Mollusca

Holotype of Falcidens lipuros, from Museum Victoria.


Belongs within: Lophotrochozoa.
Contains: Hyolitha, Cricoconarida, Merismoconchidae, Tergomya, Cephalopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Helcionelliformes, Rostroconchia, Polyplacophora, Solenogastres.

The Mollusca include such animals as clams, snails, squids and slugs. They often have a dorsal shell secreted by a mantle though this feature has been lost in numerous daughter lineages. Molluscs generally have a ventral muscular foot for locomotion and a tooth-bearing radula for feeding, though again both characters may be lost or modified in various taxa.

Basal relationships between the various mollusc lineages have been subject to much debate, with a wide range of different arrangements suggested. One leading suggestion is a basal division between the Conchifera, which ancestrally possess a single shell (lost in some derived lineages, and divided into two valves in Bivalvia), and the Aculifera, which possess a body covering of spicules and may or may not have a shell composed of a series of separate valves. A shell is absent in the worm-like marine Caudofoveata (which also lack a foot) and Solenogastres, which have been classified together as the Aplacophora. Authors have disagreed whether the Aplacophora are monophyletic or whether the lack of a shell is an ancestral character; a phylogenetic analysis by Sutton et al. (2012) suggested that while aplacophorans form a clade relative to other living molluscs, they both lost their shells independently from valvate ancestors. Relationships are, if anything, even more contentious within the Conchifera: almost every possible arrangement of the major subgroups has been proposed at one time or another.

There are also a number of mostly Palaeozoic fossil groups of molluscs whose affinities remain obscure; many of these with simple, more or less cap-shaped shells have been classified in the past within a para- or polyphyletic taxon Monoplacophora.

See also: Tons of little tubes.

<==Mollusca (see below for synonymy)
    |--Conchifera [Cyrtosoma, Diasoma, Loboconcha, Monoplacophora, Visceroconcha] SB12
    |    |--+--Tergomya SW11
    |    |  `--+--Cephalopoda SW11
    |    |     `--Knightoconus antarcticus Yochelson et al. 1973 H87
    |    `--Pleistomollusca KC11
    |         |--Bivalvia SW11
    |         `--+--Gastropoda SW11
    |            `--+--Helcionelliformes P04
    |               `--Rostroconchia SW11
    `--Aculifera [Eoplacophora, Paleoloricata] SB12
         |--Polyplacophora SB12
         `--Aplacophora [Scolecomorpha, Telobranchia] SB12
              |--Solenogastres SB12
              |--Robustum SB12
              |--Acutichiton SB12
              |--Septemchiton Bergenhayn 1955 SB12, S60 [Septemchitonidae, Septemchitonina]
              |    `--*S. vermiformis Bergenhayn 1955 S60
              `--+--Caudofoveata [Chaetodermatida, Chaetodermatina, Chaetodermomorpha] GO06
                 |    |  i. s.: Scutopus ventrolineatus GO06
                 |    |         Chevroderma turnerae S88
                 |    `--Chaetodermatidae [Chaetodermata] S95
                 |         |--Chaetoderma nitidilum Lovén 1845 RP07
                 |         |--Lepoderma chiastos (see below for synonymy) S95
                 |         `--Falcidens Salvini-Plawen 1969 S95
                 |              |--F. lipuros S95
                 |              `--F. poias Scheltema 1995 S95
                 `--+--Phthipodochiton thraivensis [=Helminthochiton thraivensis] SB12
                    `--+--Kulindroplax Sutton, Briggs et al. 2012 SB12
                       |    `--*K. perissokomos Sutton, Briggs et al. 2012 SB12
                       `--+--Matthevia Walcott 1885 SB12, F62 [Mattheva, Mattheviidae, Matthevina]
                          |    `--*M. variabilis Walcott 1885 F62
                          `--+--Enetoplax SB12
                             |--Heloplax SB12
                             `--Acaenoplax Sutton, Briggs et al. 2001 SB12, SB01
                                  `--*A. hayae Sutton, Briggs et al. 2001 SB01

Mollusca incertae sedis:
  Eovasum D01
  Paraseraphs D01
  Nutricola LGJ03
  Succinodon (n. d.) N85
  Harmandia Rochebrune 1882 C92
  Deltoideum delta TP02
  Bilobissa dilatata TP02
  Umbella d’Orbigny 1841 E03
  Coniconchia M90
    |--Hyolitha M90
    `--Cricoconarida M90
  Marcia plana W27
  Lapparia hebes A27
  Gilbertia tertiaria A27
  Mesalia striolata A27
  ‘Dimorpha’ Gray 1840 non Panzer 1806 C-S93
  Janella Grateloup 1838 BR05
  Placopecten magellanicus PH06
  Hyalocylis striata B26
  Lagena wiegmanni F66
  Ruma sebae F66
  Lampania zonalis F66
  Gladius fusus F66
  Macha strigillata F66
  Hiatula diphos F66
  Trigonella luzonica F66
  Cryptogramma flexuosa F66
  Circe F66
    |--C. gibba F66
    `--C. undatina F66
  Anomalocardia trapezina F66
  Tropicolpus albolapis M49
  Polinella lobata M49
  Zeacuminia pareoraensis M49
  Bartrumia tenuiplicata M49
  Lentipecten hochstetteri M49
  Zippora membranacea P75
  Syndosmya P75
    |--S. alba D56
    `--S. ovata P75
  Mytilaster P75
    |--M. lineatus CS77
    `--M. monterosatoi P75
  ‘Eatonia’ Smith 1875 non Hall 1857 S61
  Stenothecoida EL11
    |  i. s.: Manikai EL11
    `--Cambridiidae [Cambridiacea, Cambridioidea Y71, Probivalvia]
         |--Cambridium Houný 1957 KY60
         |    `--*C. nikiforovae Houný 1957 KY60
         |--Bagenovia Radugin 1937 KY60
         |    `--*B. sajanica Radugin 1937 KY60
         `--Stenothecoides Resser 1938 KY60
              `--*S. elongata (Walcott 1884) [=Stenotheca elongata] F62
  Festilyria festiva (Lamarck 1811) ES88
  Somalipecten Waller 1986 ES88
    `--*S. cranmerorum Waller 1986 ES88
  ‘Margarita’ Lea 1836 nec Leach 1814 nec Leach 1819 LT64
  ‘Margarita’ Lea 1838 nec Leach 1914 nec Leach 1819 nec Lea 1836 LT64
  Transennella gerrardi Abbott 1958 B59
  Osteodesma aeruginosa Mighels 1844 J49
  Cypricardia corrugata Mighels 1844 J49
  Cyclas J49
    |--C. minor Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
    `--C. nitida Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
  Carditamera floridana Conrad 1838 [incl. Cypricardia nodulosa Mighels 1844] J49
  Cemoria princeps Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
  Granaria frumentum F08
  Merismoconchidae Y08
  Badiotella Bittner 1890 M65
  Curvulites Rafinesque 1831 M65
  ‘Macquartia’ Roullier & Vorinsky 1848 non Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 M65
  Orthonote Conrad 1841 M65
  Cadium Link 1807 LT61
  Euplecta subdecussata PD78
  Physodon integrum JB78
  Triton Linnaeus 1758 L58
    `--*T. littoreus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  Medusa Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--M. aequorea Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--M. aurita Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--M. brachiata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--M. capillata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--M. cruciata Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--M. marsupialis Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--M. pelagica Linnaeus 1758 L58
    `--M. pilearis Linnaeus 1758 L58
  Eleuchus vulgaris Adams 1853 (n. d.) H08

Nomina nuda: Cemoria candida Mighels & Adams 1841 J49
             Cyclas mainiensis Mighels 1841 J49
             Cyclas minimus Adams & Mighels 1841 J49

Lepoderma chiastos [incl. Falcidens (Lepoderma) targotegulatus Salvini-Plawen 1992] S95

Mollusca [Adenopoda, Amphigastropoda, Amphineura, Ancrypoda, Archaeobranchia, Archinacellida, Archinacellina, Dermobranchea, Ganglioneura, Glossophora, Helcionelloida, Hepagastralia, Hyperstrophina, Isopleura, Monoconcha, Paragastropoda, Prosopocephala, Pteropoda, Scenelloidea, Securiconidae, Serialia, Solenoconchia, Spiculata, Testaria, Univalvia]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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