Mactra stultorum, copyright National Museum Wales.

Belongs within: Heterodonta.

The Mactroidea are a group of infaunal bivalves first recorded from the Upper Cretaceous. Members of the family Mactridae have the siphons united to their tips, whereas they are more or less separated in the Amphidesmatidae. Among major genera of the Mactridae, members of the genus Mactra have the shell ligament separated from the resilium by a shelly lamina (Cox et al. 1969).

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Thin-shelled, porcelaneous; hinge with inverted V-shaped cardinal tooth in left valve, two cardinals in right valve; lateral teeth and accessory cardinal laminae present in most groups; external ligament small or wanting, internal ligament or resilium seated in socket-like resilifer; pallial sinus normally well developed.

<==Mactroidea [Mactracea]
    |--Amphidesma Lamarck 1818 P98, P61 [Amphidesmatide M54]
    |    |  i. s.: A. angusta M54
    |    |         A. crassiformis M. & M. 1920 F27a
    |    |         A. pliocenica Oliver 1923 F27a
    |    |--A. (Paphies Lesson 1830) P61
    |    |    `--A. (*P.) australe (Gmelin 1791) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         |--A. a. australe P61
    |    |         `--A. a aucklandicum (von Martens 1879) P61 [=Paphies australis aucklandica F27a]
    |    `--A. (Taria Adams 1858) P61
    |         |--A. (T.) forsterianum Finlay 1927 P61
    |         |--A. (T.) subtriangulatum (Wood 1828) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |         `--A. (T.) ventricosum (Gray 1843) P61 [=Mesodesma ventricosum F27a, Paphies ventricosa HS01]
    `--Mactridae MG-H11
         |--Tanysiphon G88
         |--Rangia cuneata G88
         |--Longimactra Finlay 1928 P61
         |    `--*L. elongata (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) [=Mactra elongata] P61
         |--Maorimactra Finlay 1928 P61
         |    `--*M. oridinaria (Smith 1898) [=Mactra ordinaria] P61
         |--Scalpomactra Finlay 1928 P61
         |    `--*S. scalpellum (Reeve 1854) [=Mactra scalpellum] P61
         |--Resania Gray 1852 P61
         |    `--*R. lanceolata Gray 1852 P61
         |--Tresus GW02
         |    |--T. capax (Gould 1850) R78
         |    `--T. nuttalli GW02
         |--Cyclomactra Dall 1895 P61
         |    |--*C. tristis (Reeve 1854) [=Mactra tristis; incl. C. rudis] P61
         |    `--C. ovata (Gray 1843) P61
         |--Zenatia Gray 1853 P61
         |    |--*Z. zelandica P61
         |    `--Z. acinaces (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) P61
         |--Spisula HJ08
         |    |  i. s.: S. elliptica M62
         |    |         S. parva (Petit 1853) [=Gnathodon parva] H09
         |    |         S. solida M79
         |    |         S. solidissima (Dillwyn 1817) F77
         |    |         S. subtruncata GW02
         |    |         S. trigonella (Lamarck 1818) HJ08
         |    `--S. (Crassula Marwick 1948) P61
         |         `--S. (*C.) aequilateralis (Deshayes 1854) [=Mactra aequilateralis] P61
         |--Mulinia LS80
         |    |--M. congesta LS80
         |    `--M. lateralis LS80
         `--Mactra Linnaeus 1767 P61
              |--*M. stultorum P61
              |--M. achatina Chemnitz 1795 H09
              |--M. angulifera Reeve 1854 H09
              |--M. apicina Reeve 1854 H09
              |--M. aspersa Sowerby 1825 H09
              |--M. chrydaea Suter 1911 [=M. dubia (Hutton 1873) (preoc.)] F27b
              |--M. coppingeri Smith 1884 H09
              |--M. corralina M79
              |    |--M. c. corallina M79
              |    `--M. c. cinerea M79
              |--M. crassa Turton 1822 F27b
              |--M. crassitesta Finlay 1927 [=Hemimactra crassa Hutton 1885, M. crassa non Turton 1822] F27b
              |--M. discors Gray 1837 P61
              |--M. dissimilis Reeve 1854 H09
              |--M. eximia Reeve 1854 H09
              |--M. incompta White 1877 W77
              |--M. iridescens Kuroda & Habe 1958 MG-H11
              |--M. jacksonensis Smith 1885 H09
              |--M. leda Finlay 1924 F27b (see below for synonymy)
              |--M. maculata Gmelin 1791 H09
              |--M. (Mactrotoma) nasuta Gould 1851 PP78
              |--M. obesa Reeve 1854 H09
              |--M. olorina Philippi 1846 BD86
              |--M. ornata Gray 1837 H09
              |--M. parkesiana Hedley 1902 H09
              |--M. plicataria Linne 1767 H09
              |--M. podolica G76
              |--M. pura M54
              |--M. pusilla Adams 1856 H09
              |--M. solida M79
              |--M. subtruncata M79
              `--M. vitaliana G76
                   |--M. v. vitaliana G76
                   |--M. v. fabreana G76
                   `--M. v. pallasi G76

Amphidesma (Taria) subtriangulatum (Wood 1828) P61 [=Mesodesma subtriangulatum F27a, Paphies subtriangulata HS01; incl. Amphidesma gaymardi F27a, Mesodesma latum P61, A. (*Taria) latum P61, F27a, A. quoyi F27a, A. spissa F27a]

Amphidesma (Paphies) australe (Gmelin 1791) P61 [=Mya australis P61, Mesodesma australe F27a, Paphies australis F27a, A. novaezelandiae F27a]

Mactra leda Finlay 1924 F27b [=M. attenuata Hutton 1873 (preoc.) F27b, Crassatella attenuata H86, Paphia attenuata H86]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 2. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F77] Franz, D. R. 1977. Size and age-specific predation by Lunatia heros (Say, 1822) on the surf clam Spisula solidissima (Dillwyn, 1817) off western Long Island, New York. Veliger 20 (2): 144–150.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[G76] Grigorescu, D. 1976. Paratethyan seals. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 407–419.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[LS80] Levinton, J. S., & C. M. Simon. 1980. A critique of the punctuated equilibria model and implications for the detection of speciation in the fossil record. Systematic Zoology 29 (2): 130–142.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2–A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[R78] Reid, R. G. B. 1978. The systematic, adaptive and physiological significance of proteolytic enzyme distribution in bivalves. Veliger 20 (3): 260–265.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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