Great scallop Pecten maximus, copyright Steve Trewhella.

Belongs within: Pectinidae.

Pecten is a genus of scallops that is first known from the Upper Eocene. The valves of the shell are distinctly unequal, with the right valve being strongly convex and the left valve only slightly convex, flat or concave. Radial ribs are well developed with those on the more convex right valve being usually wider than the interspaces. Pecten species are free-living on the surface of the substrate. Some members of the genus grow relatively large and are commercially significant. These include the type species, the king scallop P. maximus, which is found in the northeastern Atlantic along the coast of Europe.

Finlay (1927) separated the New Zealand species Pecten novaezelandiae as the type of a new genus Notovola on the basis of it having a more inflated right valve with higher and flatter ribs than Pecten maximus, together with weaker cardinal teeth. This generic distinction is not generally accepted by recent authors.

Pecten Müller 1776 RC78 [incl. Notovola Finlay 1927 P61]
    |--*P. maximus (Linnaeus 1758) P61, L58 [=Ostrea maxima P61]
    |--P. accrementa H79
    |--P. aduncus O75
    |--P. aequisulcatus Carpenter 1864 C64
    |--P. albicans Schröter 1802 XZ10
    |--P. altiplicatus C64
    |--P. aratus N79 [=Ostrea arata N79; incl. P. sulcatus J64]
    |--P. athleta H86a
    |--P. aucklandicus H86a
    |--P. beethami H86a
    |--P. burnetti [incl. P. incertus] H86b
    |--P. calilliformis Conrad 1855 C64
    |--P. chathamensis A26
    |--P. circularis G79
    |--P. comatus C64
    |--P. comptus M’Coy 1844 F71
    |--P. convexus W26
    |--P. costatostriatus Marshall 1918 F27
    |--P. crawfordi H86a
    |--P. deformis Gabb 1864 F27
    |--P. deserti Conrad 1855 C64
    |--P. devinctus A26
    |--P. dieffenbachii C64
    |--P. diegensis B56
    |--P. discus C64
    |--P. excavatus C64
    |--P. fischeri H86a
    |--P. floridus C64
    |--P. fumatus Reeve 1852 MG-H11
    |--P. giganteus Münster in Goldfuss 1833 non Lima gigantea Gray 1825 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.) RC78
    |--P. groenlandicus U79
    |--P. hastatus [incl. P. hericeus, P. rubidus] C64
    |--P. hectori Hutton 1873 F27
    |--P. hindsii [incl. P. rastellinum] C64
    |--P. hochstetteri M86
    |--P. hoskynsi Forbes 1844 (see below for synonymy) N79
    |--P. hutchinsoni H86a
    |--P. huttoni A26
    |--P. irradians TH59
    |--P. jacobaeus PC11
    |--P. jeffersonius [incl. P. magnolia] C64
    |--P. laetus Gould 1861 C64
    |--P. latiauritus C64
    |--P. laticostatus H79
    |--P. madisonius C64
    |--P. magellanicus [incl. P. tenuicostata Mighels & Adams 1841 (n. n.), P. tenuicostatus Mighels & Adams 1842] J49
    |--P. medius Lamarck 1819 F26
    |--P. meekii C64
    |--P. meridionalis F26
    |--P. missouriensis Shumard 1855 W77
    |--P. mitis Dana 1849 F71
    |--P. monotimeris [incl. P. tunica] C64
    |--P. neozelanicus H86a
    |--P. nevadanus Conrad 1855 C64
    |--P. nivea N79
    |--P. nodosus G79
    |--P. nordenskioldi G31
    |--P. novaezelandiae Reeve 1852 P61 [=*Notovola novaezelandiae F26]
    |    |--P. n. novaezelandiae P61
    |    `--P. n. rakiura Fleming 1951 P61
    |--P. nucleus [=Ostrea nucleus; incl. P. turgidus] G79
    |--P. opercularis BK77
    |--P. pabloensis C64
    |--P. pardulus G31
    |--P. paucicostatus Carpenter 1864 C64
    |--P. polymorphoides H86a
    |--P. propatulus C64
    |--P. purpuratus C64
    |--P. pusio N79
    |--P. roemeri [=Neithea roemeri] S02
    |--P. scandula H86a
    |--P. sectus Goldfuss 1836 F27
    |--P. semiplicatus Alth in Favre 1869 F27
    |--P. septemradiatus [incl. P. adspersus, P. danicus] J64
    |--P. sericeus C64
    |--P. similis N79
    |--P. squarrosus C64
    |--P. striatocostatus Goldfuss 1833 F27
    |--P. striatus N79
    |--P. subnodosus [incl. P. intermedia] C64
    |--P. tegula B86
    |--P. tigrinus N79
    |--P. townsendi C64
    |--P. triphooki F26
    |--P. varius L65
    |--P. venosus H86a
    |--P. ventricosus [incl. P. pomatia, P. tumidus] C64
    |--P. vitreus [=Pallium vitreus; incl. Pe. abyssorum Sars 1870, Pe. vitreus var. abyssorum] N79
    |--P. waihaoensis A26
    |--P. williamsoni [incl. P. aldigensis] H86b
    |--P. yahlensis F27
    `--P. zitteli Hutton 1873 F27

Pecten hoskynsi Forbes 1844 [incl. P. antiquatus, P. fimbriatus, P. imbrifer Lovén 1846, P. mammillatus Sars 1858 (n. n.)] N79

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A26] Allan, R. S. 1926. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[B86] Brazier, J. 1886. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 577.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F26] Finlay, H. J. 1926. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. "Times" Office: Christchurch.

[H86a] Hutton, F. W. 1886a. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[H86b] Hutton, F. W. 1886b. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. Report of the committee appointed for exploring the coasts of Shetland by means of the dredge. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 70–81.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[L65] Land, M. F. 1965. Image formation by a concave reflector in the eye of the scallop, Pecten maximus. Journal of Physiology 179: 138–153.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O75] Owen, R. 1875. On fossil evidences of a sirenian mammal (Eotherium aegyptiacum, Owen) from the nummulitic Eocene of the Mokattam cliffs, near Cairo. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 31: 100–105.

[PC11] Plazzi, F., A. Ceregato, M. Taviani & M. Passamonti. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of bivalve mollusks: ancient radiations and divergences as revealed by mitochondrial genes. PLoS One 6 (11): e27147.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RC78] Roth, B., & E. V. Coan. 1978. Nomenclatural notes on Hinnites giganteus (Gray). Veliger 20 (3): 297–298.

[S02] Scott, R. W. 2002. Albian caprinid rudists from Texas re-evaluated. Journal of Paleontology 76 (3): 408–423.

[TH59] Turner, H. J., Jr & J. E. Hanks. 1959. Infestation of Pecten irradians by Polydora. Nautilus 72 (4): 109–111.

[U79] d'Urban, W. S. M. 1879. The Mollusca of Barents Sea, between Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemblia. Journal of Conchology 2: 88–94.

[W26] Waghorn, R. J. 1926. The geology of the Ruakokopatuna Valley, southern Wairarapa. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 226–234.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[XZ10] Xu, F., & J. Zhang. 2010. Study on the bivalve faunal composition of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 7–12. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Last updated: 24 December 2021.

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