Salicaceae

Casearia sylvestris, photographed by Hugh Wilson.


Belongs within: Violineae.
Contains: Salix.

The Salicaceae as used in recent references combines the restricted Salicaceae of older references (Salix, willows, and Populus, poplars) with the paraphyletic 'Flacourtiaceae'. Though the wind-pollinated, northern temperate Salicaceae sensu stricto are distinct from other, mostly tropical, members of the family, phylogenetic analyses have nested them deep within the 'Flacourtiaceae', and the name Salicaceae takes precedence for a combined family. Salicaceae are united by leaves with a 'salicoid tooth', an apical tooth with a small vein entering and expanding within the tooth, and a terminal gland or stout hair (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). Species of Salicaceae used as commercial sources for wood include poplars and malas, Homalium foetida, of south-east Asia and New Guinea. Populus species have leaves as wide as or wider than long, and pendent catkins (Hickman 1993). Homalium is a pantropical genus of trees and shrubs characterised by flowers with a calyx tube bearing free sepal lobes and petals spreading from the rim.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Evergreen (occasionally deciduous) trees; cocarcinogen, tanniniferous; vessel elements with simple or scalariform perforation plates; petiole bundle arcuate or annular with flange bundles; leaves spiral or two-ranked, occasionally opposite, supervolute-curved or involute, teeth salicoid [with small vein proceeding into tooth and expanding, apex of tooth a spherical gland or stout hair]; inflorescence various; flowers 3-6-merous, calyx with (0-)3-8(-15) sepals, often valvate (occasionally connate), corolla absent or with same number of petals as sepals (rarely with more petals than sepals), disc often with glands or lobes; anthers 1 to many, centrifugal (occasionally simultaneous) initiation; styles separate or fused; ovules straight (occasionally anatropous), micropyle bistomal/zig-zag (occasionally exostomal or endostomal), embryo sac elongated, more or less protruding into the micropyle; fruit a berry or drupe; seeds arillate or with hairs of arillate origin; testa also multiplicative and more or less fleshy.

Salicaceae [Flacourtiaceae]
    |--+--Hasseltia DL07
    |  `--Flacourtioideae T00
    |       |--+--Abatia XR12
    |       |  `--+--Prockia XR12
    |       |     `--Banara DL07
    |       |          |--B. splendens [incl. B. hotteana] J87
    |       |          `--B. vanderbiltii W92
    |       `--+--Dovyalis caffra XR12, H90
    |          `--Flacourtia XR12
    |               |--F. indica B00
    |               |--F. inermis B00
    |               |--F. jangomas B00
    |               |--F. rukam B00
    |               `--F. territorialis B00
    `--+--Poliothyrsis XR12
       `--+--Idesia polycarpa XR12, LO98
          `--+--Salix XR12
             `--Populus XR12
                  |--P. alba H06
                  |--P. angustifolia M61
                  |--P. balsamifera PS08
                  |--P. canadensis R96
                  |--P. × canescens H06
                  |--P. deltoides H06
                  |--P. euphracticus HF03
                  |--P. × euramericana P93
                  |--P. fremontii [incl. P. fremontii var. arizonica, P. fremontii var. macdougalii] H93
                  |--P. germanica HL08
                  |--P. grandidentata JVHN90
                  |--P. lancifolia P93
                  |--P. nigra H06
                  |    |--P. n. var. nigra H06
                  |    `--P. n. var. italica H06
                  |--P. tremula P93
                  |--P. tremuloides M61
                  `--P. trichocarpa JK06 [=P. balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa H93]

Salicaceae incertae sedis:
  Scolopia NC91 [Scolopieae T00]
    |--S. braunii [incl. S. brownii] H90
    `--S. rhinanthera H03
  Scaphocalyx H03
  Homalium K03 [Homalieae T00]
    |--H. alnifolium B00
    |--H. brachybotrys B00
    |--H. circumpinnatum B00
    |--H. foetida K03
    `--H. racemosum SWK87
  Bembicieae T00
  Neopringlea T00
  Oncoba T00
  Grandidiera YY22
  Calencob YY22
  Lindackeria YY22
  Microsemma YY22
  Xylotheca YY22
  Bennettia trinervia [=Terminalia trinervia] C78
  Buchnerodendron YY22
  Gertrudia YY22
  Gynocardia YY22
  Itoa YY22
  Ryparosa YY22
  Solmsia YY22
  Trichostephanus YY22
  Azara YY22
    |--A. lanceolata D03
    `--A. microphylla H59
  Dasylepis YY22
  Patrisia YY22
  Phyllobotryum YY22
  Prockiopsis YY22
  Rawsonia YY22
  Tetrathylacium YY22
  Camptostylus YY22
  Mayna YY22
  Ophiobotrys YY22
  Pseudosalix handleyi XR12
  Xylosma B00
    |--X. ovatum B00
    `--X. terraereginae B00
  Aphloioxylon Mathiesen 1937 CBH93
  Credneria integerrina Zenker 1833 CBH93
  Dryoxylon jenense Schleiden 1853 CBH93
  Streptothamnus moorei H90
  Saliciphyllum P92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C78] Coode, M. J. E. 1978. Combretaceae. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 43–110. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[HF03] Halperin, J., & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93–100.

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[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113–118.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[HL08] Henniger, M., & R. Leder. 2008. Eozäne Makroflora der Querfurter Mulde. Mauritiana 20 (2): 229–251.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

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[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173–180.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[M61] Musser, G. G. 1961. A new subspecies of flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) from southwestern Utah. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 119–126.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280–286.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R96] Raspi, A. 1996. Thaumatomyia elongatula (Becker) (Chloropidae) and Leucopis annulipes Zetterstedt (Chamaemyiidae): two Diptera preying on Phloeomyzus passerinii (Signoret) (Homoptera: Phloeomyzidae) in Italy. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 509–516.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 24 March 2021.

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