Toheroa Amphidesma ventricosum, from McLintock (1966).

Belongs within: Neoheterodontei.
Contains: Mactra, Mesodesmatidae, Lutrarinae.

The Mactroidea are a group of infaunal bivalves first recorded from the Upper Cretaceous. Members of the family Mactridae have the siphons united to their tips whereas they are more or less separated in the Amphidesmatidae. The shell of Mactridae is often slightly or widely gaping. The cosmopolitan genus Spisula, however, lacks a gape in the shell; shells of this genus are trigonal to ovate and concentrically striate. Paphies is a South Pacific assemblage of ovate-elongate clams with a small, internal ligament and long, narrow, projecting resilifer.

Mactroidea [Mactracea]
    |--Amphidesma Lamarck 1818 P98, P61 [Amphidesmatidae P61]
    |    |  i. s.: A. angusta M54
    |    |         A. corrugatum [incl. Amphidesma proximum, Semele proxima] C64
    |    |         A. crassiformis M. & M. 1920 F26
    |    |         A. ellipticum C64
    |    |         A. pliocenica Oliver 1923 F26
    |    |         A. striosum C64
    |    |         A. ventricosum C64
    |    |--A. (Paphies Lesson 1830) P61
    |    |    `--A. (*P.) australe (Gmelin 1791) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         |--A. a. australe P61
    |    |         `--A. a aucklandicum (von Martens 1879) P61 [=Paphies australis aucklandica F26]
    |    `--A. (Taria Adams 1858) P61
    |         |--A. (T.) subtriangulatum (Wood 1828) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--A. (T.) forsterianum Finlay 1927 P61
    |         `--A. (T.) ventricosum (Gray 1843) P61 [=Mesodesma ventricosum F26, Paphies ventricosa HS01]
    `--Mactridae P61
         |  i. s.: Tanysiphon G88
         |         Rangia cuneata G88
         |         Standella C96
         |           |--S. californica C64
         |           |--S. falcata C64
         |           |--S. fragilis C64
         |           |--S. nasuta C64
         |           |--S. nicobarica (Gmelin 1791) [=Mactra nicobarica] H09
         |           `--S. planulata C64
         |         Oxyperas C96
         |         Longimactra Finlay 1928 P61
         |           `--*L. elongata (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) [=Mactra elongata] P61
         |         Maorimactra Finlay 1928 P61
         |           `--*M. oridinaria (Smith 1898) [=Mactra ordinaria] P61
         |         Scalpomactra Finlay 1928 P61
         |           `--*S. scalpellum (Reeve 1854) [=Mactra scalpellum] P61
         |         Resania Gray 1852 P61
         |           `--*R. lanceolata Gray 1852 P61
         |         Cyclomactra Dall 1895 P61
         |           |--*C. tristis (Reeve 1854) [=Mactra tristis; incl. C. rudis] P61
         |           `--C. ovata (Gray 1843) P61
         |         Zenatia Gray 1853 P61
         |           |--*Z. zelandica P61
         |           `--Z. acinaces (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) P61
         |         Mulinia LS80
         |           |--M. angulata C64
         |           |--M. carinulata [incl. Mactra modesta Sloat ms] C64
         |           |--M. congesta LS80
         |           |--M. densata C64
         |           |--M. lateralis LS80
         |           `--M. notata H79
         |         Sarmatimactra JB12
         |         Raeta Gray 1853 JB12, F26
         |           |--R. canaliculata F26
         |           |--R. pellicula (Reeve 1853) XZ10
         |           |--R. perspicua F26
         |           |--R. pulchella GAS03
         |           |--R. tenuiplicata Bartrum 1919 F26
         |           `--R. undulata C64
         |         Nelltia elliptica (Whitfield 1891) SB93
         |--Mactra TW07
         `--+--Meropesta nicobarica (Gmelin 1791) TW07
            `--+--Mesodesmatidae TW07
               `--+--Lutrarinae TW07
                  `--Spisula TW07
                       |  i. s.: S. elliptica M62
                       |         S. parva (Petit 1853) [=Gnathodon parva] H09
                       |         S. planulata B56
                       |         S. sachalinensis L10
                       |         S. solida (Linnaeus 1758) TW07
                       |         S. solidissima (Dillwyn 1817) F77
                       |         S. spisula PC11
                       |         S. subtruncata GW02
                       |         S. trigonella (Lamarck 1818) HJ08
                       `--S. (Crassula Marwick 1948) P61
                            `--S. (*C.) aequilateralis (Deshayes 1854) [=Mactra aequilateralis] P61

Amphidesma (Taria) subtriangulatum (Wood 1828) P61 [=Mesodesma subtriangulatum F26, Paphies subtriangulata HS01; incl. Amphidesma gaymardi F26, Mesodesma latum P61, A. (*Taria) latum P61, F26, A. quoyi F26, A. spissa F26]

Amphidesma (Paphies) australe (Gmelin 1791) P61 [=Mya australis P61, Mesodesma australe F26, Paphies australis F26, A. novaezelandiae F26]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C96] Crame, J. A. 1996. Evolution of high-latitude molluscan faunas. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 119–131. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[F26] Finlay, H. J. 1926. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F77] Franz, D. R. 1977. Size and age-specific predation by Lunatia heros (Say, 1822) on the surf clam Spisula solidissima (Dillwyn, 1817) off western Long Island, New York. Veliger 20 (2): 144–150.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. "Times" Office: Christchurch.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[L10] Lebedev, E. B. 2010. Diversity of soft-bottom mollusks in the Far Eastern Marine Reserve (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 169–173. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[LS80] Levinton, J. S., & C. M. Simon. 1980. A critique of the punctuated equilibria model and implications for the detection of speciation in the fossil record. Systematic Zoology 29 (2): 130–142.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la rĂ©gion de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[PC11] Plazzi, F., A. Ceregato, M. Taviani & M. Passamonti. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of bivalve mollusks: ancient radiations and divergences as revealed by mitochondrial genes. PLoS One 6 (11): e27147.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

[XZ10] Xu, F., & J. Zhang. 2010. Study on the bivalve faunal composition of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 7–12. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Last updated: 5 March 2022.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS