Gentianales

Strychnine tree Strychnos nux-vomica, photographed by J. M. Garg.


Belongs within: Gentianidae.
Contains: Rubiaceae, Gentianoideae, Potalioideae, Mitrasacme, Logania, Geniostoma, Apocynaceae.

The Gentianales are an order of flowering plants including the major families Rubiaceae, Gentianaceae, Loganiaceae and Apocynaceae (including asclepiadoids). Members of the clade other than Rubiaceae are united by the possession of internal phloem. Within the Gentianales, the Gelsemiaceae are a small group of tropical and subtropical shrubs and lianas. The Loganiaceae are a mostly tropical group of woody plants, divided by some authors into a number of smaller families (e.g. Thorne 2000) though molecular analyses support a monophyletic clade as recognised below.

Characters (from Backlund et al. 2000): Mostly woody with opposite, entire leaves, often with stipules and colleters. Flowers usually regular, pentamerous; endosperm formation nuclear. Indole alkaloids present.

<==Gentianales [Rubiales]
    |  i. s.: Dialypetalanthus [Dialypetalanthaceae] T00
    |--Rubiaceae BJ99
    `--+--Gelsemiaceae BJ99 [Gelsemieae]
       |    |--Gelsemium sempervirens SB02
       |    `--Mostuea brunonis SB02
       |--Gentianaceae BJ99
       |    |  i. s.: Megacodon stylophorus O88
       |    |         Blackstonia perfoliata [=Chlora perfoliata] BR65
       |    |         Schenkia australis KM08
       |    |         Canscora PP07
       |    |           |--C. decussata P03
       |    |           `--C. diffusa PP07
       |    |         Enicostemma J07
       |    |           |--E. axillare J07
       |    |           `--E. verticillatum KJ05
       |    |--Gentianoideae T00
       |    `--Potalioideae T00
       |--Loganiaceae BJ99
       |    |  i. s.: Mitrasacme BR65
       |    |         Mitreola C95
       |    |           |--M. paniculata C55b
       |    |           `--M. petiolata (Gmel.) Torr. & Gray 1841 (see below for synonymy) C95
       |    |         Phyllangium OS04
       |    |           |--P. palustre GK00
       |    |           |--P. paradoxum G04
       |    |           `--P. sulcatum OS04
       |    |         Gardneria PS06
       |    |         Norrisia PS06
       |    |           |--N. major H03
       |    |           `--N. malaccensis H03
       |    |         Usteria PS06
       |    |--Antonia BJ99 [Antonieae]
       |    |    `--A. ovata BJ99
       |    `--+--+--Logania BJ99
       |       |  `--Geniostomaceae T00
       |       |       |--Labordia T00
       |       |       `--Geniostoma BJ99
       |       `--+--Spigelia BJ99 [Spigeliaceae, Spigelieae]
       |          |    |--S. anthelmia Linnaeus 1753 C95
       |          |    |--S. humboldtiana C55a
       |          |    |--S. marilandica BJ99
       |          |    `--S. petiolata C55
       |          `--Strychnaceae T00
       |               |--Gardneria T00
       |               |--Neuburgia T00 [=Neubergia (l. c.) C95]
       |               |    |--N. celebica (Koord.) Leenh. 1963 (see below for synonymy) C95
       |               |    |--N. corynocarpa (Gray) Leenh. 1963 (see below for synonymy) C95
       |               |    |    |--N. c. var. corynocarpa C95
       |               |    |    `--N. c. var. sarcantha (Gilg & Bened.) Conn 1979 (see below for synonymy) C95
       |               |    |--N. kochii (Val.) Leenh. 1963 (see below for synonymy) C95
       |               |    |--N. rumphiana Leenh. 1962 C95
       |               |    `--N. tubiflora Bl. 1850 C95
       |               `--Strychnos BJ99
       |                    |--S. (sect. Penicillatae) axillaris Colebr. 1819 (see below for synonymy) C95
       |                    |--S. ignatii K03
       |                    |--S. ligustrina [incl. S. lucida] C95
       |                    |--S. (sect. Lanigerae) minor Dennst. 1818 (see below for synonymy) C95
       |                    |--S. nux-vomica BJ99
       |                    |--S. potatorum BJ99
       |                    |--S. rupicola Pierre ex Dop 1910 [incl. S. donnaiensis Pierre ex Dop 1910] L05
       |                    `--S. wallichiana Steudel ex de Candolle 1845 (see below for synonymy) L03
       `--Apocynaceae BJ99

Mitreola petiolata (Gmel.) Torr. & Gray 1841 [incl. Cynoctonum mitreola (Linnaeus) Britt. 1894, M. oldenlandioides Don 1837 (nom. illeg.), C. mitreola var. orthocarpa Hochr. 1910] C95

Neuburgia celebica (Koord.) Leenh. 1963 [=Couthovia celebica Koord. 1898; incl. C. calophylla Gilg. & Bened. 1921, C. macrophylla Merr. & Perry 1942, C. sarcantha Cammerl. 1924 non Gilg. & Bened. 1916] C95

Neuburgia corynocarpa (Gray) Leenh. 1963 [=Couthovia corynocarpa Gray 1859; incl. C. astyla Gilg & Bened. 1916, C. brachyura Gilg & Bened. 1916, C. brassii Moore 1929, C. densiflora Sch. 1905, C. leucocarpa Merr. & Perry 1942, C. novo-britannica Kan. & Hat. 1939, C. nymanii Gilg & Bened. 1916, C. pachypoda Gilg & Bened. 1916, C. rhynochocarpa Gilg & Bened. 1916, C. terminaloides Gilg & Bened. 1916, C. yunzaingensis Merr. & Perry 1948] C95

Neuburgia corynocarpa var. sarcantha (Gilg & Bened.) Conn 1979 [=C. sarcantha Gilg & Bened. 1916, N. sarcantha (Gilg & Bened.) Leenh. 1962] C95

Neuburgia kochii (Val.) Leenh. 1963 [=Couthovia kochii Val. 1907; incl. C. undulatifolia Kan. & Hat. 1942, C. urophylla Gilg & Bened. 1916] C95

Strychnos axillaris Colebr. 1819 [incl. S. oophylla Gilg & Bened. 1916, S. penicillata Hill 1917, S. polytoma Gilg & Bened. 1916] C95

Strychnos minor Dennst. 1818 [incl. S. cinnamophylla Gilg & Bened. 1916, S. colubrina Hill 1917 non Linnaeus 1753, S. kerstingii Gilg & Sch. 1901, S. ledermanii Gilg & Bened. 1916, S. leuconeura Gilg & Bened. 1916, S. melanocarpa Gilg & Bened. 1916, S. myriantha Gilg & Bened. 1916, S. pycnoneura Gilg & Bened. 1916] C95

Strychnos wallichiana Steudel ex de Candolle 1845 [incl. S. cirrhosa Stokes 1812 (nom. illeg.), S. colubrina Linnaeus 1753 (nom. utique rej. prop.)] L03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Backlund, M., B. Oxelman & B. Bremer. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships within the Gentianales based on ndhF and rbcL sequences, with particular reference to the Loganiaceae. American Journal of Botany 87 (7): 1029-1043.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny – case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413-435.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Loganiaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 (B. J. Conn, ed.) pp. 132-188. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[J07] Jadhav, D. 2007. Ethno-medicinal plants used by Bhil tribe of Matrunda, district Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 203-206.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 121-130.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[L03] Lakshminarasimhan, P. 2003. (1585) Proposal to reject the name Strychnos colubrina (Loganiaceae). Taxon 52: 364-365.

[L05] Lakshminarasimhan, P. 2005. Strychnos rupicola Pierre ex Dop (Loganiaceae)—a new record for India from the Andaman Islands. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 141-142.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PS06] Pardeshi, S. N. & T. Srinivasu. 2006. Spigelia anthelmia L.—a new record from Maharashtra. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 201-204.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[SB02] Sennblad, B., & B. Bremer. 2002. Classification of Apocynaceae s.l. according to a new approach combining Linnaean and phylogenetic taxonomy. Systematic Biology 51 (3): 389-409.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

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