Opopsitta

Female double-eyed fig-parrot Opopsitta diophthalma, copyright Aviceda.


Belongs within: Loriinae.

Opopsitta, the fig-parrots, is a genus of small, short-tailed parrots found in New Guinea and northeastern Australia.

<==Opopsitta Sclater 1860 [Opopsittini] B94
    |--O. diophthalma RN72
    |    |--O. d. diophthalma RN72
    |    |--O. d. aruensis RN72
    |    |--O. d. coccineifrons RN72
    |    |--O. d. coxeni RN72
    |    |--O. d. festetichi RN72
    |    |--O. d. inseparabilis RN72
    |    |--O. d. macleayana RN72
    |    |--O. d. marshalli RN72
    |    `--O. d. virago RN72
    `--O. guilielmitertii RN72
         |--O. g. guilielmitertii RN72
         |--O. g. amabilis RN72
         |--O. g. fuscifrons RN72
         |--O. g. melanogenia RN72
         |--O. g. nigrifrons RN72
         |--O. g. ramuensis RN72
         `--O. g. suavissima RN72

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

Trichogrammatidae

Ovipositing Trichogrammatoidea bactrae, copyright ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources.


Belongs within: Chalcidoidea.
Contains: Trichogramma, Oligosita.

The Trichogrammatidae are a group of minute chalcidoid egg parasites characterised by the possession of three-segmented leg tarsi. Members are divided between the Trichogrammatinae, in which the aedeagus has accessory structures such as a phallobase, parameres and volsellar digiti, and Oligositinae, in which the aedeagus is simple and tubular (Naumann 1991).

Characters (from Naumann 1991): Length 0.15–1 mm; not strongly sclerotised, mostly smooth; non-metallic, often pale coloured; genae not posteriorly carinate; antennae shorter than head and thorax, 4—9-segmented, often with a very short funicle and large club; pronotum not conspicuous in dorsal view; mesosoma dorsally sparsely setose; notauli distinct; axillae advanced; mesopleuron not enlarged; fore wing often with long marginal cilia and often with setae of disc arranged in radiating lines; postmarginal vein absent; stigmal vein often short or absent; legs slender; tarsi 3-segmented; fore tibial spur short and straight; fore basitarsus without a strigil comb; cerci not advanced; ovipositor rarely exserted.

<==Trichogrammatidae [Trichogrammatinae] HB13
    |--+--Haeckeliania sperata HB13
    |  `--+--Mirufens MH11
    |     `--Trichogrammatini MH11
    |          |--Trichogramma HB13
    |          `--Trichogrammatoidea MH11
    |               |--T. bactrae MH11
    |               |--T. eldanae H91
    |               |--T. nana (Zehntner 1896) GM79
    |               `--T. rara Girault 1925 G25
    `--+--Ceratogramma HB13
       |    |--C. etiennei HB13
       |    |--C. magnificum MH11
       |    `--C. masneri MH11
       `--Oligositinae HB13
            |  i. s.: Prestwichia aquatica N91, A71
            |--+--Paracentrobiini MH11
            |  `--Chaeotostrichini MH11
            |       |--Zagella Girault 1918 MH11, G18
            |       |    |--*Z. flavipes (Girault 1905) G18, GM79 [=Paracentrobia flavipes G18]
            |       |    `--Z. spirita MH11
            |       `--Lathromeroides Girault 1913 MH11, GM79
            |            |--L. fasciativentris Girault 1913 GM79
            |            |--L. longicorpus Girault 1913 GM79
            |            |--L. neomexicanus Girault 1916 GM79
            |            `--L. redini Girault 1929 G29
            `--+--+--Chaetogramma occidentalis MH11
               |  `--Aphelinoidea Girault 1911 MH11, GM79
               |       |--A. plutella Girault 1911 GM79
               |       |--A. semifuscipennis Girault 1911 GM79
               |       `--A. totinigra Girault 1930 G30
               `--+--Oligosita MH11
                  `--Ufens Girault 1911 MH11, GM79
                       |--U. ceratus MH11
                       |--U. niger (Ashmead 1888) GM79
                       |--U. principalis MH11
                       `--U. spiritus Girault 1918 G18
                            |--U. s. spiritus G18
                            `--U. s. americanus Girault 1918 G18

Trichogrammatidae incertae sedis:
  Hydrophylita A71
  Megaphragma MM96
  Brachygramma Girault 1912 G18, GM79
  Neobrachistella Girault 1918 G18
    `--*N. livii Girault 1918 G18
  Trichogrammatomyia Girault 1916 G18, GM79
    `--T. tortricis Girault 1916 GM79
  Poropoea Forster 1851 G18, GM79
    |--P. attelaborum Girault 1911 GM79
    `--P. stollwerckii RD77
  Xenufens Girault 1916 G18, GM79
    `--X. ruskini Girault 1916 GM79
  Zaga Girault 1911 G18, GM79
    `-Z. latipennis Girault 1911 GM79
  Tumidiclava Girault 1911 G18, GM79
    `--T. pulchrinotum Girault 1911 GM79
  Lathromeris Forester 1856 G18, GM79
    `--L. fidiae (Ashmead 1894) GM79 [incl. L. cicadae Howard 1898 G18, GM79]
  Centrobiopsis Girault 1918 G18
    `--*C. odonatae (Ashmead 1900) G18, GM79 [=Centrobia odonatae G18]
  Mooa Girault 1930 G30
    `--*M. nigrivena Girault 1930 G30
  Ittys Girault 1911 G18, GM79
    |--I. ceresarum (Ashmead 1888) GM79
    `--I. nympha (Girault 1911) GM79 [=Abbella nympha G18]
  Uscana Girault 1911 HB13, GM79
    |--U. marilandica Girault 1918 G18
    `--U. semifumipennis Girault 1911 GM79
  Lathromerella B88
    |--L. atripes Girault 1929 G29
    `--L. oviducta Girault 1929 G29
  Abbella Girault 1911 G18, GM79
    |--A. acuminata (Ashmead 1888) G18, GM79 [incl. A. pallida (Ashmead 1900) G18, GM79]
    |--A. americana Girault 1917 GM79
    |--A. prima (Perkins 1912) G18, GM79 [incl. A. auriscutellum Girault 1916 G18, GM79]
    `--A. subflava Girault 1911 GM79
  Neolathromera Ishii 1934 TYM08
    `--N. kishidai Ishii 1934 TYM08
  Adryas HB13
  Pachamama speciosa HB13
  Brachista F09
    |--B. efferiae F09
    |--B. fidiae F09
    `--B. fisheri F09
  Hydrophylax aquivolans RD77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F09] Fisher, E. M. 2009. Asilidae (robber flies, assassin flies, moscas cazadoras, moscas ladronas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 585–632. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G18] Girault, A. A. 1918. North American Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 142–152).

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. An essay on when a fly is lovable, the ceremony of baptizing some and unlovely hate. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 187–190).

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. New pests from Australia. VI. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 266–269).

[G30] Girault, A. A. 1930. New pests from Australia. VII. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 270–272).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[H91] Hokkanen, H. M. T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 119–138.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

Last updated: 14 March 2021.

Bibionomorpha

Window gnat Sylvicola sp., copyright Martin Cooper.


Belongs within: Neoneura.
Contains: Scatopsoidea, Pachyneuroidea, Sciaroidea.

The Bibionomorpha are a clade of flies supported by molecular data, including the gnats and related taxa. Members include the wood gnats of the Anisopodidae whose saprophagous larvae have a characteristic vigorous serpentine movement (Hancock & Amorim 2009).

<==Bibionomorpha WT11
    |--+--+--Scatopsoidea WT11
    |  |  `--Valeseguya [Valeseguyidae] GE05
    |  |       `--V. disjuncta GE05
    |  `--+--+--Pachyneuroidea WT11
    |     |  `--Sciaroidea WT11
    |     `--Axymyiidae [Axymyioidea, Axymyiomorpha] WT11
    |          |--Axymyia furcata W81
    |          |--Protaxymyia W81
    |          |    |--P. japonica W81
    |          |    `--P. melanoptera W81
    |          `--Mesaxymyia W81
    |               |--M. kerteszi W81
    |               `--M. stackelbergi W81
    `--Anisopodoidea [Rhyphidea] BLM02
         |  i. s.: Protolbiogaster [Protolbiogastridae] P81
         |           `--P. rhaetica P81
         |         Hongocaloneura Evenhuis 1994 [Hongocaloneuridae] H02
         |           `--*H. plectilis (Hong 1981) [=Caloneura plectilis] H02
         |--Protorhyphus RJ93 [Protorhyphidae GE05]
         |    |--P. major Kovalev 1990 RJ93
         |    `--P. ovisimilis RJ93
         `--+--Crosaphis [Crosaphididae] GE05
            |    `--C. anomala RJ93
            `--Anisopodidae [Anisopidae, Phryneidae, Rhyphidae, Sylvicolidae] WT11
                 |  i. s.: Mesorhyphus GE05
                 |         Tonnoirina O98
                 |         Eoanisopodites Hong 2002 H02
                 |           `--*E. fushunensis Hong 2002 H02
                 |         Olbiogasterosten Sacken 1886 H02
                 |--Mycetobiinae [Mycetobiidae] HA09
                 |    |--Mesochria HA09
                 |    |    |--M. neotropica GE05
                 |    |    `--M. scottiana O98
                 |    |--Mycetobia HA09
                 |    |    |--M. divergens HA09
                 |    |    `--M. pallipes [=Mycetophila (Mycetobia) pallipes] G20
                 |    `--Neomesochria HA09
                 |         |--N. limanda HA09
                 |         `--N. stonei HA09
                 `--Anisopodinae [Olbiogastridae, Olbiogastrinae] HA09
                      |--Lobogaster P81
                      |--Carreraia P81
                      |--Anisopus Meigen 1803 H02
                      |--Olbiogaster P81
                      |    |--O. africanus HA09
                      |    |--O. perezi GE05
                      |    |--O. sackeni HA09
                      |    `--O. taeniata P81
                      `--Sylvicola HA09
                           |--S. alternatus HA09
                           |--S. dubius CM91
                           |--S. fenestralis HA09 [=Anisopus fenestralis P81]
                           |--S. picturatus [=Anisopus picturatus] HA09
                           `--S. punctatus P81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HA09] Hancock, E. G., & D. de S. Amorim. 2009. Anisopodidae (wood gnats or window gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 341–345. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P81] Peterson, B. V. 1981. Anisopodidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 305–312. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[W81] Wood, D. M. 1981. Axymyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 209–212. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Last updated: 4 February 2021.

Scatopsoidea

Black compost fly Scatopse notata, copyright Miroslav Deml.


Belongs within: Bibionomorpha.

The Scatopsoidea are a clade of flies united by wings with M1+2 fused to Rs for a distance, and M3 and im lost; at least living species also have the larval head greatly reduced (Blagoderov et al. 2002). Members of the Scatopsidae have a single-segmented palpus and five to ten antennal flagellomeres (Amorim 2009) whereas Synneuridae have a four-segmented palpus and ten to fourteen flagellomeres (Peterson & Cook 1981).

<==Scatopsoidea BLM02
    |--Mesoscatopse RJ93 [Protoscatopsidae BLM02]
    |    `--M. rohdendorfi Kovalev in Kalugina & Kovalev 1985 RJ93
    |--Synneuridae [Canthyloscelidae, Hyperoscelididae] BLM02
    |    |--Exiliscelis californiensis PC81
    |    |--Prohyperoscelis jurassicus Kovalev in Kalugina & Kovalev 1985 RJ93
    |    `--Synneuron PC81
    |         |--S. annulipes PC81
    |         |--S. decipiens PC81
    |         `--S. silvestre PC81
    `--Scatopsidae A09
         |  i. s.: Pocolohostema Cook 1971 H02
         |         Parmaferia O98
         |         Aldrorardiella Enderlein 1936 H02
         |--Ectaetia [Ectaetiinae] A09
         |    `--E. clavipes C81
         |--Aspistinae A09
         |    |--Arthria analis A09, C81
         |    `--Aspistes A09
         |         |--A. berolinensis G20
         |         `--A. harti A09
         |--Psectrosciarinae A09
         |    |--Anapausis soluta A09
         |    `--Psectrosciara A09
         |         |--P. californica A09
         |         `--P. serrata A09
         `--Scatopsinae A09
              |  i. s.: Sinoscatopse Hong 2002 H02
              |           `--*S. eocenica Hong 2002 H02
              |--Colobostematini A09
              |    |--Colobostema variatum A09
              |    |--Borneoscatopse A09
              |    |--Holoplagia guamensis A09
              |    |--Lumpuria A09
              |    |--Cookella albitarsis A09
              |    `--Ferneiella A09
              |--Scatopsini A09
              |    |--Reichertella Enderlein 1912 A09, H02
              |    |--Apiloscatopse uncinata A09
              |    |--Pharsoreichertella A09
              |    `--Scatopse Greoffroy 1762 H02
              |         |--S. fuscipes CM91
              |         |--S. nigra L02
              |         `--S. notata [=Bibio (Scatopse) notatus] G20
              |--Rhegmoclematini A09
              |    |--Diamphidicus [Diamphidicina] A09
              |    |--Holoclema [Holoclematina] A09
              |    |--Rhegmoclematina A09
              |    |    |--Parmaferia A09
              |    |    |--Thripomorpha truncatum [=Rhegmoclema truncatum] A09
              |    |    `--Rhegmoclema Enderlein 1936 H02
              |    `--Parascatopsina A09
              |         |--Parascatopse wirthi A09
              |         |--Austroclemina A09
              |         |--Neorhegmoclemina Cook 1955 A09, H02
              |         |    `--N. asymmetrica A09
              |         `--Rhegmoclemina Enderlein 1936 A09, H02
              |              `--R. bimaculata A09
              `--Swammerdamellini A09
                   |--Akorhexoza cactivora A09
                   |--Coboldia fuscipes A09
                   |--Pararhexosa A09
                   |--Hawomersleya A09
                   |--Abrhexoza A09
                   |--Cooka A09
                   |--Brahemyia A09
                   |--Swammerdamella Enderlein 1912 H02
                   |    `--S. obtusa A09
                   |--Quateiella A09
                   |    |--Q. inexpectata A09
                   |    `--Q. minuscula A09
                   `--Rhexoza A09
                        |--R. incisa A09
                        `--R. similis A09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A09] Amorim, D. de S. 2009. Scatopsidae (minute black scavenger flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 347–355. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C81] Cook, E. F. 1981. Scatopsidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 313–319. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[PC81] Peterson, B. V., & E. F. Cook. 1981. Synneuridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 321–324. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 4 February 2021.

Cecidomyiidae

Female Catotricha americana, copyright Cathy Wilson.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.
Contains: Lestremiinae, Porricondylinae, Cecidomyiinae.

The Cecidomyiidae are a group of minute flies commonly known as gall midges though gall-forming members of the family are restricted to the subfamily Cecidomyiinae. Members of the subfamilies Porricondylinae and Cecidomyiinae lack ocelli and have shortened first tarsomeres, distinguishing them from the more plesiomorphic Lestremiinae and Catotricha.

Characters (from Gagné 1981): Tiny fragile flies, 1.0–5.0 mm long, rarely to 8.0 mm. Antenna usually long. Wing veins generally weak, reduced in number; C usually continuous around wing, usually with a break just beyond insertion of R5. Tibial spurs absent.

<==Cecidomyiidae [Itonididae, Lestremiidae] GJ09
    |--+--Lestremiinae J00
    |  `--+--Porricondylinae J00
    |     `--Cecidomyiinae J00
    `--Catotricha Edwards 1938 [Catotrichinae, Catotrichini] J00
         |--*C. americana (Felt 1908) [=Catocha americana] J00
         |--C. fraterna Jaschhof 2000 J00
         |--C. marinae Mamaev 1985 J00
         |--C. mesozoica Kovalev 1990 RJ93
         |--C. nipponensis (Alexander 1924) [=Catocha nipponensis; incl. Catotricha antennata Alexander 1959] J00
         |--C. subobsoleta (Alexander 1924) [=Catocha subobsoleta] J00
         `--C. subterranea Mamaev 1985 J00

Cecidomyiidae incertae sedis:
  Endopsylla A71
  Procontarinia B88
    |--P. echinogalliperda B88
    `--P. matteiana B88
  Orseolia oryzae B88
  Mycocecis ovalis B88
  Olesicoccus coccidivora G81
  Bruggmanniella perseae P09
  Tetradiplosis GJ09
  Karshomyia GJ09
  Calmonia GJ09
  Ipomyia CM91
  Trishormomyia helianthi W70
  Clinorhytis F56
  Dasyneura F56
    |--D. abiesemia Foote 1956 F56
    |--D. mali H74
    `--D. ulmariae RD77
  Phytophaga carpophaga Tripp 1955 F56
  Janetiella siskiyou Felt 1917 F56
  Retinodiplosis F56
  Itonida F56
  Coccodiplosis smithi O98
  Rhinomyia perplexa RD77
  Chortomyia RD77
  Xylodiplosis praecox RD77
  Dryomyia RD77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F56] Foote, R. H. 1956. Gall midges associated with cones of western forest trees (Diptera: Itonididae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (2): 48–57.

[G81] Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–292. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[J00] Jaschhof, M. 2000. Catotrichinae subfam. n.: a re-examination of higher classification in gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Entomological Science 3: 639–652.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W70] White, M. J. D. 1970. Cytogenetics. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 72–82. Melbourne University Press.

Last updated: 31 January 2021.

Sciaridae

Bradysia impatiens, copyright Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.
Contains: Sciara (Sciara).

The Sciaridae, fungus gnats, are a group of small flies that mostly feed on decaying organic matter. They are characterised by wings with a short costa, a single short crossvein r-m near the base of the wing, two strongly sclerotised R veins and weakly sclerotised forked M and Cu veins (Mohrig & Menzel 2009).

Characters (from Steffan 1981): Small flies, 1.0–11 mm long, usually blackish, brownish, or yellowish. Compound eyes usually forming dorsal bridge above antennal bases. Wings hyaline or fumose, sometimes reduced or absent. C ending between apices of R5 and M1; Sc weak, ending free; CuP, A1, and A2 poorly developed; crossvein r-m in line with R5; M and CuA forked; crossvein m-cu absent. R and its branches setose above; most other veins sometimes setose above; some veins sometimes setose below. Halter absent in wingless females. Tibiae with one or two apical spurs. Abdomen cylindrical and usually strongly tapering in female.

<==Sciaridae [Lycoriidae, Sciarinae, Sciaroidae]
    |--Scythropochroa nitida Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 S81, TE27
    |--Pnyxia scabiei S81
    |--Pharatretula S81
    |--Zygoneura [Zygoneurinae] S81
    |--Metangela toxoneura MM09, S81
    |--Moehnia erema S81
    |--Hybosciara gigantea BW09
    |--Keilbachia paucipalpa MM09
    |--Acuatella vestituda MM09
    |--Pterothrix capillosa MM09
    |--Ctenosciara destita MM09
    |--Trichosciara spinimana MM09
    |--Leucosciara imperfecta MM09
    |--Austrosciara CM91
    |--Palaeoheteretricha Loew 1850 H02
    |--Palaeoheterotricha Meunier 1904 H02
    |--Cerato Meigen 1904 H02
    |--Palaeofuorista Meigen 1904 H02
    |--Ruebsaameniella Meigen 1904 H02
    |--Heeriella Meigen 1903 H02
    |--Sciarella Meigen 1903 H02
    |--Parastemmia H02
    |--Neosciara H02
    |--Phorodonata H02
    |--Protosciara Quievreux 1938 H02
    |--Lycoria bicolor Meigen 1800 H02
    |--Heterotricha Meunier 1904 H02
    |    `--H. novaezelandiae Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--Neophnyxia Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--*N. nelsoniana Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--Mixosciaritis Hong 2002 H02
    |    `--*M. brachyceroidis (Hong 1981) [=Lycoria brachyceroidis] H02
    |--Epidapus Haliday 1856 H02
    |    |--E. (Epidapus) flavothoracicus MM09
    |    `--E. (Clandestina) perniciosus MM09
    |--Eugnoriste MM09
    |    |--E. occidentalis S81
    |    `--E. villosoabdominalis MM09
    |--Chaetosciara Frey 1942 H02
    |    |--C. joffrei S81
    |    `--C. solutospina MM09
    |--Phytosciara (Dolichosciara) MM09
    |    |--P. (D.) exlobata MM09
    |    `--P. (D.) flavipes S81
    |--Scatopsciara MM09
    |    |--S. (Scatopsciara) funesta MM09
    |    `--S. (Xenopygina) caribiana MM09
    |--Plastosciara Berg 1899 [incl. Peyrimhoffia Kieffer 1903] H02
    |    |--P. johnstoni S81
    |    `--P. perniciosa S81
    |--Leptosciarella MM09
    |    |--L. (Leptosciarella) prospera MM09
    |    `--L. (Protosciarella) virgatoalata MM09
    |--Schwenckfeldina MM09
    |    |--S. filamentosa MM09
    |    |--S. forcipigera MM09
    |    `--S. imitans S81
    |--Hyperlasion MM09
    |    |--H. capitulatum MM09
    |    `--H. wasmanni MM09
    |--Rhynchosciara MM09
    |    |--R. angelae KSM06
    |    |--R. hollaenderi KSM06
    |    `--R. mathildae MM09
    |--Lycoriella Frey 1942 H02
    |    |--L. agarici CM91
    |    |--L. mali S81
    |    `--L. ventrosa (Lengersdorf 1941) TKM93
    |--Odontosciara MM09
    |    |  i. s.: O. nigra S81
    |    |--O. (Odontosciara) nocta MM09
    |    `--O. (Obscura) grandis MM09
    |--Corynoptera MM09
    |    |--C. assimilis Menzel 2005 F05
    |    |--C. hannae Menzel 2005 F05
    |    `--C. parvula MM09
    |--Zygomma MM09
    |    |--Z. acuta MM09
    |    |--Z. fasciatellum MM09
    |    `--Z. modica MM09
    |--Pseudosciara Schiner 1866 H02
    |    |--P. forceps S81
    |    |--P. fragistyla MM09
    |    |--P. hirtella S81
    |    |--P. melanocephala MM09
    |    `--P. ribeiroi MM09
    |--Pseudolycoriella MM09
    |    |--P. coecoalata MM09
    |    |--P. ferocia MM09
    |    |--P. indocera MM09
    |    |--P. ovistyla MM09
    |    `--P. torva MM09
    |--Cratyna MM09
    |    |--C. (Cratyna) MM09
    |    |    |--C. (C.) ciliocera MM09
    |    |    |--C. (C.) ciliovenosa MM09
    |    |    `--C. (C.) micra MM09
    |    `--C. (Spathobdella) exteria MM09
    |--Bradysia Winnertz 1867 H02
    |    |--B. amoena WT11
    |    |--B. coprophila P09
    |    |--B. crassicera MM09
    |    |--B. dilucida MM09
    |    |--B. impatiens S81
    |    |--B. lobulata MM09
    |    `--B. macfarlanei S81
    `--Sciara Meigen 1903 H02
         |  i. s.: S. coprophila WB98
         |         S. fraterna RD77
         |         ‘Trichosia’ hebes S81
         |         S. militaris R13
         |         S. penicillata MM09
         |         S. rufescens Hutton 1881 (n. d.) TE27
         |         S. semialata RD77
         |         S. thomae R13
         |         S. tritici RD77
         |--S. (Sciara) TE27
         `--S. (Scaptosciara Tonnoir & Edwards 1927) TE27
              |--S. (*S.) quinquelineata TE27
              `--S. (S.) unicalcarata Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[KSM06] King, R. C., W. D. Stansfield & P. K. Mulligan. 2006. A Dictionary of Genetics 7th ed. Oxford University Press.

[MM09] Mohring, W., & F. Menzel. 2009. Sciaridae (black fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 279–292. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S81] Steffan, W. A. 1981. Sciaridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 247–255. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[TKM93] Thaler, K., B. Knoflach & E. Meyer. 1993. Fragmenta faunistica Tirolensia—X. Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80: 311–325.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

[WB98] Werren, J. H., & L. W. Beukeboom. 1998. Sex determination, sex ratios, and genetic conflict. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 233–261.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 4 February 2021.

Porricondylinae

Representative features of Holoneurus strobilophilus, from Foote (1956). Labels: a, male terminalia; b, wing; c, male palpus; d, hind claw, male; g, fifth flagellar segment, male.


Belongs within: Cecidomyiidae.

The Porricondylinae are a group of midges whose larvae are mostly mycophagous in decaying wood and vegetation though some may secondarily invade living plant tissue (Gagné 1981).

Characters (from Gagné 1981): Ocelli absent. Basal section of Rs as strong as other wing veins; vein M1+2 usually absent. Male gonocoxites united ventrally. Female cercus usually two-segmented.

<==Porricondylinae
    |--Haplusia [Diallactini] G81
    |    `--H. cinca GJ09
    |--Dirhiza [Dirhizini] G81
    |    `--D. papillata G81
    |--Winnertziini G81
    |    |--Winnertzia fungicola G81
    |    |--Parwinnertzia notmani G81
    |    `--Kronomyia populi G81
    |--Dicerurini G81
    |    |--Tetraneuromyia apicalis G81
    |    `--Dicerura GJ09
    |         |--D. furcata [=Neosynepidosis furcata] GJ09
    |         `--D. oregonensis G81
    |--Heteropezini G81
    |    |--Heteropeza pygmaea Winnertz 1846 G81, PN02 [incl. Oligarces paradoxus Meinert 1865 PN02]
    |    |--Henria G81
    |    |--Heteropezina cathistes G81
    |    `--Miastor G81
    |         |--M. americana G81
    |         `--M. metroloas G81
    |--Asynaptini G81
    |    |--Asynapta mangiferae GJ09
    |    |--Colomyia hordei G81
    |    |--Camptomyia aestiva G81
    |    |--Feltomyina polymera G81, GJ09
    |    |--Pseudocamptomyia photophila G81
    |    `--Parasynapta canadensis G81
    `--Porricondylini G81
         |--Solntsevia maculata G81
         |--Parepidosis G81
         |--Holoneurus G81
         |    |--H. multinodus F56
         |    |--H. occidentalis GJ09
         |    |--H. photophilus F56
         |    `--H. strobilophilus Foote 1956 F56
         |--Coccopsis marginata G81
         |--Claspettomyia niveitarsus G81
         |--Neocolpodia pinea G81
         |--Isocolpodia graminis G81
         |--Monepidosis carolina G81
         |--Schistoneurus pectinatus G81
         |--Basicondyla fultonensis G81
         |--Porricondyla G81
         |    |--P. carolina G81
         |    `--P. nigripennis G81
         `--Ruebsaamenia Kieffer 1894 F56
              |--*R. pectoralis [=Asynapta pectoralis] F56
              `--R. keeni Foote 1956 F56

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F56] Foote, R. H. 1956. Gall midges associated with cones of western forest trees (Diptera: Itonididae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (2): 48–57.

[G81] Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–292. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[PN02] Pollock, D. A., & B. B. Normark. 2002. The life cycle of Micromalthus debilis LeConte (1878) (Coleoptera: Archostemata: Micromalthidae): historical review and evolutionary perspective. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 40 (2): 105–112.

Lestremiinae

Anarete sp., copyright Jon Hart.


Belongs within: Cecidomyiidae.

The Lestremiinae are a group of cecidomyiid midges with mycophagous larvae (Gagné 1981).

Characters (from Gagné 1981): Ocelli usually present. Wings, if present, with vein M1+2 present. Five tarsomeres, with tarsomere 1 longer than 2.

<==Lestremiinae J00
    |--Lestremiini GJ09
    |    |--Wasmanniella clauda G81
    |    |--Gongromastix G81
    |    |--Allarete G81
    |    |--Anaretella defecta G81
    |    |--Pararete elongata G81
    |    |--Conarete G81
    |    |    |--C. crebra G81
    |    |    `--C. eluta GJ09
    |    |--Lestremia GJ09
    |    |    |--L. cinerea G81
    |    |    |--L. leucophaea GJ09
    |    |    `--‘Trichosia’ remota Hutton 1896 TE27
    |    `--Anarete G81
    |         |--A. anepsia G81
    |         |--A. buscki GJ09
    |         `--A. candidata G81
    `--Micromyidi GJ09
         |--Peromyia [Peromyiini] GJ09
         |--Campylomyza [Campylomyzini] GJ09
         |--Aprionus [Aprionini] GJ09
         |    `--A. asemus G81
         `--Micromyini G81
              |--Monardia monotheca G81, M83
              |--Cordylomyia denningi G81
              |--Corinthomyia brevicornis G81
              |--Trichopteromyia modesta G81
              |--Mycophila speyeri G81
              |--Bryomyia apsectra G81
              |--Xylopriona toxicodendri G81
              |--Micromya GJ09
              |    |--M. lucorum [incl. M. johannseni] GJ09
              |    `--M. mana G81
              `--Polyardis G81
                   |--P. adela G81
                   `--P. kasloensis G81

Lestremiinae incertae sedis:
  Anodontoceras J00
  Pseudoperomyia J00
  Skuhraviana J00
  Baeonotus [Baeonotini] G81
    `--B. microps M81
  Acoenonia [Acoenoniini] G81
    `--A. perissa G81
  Forbesomyia [Forbesomyiini] G81
    `--F. atra G81
  Strobliella [Strobliellini] G81
    `--S. intermedia G81
  Catochini J00
    |--Catocha slossonae J00, G81
    |--Anocha G81
    |--Neocatocha marilandica G81
    |--Tritozyga sackeni G81
    `--Eucatocha G81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G81] Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–292. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[J00] Jaschhof, M. 2000. Catotrichinae subfam. n.: a re-examination of higher classification in gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Entomological Science 3: 639–652.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

Oligotrophini

Male Oligotrophus betheli, from Simova-Tošić et al. (2010).


Belongs within: Cecidomyiinae.

The Oligotrophini are a group of midges whose larvae cause galls or live freely in flower heads (Gagné 1981). Members include the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor, a serious pest of wheat crops in many parts of the world.

Characters (from Gagné 1981): Antenna with 7–42 flagellomeres, usually irregular in number within species. Ocelli absent. Tarsal claws rounded at or beyond mid length, all either toothed or simple; empodia as long as or longer than claws. Male genitalia with gonocoxite with elongate mediobasal lobes sheathing aedeagus; mediobasal lobes entire, uniformly setulose or glabrous; gonostylus terminal. Female cerci usually fused medially into a single terminal lamella.

<==Oligotrophini G81
    |--Mayetiola destructor G81, CM91
    |--Procystiphora G81
    |--Rhabdophaga G81
    |--Lygocecis G81
    |--Sackenomyia G81
    |--Ficiomyia G81
    |--Walshomyia G81
    |--Rhopalomyia californica G81, B88
    |--Diarthronomyia hypogaea G81, G17
    |--Iteomyia salicifolia G81
    |--Oligotrophus Latreille 1805 S-TG10
    |    |--O. betheli [incl. O. apicis Appleby & Neiswander 1965, Phytophaga sabinae Felt 1935] S-TG10
    |    |--O. juniperinus S-TG10
    |    |--O. panteli S-TG10
    |    |--O. schmidti S-TG10
    |    `--O. szepligetii S-TG10
    |--Semudobia G81
    |--Cystiphora G81
    |    |--C. canadensis G81
    |    `--C. schmidti CM91
    `--Dasineura G81
         |--D. canadensis G81
         |--D. corollae GJ09
         |--D. gleditchiae GJ09
         |--D. oxycoccana G96
         `--D. praecox Gagné 1996 G96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G81] Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–292. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[G96] Gagné, R. J. 1996. A new species of Dasineura (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infesting pinxterbloom azalea flowers in Maryland and Washington, D.C. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 228–232.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80–101).

[S-TG10] Simova-Tošić, D., D. Graora, R. Spasić & D. Smiljanić. 2010. Oligotrophus betheli Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a new species in the fauna of Europe. Arch. Biol. Sci. 62 (4): 1219–1221.

Last updated: 31 January 2021.

Cecidomyiinae

Clinodiplosis sp., copyright R. B. Pape.


Belongs within: Cecidomyiidae.
Contains: Oligotrophini, Alycaulini, Asphondyliini.

The Cecidomyiinae are a diverse group of midges, many of which cause galls in plants but which also include non-galling phytophagous, mycophagous and predatory forms (Gagné 1981).

Characters (from Gagné 1981): Ocelli absent. Basal section of Rs usually absent or weaker than other veins. Male gonocoxites free ventrally. Female cercus one-segmented, often fused.

<==Cecidomyiinae
    |  i. s.: Rhizomyia G81
    |         Epimyia carolina G81
    |         Brachyneura G81
    |--Stomatosematidi GJ09
    |    |--Stomatosema dominicensis GJ09
    |    `--Didactylomyia longimana GJ09
    |--Brachineuridi GJ09
    |    |--Chrybaneura harrisoni GJ09
    |    `--Brachineura GJ09
    |--Lasiopteridi [Oligotrophidi] G81
    |    |--Oligotrophini G81
    |    |--Alycaulini GJ09
    |    |--Ledomyia [Ledomyiini] GJ09
    |    |    `--L. setosa G81
    |    |--Trotteria [Trotteriini] GJ09
    |    |    `--T. sarothamni A71
    |    |--Camptoneuromyiini GJ09
    |    |    |--Camptoneuromyia adhesa G81
    |    |    |--Salvalasioptera merremiae GJ09
    |    |    |--Incolasioptera siccida GJ09
    |    |    |--Domolasioptera GJ09
    |    |    `--Copinolasioptera salvadorensis GJ09
    |    `--Lasiopterini [Lasiopterina] G81
    |         |--Ozirhincus millefolii G81
    |         |--Hybolasioptera elymi G81
    |         |--Lasioptera GJ09
    |         |    |--L. kallstroemia GJ09
    |         |    `--L. solidaginis G81
    |         `--Isolasioptera GJ09
    |              |--I. eupatoriensis GJ09
    |              `--I. palmae GJ09
    `--Cecidomyiidi G81
         |  i. s.: Taxodiomyia G81
         |         Coccidomyia pennsylvanica G81
         |         Aphidoletes aphidimyza G81
         |         Harmandia reflexa G81
         |         Tanaodiplosis androgynes G81
         |         Dicrodiplosis guatemalensis G81, GJ09
         |         Feltiella G81
         |           |--F. acarisuga P09
         |           |--F. davisi G81
         |           |--F. insularis GJ09
         |           `--F. pini GJ09
         |         Lobodiplosis triangularis G81
         |         Karschomyia G81
         |         Kalodiplosis floridana G81
         |         Diadiplosis G81
         |         Plectrodiplosis fascipennis G81
         |         Bremia G81
         |         Ctenodactylomyia watsoni G81
         |         Pitydiplosis packardi G81
         |         Homobremia insolens G81
         |         Youngomyia podophylli G81
         |         Ancylodiplosis bryanti G81
         |         Coquillettomyia G81
         |           |--C. dentata G81
         |           `--C. obliqua GJ09
         |         Glenodiplosis callipus G81
         |         Mycodiplosis G81
         |           |--M. alternata F56
         |           |--M. conicola Foote 1956 F56
         |           |--M. coryloides Foote 1956 F56
         |           |--M. hudsoni F56
         |           |--M. inimica G81
         |           `--M. ligulata GJ09
         |         Planetella G81
         |         Parallelodiplosis G81
         |         Sequiomyia taxodii G81
         |         Silvestrina cincta G81
         |         Aphodiplosis trnagularis G81
         |         Cartodiplosis nyssaecola G81
         |         Caryomyia G81
         |         Monarthropalpus buxi G81
         |         Pinyonia edulicola G81
         |         Olpodiplosis helianthi G81
         |         Halodiplosis sarcobati G81
         |         Pilodiplosis helianthibula G81
         |         Thecodiplosis piniresinosae G81
         |         Zeuxidiplosis giardi G81
         |         Paradiplosis G81
         |         Lobopteromyia filicis G81
         |         Prodiplosis G81
         |           |--P. longifila P09
         |           `--P. morrisi G81
         |         Tropidiplosis pectinata G81
         |         Odontodiplosis americana G81
         |         Adiplosis toxicodendri G81
         |         Trisopsis G81
         |         Dentifibula viburni G81
         |         Thaumadiplosis magnicauda G81
         |         Pectinodiplosis erratica G81
         |         Endaphis G81
         |           |--E. maculans GJ09
         |           `--E. perfidus A71
         |         Thripsobremia quercifolia G81
         |         Epidiplosis sayi G81
         |         Arthrocnodax rhoinus G81
         |         Lestodiplosis G81
         |           |--L. callipus GJ09
         |           |--L. grassator G81
         |           `--L. taxiconis Foote 1956 F56
         |         Apagodiplosis papyriferae G81
         |         Putoniella marsupialis G81
         |         Blaesodiplosis G81
         |         Macrodiplosis G81
         |         Obolodiplosis robiniae G81
         |         Ametrodiplosis dulichii G81
         |         Hyperdiplosis lobata G81
         |         Giardomyia G81
         |         Gongrodiplosis latipes G81
         |         Platydiplosis nigricauda G81
         |         Cordylodiplosis molliterga G81
         |         Sitodiplosis mosellana G81
         |         Resseliella G81
         |           |--R. alternata G81
         |           `--R. pinifoliae G81
         |         Contarinia G81
         |           |--C. agrimoniae F56
         |           |--C. gossypii GJ09
         |           |--C. lycopersici P09
         |           |--C. maculipennis GJ09
         |           |--C. oregonensis Foote 1956 F56
         |           |--C. partheniicola G81
         |           |--C. perfoliata F56
         |           |--C. pirivora A71
         |           |--C. schulzi G81
         |           |--C. sorghicola B88
         |           `--C. wattsi G81
         |         Charidiplosis triangularis GJ09
         |         Astrodiplosis speciosa GJ09
         |         Schismatodiplosis lantanaei GJ09
         |         Cecidomyia M90
         |           |--C. candidipes G81
         |           |--C. frauenfeldti B88
         |           |--C. piniinopis G81
         |           `--C. resinicola M90
         |--Asphondyliini GJ09
         `--Clinodiplosini GJ09
              |--Iatrophobia brasiliensis GJ09
              `--Clinodiplosis GJ09
                   |--C. americana GJ09
                   |--C. araneosa G81
                   |--C. capsici P09
                   |--C. denotata GJ09
                   |--G. eupatorii GJ09
                   `--C. lappa G81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F56] Foote, R. H. 1956. Gall midges associated with cones of western forest trees (Diptera: Itonididae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (2): 48–57.

[G81] Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–292. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.