Gentianales

Coptosapelta diffusa, copyright Keisotyo.


Belongs within: Lamiidae.
Contains: Apocynaceae, Loganiaceae, Gentianoideae, Potalioideae, Canthium, Rubioideae, Ixoroidea, Cinchonoideae.

The Gentianales are an order of flowering plants including the major families Rubiaceae, Gentianaceae, Loganiaceae and Apocynaceae (including asclepiadoids). Members of the clade other than Rubiaceae are united by the possession of internal phloem. Within the Gentianales, the Gelsemiaceae are a small group of tropical and subtropical shrubs and lianas. The Gentianaceae have actinomorphic flowers with fused petals and sepals, and stamens attached to the inside of the petals. Fruit are usually dehiscent capsules, rarely berries.

The Rubiaceae are a family of plants found worldwide, distinguished by their opposite simple leaves with interpetiolar stipules. Among the more commercially significant members of the family are the Coffea species, from which come coffee, and the Gardenia (jasmine) species, grown as ornamentals and used to flavour tea. The majority of members of Rubiaceae are divided between the subclades Rubioideae, Cinchonoideae and Ixoroideae; taxa not included in these subgroups include the mostly Asian genera Luculia and Coptosapelta. Luculia includes shrubs and trees found from the Himalayas to China; L. grandifolia is a native of Bhutan with white to greenish-white flowers, while pink spice L. pinceana has a wide distribution from India to Vietnam and pink flowers. Coptosapelta comprises lianas and scandent shrubs found from China to New Guinea.

Characters (from Backlund et al. 2000): Mostly woody with opposite, entire leaves, often with stipules and colleters. Flowers usually regular, pentamerous; endosperm formation nuclear. Indole alkaloids present.

Gentianales [Rubiales] BJ99
    |  i. s.: Dialypetalanthus [Dialypetalanthaceae] T00
    |--+--Apocynaceae BJ99
    |  |--Loganiaceae BJ99
    |  |--Gelsemiaceae BJ99 [Gelsemieae]
    |  |    |--Gelsemium sempervirens SB02
    |  |    |--Mostuea brunonis SB02
    |  |    `--Pteleocarpa [Pteleocarpaceae] APG16
    |  `--Gentianaceae BJ99
    |       |  i. s.: Megacodon stylophorus O88
    |       |         Blackstonia perfoliata [=Chlora perfoliata] BR65
    |       |         Schenkia australis KM08
    |       |         Canscora PP07
    |       |           |--C. decussata P03
    |       |           `--C. diffusa PP07
    |       |         Enicostemma J07
    |       |           |--E. axillare J07
    |       |           `--E. verticillatum KJ05
    |       |         Lisianthus skinneri KJ94
    |       |         Eustoma exaltatum H93
    |       |--Gentianoideae T00
    |       `--Potalioideae T00
    `--Rubiaceae [Cinchoneae, Coffeoideae, Coptosapelteae] MS10
         |  i. s.: Atractogyne YY22
         |         Siphonandrium YY22
         |         Alibertia edulis BJ99
         |         Amajoua YY22
         |         Anthispermum YY22
         |         Basanacantha YY22
         |         Byrsophyllum YY22
         |         Crocyllis YY22
         |         Duroia YY22
         |         Garapatica YY22
         |         Kotchubaea YY22
         |         Melanopsidium YY22
         |         Morindopsis YY22
         |         Stachyarrhena YY22
         |         Thieleodoxa YY22
         |         Bataprine YY22
         |         Bobea YY22
         |         Cuviera YY22
         |         Hodgkinsonia YY22
         |         Myonima YY22
         |         Pachystylus YY22
         |         Timonius timon YY22, WP99
         |         Bathysa YY22
         |         Pouchetia Richard ex de Candolle 1830 FT93
         |           `--P. gilletii BJ99
         |         Psydrax LK14
         |           |--P. odorata LK14
         |           |    |--P. o. ssp. odorata LK14
         |           |    `--P. o. ssp. arnhemica LK14
         |           |--P. pendulina LK14
         |           `--P. suaveolens G04
         |         Rutidea orientalis BM00
         |         Schenckia blumenaviensis BM00
         |         Aidia BJ99
         |           |--A. micrantha BJ99
         |           `--A. racemosa VT13
         |         Aoranthe penduliflora BJ99
         |         Bertiera breviflora BJ99
         |         Burchellia bubalina BJ99
         |         Calochone redingii BJ99
         |         Canthium BJ99
         |         Casasia clusiifolia BJ99
         |         Chomelia BJ99
         |         Cremaspora triflora BJ99
         |         Cubanola domingensis BJ99
         |         Didymosalpinx norae BJ99
         |         Euclinia longiflora BJ99
         |         Feretia aeruginescens BJ99
         |         Genipa americana BJ99
         |         Glossostipula concinna BJ99
         |         Gonzalagunia affinis BJ99
         |         Heinsia crinita BJ99
         |         Hippotis BJ99
         |         Kailarsenia ochreata BJ99
         |         Keetia zanzibarica BJ99
         |         Kraussia floribunda BJ99
         |         Ladenbergia pavonii BJ99
         |         Leptactina platyphylla BJ99
         |         Massularia acuminata BJ99
         |         Meyna BJ99
         |           |--M. laxiflora P03
         |           `--M. tetraphylla BJ99
         |         Oxyanthus BJ99
         |           |--O. pyriformis BJ99
         |           `--O. zanguebaricus BJ99
         |         Paracoffea melanocarpa BJ99
         |         Porterandia crosbyi BJ99
         |         Posoqueria latifolia BJ99
         |         Pseudosabicea arborea BJ99
         |         Psilanthus mannii BJ99
         |         Rachicallis americana BJ99
         |         Ramosmania rodriguesii BJ99
         |         Randia BJ99
         |           |--R. aculeata BJ99
         |           |--R. benthamiana WO95
         |           |--R. fitzalani [=Atractocarpus fitzalani] BJ99
         |           |--R. karstenii MM96
         |           `--R. moorei BJ99
         |         Rosenbergiodendron longiflorum BJ99
         |         Rothmannia longiflora BJ99
         |         Sabicea BJ99
         |           |--S. speiosa M09
         |           `--S. villosa BJ99
         |         Sukunia longipes BJ99
         |         Tamridaea capsulifera BJ99
         |         Tarenna BJ99
         |           |--T. cymosa BJ99
         |           |--T. dallachiana LK14
         |           |    |--T. d. ssp. dallachiana LK14
         |           |    `--T. d. ssp. expandens LK14
         |           |--T. neurophylla BJ99
         |           `--T. pentamera LK14
         |         Tricalysia BJ99
         |           |--T. cryptocalyx BJ99
         |           |--T. malaccensis J06
         |           `--T. ovalifolia BJ99
         |         Plectronia Linnaeus 1767 BR65
         |           `--P. latifolia [=Canthium latifolium] BR65
         |         Mastixiodendron pachyclados (Sch.) Melch. 1925 [=Fagraea pachyclados Sch. in Sch. & Laut. 1905] C95
         |         Chione venosa J87
         |         Stevensia hotteana J87
         |         Xeromphis spinosa KJ05
         |         Thecagonum ovalifolium P03
         |         Wendlandia P03
         |           |--W. exserta P03
         |           `--W. tinctoria P03
         |         Caelospermum reticulatum B00
         |         Kelloggia galioides H93
         |--Luculia RB01
         |    |--L. grandifolia RB01
         |    `--L. pinceana RB01
         `--+--Rubioideae RB01
            |--Coptosapelta RB01
            |    |--C. diffusa BM00
            |    `--C. flavescens RB01
            `--+--Ixoroideae RB01
               `--Cinchonoideae RB01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

Backlund, M., B. Oxelman & B. Bremer. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships within the Gentianales based on ndhF and rbcL sequences, with particular reference to the Loganiaceae. American Journal of Botany 87 (7): 1029-1043.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny—case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413–435.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Loganiaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 132–188. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J07] Jadhav, D. 2007. Ethno-medicinal plants used by Bhil tribe of Matrunda, district Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 203–206.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115–132.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 121–130.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[KJ94] Kim, K.-J., & R. K. Jansen. 1994. Comparisons of phylogenetic hypotheses among different data sets in dwarf dandelions (Krigia, Asteraceae): additional information from internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Plant Systematics and Evolution 190: 157–185.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[MS10] Moore, M. J., P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, J. G. Burleigh & D. E. Soltis. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes further resolves the early diversification of eudicots. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (10): 4623–4628.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[RB01] Razafimandimbison, S. G., & B. Bremer. 2001. Tribal delimitation of Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae): inference from molecular and morphological data. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71: 515–538.

[SB02] Sennblad, B., & B. Bremer. 2002. Classification of Apocynaceae s.l. according to a new approach combining Linnaean and phylogenetic taxonomy. Systematic Biology 51 (3): 389–409.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

[WO95] Walter, D. E., & D. J. O'Dowd. 1995. Beneath biodiversity: factors influencing the diversity and abundance of canopy mites. Selbyana 16 (1): 12–20.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 25 November 2018.

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