Casearia sylvestris, photographed by Hugh Wilson.

Belongs within: Violineae.
Contains: Salix.

The Salicaceae as used in recent references combines the restricted Salicaceae of older references (Salix, willows, and Populus, poplars) with the paraphyletic 'Flacourtiaceae'. Though the wind-pollinated, northern temperate Salicaceae sensu stricto are distinct from other, mostly tropical, members of the family, phylogenetic analyses have nested them deep within the 'Flacourtiaceae', and the name Salicaceae takes precedence for a combined family. Phylogenetic analysis supports a clade of Casearia and related taxa as sister to the remaining Salicaceae, with the latter possessing leaves with a 'salicoid tooth', an apical tooth with a small vein entering and expanding within the tooth, and a terminal gland or stout hair (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). Casearia is a genus of tropical trees bearing alternate leaves with theoid teeth (with a glandular deciduous tip). Species of Salicaceae used as commercial sources for wood include poplars and malas, Homalium foetida, of south-east Asia and New Guinea.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Evergreen (occasionally deciduous) trees; cocarcinogen, tanniniferous; vessel elements with simple or scalariform perforation plates; petiole bundle arcuate or annular with flange bundles; leaves spiral or two-ranked, occasionally opposite, supervolute-curved or involute, teeth salicoid [with small vein proceeding into tooth and expanding, apex of tooth a spherical gland or stout hair]; inflorescence various; flowers 3-6-merous, calyx with (0-)3-8(-15) sepals, often valvate (occasionally connate), corolla absent or with same number of petals as sepals (rarely with more petals than sepals), disc often with glands or lobes; anthers 1 to many, centrifugal (occasionally simultaneous) initiation; styles separate or fused; ovules straight (occasionally anatropous), micropyle bistomal/zig-zag (occasionally exostomal or endostomal), embryo sac elongated, more or less protruding into the micropyle; fruit a berry or drupe; seeds arillate or with hairs of arillate origin; testa also multiplicative and more or less fleshy.

Salicaceae [Flacourtiaceae]
    |--+--Lunania mauritii DL07, J87
    |  `--Casearia [Casearieae] DL07
    |       |--C. arborea SWK87
    |       |--C. corymbosa MM96
    |       |--C. decandra SWK87
    |       |--C. guianensis SWK87
    |       |--C. grewiaefolia K03
    |       |--C. pachyphylla H03
    |       `--C. sylvestris J87
    `--+--Scyphostegia [Scyphostegiaceae] DL07
       `--+--+--Hasseltia DL07
          |  `--Flacourtioideae T00
          |       |--+--Dovyalis DL07
          |       |  `--Flacourtia DL07
          |       `--+--Abatia DL07
          |          `--+--Banara splendens DL07, J87 [incl. B. hotteana J87]
          |             `--Prockia DL07
          `--+--Poliothyrsis DL07
             `--+--Salix DL07
                `--Populus DL07
                     |--P. alba H06
                     |--P. balsamifera PS08
                     |--P. × canescens H06
                     |--P. deltoides H06
                     |--P. grandidentata JVHN90
                     |--P. nigra H06
                     |    |--P. n. var. nigra H06
                     |    `--P. n. var. italica H06
                     |--P. tremola W01
                     |--P. tremuloides PS08
                     `--P. trichocarpa JK06

Salicaceae incertae sedis:
  Scolopia H03 [Scolopieae T00]
    `--S. rhinanthera H03
  Scaphocalyx H03
  Homalium K03 [Homalieae T00]
    |--H. foetida K03
    `--H. racemosum SWK87
  Bembicieae T00
  Neopringlea T00
  Oncoba T00
  Grandidiera YY22
  Calencob YY22
  Lindackeria YY22
  Microsemma YY22
  Xylotheca YY22
  Bennettia trinervia [=Terminalia trinervia] C78
  Buchnerodendron YY22
  Gertrudia YY22
  Gynocardia YY22
  Itoa YY22
  Ryparosa YY22
  Solmsia YY22
  Idesia polycarpa LO98
  Trichostephanus YY22
  Azara YY22
    |--A. lanceolata D03
    `--A. microphylla H59
  Dasylepis YY22
  Patrisia YY22
  Phyllobotryum YY22
  Prockiopsis YY22
  Rawsonia YY22
  Tetrathylacium YY22
  Myroxylon YY22
  Camptostylus YY22
  Mayna YY22
  Ophiobotrys YY22
  Lacistematoideae T00
    |--Lacistema T00
    `--Lozania T00
  Samyda dodecandra J87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C78] Coode, M. J. E. 1978. Combretaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 43-110. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113-118.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818-822.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173-180.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280-286.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: Features facilitating coexistence. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 121-135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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