Opopsitta

Female double-eyed fig-parrot Opopsitta diophthalma, copyright Aviceda.


Belongs within: Loriinae.

Opopsitta, the fig-parrots, is a genus of small, short-tailed parrots found in New Guinea and northeastern Australia.

Opopsitta Sclater 1860 [Opopsittini] B94
    |--O. diophthalma RN72
    |    |--O. d. diophthalma RN72
    |    |--O. d. aruensis RN72
    |    |--O. d. coccineifrons RN72
    |    |--O. d. coxeni RN72
    |    |--O. d. festetichi RN72
    |    |--O. d. inseparabilis RN72
    |    |--O. d. macleayana RN72
    |    |--O. d. marshalli RN72
    |    `--O. d. virago RN72
    `--O. guilielmitertii RN72
         |--O. g. guilielmitertii RN72
         |--O. g. amabilis RN72
         |--O. g. fuscifrons RN72
         |--O. g. melanogenia RN72
         |--O. g. nigrifrons RN72
         |--O. g. ramuensis RN72
         `--O. g. suavissima RN72

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

Trichogrammatidae

Ovipositing Trichogrammatoidea bactrae, copyright ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources.


Belongs within: Diaprioidea.
Contains: Trichogramma, Oligosita.

The Trichogrammatidae are a group of minute chalcidoid egg parasites characterised by the possession of three-segmented leg tarsi.

Characters (from Naumann 1991): Length 0.15–1 mm; not strongly sclerotised, mostly smooth; non-metallic, often pale coloured; genae not posteriorly carinate; antennae shorter than head and thorax, 4—9-segmented, often with a very short funicle and large club; pronotum not conspicuous in dorsal view; mesosoma dorsally sparsely setose; notauli distinct; axillae advanced; mesopleuron not enlarged; fore wing often with long marginal cilia and often with setae of disc arranged in radiating lines; postmarginal vein absent; stigmal vein often short or absent; legs slender; tarsi 3-segmented; fore tibial spur short and straight; fore basitarsus without a strigil comb; cerci not advanced; ovipositor rarely exserted.

Trichogrammatidae [Trichogrammatinae] HB13
    |--+--Haeckeliania sperata HB13
    |  `--+--Mirufens MH11
    |     `--Trichogrammatini MH11
    |          |--Trichogramma HB13
    |          `--Trichogrammatoidea MH11
    |               |--T. bactrae MH11
    |               |--T. eldanae H91
    |               |--T. nana (Zehntner 1896) GM79
    |               `--T. rara Girault 1925 G25
    `--+--Ceratogramma HB13
       |    |--C. etiennei HB13
       |    |--C. magnificum MH11
       |    `--C. masneri MH11
       `--Oligositinae HB13
            |  i. s.: Prestwichia aquatica N91, A71
            |--+--Paracentrobiini MH11
            |  `--Chaeotostrichini MH11
            |       |--Zagella Girault 1918 MH11, G18
            |       |    |--*Z. flavipes (Girault 1905) G18, GM79 [=Paracentrobia flavipes G18]
            |       |    `--Z. spirita MH11
            |       `--Lathromeroides Girault 1913 MH11, GM79
            |            |--L. fasciativentris Girault 1913 GM79
            |            |--L. longicorpus Girault 1913 GM79
            |            |--L. neomexicanus Girault 1916 GM79
            |            `--L. redini Girault 1929 G29
            `--+--+--Chaetogramma occidentalis MH11
               |  `--Aphelinoidea Girault 1911 MH11, GM79
               |       |--A. plutella Girault 1911 GM79
               |       |--A. semifuscipennis Girault 1911 GM79
               |       `--A. totinigra Girault 1930 G30
               `--+--Oligosita MH11
                  `--Ufens Girault 1911 MH11, GM79
                       |--U. ceratus MH11
                       |--U. niger (Ashmead 1888) GM79
                       |--U. principalis MH11
                       `--U. spiritus Girault 1918 G18
                            |--U. s. spiritus G18
                            `--U. s. americanus Girault 1918 G18

Trichogrammatidae incertae sedis:
  Hydrophylita A71
  Megaphragma MM96
  Brachygramma Girault 1912 G18, GM79
  Neobrachistella Girault 1918 G18
    `--*N. livii Girault 1918 G18
  Trichogrammatomyia Girault 1916 G18, GM79
    `--T. tortricis Girault 1916 GM79
  Poropoea Forster 1851 G18, GM79
    `--P. attelaborum Girault 1911 GM79
  Xenufens Girault 1916 G18, GM79
    `--X. ruskini Girault 1916 GM79
  Zaga Girault 1911 G18, GM79
   `-Z. latipennis Girault 1911 GM79
  Tumidiclava Girault 1911 G18, GM79
    `--T. pulchrinotum Girault 1911 GM79
  Lathromeris Forester 1856 G18, GM79
    `--L. fidiae (Ashmead 1894) GM79 [incl. L. cicadae Howard 1898 G18, GM79]
  Centrobiopsis Girault 1918 G18
    `--*C. odonatae (Ashmead 1900) G18, GM79 [=Centrobia odonatae G18]
  Mooa Girault 1930 G30
    `--*M. nigrivena Girault 1930 G30
  Ittys Girault 1911 G18, GM79
    |--I. ceresarum (Ashmead 1888) GM79
    `--I. nympha (Girault 1911) GM79 [=Abbella nympha G18]
  Uscana Girault 1911 HB13, GM79
    |--U. marilandica Girault 1918 G18
    `--U. semifumipennis Girault 1911 GM79
  Lathromerella B88
    |--L. atripes Girault 1929 G29
    `--L. oviducta Girault 1929 G29
  Abbella Girault 1911 G18, GM79
    |--A. acuminata (Ashmead 1888) G18, GM79 [incl. A. pallida (Ashmead 1900) G18, GM79]
    |--A. americana Girault 1917 GM79
    |--A. prima (Perkins 1912) G18, GM79 [incl. A. auriscutellum Girault 1916 G18, GM79]
    `--A. subflava Girault 1911 GM79
  Neolathromera Ishii 1934 TYM08
    `--N. kishidai Ishii 1934 TYM08
  Adryas HB13
  Pachamama speciosa HB13
  Brachista F09
    |--B. efferiae F09
    |--B. fidiae F09
    `--B. fisheri F09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F09] Fisher, E. M. 2009. Asilidae (robber flies, assassin flies, moscas cazadoras, moscas ladronas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 585–632. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G18] Girault, A. A. 1918. North American Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 142–152).

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. An essay on when a fly is lovable, the ceremony of baptizing some and unlovely hate. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 187–190).

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. New pests from Australia. VI. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 266–269).

[G30] Girault, A. A. 1930. New pests from Australia. VII. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 270–272).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[H91] Hokkanen, H. M. T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 119–138.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

Bibionomorpha

Window gnat Sylvicola sp., copyright Martin Cooper.


Belongs within: Neoneura.
Contains: Scatopsoidea, Pachyneuroidea, Sciaroidea.

The Bibionomorpha are a clade of flies supported by molecular data, including the gnats and related taxa.

<==Bibionomorpha WT11
    |--+--+--Scatopsoidea WT11
    |  |  `--Valeseguya [Valeseguyidae] GE05
    |  |       `--V. disjuncta GE05
    |  `--+--+--Pachyneuroidea WT11
    |     |  `--Sciaroidea WT11
    |     `--Axymyiidae [Axymyioidea, Axymyiomorpha] WT11
    |          |--Axymyia furcata W81
    |          |--Protaxymyia W81
    |          |    |--P. japonica W81
    |          |    `--P. melanoptera W81
    |          `--Mesaxymyia W81
    |               |--M. kerteszi W81
    |               `--M. stackelbergi W81
    `--Anisopodoidea [Rhyphidea] BLM02
         |  i. s.: Protolbiogaster [Protolbiogastridae] P81
         |           `--P. rhaetica P81
         |--Protorhyphidae GE05
         `--+--Crosaphis [Crosaphididae] GE05
            `--Anisopodidae [Anisopidae, Phryneidae, Rhyphidae, Sylvicolidae] WT11
                 |  i. s.: Mesorhyphus GE05
                 |         Tonnoirina O98
                 |--Mycetobiinae [Mycetobiidae] P81
                 |    |--Mesochria P81
                 |    |    |--M. neotropica GE05
                 |    |    `--M. scottiana O98
                 |    |--Mycetobia HA09
                 |    |    |--M. divergens P81
                 |    |    `--M. pallipes HA09
                 |    `--Neomesochria HA09
                 |         |--N. limanda HA09
                 |         `--N. stonei HA09
                 `--Anisopodinae [Olbiogastridae, Olbiogastrinae] P81
                      |--Lobogaster P81
                      |--Carreraia P81
                      |--Olbiogaster P81
                      |    |--O. africanus P81
                      |    |--O. perezi GE05
                      |    |--O. sackeni P81
                      |    `--O. taeniata P81
                      `--Sylvicola P81
                           |--S. alternatus P81
                           |--S. dubius CM91
                           |--S. fenestralis [=Anisopus fenestralis] P81
                           |--S. picturatus [=Anisopus picturatus] HA09
                           `--S. punctatus P81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HA09] Hancock, E. G., & D. de S. Amorim. 2009. Anisopodidae (wood gnats or window gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 341–345. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P81] Peterson, B. V. 1981. Anisopodidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 305–312. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[W81] Wood, D. M. 1981. Axymyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 209–212. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Scatopsoidea

Black compost fly Scatopse notata, copyright Miroslav Deml.


Belongs within: Bibionomorpha.

The Scatopsoidea are a clade of flies united by wings with M1+2 fused to Rs for a distance, and M3 and im lost; at least living species also have the larval head greatly reduced (Blagoderov et al. 2002).

<==Scatopsoidea BLM02
    |--Protoscatopsidae BLM02
    |--Synneuridae [Canthyloscelidae] BLM02
    |    |--Exiliscelis californiensis PC81
    |    `--Synneuron PC81
    |         |--S. annulipes PC81
    |         |--S. decipiens PC81
    |         `--S. silvestre PC81
    `--Scatopsidae C81
         |  i. s.: Procolobostema C81
         |         Parmaferia O98
         |--Ectaetia [Ectaetiinae] C81
         |    `--E. clavipes C81
         |--Aspistinae C81
         |    |--Aspistes harti C81
         |    `--Arthria analis C81
         |--Psectrosciarinae C81
         |    |--Anapausis soluta C81
         |    `--Psectrosciara A09
         |         |--P. californica C81
         |         `--P. serrata A09
         `--Scatopsinae C81
              |--Colobostematini A09
              |    |--Colobostema variatum C81
              |    |--Borneoscatopse A09
              |    |--Holoplagia guamensis A09
              |    |--Lumpuria A09
              |    |--Cookella albitarsis A09
              |    `--Ferneiella A09
              |--Scatopsini C81
              |    |--Reichertella C81
              |    |--Apiloscatopse uncinata C81
              |    |--Pharsoreichertella A09
              |    `--Scatopse C81
              |         |--S. fuscipes CM91
              |         |--S. nigra L02
              |         `--S. notata C81
              |--Rhegmoclematini C81
              |    |--Diamphidicus [Diamphidicina] A09
              |    |--Holoclema [Holoclematina] A09
              |    |--Rhegmoclematina A09
              |    |    |--Parmaferia A09
              |    |    `--Thripomorpha truncatum [=Rhegmoclema truncatum] A09
              |    `--Parascatopsina A09
              |         |--Parascatopse wirthi A09
              |         |--Neorhegmoclemina asymmetrica A09
              |         |--Rhegmoclemina bimaculata A09, C81
              |         `--Austroclemina A09
              `--Swammerdamellini C81
                   |--Swammerdamella obtusa C81
                   |--Akorhexoza cactivora A09
                   |--Coboldia fuscipes C81
                   |--Pararhexosa A09
                   |--Hawomersleya A09
                   |--Abrexoza A09
                   |--Cooka A09
                   |--Brahemyia A09
                   |--Quateiella A09
                   |    |--Q. inexpectata A09
                   |    `--Q. minuscula A09
                   `--Rhexoza C81
                        |--R. incisa C81
                        `--R. similis C81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A09] Amorim, D. de S. 2009. Scatopsidae (minute black scavenger flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 347–355. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C81] Cook, E. F. 1981. Scatopsidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 313–319. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[PC81] Peterson, B. V., & E. F. Cook. 1981. Synneuridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 321–324. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Cecidomyiidae

Female Catotricha americana, copyright Cathy Wilson.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.
Contains: Lestremiinae, Porricondylinae, Cecidomyiinae.

The Cecidomyiidae are a group of minute flies commonly known as gall midges though gall-forming members of the family are restricted to members of the subfamily Cecidomyiinae.

Characters (from Gagné 1981): Tiny fragile flies, 1.0–5.0 mm long, rarely to 8.0 mm. Antenna usually long. Wing veins generally weak, reduced in number; C usually continuous around wing, usually with a break just beyond insertion of R5. Tibial spurs absent.

<==Cecidomyiidae [Itonididae] GJ09
    |--+--Lestremiinae J00
    |  `--+--Porricondylinae J00
    |     `--Cecidomyiinae J00
    `--Catotricha Edwards 1938 [Catotrichinae, Catotrichini] J00
         |--*C. americana (Felt 1908) [=Catocha americana] J00
         |--C. fraterna Jaschhof 2000 J00
         |--C. marinae Mamaev 1985 J00
         |--C. mesozoica GE05
         |--C. nipponensis (Alexander 1924) [=Catocha nipponensis; incl. Catotricha antennata Alexander 1959] J00
         |--C. subobsoleta (Alexander 1924) [=Catocha subobsoleta] J00
         `--C. subterranea Mamaev 1985 J00

Cecidomyiidae incertae sedis:
  Endopsylla A71
  Procontarinia B88
    |--P. echinogalliperda B88
    `--P. matteiana B88
  Orseolia oryzae B88
  Mycocecis ovalis B88
  Olesicoccus coccidivora G81
  Bruggmanniella perseae P09
  Tetradiplosis GJ09
  Karshomyia GJ09
  Calmonia GJ09
  Ipomyia CM91
  Trishormomyia helianthi W70
  Clinorhytis F56
  Dasyneura F56
    |--D. abiesemia Foote 1956 F56
    `--D. mali H74
  Phytophaga carpophaga Tripp 1955 F56
  Janetiella siskiyou Felt 1917 F56
  Retinodiplosis F56
  Itonida F56
  Coccodiplosis smithi O98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F56] Foote, R. H. 1956. Gall midges associated with cones of western forest trees (Diptera: Itonididae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (2): 48–57.

[G81] Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–292. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[J00] Jaschhof, M. 2000. Catotrichinae subfam. n.: a re-examination of higher classification in gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Entomological Science 3: 639–652.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[W70] White, M. J. D. 1970. Cytogenetics. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 72–82. Melbourne University Press.

Sciaridae

Bradysia impatiens, copyright Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.
Contains: Sciara (Sciara).

The Sciaridae, fungus gnats, are a group of small flies that mostly feed on decaying organic matter.

Characters (from Steffan 1981): Small flies, 1.0–11 mm long, usually blackish, brownish, or yellowish. Compound eyes usually forming dorsal bridge above antennal bases. Wings hyaline or fumose, sometimes reduced or absent. C ending between apices of R5 and M1; Sc weak, ending free; CuP, A1, and A2 poorly developed; crossvein r-m in line with R5; M and CuA forked; crossvein m-cu absent. R and its branches setose above; most other veins sometimes setose above; some veins sometimes setose below. Halter absent in wingless females. Tibiae with one or two apical spurs. Abdomen cylindrical and usually strongly tapering in female.

<==Sciaridae [Lycoriidae, Sciarinae]
    |--Scythropochroa nitida Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 S81, TE27
    |--Pnyxia scabiei S81
    |--Pharatretula S81
    |--Rhynchosciara mathildae MM09
    |--Zygoneura S81
    |--Metangela toxoneura S81
    |--Heterotricha novaezelandiae Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 S81, TE27
    |--Moehnia erema S81
    |--Schwenkfeldina imitans S81
    |--Hybosciara gigantea BW09
    |--Keilbachia paucipalpa MM09
    |--Acuatella vestituda MM09
    |--Pterothrix capillosa MM09
    |--Ctenosciara destita MM09
    |--Trichosciara spinimana MM09
    |--Leucosciara imperfecta MM09
    |--Austrosciara CM91
    |--Neophnyxia Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--*N. nelsoniana Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--Epidapus MM09
    |    |--E. (Epidapus) flavothoracicus MM09
    |    `--E. (Clandestina) perniciosus MM09
    |--Eugnoriste MM09
    |    |--E. occidentalis S81
    |    `--E. villosoabdominalis MM09
    |--Chaetosciara MM09
    |    |--C. joffrei S81
    |    `--C. solutospina MM09
    |--Phytosciara (Dolichosciara) MM09
    |    |--P. (D.) exlobata MM09
    |    `--P. (D.) flavipes S81
    |--Scatopsciara MM09
    |    |--S. (Scatopsciara) funesta MM09
    |    `--S. (Xenopygina) caribiana MM09
    |--Plastosciara S81
    |    |--P. johnstoni S81
    |    `--P. perniciosa S81
    |--Leptosciarella MM09
    |    |--L. (Leptosciarella) prospera MM09
    |    `--L. (Protosciarella) virgatoalata MM09
    |--Schwenckfeldina MM09
    |    |--S. filamentosa MM09
    |    `--S. forcipigera MM09
    |--Hyperlasion MM09
    |    |--H. capitulatum MM09
    |    `--H. wasmanni MM09
    |--Lycoriella S81
    |    |--L. agarici CM91
    |    |--L. mali S81
    |    `--L. ventrosa (Lengersdorf 1941) TKM93
    |--Odontosciara MM09
    |    |  i. s.: O. nigra S81
    |    |--O. (Odontosciara) nocta MM09
    |    `--O. (Obscura) grandis MM09
    |--Corynoptera S81
    |    |--C. assimilis Menzel 2005 F05
    |    |--C. hannae Menzel 2005 F05
    |    `--C. parvula MM09
    |--Zygomma MM09
    |    |--Z. acuta MM09
    |    |--Z. fasciatellum MM09
    |    `--Z. modica MM09
    |--Pseudosciara S81
    |    |--P. forceps S81
    |    |--P. fragistyla MM09
    |    |--P. hirtella S81
    |    |--P. melanocephala MM09
    |    `--P. ribeiroi MM09
    |--Pseudolycoriella MM09
    |    |--P. coecoalata MM09
    |    |--P. ferocia MM09
    |    |--P. indocera MM09
    |    |--P. ovistyla MM09
    |    `--P. torva MM09
    |--Cratyna MM09
    |    |--C. (Cratyna) MM09
    |    |    |--C. (C.) ciliocera MM09
    |    |    |--C. (C.) ciliovenosa MM09
    |    |    `--C. (C.) micra MM09
    |    `--C. (Spathobdella) exteria MM09
    |--Bradysia S81
    |    |--B. amoena WT11
    |    |--B. coprophila P09
    |    |--B. crassicera MM09
    |    |--B. dilucida MM09
    |    |--B. impatiens S81
    |    |--B. lobulata MM09
    |    `--B. macfarlanei S81
    `--Sciara MM09
         |  i. s.: S. coprophila WB98
         |         ‘Trichosia’ hebes S81
         |         S. penicillata MM09
         |         S. rufescens Hutton 1881 (n. d.) TE27
         |--S. (Sciara) TE27
         `--S. (Scaptosciara Tonnoir & Edwards 1927) TE27
              |--S. (*S.) quinquelineata TE27
              `--S. (S.) unicalcarata Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[MM09] Mohring, W., & F. Menzel. 2009. Sciaridae (black fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 279–292. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[S81] Steffan, W. A. 1981. Sciaridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 247–255. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[TKM93] Thaler, K., B. Knoflach & E. Meyer. 1993. Fragmenta faunistica Tirolensia—X. Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80: 311–325.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

[WB98] Werren, J. H., & L. W. Beukeboom. 1998. Sex determination, sex ratios, and genetic conflict. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 233–261.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Porricondylinae

Representative features of Holoneurus strobilophilus, from Foote (1956). Labels: a, male terminalia; b, wing; c, male palpus; d, hind claw, male; g, fifth flagellar segment, male.


Belongs within: Cecidomyiidae.

The Porricondylinae are a group of midges whose larvae are mostly mycophagous in decaying wood and vegetation though some may secondarily invade living plant tissue (Gagné 1981).

Characters (from Gagné 1981): Ocelli absent. Basal section of Rs as strong as other wing veins; vein M1+2 usually absent. Male gonocoxites united ventrally. Female cercus usually two-segmented.

<==Porricondylinae
    |--Haplusia [Diallactini] G81
    |    `--H. cinca GJ09
    |--Dirhiza [Dirhizini] G81
    |    `--D. papillata G81
    |--Winnertziini G81
    |    |--Winnertzia fungicola G81
    |    |--Parwinnertzia notmani G81
    |    `--Kronomyia populi G81
    |--Dicerurini G81
    |    |--Tetraneuromyia apicalis G81
    |    `--Dicerura GJ09
    |         |--D. furcata [=Neosynepidosis furcata] GJ09
    |         `--D. oregonensis G81
    |--Heteropezini G81
    |    |--Heteropeza pygmaea Winnertz 1846 G81, PN02 [incl. Oligarces paradoxus Meinert 1865 PN02]
    |    |--Henria G81
    |    |--Heteropezina cathistes G81
    |    `--Miastor G81
    |         |--M. americana G81
    |         `--M. metroloas G81
    |--Asynaptini G81
    |    |--Asynapta mangiferae GJ09
    |    |--Colomyia hordei G81
    |    |--Camptomyia aestiva G81
    |    |--Feltomyina polymera G81, GJ09
    |    |--Pseudocamptomyia photophila G81
    |    `--Parasynapta canadensis G81
    `--Porricondylini G81
         |--Solntsevia maculata G81
         |--Parepidosis G81
         |--Holoneurus G81
         |    |--H. multinodus F56
         |    |--H. occidentalis GJ09
         |    |--H. photophilus F56
         |    `--H. strobilophilus Foote 1956 F56
         |--Coccopsis marginata G81
         |--Claspettomyia niveitarsus G81
         |--Neocolpodia pinea G81
         |--Isocolpodia graminis G81
         |--Monepidosis carolina G81
         |--Schistoneurus pectinatus G81
         |--Basicondyla fultonensis G81
         |--Porricondyla G81
         |    |--P. carolina G81
         |    `--P. nigripennis G81
         `--Ruebsaamenia Kieffer 1894 F56
              |--*R. pectoralis [=Asynapta pectoralis] F56
              `--R. keeni Foote 1956 F56

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F56] Foote, R. H. 1956. Gall midges associated with cones of western forest trees (Diptera: Itonididae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (2): 48–57.

[G81] Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–292. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[PN02] Pollock, D. A., & B. B. Normark. 2002. The life cycle of Micromalthus debilis LeConte (1878) (Coleoptera: Archostemata: Micromalthidae): historical review and evolutionary perspective. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 40 (2): 105–112.

Lestremiinae

Anarete sp., copyright Jon Hart.


Belongs within: Cecidomyiidae.

The Lestremiinae are a group of cecidomyiid midges with mycophagous larvae (Gagné 1981).

Characters (from Gagné 1981): Ocelli usually present. Wings, if present, with vein M1+2 present. Five tarsomeres, with tarsomere 1 longer than 2.

<==Lestremiinae J00
    |--Lestremiini GJ09
    |    |--Wasmanniella clauda G81
    |    |--Gongromastix G81
    |    |--Allarete G81
    |    |--Anaretella defecta G81
    |    |--Pararete elongata G81
    |    |--Conarete G81
    |    |    |--C. crebra G81
    |    |    `--C. eluta GJ09
    |    |--Lestremia GJ09
    |    |    |--L. cinerea G81
    |    |    |--L. leucophaea GJ09
    |    |    `--‘Trichosia’ remota Hutton 1896 TE27
    |    `--Anarete G81
    |         |--A. anepsia G81
    |         |--A. buscki GJ09
    |         `--A. candidata G81
    `--Micromyidi GJ09
         |--Peromyia [Peromyiini] GJ09
         |--Campylomyza [Campylomyzini] GJ09
         |--Aprionus [Aprionini] GJ09
         |    `--A. asemus G81
         `--Micromyini G81
              |--Monardia monotheca G81, M83
              |--Cordylomyia denningi G81
              |--Corinthomyia brevicornis G81
              |--Trichopteromyia modesta G81
              |--Mycophila speyeri G81
              |--Bryomyia apsectra G81
              |--Xylopriona toxicodendri G81
              |--Micromya GJ09
              |    |--M. lucorum [incl. M. johannseni] GJ09
              |    `--M. mana G81
              `--Polyardis G81
                   |--P. adela G81
                   `--P. kasloensis G81

Lestremiinae incertae sedis:
  Anodontoceras J00
  Pseudoperomyia J00
  Skuhraviana J00
  Baeonotus [Baeonotini] G81
    `--B. microps M81
  Acoenonia [Acoenoniini] G81
    `--A. perissa G81
  Forbesomyia [Forbesomyiini] G81
    `--F. atra G81
  Strobliella [Strobliellini] G81
    `--S. intermedia G81
  Catochini J00
    |--Catocha slossonae J00, G81
    |--Anocha G81
    |--Neocatocha marilandica G81
    |--Tritozyga sackeni G81
    `--Eucatocha G81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G81] Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–292. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[J00] Jaschhof, M. 2000. Catotrichinae subfam. n.: a re-examination of higher classification in gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Entomological Science 3: 639–652.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

Oligotrophini

Male Oligotrophus betheli, from Simova-Tošić et al. (2010).


Belongs within: Cecidomyiinae.

The Oligotrophini are a group of midges whose larvae cause galls or live freely in flower head (Gagné 1981).

Characters (from Gagné 1981): Antenna with 7–42 flagellomeres, usually irregular in number within species. Ocelli absent. Tarsal claws rounded at or beyond mid length, all either toothed or simple; empodia as long as or longer than claws. Male genitalia with gonocoxite with elongate mediobasal lobes sheathing aedeagus; mediobasal lobes entire, uniformly setulose or glabrous; gonostylus terminal. Female cerci usually fused medially into a single terminal lamella.

<==Oligotrophini G81
    |--Mayetiola destructor G81
    |--Procystiphora G81
    |--Rhabdophaga G81
    |--Lygocecis G81
    |--Sackenomyia G81
    |--Ficiomyia G81
    |--Walshomyia G81
    |--Rhopalomyia californica G81, B88
    |--Diarthronomyia hypogaea G81, G17
    |--Iteomyia salicifolia G81
    |--Oligotrophus Latreille 1805 S-TG10
    |    |--O. betheli [incl. O. apicis Appleby & Neiswander 1965, Phytophaga sabinae Felt 1935] S-TG10
    |    |--O. juniperinus S-TG10
    |    |--O. panteli S-TG10
    |    |--O. schmidti S-TG10
    |    `--O. szepligetii S-TG10
    |--Semudobia G81
    |--Cystiphora G81
    |    |--C. canadensis G81
    |    `--C. schmidti CM91
    `--Dasineura G81
         |--D. canadensis G81
         |--D. corollae GJ09
         `--D. gleditchiae GJ09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G81] Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–292. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80–101).

[S-TG10] Simova-Tošić, D., D. Graora, R. Spasić & D. Smiljanić. 2010. Oligotrophus betheli Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a new species in the fauna of Europe. Arch. Biol. Sci. 62 (4): 1219–1221.

Cecidomyiinae

Clinodiplosis sp., copyright R. B. Pape.


Belongs within: Cecidomyiidae.
Contains: Oligotrophini, Alycaulini, Asphondyliini.

The Cecidomyiinae are a diverse group of midges, many of which cause galls in plants but which also include non-galling phytophagous, mycophagous and predatory forms (Gagné 1981).

Characters (from Gagné 1981): Ocelli absent. Basal section of Rs usually absent or weaker than other veins. Male gonocoxites free ventrally. Female cercus one-segmented, often fused.

<==Cecidomyiinae
    |  i. s.: Rhizomyia G81
    |         Epimyia carolina G81
    |         Brachyneura G81
    |--Stomatosematidi GJ09
    |    |--Stomatosema dominicensis GJ09
    |    `--Didactylomyia longimana GJ09
    |--Brachineuridi GJ09
    |    |--Chrybaneura harrisoni GJ09
    |    `--Brachineura GJ09
    |--Lasiopteridi [Oligotrophidi] G81
    |    |--Oligotrophini G81
    |    |--Alycaulini GJ09
    |    |--Ledomyia [Ledomyiini] GJ09
    |    |    `--L. setosa G81
    |    |--Trotteria [Trotteriini] GJ09
    |    |    `--T. sarothamni A71
    |    |--Camptoneuromyiini GJ09
    |    |    |--Camptoneuromyia adhesa G81
    |    |    |--Salvalasioptera merremiae GJ09
    |    |    |--Incolasioptera siccida GJ09
    |    |    |--Domolasioptera GJ09
    |    |    `--Copinolasioptera salvadorensis GJ09
    |    `--Lasiopterini [Lasiopterina] G81
    |         |--Ozirhincus millefolii G81
    |         |--Hybolasioptera elymi G81
    |         |--Lasioptera GJ09
    |         |    |--L. kallstroemia GJ09
    |         |    `--L. solidaginis G81
    |         `--Isolasioptera GJ09
    |              |--I. eupatoriensis GJ09
    |              `--I. palmae GJ09
    `--Cecidomyiidi G81
         |  i. s.: Taxodiomyia G81
         |         Coccidomyia pennsylvanica G81
         |         Aphidoletes aphidimyza G81
         |         Harmandia reflexa G81
         |         Tanaodiplosis androgynes G81
         |         Dicrodiplosis guatemalensis G81, GJ09
         |         Feltiella G81
         |           |--F. acarisuga P09
         |           |--F. davisi G81
         |           |--F. insularis GJ09
         |           `--F. pini GJ09
         |         Lobodiplosis triangularis G81
         |         Karschomyia G81
         |         Kalodiplosis floridana G81
         |         Diadiplosis G81
         |         Plectrodiplosis fascipennis G81
         |         Bremia G81
         |         Ctenodactylomyia watsoni G81
         |         Pitydiplosis packardi G81
         |         Homobremia insolens G81
         |         Youngomyia podophylli G81
         |         Ancylodiplosis bryanti G81
         |         Coquillettomyia G81
         |           |--C. dentata G81
         |           `--C. obliqua GJ09
         |         Glenodiplosis callipus G81
         |         Mycodiplosis G81
         |           |--M. alternata F56
         |           |--M. conicola Foote 1956 F56
         |           |--M. coryloides Foote 1956 F56
         |           |--M. hudsoni F56
         |           |--M. inimica G81
         |           `--M. ligulata GJ09
         |         Planetella G81
         |         Parallelodiplosis G81
         |         Sequiomyia taxodii G81
         |         Silvestrina cincta G81
         |         Aphodiplosis trnagularis G81
         |         Cartodiplosis nyssaecola G81
         |         Caryomyia G81
         |         Monarthropalpus buxi G81
         |         Pinyonia edulicola G81
         |         Olpodiplosis helianthi G81
         |         Halodiplosis sarcobati G81
         |         Pilodiplosis helianthibula G81
         |         Thecodiplosis piniresinosae G81
         |         Zeuxidiplosis giardi G81
         |         Paradiplosis G81
         |         Lobopteromyia filicis G81
         |         Prodiplosis G81
         |           |--P. longifila P09
         |           `--P. morrisi G81
         |         Tropidiplosis pectinata G81
         |         Odontodiplosis americana G81
         |         Adiplosis toxicodendri G81
         |         Trisopsis G81
         |         Dentifibula viburni G81
         |         Thaumadiplosis magnicauda G81
         |         Pectinodiplosis erratica G81
         |         Endaphis G81
         |           |--E. maculans GJ09
         |           `--E. perfidus A71
         |         Thripsobremia quercifolia G81
         |         Epidiplosis sayi G81
         |         Arthrocnodax rhoinus G81
         |         Lestodiplosis G81
         |           |--L. callipus GJ09
         |           |--L. grassator G81
         |           `--L. taxiconis Foote 1956 F56
         |         Apagodiplosis papyriferae G81
         |         Putoniella marsupialis G81
         |         Blaesodiplosis G81
         |         Macrodiplosis G81
         |         Obolodiplosis robiniae G81
         |         Ametrodiplosis dulichii G81
         |         Hyperdiplosis lobata G81
         |         Giardomyia G81
         |         Gongrodiplosis latipes G81
         |         Platydiplosis nigricauda G81
         |         Cordylodiplosis molliterga G81
         |         Sitodiplosis mosellana G81
         |         Resseliella G81
         |           |--R. alternata G81
         |           `--R. pinifoliae G81
         |         Contarinia G81
         |           |--C. agrimoniae F56
         |           |--C. gossypii GJ09
         |           |--C. lycopersici P09
         |           |--C. maculipennis GJ09
         |           |--C. oregonensis Foote 1956 F56
         |           |--C. partheniicola G81
         |           |--C. perfoliata F56
         |           |--C. pirivora A71
         |           |--C. schulzi G81
         |           |--C. sorghicola B88
         |           `--C. wattsi G81
         |         Charidiplosis triangularis GJ09
         |         Astrodiplosis speciosa GJ09
         |         Schismatodiplosis lantanaei GJ09
         |         Cecidomyia M90
         |           |--C. candidipes G81
         |           |--C. frauenfeldti B88
         |           |--C. piniinopis G81
         |           `--C. resinicola M90
         |--Asphondyliini GJ09
         `--Clinodiplosini GJ09
              |--Iatrophobia brasiliensis GJ09
              `--Clinodiplosis GJ09
                   |--C. americana GJ09
                   |--C. araneosa G81
                   |--C. capsici P09
                   |--C. denotata GJ09
                   |--G. eupatorii GJ09
                   `--C. lappa G81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F56] Foote, R. H. 1956. Gall midges associated with cones of western forest trees (Diptera: Itonididae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (2): 48–57.

[G81] Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–292. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Asphondyliini

Asphondylia sp., copyright Peter Bryant.


Belongs within: Cecidomyiinae.

The Asphondyliini are a group of midges that form complex galls on flowers, buds and leaves (Gagné 1981).

Characters (from Gagné 1981, as Asphondyliidi): Antennal flagellomeres with short necks, elongate-cylindrical, usually with anastomosing closely appressed circumfila. Ocelli absent. Tarsal claws simple. Gonostylus of male terminalia short, wide, situated either dorsally or dorsocaudally on gonocoxite; gonocoxites free ventrally. Female abdominal sternite 7 about 1.5 times length of sternite 6; cercus one-segmented.

Asphondyliini [Asphondyliidi] GJ09
    |--Polystepha G81
    |--Stephomyia eugeniae G81
    |--Bruggmannia pisonifolia G81
    |--Heterasphondylia salvadorensis GJ09
    |--Hemiasphondylia enterolobii GJ09
    |--Rhoasphondylia friburgensis GJ09
    |--Sciasphondylia salviae GJ09
    |--Perasphondylia reticulata GJ09
    |--Ameliomyia zexmeniae GJ09
    |--Pisoniamyia GJ09
    |--Burseramyia burserae GJ09
    |--Pisphondylia GJ09
    |--Zalepidota GJ09
    |    |--Z. piperis GJ09
    |    `--Z. reticulata GJ09
    |--Schizomyia GJ09
    |    |--S. ipomoeae GJ09
    |    |--S. serjaneae GJ09
    |    `--S. stachytarpheta GJ09
    `--Asphondylia GJ09
         |--A. atriplicis GJ09
         |--A. enterolobii P09
         |--A. monacha G81
         |--A. neomexicana G81
         |--A. sarothamni A71
         `--A. websteri GJ09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[G81] Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–292. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.