appressed trichomes but occasionally glabrous, base shortly clawed, apex usually obtuse to emarginate and mucronate; wings narrow, base auricled; keel falcate or spatulate, with spur adnate to wings. Stamens 10, diadelphous, only vexillary one free; anthers uniform, basifixed or subbasifixed, sometimes both ends hairy, apex apiculate; pollen 3-colporate. Ovary sessile, with 1 to many ovules; style linear, usually glabrous; stigma capitate. Legume linear, oblong, or ovoid, cylindric or 4-sided in cross section, 2-valved, septate, dehiscent; endocarp often spotted with tannin deposits. Seeds globose to rectangular; hilum small; cotyledons unequal; radicle oblique.

<==Indigofera
    |--I. acanthoclada CV06
    |--I. anabibensis CV06
    |--I. anil C55
    |--I. argentea PP07
    |--I. arreca K08
    |--I. australis C08
    |--I. boviperda KM08
    |--I. cassioides P03
    |--I. coerulea C55
    |--I. colutea LK14
    |--I. constricta SR07
    |--I. cordifolia PP07
    |--I. galagoides SR07
    |--I. georgei KM08
    |--I. giessii CV06
    |--I. glandulosa LK14
    |--I. haplophylla LK14
    |--I. hirsuta LK14
    |--I. hochstetteri PP07
    |    |--I. h. ssp. hochstetteri CV06
    |    `--I. h. ssp. streyana CV06
    |--I. linifolia LK14
    |--I. linnaei PP07
    |--I. mackinlayi LK14
    |--I. merxmuelleri CV06
    |--I. oblongifolia PP07
    |--I. pechuelii CV06
    |--I. polygaloides LK14
    |--I. pratensis LK14
    |--I. rautanenii CV06
    |--I. rupicola LK14
    |--I. sessiliflora PP07
    |--I. suffruticosa CP13
    |--I. tinctoria PP07
    |--I. trifoliata LK14
    |--I. trita LK14
    `--I. viscosa C06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

Malacostraca

Paranebalia sp., from the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History.


Belongs within: Euarthropoda.
Contains: Archaeostraca, Eumalacostraca, Nebaliidae.

The Malacostraca are a clade of crustaceans characterised by the possession of fourteen or fifteen trunk segments with the trunk divided into two sections bearing functionally distinct appendages. The anterior section of eight segments bears leaf-like phyllopods or rod-shaped stenopods whereas the following six segments bear swimming pleopods (there may be a terminal limbless segment). Those taxa with phyllopods have historically been recognised as the Phyllocarida but recent analysis have indicated this group is paraphyletic to the stenopod-bearing Eumalacostraca.

<==Malacostraca [Phyllocarida]
    |--+--Archaeostraca AC17
    |  `--+--Cinerocaris magnifica AC17, SC17
    |     `--Eumalacostraca AC17
    `--Leptostraca [Nebaliacea] AC17
         |  i. s.: Rhabdouraea Malzahn 1962 [Rhabdouraeidae] W-SP01
         |           `--*R. bentzi (Malzahn 1958) [=Nebalia bentzi) SM84
         |         Douglasocaris [Douglasocaridae] G88
         |--Nebaliopsis Sars 1887 [Nebaliopsidae, Nebaliopsididae] W-SP01
         |    `--*N. typica Sars 1887 W-SP01
         `--+--Nebaliidae W-SP01
            `--Paranebaliidae W-SP01
                 |--Paranebalia Claus 1880 W-SP01
                 |    |--*P. longipes (Willemöes-Suhm 1875) [=Nebalia longipes] W-SP01
                 |    `--P. belizensis Modlin 1991 W-SP01
                 `--Levinebalia Walker-Smith 2000 W-SP01
                      |--*L. maria Walker-Smith 2000 W-SP01
                      `--L. fortunata (Wakabara 1976) W-SP01

Malacostraca incertae sedis:
  Litopenaeus vannamei TL03
  Shinkaia crosnieri WS10
  Callizoe Barrande 1872 (n. d.) M61
  Orozoe Barrande 1872 (n. d.) M61
  Hymenocaris Salter 1853 B95 [Hymenocarididae, Hymenostraca FGS04]
    |--H. oelandica O68
    `--H. vermicauda Salter 1853 BWW93
  Sairocarididae [Hoplostraca] G88
    |--Sairocaris elongata (Peach 1882) BWW93
    `--Kellibrooksia macrogaster Schram 1973 BWW93
  Mytocaris Chlupáč 1970 BT04
    |--M. klouceki Chlupáč 1970 BT04
    `--‘Buffalopterus’ verrucosus Kjellesvig-Waering & Heubusch 1962 BT04
  Galenocaris Wells 1944 BT04
    `--G. campbelli Wells 1944 BT04
  Lebesconteia Jones & Woodward 1899 BT04
  Nothozoe Barrande 1872 (n. d.) BT04
    |--*N. pollens Barrande 1872 BB61
    `--N. barrandei Chlupáč 1970 BT04
  Saccocaris Salter 1873 BT04
    |--S. major Salter 1873 BT04
    |--S. minor Jones & Woodward 1891 BT04
    `--S. tetragona Chapman 1903 BT04
  Trigonocarys Barrois 1891 BT04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AC17] Aria, C., & J.-B. Caron. 2017. Burgess Shale fossils illustrate the origin of the mandibulate body plan. Nature 545: 89–92.

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[B95] Bousfield, E. L. 1995. A contribution to the natural classification of Lower and Middle Cambrian arthropods: food-gathering and feeding mechanisms. Amphipacifica 2: 3–34.

[BT04] Braddy, S. J., V. P. Tollerton Jr, P. R. Racheboeuf & R. Schallreuter. 2004. Eurypterids, phyllocarids, and ostracodes. In: Webby, B. D., F. Paris, M. L. Droser & I. G. Percival (eds) The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event pp. 255–265. Columbia University Press.

[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

[FGS04] Feldmann, R. M., A. A. Garassino & C. E. Schweitzer. 2004. The presumed decapod, Palaeopemphix Gemmellaro, 1890, is a unique member of the Phyllocarida (Palaeopemphicida: Palaeopemphidae). Journal of Palaeontology 78: 340–348.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[M61] Moore, R. C. 1961. Editorial note. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q429. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[O68] Öpik, A. A. 1968. Ordian (Cambrian) Crustacea Bradoriida of Australia. Commonwealth of Australia, Bureau of National Development, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Bulletin 103: 1–45.

[SM84] Schram, F. R., & E. Malzahn. 1984. The fossil leptostracan Rhabdouraea bentzi (Malzahn, 1958). Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 20 (6): 95–98.

[SC17] Schwentner, M., D. J. Combosch, J. P. Nelson & G. Giribet. 2017. A phylogenomic solution to the origin of insects by resolving crustacean-hexapod relationships. Current Biology 27: 1818–1824.

[TL03] Thompson, F. L., Y. Li, B. Gomez-Gil, C. C. Thompson, B. Hoste, K. Vandemeulebroecke, G. S. Rupp, A. Pereira, M. M. De Bem, P. Sorgeloos & J. Swings. 2003. Vibrio neptunius sp. nov., Vibrio brasiliensis sp. nov. and Vibrio xuii sp. nov., isolated from the marine aquaculture environment (bivalves, fish, rotifers and shrimps). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 245–252.

[W-SP01] Walker-Smith, G. K., & G. C. B. Poore. 2001. A phylogeny of the Leptostraca (Crustacea) with keys to families and genera. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 58 (2): 383–410.

[WS10] Wang, M., S. Sun, C. Li & X. Shen. 2010. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus, a useful molecular marker for phylogenetic and population studies. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 187–192. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Euarthropoda

Reconstruction of Mollisonia plenovenatrix by J. Liang, from Aria & Caron (2019).


Belongs within: Arthropoda.
Contains: Pycnogonida, Euchelicerata, Artiopoda, Marrellomorpha, Myriapoda, Fuxianhuiida, Hymenocarina, Oligostraca, Allotriocarida, Tantulocarida, Thecostraca, Copepoda, Malacostraca.

The name Euarthropoda refers to the most exclusive clade formed by crown-group arthropods. Recent analyses agree on a division of living arthropods between three major clades, the Chelicerata, Myriapoda and Pancrustacea, with the latter two usually being united to form a clade of arthropods possessing mandibles. Fossil euarthropod taxa not belonging to these clades are best known from the Cambrian period with the exception of the Artiopoda (the clade including the trilobites). The clade Pancrustacea includes the modern crustaceans and insects with the latter a derived subgroup of the former (Regier et al. 2010). This last grouping is primarily supported by molecular data; potential synapomorphies of the Pancrustacea have all become modified in various subclades. Relationships within the pancrustaceans remain subject to analysis. A relationship between the Tantulocarida and Thecostraca has been suggested on the basis of gonopore position in the two groups; tantulocarids and basal thecostracans are also both sessile parasites.

<==Euarthropoda (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Dala peilertae Müller 1983 ZS07
    |         Walossekia quinquespinosa Müller 1983 ZS07
    |--Panchelicerata AC19
    |    |--+--Sanctacaris Briggs & Collins 1988 AC19, CB04 [Sanctacarida, Sanctacaridea]
    |    |  |    |--‘Utahcaris’ orion Conway Morris & Robison 1988 B95
    |    |  |    `--Sanctacaris uncata Briggs & Collins 1988 WD02
    |    |  `--Habeliida B95
    |    |       |--Habelia Walcott 1912 AC19, CB04
    |    |       |    `--H. optata AC19
    |    |       `--Ecnomocaris LSE13
    |    `--Chelicerata AC19
    |         |  i. s.: Wisangocaris barbarahardyae Jago, García-Bellido & Gehling 2016 BS20
    |         |--Mollisoniidae [Mollisoniida] AC19
    |         |    |--Mollisonia Walcott 1912 AC19, CB04 [incl. Houghtonites Raymond 1931 AC19]
    |         |    |    |--*M. symmetrica Walcott 1912 [incl. M. rara Walcott 1912] AC19
    |         |    |    |--M. gracilis Walcott 1912 [=Houghtonites gracilis] AC19
    |         |    |    |--M. plenovenatrix Aria & Caron 2019 AC19
    |         |    |    `--M. sinica Zhang et al. 2002 AC19
    |         |    |--Thelxiope Simonetta & Delle Cave 1975 AC19
    |         |    |--Corcorania Jell 1980 AC19
    |         |    |    `--C. trispinosa AC19
    |         |    `--Urokodia Hou, Chen & Lu 1989 AC19
    |         |--Pycnogonida RS10
    |         `--Euchelicerata RS10
    `--+--Retifaciida LSE13
       |    |--Retifacies Hou, Chen & Lu 1989 LSE13, CB04
       |    |    `--R. abnormalis Hou et al. 1989 CB04
       |    `--+--Pygmaclypeatus LSE13
       |       `--+--+--Kiisortoqia AC19
       |          |  `--Siriocars LSE13
       |          `--Squamacula LSE13
       |               |--S. buckorum LSE13
       |               `--S. clypeatus LSE13
       `--+--Artiopoda AC19
          `--+--Marrellomorpha AC19
             `--+--Aquilonifer Briggs, Siveter et al. 2016 AC19, BS16
                |    `--*A. spinosus Briggs, Siveter et al. 2016 BS16
                `--Mandibulata (see below for synonymy) AC17
                     |  i. s.: Ercaia [Promandibulata] C12
                     |           `--E. minuscule C12
                     |         Musacaris LSE13
                     |         Cambropachycopidae LSE13
                     |           |--Cambropachycope clarksoni Walossek & Müller 1990 BWW93
                     |           `--Goticaris longispinosa Walossek & Müller 1990 BWW93
                     |--Myriapoda AC19
                     `--+--+--Fuxianhuiida AC19
                        |  `--Hymenocarina AC19
                        `--Pancrustacea (see below for synonymy) AC17
                             |  i. s.: Nippotantulus heteroxenus Huys, Ohtsuka & Boxshall 1994 MA01
                             |         Neomysis M02
                             |           |--N. americana M02
                             |           `--N. vulgaris CS77
                             |         Perosquilla armata K-MC02
                             |           |--P. a. armata K-MC02
                             |           `--P. a. capensis K-MC02
                             |         Mesosoma Otto 1821 C92
                             |         Mixodiaptomus laciniatus D51
                             |         Pleuroncodes planipes CH97
                             |         Phalangites priscus Münster 1836 D07
                             |         Cryptophthalmus Rafinesque 1814 BR05
                             |         Cymodocea Rafinesque 1814 BR05
                             |         ‘Cymodocea’ Leach 1818 nec Rafinesque 1814 nec Lamouroux 1816 BR05
                             |         ‘Dactylopus’ Claus 1862 non Gill 1859 BR05
                             |         Donovania Leach 1814 BR05
                             |         Orientalina Kolosnitsyna 1973 BR05
                             |         Pagodina van Beneden 1853 BR05
                             |         ‘Trichia’ de Haan 1839 non Haller 1768 BR05
                             |         ‘Typhis’ Risso 1816 non Montfort 1810 [Typhidae] BR05
                             |         Fenneropenaeus chinensis DH08
                             |         Limnadella kitei Girard 1854 DS89
                             |         Anatanais robusto BBB-S95
                             |         Anthonema Walther 1904 H75
                             |           `--*A. problematica Walther 1904 H75
                             |         ‘Acherusia’ Lucas 1846 non Laporte & Gory 1837 E12
                             |           `--A. dumerilii Lucas 1846 E12
                             |         Naesea edwardsii Lucas 1846 E12
                             |         Ovalia Latreille in Griffith & Pidgeon 1833 KA-Z11
                             |         Cycloidea FGS04
                             |           |--Cyclus de Koninck 1841 [incl. Paraprosopon Gemmellaro 1890] FGS04
                             |           `--Oonocarcinus Gemmellaro 1890 FGS04
                             |         Heymonsicambria EL11
                             |         Macleayia Haswell 1830 HW92
                             |         Pseudalibrotus littoralis CS77
                             |         Hymenodora glacialis CS77
                             |         Ozolus Latreille 1802 L02a
                             |           `--*O. gasterostei Latreille 1802 L02b (see below for synonymy)
                             |         Amymone L02b
                             |           |--A. baccha [=Monoculus bacchus] L02b
                             |           |--A. faunus [=A. fauna, Monoculus faunus] L02b
                             |           |--A. moenas L02b
                             |           |--A. satyrus [=A. satyra, Monoculus satyrus] L02b
                             |           |--A. silene [=A. silenus, Monoculus silenus] L02b
                             |           `--A. thyas L02b
                             |         Nauplius L02b
                             |           |--N. bracteatus [=Monoculus bracteatus] L02b
                             |           `--N. saltatorius [=Monoculus saltatorius] L02b
                             |         Microdentopus gryllotalpa PP64
                             |         Aristeomorpha foliacea PP64
                             |         Ligur ensiferus PP64
                             |         Paromola cuvieri PP64
                             |         Anamathia rissoana PP64
                             |         Ergasticus clouei PP64
                             |         Dorynchus thompsoni PP64
                             |         Cymopolia caroni PP64
                             |         Halopsyche de Saussure 1857 BR17
                             |         Palpipes Roth 1851 K18
                             |         Berndtia purpurea CG97
                             |         Trypetasa lampas CG97
                             |         Montagua monoculoides M01
                             |         Amblyops crozetii O01
                             |         Harpactocarcinus tumidus H79
                             |         Tuzoiidae O68
                             |           |--Tuzoia O68
                             |           `--*Dioxycaris argenta (Walcott 1888) [=Leperditia argenta, Isoxys argenta] O68
                             |         Corynuropsis Scott 1894 E00
                             |--Oligostraca AC19
                             `--Altocrustacea [Ostraca, Phyllopodomorpha, Thoracopoda] RS10
                                  |--Allotriocarida SC17
                                  `--Multicrustacea [Communostraca, Vericrustacea] SC17
                                       |  i. s.: Arenosicaris inflata SC17
                                       |--+--Tantulocarida LS02
                                       |  `--Thecostraca SC17
                                       `--+--Copepoda SC17
                                          `--Malacostraca SC17

Euarthropoda [Arachnata, Arachnomorpha, Aspidonia, Aspidota, Cormogonida, Eotrilobitacea, Myriochelata, Paradoxopoda, Polymeria, Skaracarida]

Mandibulata [Antennata, Atelocerata, Biantennata, Labiophora, Labrophora, Opisthogoneata, Tracheata] AC17

*Ozolus gasterostei Latreille 1802 L02b [incl. Argulus delphini L02b, Monoculus delphinus L02a, M. gyrini L02b]

Pancrustacea [Archoptera, Copepodoida, Copepodomorpha, Crustacea, Crustaceanomorpha, Entomostraca, Eucrustacea, Gymnota, Maxillopoda, Pneumonura, Progonomorpha, Pseudopoda, Tetraconata, Thecostracomorpha]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[AC19] Aria, C., & J.-B. Caron. 2019. A middle Cambrian arthropod with chelicerae and proto-book gills. Nature 573: 586–589.

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