Eupodoidea

Rhagidia sp., photographed by Amir Weinstein.


Belongs within: Eupodides.
Contains: Eupodidae.

The Eupodoidea are a group of mostly soft-bodied mites including predatory, fungivorous and phytophagous forms. Members of the family Rhagidiidae produce silk that they use to protect themselves during moulting, and also in at least some cases in prey capture (Walter et al. 2009).

See also: The Eupodoidea: earth mites and silk-weaving mites.

Characters (from Kethley 1990): Body usually weakly sclerotised (except in Penthalodidae). Rutellum absent. Palps with four segments; palpal tibia without a clawlike seta. Naso usually present; peritreme absent; one pair of prodorsal trichobothria present. Leg trichobothria absent. Tarsus I usually with at least one recumbent solenidion; famulus present on tarsus I, often stellate-shaped.

<==Eupodoidea
    |--+--Eupodidae DW10
    |  `--Penthaleidae DW10
    |       |--Linopenthalodes WP99
    |       |--Chromotydaeus WP99
    |       |    |--C. egregius (Berlese 1891) WL09, SB63 [=Penthaleus egregius SB63, Penthalodes egregius SB63]
    |       |    |--C. quartus WL09
    |       |    `--C. villosus [=Penthaleus villosus] T04
    |       |--Halotydeus WL09
    |       |    |--H. anthropus WL09
    |       |    |--H. destructor (Tucker 1925) [=Penthaleus destructor, Halotydaeus (l. c.) destructor] H01
    |       |    |--H. hydrodromus WL09
    |       |    |--H. mollis WL09
    |       |    `--H. signiensis WL09
    |       `--Penthaleus Koch 1836 SB63
    |            |--*P. major (Dugès 1834) SB63 [=Tetranychus major SB63; incl. Notophallus bicolor Froggatt 1921 H01]
    |            |--P. crinitis WL09
    |            |--P. haematopus CF77
    |            |--P. longipilis (Canestrini 1886) SB63 (see below for synonymy)
    |            |--P. medius Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |            |--P. minor (Canestrini 1886) [=Notophallus minor] SB63
    |            |--P. ovatus CF77
    |            `--P. tectus WL09
    `--Rhagidiidae DW10
         |--Foveacheles terricola (Koch 1835) Z01
         |--Evadorhagidia Z01
         |--Troglocheles gineti WL09
         |--Arhagidia J91
         |--Robustocheles mucronata WL09
         |--Shibaia longisensilla WL09
         |--Krantzia quadriseta WL09
         |--Brevipalpia WL09
         |--Tuberostoma WL09
         |    |--T. keithi WL09
         |    `--T. leechi WP99
         |--Coccorhagidia Z01
         |    |--C. clavifrons M83
         |    `--C. pittardi Strandtmann 1971 Z01
         |--Poecilophysis Z01
         |    |--P. recussa (Thor 1909) Z01
         |    |--P. spelaea (Wankel 1861) Z01
         |    `--P. weyerensis WL09
         `--Rhagidia Thorell 1871 SB63
              |--*R. gelida Thorell 1871 [incl. R. heteropoda, R. uniseta] SB63
              |--R. arenaria WP99
              |--R. breviseta Zacharda 1995 Z01
              |--‘Rhyncholophus’ cavernarum Packard 1888 (n. d.) S61
              |--R. clavicrinita WP99
              |--R. crassipes Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
              |--R. gerlachei WP99 [=Rhagidia (Noerneria) giges gerlachei T04]
              |--R. gigas (Canestrini 1886) [=Noerneria gigas; incl. R. terricola longipes Vitzthum 1928] SB63
              |--R. halophila WP99
              |--R. harmsworthi (Michael 1897) [=Erythraeus harmsworthi, Erythracarus harmsworthi] O99
              |--R. longisensilla WL09
              |--R. occulta WL09
              |--R. parvilobata Zacharda 1995 Z01
              |--R. raetica Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
              |--R. reflexa SB63
              `--R. terricola (Koch 1835) [=Scyphius terricola] SB63

Eupodoidea incertae sedis:
  Paraprotacarus hirsti Dubinin 1962 AF00
  Palaeotydeus devonicus Dubinin 1962 AF00
  Pilorhagidia Strandtmann & Goff 1977 [incl. Strandtmannia Zacharda 1978; Strandtmanniidae] K90
    |--P. celtarum WL09
    `--P. hirsuta WL09
  Eriorhynchus [Eriorhynchidae] OW01
    |--E. australicus WL09
    `--E. walteri WP99
  Penthalodidae K90
    |--Turanopenthalodes polytrichus WL09
    |--Callipenthalodes pennyae WL09
    |--Penthalodes Murray 1877 SB63
    |    |--*P. ovalis (Dugès 1834) [=Megamerus ovalis] SB63
    |    `--P. ovasimilis Schweizer 1951 SB63
    `--Stereotydeus WL09
         |--S. longipes WL09
         |--S. mollis WL09
         `--S. villosus WP99
  Pentapalpus [Pentapalpidae] WL09
    `--P. unguempodius WL09
  Linopenthaloides novaezealandicus WL09

Penthaleus longipilis (Canestrini 1886) SB63 [=Notophallus longipilis SB63; incl. P. longilis (l. c.) var. longipes Schweizer 1951 S51]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AF00] André, H. M., & A. Fain. 2000. Phylogeny, ontogeny and adaptive radiation in the superfamily Tydeoidea (Acari: Actinedida), with a reappraisal of morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 130: 405-448.

[CF77] Canestrini, G. & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69-208, pls 202-207.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222-241.

[H01] Halliday, R. B. 2001. 250 years of Australian acarology. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 3-16. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[J91] Jesionowska, K. 1991. Morphology of the Eupodidae (Actinotrichida, Actinedida, Eupodoidea). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 265-278. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K90] Kethley, J. 1990. Acarina: Prostigmata (Actinedida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 667-756. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[O99] Otto, J. C. 1999. Revision of the genus Erythracarus Berlese (Acarina: Anystidae: Erythracarinae). Journal of Natural History 33: 825-909.

[OW01] Otto, J. C., & K. J. Wilson. 2001. Assessment of the usefulness of ribosomal 18S and mitochondrial COI sequences in Prostigmata phylogeny. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 100-109. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S51] Schweizer, J. 1951. Die Landmilben des schweizerischen Nationalparkes. 2. Teil: Trombidiformes. Ergebnisse der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung des schweizerischen Nationalparks [Résultats des recherches scientifiques entreprises au Parc National Suisse] 3 (Neue Folge): 51-172.

[SB63] Schweizer, J. & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i-vi, 209-378.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367-610.

[T04] Trägårdh, I. 1904. Fauna Arctica: Eine Zusammenstellung der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898. Band IV, Lieferung I. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 233-420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[Z01] Zacharda, M. 2001. Talus formations—remarkable biotopes for acarological research, with examples from the Rhagidiidae (Acari: Prostigmata). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 269-271. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

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