Carinodrillia

Carinodrillia buccooensis, from the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.


Belongs within: Pseudomelatomidae.

Carinodrillia is a genus of moderate-sized conoid gastropods known from the southwest coast of North America, as well as the Miocene of the Caribbean (Powell 1966).

Characters (from Powell 1966): Shell of moderate size, 14–35 mm, fusiform, with a tall spire of rather sagged turreted whorls, and a short body—whorl, rather quickly contracted to a moderately long to rather short slightly flexed weakly notched anterior canal. Protoconch of two depressed subcarinate smooth whorls. Adult sculpture of axial folds, spiral cords and threads; in the peripheral area, one or more of the overriding heavier spirals fuse over the axials to form low keels. Aperture narrow, with a thin outer lip, interrupted above by a deep narrow U-shaped sinus, restricted above by a moderate parietal callosity, at the termination of a prominent smooth subsutural fold. Colour uniformly whitish to brownish. Radula, a pair of simple slender curved non-barbed marginals.

<==Carinodrillia Dall 1919 P66
    |--*C. halis (Dall 1919) [=Clathrodrillia (*Carinodrillia) halis] P66
    |    |--C. h. halis P66
    |    `--C. h. soror (Pilsbry & Lowe 1932) [=Clathrodrillia soror] P66
    |--C. adonis Pilsbry & Lowe 1932 P66
    |--C. alcestis (Dall 1919) [=Clathrodrillia (Carinodrillia) alcestis] P66
    |--C. bocatoroensis (Olsson 1922) [=Drillia bocatoroensis] P66
    |--C. braziliensis (Smith 1915) S11
    |--C. buccooensis Usticke 1971 BC01
    |--C. cymatoides Gardner 1937 P66
    |--C. dichroa Pilsbry & Lowe 1932 O66
    |--C. duplicata (Sowerby 1834) P66 [=Pleurotoma duplicata P66, Turricula (Knefastia) duplicata D19]
    |--C. elocata (Pilsbry & Johnson 1917) [=Drillia elocata] P66
    |    |--C. e. elocata P66
    |    `--C. e. meta Woodring 1928 P66
    |--C. fermori Dey 1962 P66
    |--C. fusiformis (Gabb 1873) [=Defrancia fusiformis] P66
    |--C. haliplexa (Dall 1919) [=Clathrodrillia (C.) haliplexa] P66
    |--C. jaculum Pilsbry & Lowe 1932 P66
    |--C. papaya (Olsson 1922) [=Drillia papaya] P66
    |--C. propefusiformis (Mansfield 1925) [=Drillia propefusiformis] P66
    |--C. thestia (Dall 1919) [=Clathrodrillia (C.) thestia] P66
    `--C. winchesterae (Pilsbry 1922) [=Drillia winchesterae] P66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[D19] Dall, W. H. 1919. Descriptions of new species of mollusks of the family Turritidae from the west coast of America and adjacent regions. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 56: 1–86, pls 81–24.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

Mangelia

Mangelia costulata, from the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.


Belongs within: Mangeliidae.

Mangelia is a genus of small conoids found in the northeastern Atlantic. They have an ovate to fusiform shell, strongly sculptured with rounded axials (Powell 1966).

<==Mangelia Risso 1826 BK11 (see below for synonymy)
    |--M. attenuata (Montagu 1803) (see below for synonymy) P66
    |--‘Cytharella’ aculea Dall 1919 O27
    |--M. acuticostata C64
    |--M. aleutica Dall 1871 O27
    |--M. althorpi Dall 1919 O27
    |--‘Cytharella’ amatula Dall 1919 P66
    |--‘Mangiliella’ barashi Aartsen & Fehr-de Wal 1978 O96
    |--M. barbarensis Oldroyd 1924 [=M. angulata Carpenter 1865 non Reeve 1846] O27
    |--M. bascauda H22
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ bertrandii Payraudeau 1826 [=Cytharella bertrandii, *Rissomangilia bertrandii] P66
    |--M. brachystoma (Philippi 1844) S11
    |--‘Cytharella’ branneri O27
    |--M. burdigalica Peyrot 1932 [=Mangilia (Mangiliella) burdigalica] P66
    |--M. carlottae Dall 1919 O27
    |--M. cerea C64
    |--M. cesta Dall 1919 O27
    |--M. cetolaca O27
    |--M. constricta (Gabb 1865) [=Clathurella constricta] O27
    |--‘Murex’ costatus Donovan 1803 [=*Cytharella costatus] P66
    |--M. costulata (Blainville 1826) O96
    |--M. dejanira Dall 1919 D19
    |--M. deshayesii Dunker 1860 K92
    |--M. digressa Rolán & Otero-Schmitt 1999 BC01
    |--‘Mangilia’ diotula H22
    |--M. eriopis Dall 1919 O27
    |--M. eriphyle Dall 1919 O27
    |--M. eurybia Dall 1919 D19
    |--M. evadne Dall 1919 O27
    |--M. exquisita Smith 1882 H09
    |--M. goodalli Reeve 1846 H09 [=Cythara goodalli H22]
    |--M. granitica Dall 1919 O27
    |--M. hamata Carpenter 1865 D19
    |--M. harrisoni Tennison Woods 1877 P79
    |--M. hermione Dall 1919 D19
    |--M. hexagona (Gabb 1865) [=Cytharella hexagona] O27
    |--‘Cytharella’ hiradoensis Makiyama 1927 P66
    |--M. inusitata Rolán & Otero-Schmitt 1999 BC01
    |--M. labratula Cossmann 1889 [=Mangilia labratula, Cytharella labratula] P66
    |--M. languida (Reeve 1845) H09 [=Pleurotoma languida H09, Clathurella languida H22]
    |--M. laodice Dall 1919 D19
    |--M. lepidus Peyrot 1938 [=Mangilia (Mangiliella) lepidus] P66
    |--‘Cythara’ limata Olssom 1922 [=Cytharella limata] P66
    |--M. lineorosata Rolán & Otero-Schmitt 1999 BC01
    |--‘Cytharella’ louisa Dall 1919 D19
    |--M. maculata Reeve 1846 H09 [=Cythara maculata H22]
    |--M. marcellinae Hornung 1920 [=Mangilia (Mangiliella) marcellinae] P66
    |--‘Cytharella’ merita Hinds 1843 O27
    |--‘Buccinum’ mitrula Sowerby 1822 [=Cytharella mitrula] P66
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ multilineolata Deshayes 1833 [=*Mangiliella multilineolata] P66
    |--M. nebula L64
    |--M. newcombei Dall 1919 P66 [=Mangilia (Kurtzilla) newcombei O27]
    |--M. nunivakensis Dall 1919 O27
    |--M. nuperrima (Tiberi 1855) (see below for synonymy) BW80
    |--M. oenoa Dall 1919 O27
    |--M. paciniana (Calcara 1839) O96
    |--M. painei Arnold 1903 D19
    |--‘Mangiliella’ pallaryi (Nordsieck 1977) O96
    |--M. patagoniensis Dall 1919 D19
    |--M. perattenuata Dall 1905 O27
    |--M. philodice Dall 1919 O27
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ plicata Lamarck 1804 [=Mangiliella plicata] P66
    |--M. powisiana (Dautzenberg 1887) BK11
    |--M. pulchrior Dall 1919 [=M. nitens Carpenter 1865 (preoc.)] O27
    |--M. rugulosa (Philippi 1844) O96 [=Cytharella rugulosum P66]
    |--M. salinensis Degrange-Touzin 1894 [=Mangilia salinensis, Mangiliella salinensis] P66
    |--‘Mangiliella’ sandrii (Brusina 1865) O96
    |--M. scabrida (Monterosato 1890) O96
    |--M. sculpturata Dall 1886 O27
    |--‘Mangiliella’ secreta Aartsen & Fehr-de Wal 1978 O96
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ semicostulata Deshayes 1865 [=Mangiliella semicostulata] P66
    |--M. serga (Dall 1881) (see below for synonymy) BW80
    |--M. simplex C64
    |--M. simplicior Peyrot 1938 [=Mangelia turonensis simplicior, Cytharella simplicior] P66
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ smithii Forbes 1840 [=Cytharella smithii] P66
    |--M. sulcata C64
    |--‘Pleurotoma’ taeniata Deshayes 1833 [=Mangiliella (*Lyromangelia) taeniata] P66
    |--‘Cytharella’ tenuifilosa Cox 1927 P66
    |--M. turonensis Peyrot 1938 [=Mangelia (Cytharella) turonensis] P66
    |--M. variegata Carpenter 1864 C64
    |--‘Cytharella’ victoriana Dall 1897 O27
    `--M. violacea J64

Mangelia Risso 1826 BK11 [=Mangilia Lovén 1846 BR05; incl. Cyrtocythara Nordsieck 1977 BK11, Cytharella Monterosato 1875 BK11, Citharella (l. c.) P66, Cyharella (l. c.) P66, Lyromangelia Nordsieck 1977 BK11, Mangiliella Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus 1883 BK11, Rissomangelia Monterosato 1917 BK11, Rugocythara Nordsieck 1977 BK11, Villiersia Monterosato 1884 non d’Orbigny 1837 P66, Vielliersia (l. c.) P66, Villiersiella Monterosato 1884 BK11]

Mangelia attenuata (Montagu 1803) [=Murex attenuatus, *Vielliersia (l. c.) attenuata, *Villiersiella attenuata; incl. *Mangelia striolata Risso 1826, Pleurotoma villiersii Michaud 1829] P66

Mangelia nuperrima (Tiberi 1855) [=P. nuperrimum; incl. Raphitoma nuperrima var. corallinoides Sturany 1896, P. decussatum Philippi 1844 non Couthouy 1839, P. lyciaca Forbes 1843 (n. n.), Raphitoma peregrinator Locard 1897, R. nuperrima var. pseudacanthodes Sturany 1896, R. reconditum Locard 1892] BW80

Mangelia serga (Dall 1881) [=Pleurotoma (Drillia) serga; incl. P. (Mangilia) acanthodes Watson 1881, P. (M.) corallina Watson 1881, Mangilia serga var. elongata non Mangelia elongata Gabb 1873, Acmaturris vatovai Nordsieck 1971] BW80

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BW80] Bouchet, P., & A. Waren. 1980. Revision of the north-east Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Turridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies Supplement 8: 1–119.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[D19] Dall, W. H. 1919. Descriptions of new species of mollusks of the family Turritidae from the west coast of America and adjacent regions. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 56: 1–86, pls 81–24.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H22] Hedley, C. 1922. A revision of the Australian Turridae. Records of the Australian Museum 13 (6): 213–359, pls 42–56.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. The Upper Tertiary fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 73–79.

[K92] Kilburn, R. N. 1992. Turridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of southern Africa and Mozambique. Part 6. Subfamily Mangeliinae, section 1. Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 461–575.

[L64] Leckenby, J. 1864. Abstract of the report of a three-weeks' dredging-cruise off Scarborough. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 105.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[O96] Oliverio, M. 1996. Contrasting developmental strategies and speciation in N.E. Atlantic prosobranchs: a preliminary analysis. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 261–266. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[P79] Petterd, W. F. 1879. List of the freshwater shells of Tasmania. Journal of Conchology 2: 80–88.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

Hastula

Hastula strigilata, photographed by Jan Delsing.


Belongs within: Terebridae.

Hastula is a genus of auger shells in which the feeding apparatus includes a long and eversible labial tube, a relatively large buccal cavity, and a long and retractile buccal tube, together with a poison gland and bulb and a radular sac containing two rows of harpoon-like teeth (Auffenberg & Lee 1988).

Hastula Adams & Adams 1853 [incl. Acuminia Dall 1908, Egentelaria Rehder 1980, Hastulina Oyama 1961] BK11
    |--H. aciculina (Lamarck 1822) AL88
    |--H. alboflava Bratcher 1988 BC01
    |--H. albula Menke 1843 BW09
    |--‘Terebra’ bicorona Hutton 1885 [=Acuminia bicorona] F27
    |--‘Terebra’ biplex Hutton 1885 [=Acuminia biplex] F27
    |--H. brazieri Angas 1871 [=Acuminia brazieri] WG71
    |--H. cinerea (Born 1780) BD12
    |--H. colorata Bratcher 1988 BC01
    |--H. hastata (Gmelin 1791) S11
    |--H. inconstans (Hinds 1844) AL88
    |--H. lanceata (Linnaeus 1767) [=*Acuminia lanceata] WG71
    |--H. lauta Pease 1869 WG71
    |--H. nitida Hinds 1844 WG71
    |--‘Terebra’ orycta Suter 1913 [=Acuminia orycta] F27
    |--‘Terebra’ pareoraensis (Suter 1917) [=Acuminia pareoraensis] F27
    |--H. (Terebrellina) plicatula (Lamarck 1805) TTE93
    |--H. rufopunctata Smith 1877 WG71
    |--H. salleana (Deshayes 1859) AL88
    |--H. strigilata Linnaeus 1758 WG71
    |--‘Terebra’ sulcata Marshall 1919 [=Acuminia sulcata] F27
    `--‘Acuminia’ venosa [incl. Terebra flexicostata] F27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AL88] Auffenberg, K., & H. G. Lee. 1988. A new species of intertidal Terebra from Brazil. Nautilus 102 (4): 154–158.

[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Amphissa

Wrinkled dove snail Amphissa columbiana, copyright Ed Bierman.


Belongs within: Columbellidae.

Amphissa is a genus of dove shells found in the North Atlantic (Radwin 1978).

Characters (from Radwin 1978): Shell moderate to large (10–25 mm), and buccinoid; spire high and acute, whorls strongly convex, suture impressed; body whorl half shell length, aperture broadly open, apertural lip unthickened, non-denticulate within, columella straight, smooth, siphonal canal short; sculpture generally of numerous strong axial ribs crossed by spiral elements of varying strength; color off-white to brown with a straw-colored periostracum. Each radular row has a flat, subrectangular median tooth flanked on each side by an elongate, sigmoid, tricuspid lateral tooth.

<==Amphissa Adams & Adams 1853 R78
    |--A. columbiana Dall 1916 [=Buccinum corrugatus Reeve 1847 non Brocchi 1814, *A. corrugata] R78
    |--A. acuminata (Smith 1915) S11
    |--A. bicolor Dall 1892 O27
    |--A. haliaeeti (Jeffreys 1867) R78 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. reticulata Dall 1916 O27
    |--A. undata Carpenter 1864 O27
    `--A. versicolor Dall 1871 O27
         |--A. v. versicolor O27
         |--A. v. cymata Dall 1916 O27
         `--A. v. incisa Dall 1919 O27

Amphissa haliaeeti (Jeffreys 1867) R78 [=Columbella haliaeeti R78; incl. Bela grimaldii Dautzenberg 1889 BW80, B. limatula Locard 1896 BW80]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BW80] Bouchet, P., & A. Waren. 1980. Revision of the north-east Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Turridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies Supplement 8: 1–119.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[R78] Radwin, G. E. 1978. The family Columbellidae in the western Atlantic. Part IIb.—The Pyreninae (continued). Veliger 20 (4): 328–344.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

Pholidotomoidea

Napulus fragilis, from fossilshells.nl.


Belongs within: Neogastropoda.
Contains: Pyrifusinae, Volutodermatinae, Beretrinae.

The Pholidotomoidea as recognised by Bouchet et al. (2017) include early representatives of the Neogastropoda from the Late Cretaceous. This group is probably not monophyletic and likely includes ancestors of later neogastropods.

Pholidotomoidea [Pyrifusoidea, Sarganoidea] BR17
    |--Weeksiidae BD12
    |    |--‘Lowenstamia’ Sohl 1964 non Stehli 1961 BD12
    |    |    `--*L. funiculus Sohl 1964 RA75
    |    `--Weeksia Stephenson 1941 BR05
    |         |--*W. amplificata (Wade 1926) [=Pseudomalaxis amplificata] KC60
    |         |--W. deplanata (Johnson 1905) TTE93
    |         `--W. lubbocki (Stephenson 1941) TTE93
    |--Pholidotomidae [Pyrifusidae] BR17
    |    |--Pyrifusinae BD12
    |    |--Volutodermatinae BD12
    |    |--Beretrinae BR17
    |    |--Paleopsephaea Wade 1926 BD12 [Paleopsephaeinae BR17]
    |    |    `--*P. mutabilis Wade 1926 BD12
    |    |--Pseudorapa Holzapfel 1888 [Pseudorapinae] BD12
    |    |    |--*P. (Pseudorapa) pleurotomoides (Muller 1851) [=Murex pleurotomoides] RA75
    |    |    |--P. (*Aliofusus) stamineus Sohl 1964 BD12
    |    |    `--P. (Stantonella Wade 1926) BD12
    |    |         |--P. (*S.) subnodosa (Wade 1926) [=*Stantonella subnodosa] BD12
    |    |         `--P. (S.) ripleyana (Conrad 1860) BD12
    |    `--Pholidotominae BD12
    |         |--Pholidotoma Cossmann 1896 BD12
    |         |    `--*P. subheptagonus (d’Orbigny 1850) [=Fusus subheptagonus] BR17
    |         `--Drilluta Wade 1916 BD12 [=Drilliovoluta Cossmann 1925 P66; Drillutinae]
    |              |--*D. communis Wade 1916 BD12 [=*Drilliovoluta communis P66]
    |              |--D. distans (Conrad 1860) BD12
    |              `--D. major BD12
    |--Sarganidae BR17
    |    |--Hippocampoides Wade 1916 RA75 [Hippocampoidinae BD12]
    |    |    `--*H. serratus Wade 1916 RA75
    |    |--Schizobasinae BD12
    |    |    |--Hillites Stephenson 1952 BD12
    |    |    |--‘Natalites’ Bandel 1999 non Collignon 1954 BD12
    |    |    `--Schizobasis Wade 1916 non Baker 1873 (ICBN) BR05
    |    |         `--*S. depressa Wade 1916 BR17
    |    |--Sarganinae BD12
    |    |    |--Sargana Stephenson 1923 RA75
    |    |    |    `--*S. stantoni (Stephenson 1923) [=Rapana stantoni] RA75
    |    |    `--Praesargana Saul & Popenoe 1993 BD12
    |    |         |--*P. condoni (White 1889) [=Trophon condoni] BD12
    |    |         `--P. tupeloensis Bandel & Dockery 2001 BD12
    |    `--Pseudecphorinae BD12
    |         |  i. s.: ‘Trigonostoma’ ripleyana Sohl 1964 BD12
    |         |--Pseudecphora Bandel & Dockery 2001 BR17
    |         |    `--*P. proquadricostata (Wade 1917) [=Ecphora proquadricostata] BR17
    |         `--Blackdownia Kollmann 1976 BD12
    |              |--*B. quadrata (Sowerby 1823) [=Murex quadratus] BD12
    |              |--B. acuticarinata (Rennie 1930) BD12
    |              `--B. kollmanni Kiel & Bandel 2003 BD12
    `--Moreidae BD12
         |--Moreinae BD12
         |    |--Paramorea Wade 1917 BD12
         |    |    |--P. lineata (Sowerby 1836) TTE93
         |    |    `--P. lirata Wade 1917 BD12
         |    |--Morea Conrad 1860 BR05 [incl. Pseudomorea Cossmann 1925 RA75]
         |    |    |--*M. cancellaria Conrad 1860 RA75
         |    |    `--M. marylandica Gardner 1916 BD12
         |    `--Buccinopsis Conrad 1857 [incl. Seminola Wade 1918] BD12
         |         |--*B. perryi Conrad 1857 BD12
         |         `--B. solida (Wade 1917) BD12
         `--Pyropsinae [Pyropsidae] BD12
              |--Hydrotribulus Wade 1916 BD12
              |--Trochifusus perornatus (Sohl 1964) BD12
              |--Hercorhyncus Conrad 1868 BD12
              |    `--*H. tippanus (Conrad 1860) [=Fusus tippana] BD12
              |--Schizofusus Kiel & Bandel 2003 BD12
              |    `--*S. transkeiensis Kiel & Bandel 2003 BD12
              |--Lupira Stephenson 1941 BD12
              |    `--*L. variabilis (Wade 1926) [=Xancus variabilis] BD12
              |--Pyropsis Conrad 1860 BR05
              |    |--*P. perlata (Conrad 1860) [=Tudicla perlata] BR17
              |    `--P. nodifera (Stoliczka 1868) BD12
              `--Napulus Stephenson 1941 BD12
                   |--N. excavatus Stoliczka 1868 BD12
                   |--N. fragilis BD12
                   |--N. reesidei Sohl 1964 BD12
                   `--N. tuberculatus Stephenson 1941 BD12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[RA75] Radwin, G. E., & A. D’Attilio. 1975. A catalogue of muricacean generic taxa. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 17 (20): 279–292.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Rapaninae

Veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa, copyright Holger Krisp.


Belongs within: Muricidae.
Contains: Lepsiella, Nassa, Acanthina, Morula, Drupa, Thais.

The Rapaninae, including purples and drupes, are a group of muricid gastropods with thick and solid, often strongly sculptured shells that lack true varices, and a horny operculum with a lateral nucleus (Wilson & Gillett 1971).

<==Rapaninae (see below for synonymy) ZLK11
    |--Cronia Adams & Adams 1853 ZLK11, WG71
    |    |--*C. amygdala (Kiener 1835) [=Purpura amygdala] RA75
    |    |--C. avellana Reeve 1846 WG71
    |    `--C. pseudamygdala Hedley 1903 WG71
    `--+--Morula ZLK11
       `--+--Drupa ZLK11
          `--+--‘Thais’ gradata ZLK11
             `--+--Stramonita Schumacher 1817 ZLK11, RA75
                |    `--*S. haemastoma (Linné 1867) [=Buccinum haemastoma] RA75
                `--+--Thais ZLK11
                   `--Rapana Schumacher 1817 ZLK11, BR05
                        |  i. s.: R. neozelanica A27
                        |         R. tomasiana G31
                        |         R. waihaoensis A27
                        |--R. venosa (Valenciennes 1846) ZLK11, BD86 (see below for synonymy)
                        `--+--R. bezoar (Linnaeus 1758) ZLK11, RA75 (see below for synonymy)
                           `--R. rapiformis (Born 1778) ZLK11, BD86

Rapaninae incertae sedis:
  Lepsiella WG71
  Nassa WG71
  Agnewia Tenison-Woods 1878 F27, RA75 [=Adamsia Dunker 1857 non Forbes 1840 RA75]
    `--A. tritoniformis (Blainville 1832) F27, RA75 (see below for synonymy)
  ‘Purpurella’ Bellardi 1882 nec Robineau-Desvoidy 1853 nec Dall 1871 BR05
    `--*P. canaliculata Bellardi 1882 RA75
  Taurasia Bellardi 1882 BR05
    `--*T. subfusiformis (d’Orbigny 1952) (see below for synonymy) BR17
  Concholepas Lamarck 1801 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    `--C. concholepas (Bruguière 1789) GO78 (see below for synonymy)
  Vexilla Swainson 1840 WG71, RA75 [=Provexillum Hedley 1918 RA75]
    |--V. vexillum (Gmelin 1791) WG71 (see below for synonymy)
    `--V. fuscolineata C64
  Preangeria Martin 1921 PH90
    `--*P. angsanana Martin 1921 PH90
  Neothais Iredale 1912 F27, RA75
    |--*N. smithi (Brazier 1889) [=Purpura smithi] RA75
    |--N. clathrata (Adams 1854) HS01
    `--N. lacunosa F27
  Mancinella Link 1807 WG71
    |--*M. mancinella (Linnaeus 1758) RA75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--M. bufo M54
    `--M. tuberosa Röding 1798 [incl. Thais pica Blainville 1832] WG71
  Dicathais Iredale 1936 WG71
    |--*D. orbita (Gmelin 1791) RA75 [=Buccinum orbita RA75, Neothais (*Dicathais) orbita P61]
    |--D. baileyana Tenison Woods 1881 WG71
    |--D. scalaris Menke 1829 [=Neothais (Dicathais) scalaris] P61
    `--D. textilosa Lamarck 1822 [incl. D. aegrota Reeve 1846] WG71
  Purpura Bruguière 1789 BR05
    |--*P. persica (Linnaeus 1758) RA75 [=Buccinum persicum RA75, Haustrum persicum F27, Thais persica H09]
    |--P. aperta C64
    |--P. auriculata [incl. Buccinum coromandelianum] G79
    |--P. bicostalis [incl. P. haemastoma] G79
    |--P. biserialis [incl. P. bufonides] C64
    |--P. canaliculata Duclos 1832 [incl. P. analoga, P. attenuata, P. decemcostata] C64
    |--P. centiquadra Val. in Duclos 1832 [=P. speciosa Val. 1833] C64
    |--P. conoidea H86
    |--P. crispata (see below for synonymy) C64
    |--P. foliata Martyn 1784 O27 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. freycinetii C64
    |--P. gigantea G79
    |--P. harpa C64
    |--P. lamellosa (see below for synonymy) C64
    |--P. melones Duclos 1832 C64
    |--P. nuttallii Conrad 1837 O27
    |    |--P. n. nuttallii O27
    |    |--P. n. aciculiger Valenciennes 1846 O27
    |    |--P. n. albescens Dall 1919 O27
    |    `--P. n. albofasciata Dall 1919 O27
    |--P. ostrina C64
    |--P. pansa SF77
    |--P. patula (Linnaeus 1758) HW78 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. picta [incl. Buccinum assimile, Cantharus (Tritonidea) assimilis] H08
    |--P. plicata G79
    |--P. rudolphi FP15
    |--P. saxicola [incl. P. fuscata, P. lagena (n. n.) C64
    |--P. semiimbricata C64
    |--P. sphaeridia Duclos 1832 C64
    |--P. succincta C64
    |--P. textiliosa H86
    |--P. trapa [incl. P. deltoidea] G79
    |--P. triangularis C64
    |--P. triserialis C64
    `--P. undata G79 [incl. P. bicarinata G79, Murex nodus Linnaeus 1758 G79, L58, P. nodus G79]
  Acanthina S11
  Chorus Gray 1847 C64, RA75
    `--*C. giganteus (Lesson 1831) [=Monoceros giganteus] RA75

Nomen nudum: Purpura emarginata Mighels 1841 J49 [incl. P. conradi Nutt. ms C64]

Agnewia tritoniformis (Blainville 1832) F27, RA75 [=Purpura tritoniformis RA75, Thais tritoniformis F27; incl. *Adamsia typica Dunker 1857 RA75, *Agnewia typica RA75]

Concholepas Lamarck 1801 BR05 [incl. Conchopatella Herrmannsen 1847 RA75, Conchulus Rafinesque 1815 RA75; Concholepadidae]

Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière 1789) GO78 [=Buccinum concholepas RA75; incl. *C. peruviana Lamarck 1801 BR17, RA75]

*Mancinella mancinella (Linnaeus 1758) RA75 [=Murex mancinella RA75, Drupa mancinella H09, Purpura mancinella B79; incl. Mancinella aculeata Link 1807 RA75, Drupa carnus Bolten 1798 H08, Purpura elata Blainville 1832 H08, P. martiniana Anton 1839 H08, Ricinula spectrum Reeve 1846 H08]

Purpura crispata [=Buccinum crispatum Chemnitz 1780–1795 (non-binomial), Murex crispatus, M. ferrugineus, Buccinum lactuca, M. lactuca, Purpura lactuca, P. septentrionalis] C64

Purpura lamellosa [=Buccinum lamellosum; incl. B. compositum Chemnitz 1780–1795 (non-binomial), B. plicatum Martyn 1784 non Linnaeus 1758] C64

Purpura patula (Linnaeus 1758) HW78 [=Cymbium tuberosum patulum C64; incl. Perdicea nodosa C64, Haustrum tuberculatum Perry 1811 C64]

Rapana bezoar (Linnaeus 1758) ZLK11, RA75 [=Buccinum bezoar RA75; incl. *R. foliacea Schumacher 1817 RA75]

Rapana venosa (Valenciennes 1846) ZLK11, BD86 [=Purpura venosa BD86; incl. R. bezoar Reeve 1847 non Buccinum bezoar Linnaeus 1758 BD86, R. pontica Nordsieck 1969 BD86, R. thomasiana Crosse 1861 BD86]

Rapaninae [Purpurellinae, Purpuridae, Purpurifera, Purpurinae, Rapananina, Rapanidae, Taurasiinae, Taurasinae, Thaididae, Thaidinae, Thaisidae] ZLK11

*Taurasia subfusiformis (d’Orbigny 1952) [=Purpura subfusiformis, P. fusiformis Michelotti 1847 non Röding 1798] BR17

Vexilla vexillum (Gmelin 1791) WG71 [=Murex vexillum RA75, Strombus vexillum H09; incl. *Vexilla picta Swainson 1840 RA75, *Provexillum pictum RA75]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[B79] Brazier, J. 1879. List of marine shells collected on Fitzroy Island, north coast of Australia; with notes on their geographical range. Journal of Conchology 2: 186–199.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[FP15] Fedosov, A., N. Puillandre, Y. Kantor & P. Bouchet. 2015. Phylogeny and systematics of mitriform gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 336–359.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[GO78] Gallardo S., C., & C. Osorio R. 1978. Hiatella solida (Sowerby, 1834) (Mollusca: Hiatellidae) on Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) and other substrates. Veliger 20 (3): 274–278.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H08] Hedley, C. 1908. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part X. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 456–489, pls 7–10.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HW78] Hoffman, D. L., & P. J. Weldon. 1978. Flight responses of two intertidal gastropods (Prosobranchia: Trochidae) to sympatric predatory gastropods from Barbados. Veliger 20 (4): 361–366.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus 103 (Suppl. 1): 1–69.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RA75] Radwin, G. E., & A. D’Attilio. 1975. A catalogue of muricacean generic taxa. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 17 (20): 279–292.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[SF77] Smith, A. G., & A. J. Ferreira. 1977. Chiton fauna of the Galápagos Islands. Veliger 20 (2): 82–97.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Thais

Thais clavigera, copyright R. Tanaka.


Belongs within: Rapaninae.

Thais, dog winkles, is a genus of predatory gastropods found on rocky shores and mangroves. Members of the genus have a very low-spired, basally unconstricted shell with a very broad aperture and an outer lip extended to form a curving channel at the adapical end of the aperture.

<==Thais Röding 1798 BR05
    |--*T. fucus (Gmelin 1791) [=Murex fucus, T. lena Röding 1798] BR17
    |--T. aculeata (Deshayes 1844) WG71
    |--T. ‘alveolata’ (Reeve 1846) [=Purpura alveolata non Kiener 1836] F27b
    |--T. armigera (Link 1807) WG71
    |--T. biserialis (Blainville 1832) S11
    |--T. bitubercularis (Lamarck 1822) [=Purpura bitubercularis] H09
    |--T. bufo Lamarck 1822 WG71
    |--T. carinifera (Lamarck 1822) BD86
    |--T. clavigera ZLK11
    |--T. coronata PB27
    |--T. deltoidea (Lamarck 1822) IZ77
    |--T. echinata (Blainville 1832) WG71 [=Purpura echinata H09]
    |--T. gemmulata (Lamarck 1822) [=Purpura gemmulata] H09
    |--T. haemastoma (Linné 1758) BD12
    |    |--T. h. haemastoma IZ77
    |    `--T. h. floridana (Conrad 1837) IZ77
    |--T. hippocastanea (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex hippocastanea] H09
    |--T. kieneri Deshayes 1844 WG71
    |--T. lapillus (Linnaeus 1758) W78
    |--T. luteostoma ZLK11
    |--T. melones SF77
    |--‘Nerita’ nodosa Linnaeus 1758 RA75
    |--T. orbita (Gmelin 1791) WMJ09
    |--T. planospira SF77
    |--T. pseudamygdala (Hedley 1903) [=Purpura pseudamygdala] H09
    |--T. rustica (Lamarck 1822) [=Purpura rustica] H09
    |--T. savignyi (Deshayes 1844) BD12
    |--T. scalaris Menke 1829 F27a
    |--T. succincta (Martyn 1784) F27a [=Buccinum succinctum H09]
    `--T. tuberosa (Röding 1798) BW09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[IZ77] Ingham, R. E., & J. A. Zischke. 1977. Prey preferences of carnivorous intertidal snails in the Florida Keys. Veliger 20 (1): 49–51.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[RA75] Radwin, G. E., & A. D’Attilio. 1975. A catalogue of muricacean generic taxa. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 17 (20): 279–292.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[SF77] Smith, A. G., & A. J. Ferreira. 1977. Chiton fauna of the Galápagos Islands. Veliger 20 (2): 82–97.

[WMJ09] Wells, F. E., M. Mulligan & D. S. Jones. 2009. Prevention of introduction of species brought into Geraldton Harbour, Western Australia, by the dredge Leonardo da Vinci. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (2): 153–158.

[W78] West, D. L. 1978. Reproductive biology of Colus stimpsoni (Prosobranchia: Buccinidae). I. Male genital system. Veliger 20 (3): 266–273.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Acanthina

Acanthina imbricata, copyright Shell Dimension.com.


Belongs within: Rapaninae.

Acanthina, unicorn snails, is a genus of predatory gastropods found along the western coast of the Americas (Oldroyd 1927).

Characters (from Oldroyd 1927): Shell ovate, last whorl large; spire rather elevated; aperture semilunar; inner lip wide and flattened, crenulated, with a prominent tooth at the fore part.

<==Acanthina Fischer de Waldheim 1807 (see below for synonymy) RA75
    |  i. s.: A. brevidentata (Wood 1828) S11 [=Monoceros brevidentatum C64]
    |         ‘Monoceros’ cymatum [incl. M. lugubre] C64
    |         ‘Monoceros’ engonatum [incl. M. unicarinatum] C64
    |         ‘Monoceros’ lapilloides [incl. M. brevidens, M. punctatum] C64
    |         A. muricata SF77
    |--A. (Acanthina) O27
    |    |--‘Buccinum’ monodon Pallas 1774 (see below for synonymy) RA75
    |    |--A. (A.) imbricata O27
    |    `--A. (A.) lugubris Sowerby 1822 O27 [=Monoceros lugubre C64; incl. Stramonita petrosa Conrad 1855 C64]
    `--A. (Acanthinucella Cooke 1918) O27
         |--A. (*A.) punctulata (Sowerby 1835) RA75
         |--A. (A.) paucilirata Stearns 1871 O27
         `--A. (A.) spirata Blainville 1832 O27 [=Monoceros spiratum C64]
              |--A. s. spirata O27
              `--A. s. aurantia Dall 1908 O27

Acanthina Fischer de Waldheim 1807 [=Rudolpha Schumacher 1817; incl. Monoceros Lamarck 1822 nec Meusch 1787 nec Bloch & Schneider 1801, Unicornus Montfort 1810] RA75

‘Buccinum’ monodon Pallas 1774 [incl. *Monoceros imbricatum Lamarck 1816, B. monoceros Chemnitz 1788, *Acanthina monoceros, *Rudolpha monoceros, *Unicornus typus Montfort 1810] RA75

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[RA75] Radwin, G. E., & A. D’Attilio. 1975. A catalogue of muricacean generic taxa. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 17 (20): 279–292.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[SF77] Smith, A. G., & A. J. Ferreira. 1977. Chiton fauna of the Galápagos Islands. Veliger 20 (2): 82–97.

Chicoreus

Ramose murex Chicoreus ramosus, copyright Ria Tan.


Belongs within: Muricidae.

Chicoreus is a genus of muricid gastropods with shells bearing three frondose varices and a long, dorsally deflected siphon.

<==Chicoreus Montfort 1810 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. (Chicoreus) BC01
    |    |--*C. (C.) ramosus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex ramosus; incl. *Frondosaria inflata (Lamarck 1822)] RA75
    |    |--C. (C.) anguliferus [=Murex (C.) anguliferus] P71
    |    `--C. (C.) brevifrons (Lamarck 1822) BC01 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. (Chicomurex Arakawa 1964) BC01
    |    |--*Chicomurex’ superbus (Sowerby 1889) [=Murex superbus] RA75
    |    `--C. (C.) turschi Houart 1981 BC01
    `--C. (Triplex Perry 1810) BC01
         |--‘Murex’ palmarosae Lamarck 1822 [incl. *Triplex foliatus Perry 1810 (nom. rej.)] RA75
         |--C. (T.) cosmani Abbott & Finlay 1979 BC01
         |--C. (T.) forsterorum Houart 1989 BC01
         `--C. (T.) subpalmatus Houart 1988 BC01

Chicoreus incertae sedis:
  C. asianus ZLK11
  C. axicornis Lamarck 1822 WG71
  C. banksii Sowerby 1840 WG71
  C. brunneus (Link 1807) WG71
  C. carolinae (Vokes 1990) S11 [=Chicoreus (Siratus) carolynae V90]
  C. cervicornis (Lamarck 1822) WG71
  C. coltrorum (Vokes 1991) S11
  C. cornucervi (Röding 1798) WG71 (see below for synonymy)
  C. damicornis Hedley 1903 WG71
  C. denudatus (Perry 1811) WG71 (see below for synonymy)
  C. dilectus (Adams 1855) BC01 [=C. florifer dilectus D88; incl. C. rachelcarsonae Petuch 1987 BC01]
  C. florifer D88
  C. huttoniae Wright 1879 WG71
  C. microphyllus (Lamarck 1822) BW09
  C. palmarosae W01
  C. perelegans Vokes 1965 V90
  C. recticornis von Martens 1880 WG71
  C. rubiginosus Reeve 1845 WG71
  C. spectrum (Reeve 1846) S11
  C. steeriae Reeve 1845 WG71
  C. territus Reeve 1845 WG71
  C. torrefactus Sowerby 1841 WG71

Chicoreus Montfort 1810 BR05 [=Chicoracea Griffith & Pidgeon 1834 BR05; incl. Euphyllon Jousseaume 1880 RA75, Frondosaria Schlüter 1838 RA75, Torvamurex Iredale 1936 RA75; Varicosa]

Chicoreus cornucervi (Röding 1798) WG71 [=Murex cornucervi RA75, Purpura cornucervi H09; incl. M. calcitrapa G79, M. elongatus G79, M. monodon Sowerby 1825 WG71, *Euphyllon monodon RA75, M. purpuratus G79]

Chicoreus denudatus (Perry 1811) WG71 [=Triplex denudatus RA75, Murex denudatus H09, *Torvamurex denudatus RA75; incl. C. extraneus Iredale 1936 WG71]

Chicoreus (Chicoreus) brevifrons (Lamarck 1822) BC01 [=Murex brevifrons G79; incl. M. spectrum var. incertum Usticke 1969 BC01]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[D88] D’Asaro, C. N. 1988. Micromorphology of neogastropod egg capsules. Nautilus 102 (4): 134–148.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[P71] Por, F. D. 1971. One hundred years of Suez Canal—a century of Lessepsian migration: retrospect and viewpoints. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 138–159.

[RA75] Radwin, G. E., & A. D’Attilio. 1975. A catalogue of muricacean generic taxa. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 17 (20): 279–292.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[V90] Vokes, E. H. 1990. Two new species of Chicoreus subgenus Siratus (Gastropoda: Muricidae) from northeastern Brazil. Nautilus 103 (4): 124–130.

[W01] Williams, J. D. 2001. Polydora and related genera associated with hermit crabs from the Indo-West Pacific (Polychaeta: Spionidae), with descriptions of two new species and a second polydorid egg predator of hermit crabs. Pacific Science 55 (4): 429–465.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Murex

Venus comb murex Murex pecten, copyright Samuel Chow.


Belongs within: Muricidae.

Murex is an Indo-Pacific genus of marine gastropods with shells bearing three spinose varices, a long siphonal canal, a distinct labral tooth, smooth parietal lip, and usually monochromatic tan or cream in colour (Vokes 1990).

<==Murex Linnaeus 1758 RA75
    |--M. (Murex) O27 [incl. Acupurpura Jousseaume 1880 RA75]
    |    |--*M. (M.) tribulus Linnaeus 1758 BR17 [incl. M. pecten Montfort 1810 non Lightfoot 1786 RA75]
    |    `--M. (M.) pecten Lightfoot 1786 RA75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--M. (Aaronia Verrill 1950) RA75
    |    `--M. (*A.) strausi Verrill 1950 RA75
    `--M. (Alipurpura Fischer 1884) O27, RA75
         |--M. (*A.) ‘acanthopterus’ Lamarck 1822 non M. acanthopterus Lamarck 1816 RA75
         |--M. (A.) erinaceoides Valenciennes 1832 O27
         |--M. (A.) rhyssa Dall 1919 O27
         `--M. (A.) trialatus Sowerby 1841 O27

Murex incertae sedis:
  M. acanthodes Watson 1883 H09
  M. acanthostephes Watson 1883 WG71
  M. aciculiger C64
  M. aduncospinosus Reeve 1845 H09
  M. alveolatus Sowerby 1823 F27b
  M. axicornis Lamarck 1822 H09
  M. bicolor [incl. M. erythrostoma] C64
  M. capitellum Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. centrifugus C64
  M. cervicornis Lamarck 1822 H09
  M. confusa Brazier 1877 H09
  M. coppingeri Smith 1884 WG71
  M. corneus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. cornutus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. corrugatus Sowerby 1840 H09
  M. eyrei T.-W. 1876 F27a
  M. granulatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. granum Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. hystrix Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. irregularis Bellardi 1873 F27b
  M. ligniarius Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. lima C64
  M. macgillivrayi Dohrn 1862 WG71
  M. maurus Broderip 1833 H09
  M. microphyllus Lamarck 1822 H09
  M. multiplicatus Sowerby 1895 H09
  M. mundus Reeve 1846 H09
  M. neozelanicus H86
  M. nigrescens C64
  M. nigritus C64
  M. nigrospinosus Reeve 1845 WG71
  M. nuceus G79
  M. oleariu Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. pellucidus Reeve 1845 H09
  M. perversus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. pholidotus Watson 1883 H09
  M. plicatus C64
  M. pomiformis [incl. M. asperrimus] G79
  M. pomum Gmelin 1791 MS78
  M. ponderosus C64
  M. pusio Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. quadrifrons MS78
  M. recticornis von Martens 1880 H09
  M. recurvirostris C64
  M. reticularis Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. rigidus [=Turbinella rigida; incl. Buccinum nodatum, Murex nodatus] C64
  M. salmo C64
  M. salmoneus Melvill & Standen 1899 H09
  M. sanguineus [incl. Turbinella varicosa] C64
  M. sauliae Sowerby 1840 H09
  M. saxatilis Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. scaber (Martyn 1789) [=Purpura scabra] H09
  M. scrobiculator Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. scriptus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. similis G79
  M. surinamensis Okutani 1982 V90
  M. syracusanus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. taeniatus Sby. 1859 C64
  M. territus Reeve 1845 H09
  M. tetragonus Broderip 1833 H09
  M. torrefactus MS78
  M. tortuus C64
  M. trapa Röding 1798 S11
  M. trapezium Linnaeus 1758 L58
  M. tricolor C64
  M. turbinellus Linnaeus 1758 L58

Murex (Murex) pecten Lightfoot 1786 RA75 [incl. M. tenuispina Lam. 1822 RA75, *Acupurpura tenuispina RA75, Aranea triremis Perry 1811 H09, WG71, M. triremis WG71]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. Additions to Recent molluscan fauna of New Zealand, no. 2. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 485–487.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MS78] Moore, E. A., & F. Sander. 1978. Spawning and early life history of Murex pomum Gmelin, 1791. Veliger 20 (3): 251–259.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[RA75] Radwin, G. E., & A. D’Attilio. 1975. A catalogue of muricacean generic taxa. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 17 (20): 279–292.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[V90] Vokes, E. H. 1990. Two new species of Chicoreus subgenus Siratus (Gastropoda: Muricidae) from northeastern Brazil. Nautilus 103 (4): 124–130.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Coralliophilinae

Coralliophila neritoidea, copyright Philippe Bourjon.


Belongs within: Muricidae.

The Coralliophilinae, coral shells, are a group of gastropods that live in close association with cnidarians such as corals, attached to the surface or embedded within the coral skeleton. Members of this family lack a radula (Wilson & Gillett 1971) and have a protoconch with an ornament of hemispherical tubercles overlain and connected to each other by a wrinkled net of lamellae (Bandel & Dockery 2012). In the genus Magilus, the shell becomes uncoiled after the first few whorls and forms an irregular tube.

<==Coralliophilinae [Coralliophilidae, Magilidae]
    |--Magilus Montfort 1810 BD12
    |    `--*M. antiquus Montfort 1810 RA75
    |--Latiaxis Swainson 1840 BC01, RA75
    |    |--*L. mawae (Gray in Griffith & Pidgeon 1834) [=Pyrula mawae] RA75
    |    `--L. muricata (Hinds 1843) [incl. L. hindsi (Carpenter 1857), Coralliophila oldroydi (Oldroyd 1929)] EO65
    |--Coralliobia Adams & Adams 1853 BD12, RA75
    |    `--*C. fimbriata (Adams 1852) RA75, BD12 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Leptoconchus Rüppell 1834 BD12, RA75
    |    |--*L. peroni Lamarck 1818 RA75
    |    `--L. monodonta [incl. Purpura (Coralliophila) madreporarum, Rhizocheilus madreporarum] C64
    |--Quoyula Iredale 1912 WG71
    |    |--*Q. monodonta (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) RA75 [=Purpura monodonta RA75, Galeropsis monodonta H09]
    |    `--Q. madreporarum (Sowerby 1832) BD12
    |--Rapa Röding 1798 BR05 [incl. Rapanus Schum. in Sowerby 1839 RA75, Rapella Swainson 1840 RA75; Rapidae]
    |    |--*R. rapa (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) RA75
    |    `--R. rapiformis (Born 1778) [=Murex rapiformis] H09
    |--Tolema Iredale 1929 WG71
    |    |--*T. australis Laseron 1955 RA75
    |    |--T. peregrina Powell 1947 P61
    |    `--T. sertata (Hedley 1903) [=Purpura sertata] RA75
    |--Babelomurex Coen 1922 BC01
    |    |--*B. babelis (Requien 1848) [=Fusus babelis] RA75
    |    |--B. australis (Laseron 1955) [=Latiaxis australis] EA65
    |    |--B. cariniferus (Sowerby 1834) RL04
    |    |--B. dalli (Emerson & D’Attilio 1963) [=Latiaxis (Babelomurex) dalli] BC01
    |    |--B. deroyorum D’Attilio & Myers 1984 BC01
    |    |--B. fearnleyi (Emerson & D’Attilio 1965) [=Latiaxis (Babelomurex) fearnleyi] BC01
    |    |--B. gilli Kosuge 1990 BC01
    |    |--B. japonicus (Dunker 1882) [=Latiaxis japonicus] EA65
    |    |--B. kawamurai (Kira 1959) MG-H11
    |    |--B. longispinosus (Suzuki 1972) [incl. Latiaxis pisori D’Attilio & Emerson 1980] BC01
    |    `--B. santacruzensis (Emerson & D’Attilio 1970) [=Latiaxis (Babelomurex) santacruzensis] BC01
    |--Latimurex Coen 1922 EA65, RA75
    |    |--*L. meyendorffi (Calcara 1845) [=Murex meyendorffi] RA75
    |    `--L. costularis (Lamarck 1816) [=Coralliophila costularis] EA65
    `--Coralliophila Adams & Adams 1853 BR05 [=Canrena Link 1807 RA75]
         |  i. s.: C. aberrans (Adams 1850) [=Purpura aberrans] MP65
         |         C. aldrichi (Cossmann 1903) BD12
         |         C. armeniaca D’Attilio & Myers 1984 BC01
         |         C. bulbiformis M54
         |         C. burdigalensis Tournouer 1874 BD12
         |         C. caribaea Abbott 1958 [incl. Ringicula cruzensis Usticke 1969] BC01
         |         C. craticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
         |         C. elvirae D’Attilio & Emerson 1980 BC01
         |         C. erosa (Röding 1798) BD12
         |         C. guancha Smriglio, Mariottini & Engl 2003 F05
         |         C. imbricata (Smith 1876) [=Fusus imbricatus] H09
         |         C. inflata (Dunker in Philippi 1847) MG-H11
         |         C. macleani Shasky 1970 BC01
         |         C. nux (Reeve 1846) S11
         |         C. occidentale Kosuge & Fernandes 1988 BC01
         |         C. raramaculatus Kosuge & Fernandes 1989 BC01
         |         C. rocasuciae Myers & D’Attilio 1990 BC01
         |         C. squamulosa (Reeve 1846) [=Purpura squamulosa] H09
         |         C. stearnsii Pilsbry 1895 BW09
         |         C. trigoi Mariottini, Smriglio & Rolán 2005 F05
         |         C. violacea (Kiener 1836) BD12
         |         C. wilsoni M54
         |--*C. (Coralliophila) neritoidea (Gmelin 1791) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
         `--C. (Pseudomurex Monterosato 1872) O27
              |--‘Murex’ bracteata Brocchi 1814 [=*Pseudomurex bracteatus] RA75
              |--C. (P.) costata Blainville 1832 O27
              |--C. (P.) kincaidi Dall 1919 O27
              `--‘Pseudomurex’ lamellosus PP64

*Coralliobia fimbriata (Adams 1852) RA75, BD12 [=Concholepas fimbriata RA75, Leptoconchus (Coralliobia) fimbriata Adams & Adams 1853 (n. n.) RA75]

*Coralliophila (Coralliophila) neritoidea (Gmelin 1791) BR17 [=Murex neritoideus BR17, *Canrena neritoidea RA75, Fusus neritoideus RA75]

*Rapa rapa (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex rapa, Bulla rapa; incl. Pyrula papyracea Lamarck 1816, *Rapanus papyraceus, *Rapella papracia (l. c.)] RA75

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[EA65] Emerson, W. K., & A. D'Attilio. 1965. A new Latiaxis from the western Pacific (Muricidae). Nautilus 78 (3): 101–103.

[EO65] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Old Jr. 1965. New molluscan records for the Galapagos Islands. Nautilus 78 (4): 116–120.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RA75] Radwin, G. E., & A. D’Attilio. 1975. A catalogue of muricacean generic taxa. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 17 (20): 279–292.

[RL04] Richter, A., & Á. A. Luque. 2004. Epitonium dendrophylliae (Gastropoda: Epitoniidae) feeding on Astroides calycularis (Anthozoa, Scleractinia). Journal of Molluscan Studies 70: 99–101.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.