Mutisioideae

African daisy Gerbera jamesonii, copyright Dinesh Valke.


Belongs within: Asteraceae.

The Mutisioideae are a cosmopolitan group of composite-flowered plants, most diverse in South America, whose members bear flowerheads with overlapping involucral bracts, disc florets with deeply incised corollas, and styles usually sticking far out of the florets.

<==Mutisioideae [Mutisieae] PF02
    |--Leucomeris PF02
    |--Nouelia PF02
    |--Schlechtendahlia S06
    |--Hyalis S06
    |--Plazia S06
    |--Onoseris S06
    |--Chuquiraga S06
    |--Flotovia S06
    |--Doniophytum S06
    |--Moquinia S06
    |--Stifftia S06
    |--Pachylaena S06
    |--Brachycladus S06
    |--Chaetanthera [incl. Carmelita, Tylloma] S06
    |--Oriastrum [incl. Egania] S06
    |--Trichocline spathulata S06, GK00
    |--Macrachaenium S06
    |--Ameghinoa S06
    |--Hyaloseris S06
    |--Proustia stenophylla S06, J87
    |--Strongylomopsis S06
    |--Triptilium S06
    |--Pamphalea S06
    |--Leuceria [incl. Chabraea] S06
    |    `--L. salina D03
    |--Trixis [incl. Cleanthes] S06
    |    `--T. californica H93
    |--Nassauvia [incl. Strongyloma] S06
    |    `--N. serpens D03
    |--Mutisia YY22
    |    |--M. decurrens D03
    |    `--M. retusa D03
    |--Perezia [incl. Clarionea, Homoianthus] S06
    |    |--P. linearis D03
    |    |--P. magellanica D03
    |    `--P. pediculariaefolia D03
    |--Chaptalia S06
    |    |--C. albicans J87
    |    |--C. (sect. Leria) incana Cuatrecasas 1961 C61
    |    |--C. meridensis C61
    |    |--C. paramensis Cuatrecasas 1961 C61
    |    `--C. runcinata C61
    |         |--C. r. var. runcinata C61
    |         `--C. r. var. graminifolia C61
    `--Gerbera M99
         |--G. discolor M30
         |--G. galpini M30
         |--G. glandulosa M30
         |--G. hybrida MN03
         |--G. jamesonii M99
         |--G. nivea O88
         |--G. piloselloides M30
         |--G. plantaginea M30
         `--G. viridifolia M30

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C61] Cuatrecasas, J. 1961. Studies on Andean Compositae V. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 7–28.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[MN03] Moffitt, M. C., & B. A. Neilan. 2003. Evolutionary affiliations within the superfamily of ketosynthases reflect complex pathway associations. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 446–457.

[M30] Moss, C. E. 1930. Some natural hybrids of Clematis, Anemone, and Gerbera from the Transvaal. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 36–40.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Distribución geográfica de la flora Argentina. Géneros de la familia de las compuestas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 303–309.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Cichorieae

Twiggy wreath plant Stephanomeria virgata, copyright Noah Elhardt.


Belongs within: Cichorioideae.
Contains: Leontodontinae, Hieracium, Microseridinae, Crepis, Taraxacum.

The Cichorieae are a group of composite-flowered plants bearing flowerheads with all flowers ligulate and stems with milky latex.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Flowers all ligulate; plants with milky juice; leaves alternate or radial. Flower-heads homogamous, flowers all bisexual, ligules mostly shortly five-toothed at summit and outer ones often radiating; style with plano-convex branches attenuated towards summit, bearing stigmatic papillae on whole of inner side and well-developed connecting hairs on outside down to below place where branches fork; anthers acute or acuminate at base.

<==Cichorieae [Cichoriaceae, Lactuceae, Liguliflorae] PF02
    |--+--Microseridinae KJ94
    |  `--Stephanomeria [Stephanomeriinae] KJ94
    |       |--S. blairii [=Malacothrix blairii, Munzothamnus blairii] H93
    |       |--S. cichoriacea H93
    |       |--S. diegensis H93
    |       |--S. elata H93
    |       |--S. exigua H93
    |       |    |--S. e. ssp. exigua [incl. S. exigua var. pentachaeta] H93
    |       |    |--S. e. ssp. carotifera H93
    |       |    |--S. e. ssp. coronaria H93
    |       |    |--S. e. ssp. deanei H93
    |       |    `--S. e. ssp. macrocarpa H93
    |       |--S. lactucina H93
    |       |--S. paniculata H93
    |       |--S. parryi H93
    |       |--S. pauciflora KJ94
    |       |    |--S. p. var. pauciflora [incl. S. myrioclada] H93
    |       |    `--S. p. var. parishii H93
    |       |--S. spinosa [=Lygodesmia spinosa] H93
    |       |--S. tenuifolia H93
    |       `--S. virgata H93
    |            |--S. v. ssp. virgata [incl. S. virgata var. tomentosa] H93
    |            `--S. v. ssp. pleurocarpa H93
    `--Crepidinae KJ94
         |--Crepis BR65
         |--Taraxacum BR65
         |--Tolpis Adanson 1763 BR65
         |    `--T. barbata H93 [incl. T. umbellata Bertoloni 1803 H93, BR65]
         |--Chondrilla BR65
         |    |--C. juncea BR65
         |    `--C. prenanthoides C55a
         |--Reichardia Roth. 1787 [incl. Picridium Desfontaines 1799] BR65
         |    |--R. intermedia PT98
         |    `--R. picroides (Linnaeus) Roth 1787 [incl. Picridium vulgare] BR65
         |--Sonchus Linnaeus 1753 BR65, A61
         |    |--S. arvensis BR65
         |    |--S. asper Hill 1760 BR65 [incl. S. fallax C55b]
         |    |--S. grandifolius Kirk 1894 A61
         |    |--S. hydrophilus GK00
         |    |--S. littoralis (Kirk) Cockayne 1907 (see below for synonymy) ME70
         |    |--S. megalocarpus [=S. asper var. megalocarpus Hooker 1860] BR65
         |    |--S. nigrum BN99
         |    |--S. oleraceus M99 [incl. S. ciliatus C55b, S. laevis C55b]
         |    |--S. palustris C55a
         |    |--S. tenerrimus C74
         |    |    |--S. t. var. tenerrimus C74
         |    |    `--S. t. var. perennis C74
         |    `--S. vulgaris Ho91
         `--Lactuca KJ94
              |--L. amorgina S98
              |--L. biennis H93
              |--L. canadensis H93
              |--L. indica MH98
              |--L. lessertiana O88
              |--L. ludoviciana H93
              |--L. muralis C06
              |--L. saligna BR65
              |--L. sativa KJ94 [=L. scariola var. sativa C55b]
              |--L. scariola BR65
              |--L. serriola [incl. L. serriola var. integra] H93
              |--L. tatarica H93
              |    |--L. t. ssp. tatarica H93
              |    `--L. t. ssp. pulchella H93
              |--L. viminea Hu91
              `--L. virosa BR65

Cichorieae incertae sedis:
  Leontodontinae BR65
  Cichorinae BR65
    |--Hedypnois BR65
    |    |--H. cretica [incl. H. polymorpha] BR65
    |    `--H. rhagadioloides GK00
    `--Cichorium BR65
         |--C. endiva H93
         |--C. intybus BR65
         |--C. pumilum PT98 [=C. endivia ssp. pumilum AGF98]
         `--C. spinosum PT98
  Kirkianella Allan 1961 A61
    `--*K. novae-zelandiae (Hooker) Allan 1961 [=Crepis novae-zelandiae Hooker 1864] A61
         |--K. n. f. novae-zelandiae [incl. Hieracium fragile] A61
         |--K. n. f. glauca Allan 1961 A61
         `--K. n. f. minor Allan 1961 A61
  Hieracium N10
  Scolymus hispanicus S06, PT98
  Troximum S06

Sonchus littoralis (Kirk) Cockayne 1907 [=S. oleraceus γ littoralis Kirk 1894, S. asper γ littoralis (Kirk) Kirk 1899] ME70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BN99] Bungener, P., S. Nussbaum, A. Grub & J. Fuhrer. 1999. Growth response of grassland species to ozone in relation to soil moisture condition and plant strategy. New Phytologist 142: 283–293.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[Ho91] Hokkanen, H. M. T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 119–138.

[Hu91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KJ94] Kim, K.-J., & R. K. Jansen. 1994. Comparisons of phylogenetic hypotheses among different data sets in dwarf dandelions (Krigia, Asteraceae): additional information from internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Plant Systematics and Evolution 190: 157–185.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[N10] Norrbom, A. L. 2010. Tephritidae (fruit flies, moscas de frutas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 909–954. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[S98] Salmeri, C. 1998. Allium brulloi (Alliaceae), a new species from Astypalea (Aegean Islands, Greece). Willdenowia 28: 69–76.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Distribución geográfica de la flora Argentina. Géneros de la familia de las compuestas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 303–309.

Rhodanthe

Chamomile sunray Rhodanthe anthemoides, copyright M. Fagg.


Belongs within: Gnaphalieae.

Rhodanthe is an Australian genus of everlasting daisies.

Characters (from Flora of Victoria): Annual or perennial herbs, glabrous or variously hairy. Leaves entire, sessile, mostly alternate. Capitula solitary or clustered, homogamous or heterogamous, discoid or disciform, subtending leaves, if present, grading to involucral bracts; involucral bracts multiseriate, scarious, each with or without an apical, pink, white or yellow, petaloid lamina; receptacle often conical, glabrous or somewhat pilose, mainly ebracteate. Florets bisexual or the innermost functionally male; corolla 5-lobed, lobes sometimes unequal; anthers 5, tailed; style branches truncate to ellipsoid or deltoid. Cypselas obovoid, with few–many, elongated, non-mucilaginous papillae; pappus of basally connate, barbellate to plumose bristles.

<==Rhodanthe M99
    |--R. anthemoides M99
    |--R. charsleyae M99
    |--R. chlorocephalum RL06
    |--R. citrina OS04
    |--R. condensata KM08
    |--R. corymbiflora M99
    |--R. floribunda M99
    |--R. humboldtiana KM08
    |--R. laevis G04b
    |--R. microglossa M99
    |--R. moschata M99
    |--R. pygmaea G04b
    |--R. pyrethrum GK00
    |--R. rubella G04a
    |--R. stricta M99
    `--R. tietkensii M99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL06] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2006. Food choice by western grey kangaroos among plants grown at different nutrient levels. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 7–12.

Podolepis

Showy copper wire daisy Podolepis jaceoides, copyright Neil Blair.


Belongs within: Gnaphalieae.

Podolepis is an Australian genus of wiry herbs producing commonly yellow flowerheads with involucres bearing membranous bracts (Black & Robertson 1965).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Rather rigid wiry herbs with alternate entire leaves; flowerheads terminal, usually solitary; flowers usually all yellow. Involucre ovoid to hemispherical, the bracts unequal in several rows, with hyaline non-radiating laminae, at least the outer ones sessile; receptacle flat, naked; outer flower female, longer than involucre and sometimes forming conspicuous ray, limb rather deeply cut into three or four narrow lobes or extended in a short two- to four-toothed ligule; inner flowers always more numerous, bisexual, tubular, usually five-lobed; anthers tailed; style-branches truncate; achenes terete; pappus of capillary bristles shorter than corolla.

<==Podolepis BR65
    |--P. arachnoidea (Hooker) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |--P. canescens M99
    |--P. capillaris [=Siemssenia capillaris Steetz 1844-1845; incl. P. siemssenia von Mueller 1866] BR65
    |--P. gracilis OS04
    |--P. jaceoides (Sims) Druce 1917 BR65
    |--P. lessonii BR65
    |--P. longipedata M99
    |--P. microcephala KM08
    |--P. neglecta M65
    |--P. rugata BR65
    `--P. tepperi G04

Podolepis arachnoidea (Hooker) Druce 1917 [=Rutidosis arachnoidea Hooker 1848; incl. P. rhytidochlamys von Mueller 1864] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

Vittadinia

Vittadinia scabra, copyright Russell Cumming.


Belongs within: Astereae.

Vittadinia is an Australasian genus of hairy perennial herbs and subshrubs.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Perennial herbs or small undershrubs with alternate leaves. Involucre cylindrical or campanulate; bracts narrow, in three to five unequal rows, with scarious margins; receptacle naked; ray-flowers female, about 15–40, ligules narrow, arranged in two or more rows; disk-flowers fewer, tubular, bisexual; anthers obtuse at base; style-branches with subulate appendages above stigmatic lines; achenes narrow, compressed; pappus usually of numerous capillary bristles; achenes and pappus accrescent so that in fruit the latter far surpasses the involucre; hairs of achenes all, or lower hairs only, notched or two-toothed at summit.

<==Vittadinia Rich. 1832 A61
    |  i. s.: V. cervicularis KM08
    |         V. humerata G04
    |         V. sulcata M99
    |--V. sect. Vittadinia BR65
    |    |--V. triloba BR65 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--V. t. var. triloba BR65
    |    |    |--V. t. var. dissecta BR65 [=V. australis var. dissecta C06]
    |    |    |--V. ‘australis’ var. erecta C06
    |    |    |--V. t. var. lanuginosa BR65
    |    |    `--V. ‘australis’ var. linearis C06
    |    |--V. pterochaeta [=V. australis var. pterochaeta] BR65
    |    `--V. tenuissima [=V. australis var. tenuissima] BR65
    `--V. sect. Eurybiopsis BR65
         |--V. megacephala [=V. australis var. megacephala] BR65
         `--V. scabra BR65

Vittadinia triloba BR65 [=Brachycome triloba Gaudichaud 1826 BR65; incl. *V. australis Richard 1832 A61, BR65, Eurybiopsis australis Hooker 1853 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

Ixieae

Ixia amethystina, from Lambley Nursery.


Belongs within: Iridaceae.

The Ixieae are a group of iridaceous plants in which the rootstock forms a corm; flowers are sessile, subtended basally by paired bracts, and usually arranged in distichous spikes.

<==Ixieae [Ixioideae]
    |--Gladiolus Linné 1753 M99, G77
    |    |--G. byzantinus HE80
    |    |--G. × cardinalis HE80
    |    |--G. caryophyllaceus RL05
    |    |--G. italicus [incl. G. seqetum] H93
    |    |--G. natalensis (Ecklon) Hooker 1831 [incl. G. psittacinus] HE80
    |    |--G. tristis H93
    |    `--G. undulatus Linnaeus 1767 [incl. G. cuspidatus] HE80
    `--Ixia MG06
         |  i. s.: I. maculata Linnaeus 1763 HE80
         |         I. paniculata HE80
         |         I. polystachya Linnaeus 1762 HE80
         `--I. sect. Dichone MG06
              |--I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt 2006 MG06
              |--I. brevituba MG06
              |--I. curvata MG06
              `--I. trifolia MG06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G77] Geerinck, D. J. L. 1977. Iridaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 77–84.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[MG06] Manning, J. C., & P. Goldblatt. 2006. New species of Iridaceae from the Hantam-Roggeveld Centre of Endemism, and the Bokkeveld, Northern Cape, South Africa. Bothalia 36 (2): 139–145.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

Heliothinae

Heliocheilus cramboides, copyright Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Noctuidae.
Contains: Heliothis.

The Heliothinae, bollworms and related forms, are a group of moths whose larvae feed mostly on the reproductive organs (flowers, fruits and seeds) of plants, with some species being significant horticultural pests.

Characters (from Matthews 1999): Small to medium-sized, robust moths. Frons generally rounded, bulging with well-developed ventral lip. Labial palps moderately long, weakly upcurved. Antennal filiform or minimally biserrate in male, filiform in female. Compound eye smooth, unlashed. Head and thorax covered with mixed hairlike and spathulate scales. Hind wing venation trifine; vein M2, if present, reduced and lying in median fold of hind wing. Male genitalia with valve usually simple and strap-like, quite long and narrow, rather flat, often curved distally, usually lacking processes except sometimes with a small ampulla; apical corona usually consisting of one or more rows of spine-like setae, occasionally absent; sacculus generally not well distinguished. Aedeagus short or long, straight or slightly curved, often bearing a denticulate 'scobinate' patch at apex; scobinate patch may occur at base of vesica; vesica varying from simple and sac-like to long and coiled, usually a number of diverticula present from a 'basal pouch'; vesica may bear cornuti. Female genitalia with papillae anales (ovipositor) varying from soft and pad-like with may setae to sclerotised and knife-like with fewer setae; ductus bursae varying from short to long, opening posteriorly through ostium bursae, variably ribbed and sclerotised; appendix bursae usually present, with ductus seminalis lying at apex; fundus bursae usually bearing from one to four signa. Larvae with spiny skin; prothoracic lateral setae with transverse position in later instars.

Heliothinae [Heliothidae] M99
    |  i. s.: Eutricopis nexilis M99
    |         Heliothodes diminutiva M99
    |         Periphanes ZK11
    |--Pyrrhia umbra (Hufnagel 1766) M99, JP05
    |--Melaporphyria M99
    |--+--Protadisura M99
    |  `--+--+--Heliolonche M99
    |     |  `--Schinia M99
    |     |       |--S. dobla M99
    |     |       `--S. florida M99
    |     `--Adisura Moore 1881 [incl. Astonycha Turner 1920] M99
    |          |--*A. atkinsoni Moore 1881 M99
    |          |--A. cana M99
    |          |--A. litarga (Turner 1920) [=*Astonycha litarga] M99
    |          |--A. marginalis (Walker 1858) (see below for synonymy) M99
    |          |--A. parva M99
    |          `--A. stigmatica M99
    `--+--Heliothis M99
       |--+--Australothis Matthews 1991 [=Australoverpa Matthews 1991] M99
       |  |    |--*A. rubrescens (Walker 1858) (see below for synonymy) M99
       |  |    |--A. exopisso Matthews 1999 M99
       |  |    |--A. tertia (Roepke 1941) [=Heliothis tertia] M99
       |  |    `--A. volatilis M99
       |  `--Helicoverpa Hardwick 1965 M99
       |       |  i. s.: H. assulta (Guenée 1852) (see below for synonymy) M99
       |       |         H. fletcheri M99
       |       |         H. hardwicki Matthews 1999 M99
       |       |         H. prepodes (Common 1985) [=Heliothis prepodes] M99
       |       |--H. punctigera (Wallengren 1860) [=Heliothis punctigera; incl. Chloridea marmada Swinhoe 1918] M99
       |       `--+--H. gelotopoeon M99
       |          `--+--H. hawaiiensis M99
       |             `--+--*H. armigera (Hübner 1803–1808) M99 (see below for synonymy)
       |                `--+--H. confusa M99
       |                   `--H. zea M99
       `--Heliocheilus Grote 1865 [incl. Canthylidia Butler 1886, Raghuva Moore 1881, Rhodosea Grote 1883] M99
            |--*H. paradoxus Grote 1865 M99
            |--H. abaccheutus Matthews 1999 M99
            |--H. aberrans (Butler 1886) [=Heliothis aberrans] M99
            |--H. albipunctella M99
            |--H. albivenata (Montague 1914) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. aleurota (Lower 1902) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. atrilinea (Turner 1943) [=Canthylidia atrilinea] M99
            |--H. canusina (Swinhoe 1901) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. cistella (Swinhoe 1901) [=Canthylidia cistella] M99
            |--H. cladotus Swinhoe 1901 (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. confertissima (Walker 1865) [=Leucania confertissima, *Raghuva confertissima] M99
            |--H. confundens (Warren 1913) [=Canthylidia confundens] M99
            |--H. cramboides (Guenée 1852) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. eodora (Meyrick 1902) [=Heliothis eodora; incl. Canthylidia tenuistria Turner 1902] M99
            |--H. ferruginosa (Turner 1911) [=Canthylidia ferruginosa; incl. C. epigrapha Turner 1920] M99
            |--H. flavitincta (Lower 1908) [=Melicleptria flavitincta] M99
            |--H. halimolimnus Matthews 1999 M99
            |--H. ionola (Swinhoe 1901) [=Adisura ionola, Melicleptria ionola] M99
            |--*Rhodosea’ julia Grote 1883 M99
            |--H. melibaphes (Hampson 1903) [=Melicleptria melibaphes] M99
            |--H. mesoleuca (Lower 1902) [=Canthylidia mesoleuca, Melicleptria mesoleuca] M99
            |--H. moribunda (Guenée 1852) M99 (see below for synonymy)
            |--H. neurota (Lower 1903) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. pallida (Butler 1886) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. puncticulata (Warren 1913) [=Canthylidia puncticulata] M99
            |--H. ranalaetensis Matthews 1999 M99
            |--H. rhodopolia (Turner 1911) [=Canthylidia rhodopolia] M99
            |--H. thelycritus Matthews 1999 M99
            `--H. vulpinotatus Matthews 1999 M99

Adisura marginalis (Walker 1858) [=Anthophila marginalis; incl. Heliothis delicia Felder & Rogenhofer 1874, A. dulcis Moore 1881, A. purgata Warren 1913, A. similis Moore 1881] M99

*Australothis rubrescens (Walker 1858) [=Thalpophila rubrescens; incl. Chloridea aresca Turner 1911, C. caesia Warren 1913, Heliothis hyperchroa Turner 1920, C. rufa Warren 1913] M99

*Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner 1803–1808) M99 [=Noctua armigera M99, Heliothis (Helicoverpa) armigera M83; incl. N. barbara Fabricius 1794 (nom. rej.) M99, Helicoverpa armigera commoni Hardwick 1965, Heliothis conferta Walker 1857 M99, Helic. armigera conferta M99, Heliothis armigera ab. fusca Cockerell 1889 M99, Heliothis guidelii Costantino 1922 M99, Heliothis obsoleta (Fabricius 1793) M99, GM79, Heliothis pulverosa Walker 1857 M99, Heliothis rama Bhattacharjee & Gupta 1972 M99, Chloridea obsoleta ab. rufa Warren 1911 non C. rufa Warren 1913 M99, Heliothis uniformis Wallengren 1860 M99]

Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée 1852) [=Heliothis assulta; incl. Helic. assulta afra Hardwick 1965, Heliothis separata Walker 1857, Heliothis succinea Moore 1881, Heliothis temperata Walker 1857] M99

Heliocheilus albivenata (Montague 1914) [=Melicleptria albivenata; incl. M. bipartita Strand 1924, M. stramineipicta Strand 1924, Canthylidia zorophanes Turner 1929, C. zurophanes (l. c.)] M99

Heliocheilus aleurota (Lower 1902) [=Melicleptria aleurota, Canthylidia alleurota (l. c.); incl. C. cana Turner 1943, C. aleurota ab. spissata Warren 1913] M99

Heliocheilus canusina (Swinhoe 1901) [=Canthylidia canusina; incl. C. anemodes Lower 1902, C. canusina ab. intacta Warren 1913] M99

Heliocheilus cladotus Swinhoe 1901 [incl. Canthylidia cladotus ab. densata Warren 1913, C. cladotus ab. hyalina Warren 1913, C. cladotus ab. hyalosticta Warren 1913, C. cramboides ab. semigrisea Warren 1913] M99

Heliocheilus cramboides (Guenée 1852) [=Leucania cramboides; incl. Canthylidia capnoneura Turner 1932, C. discolor Warren 1913, Heliocheilus discolor, C. cramboides ab. intensa Warren 1913, C. nervosa Turner 1943, Heliothis neurias Meyrick 1902, Heliocheilus neurias, C. cramboides ab. semiochrea Warren 1913, C. sericea Warren 1913, C. sulphurea Warren 1913, C. sumbensis Warren 1913, C. venata Warren 1913, Heliocheilus venata] M99

Heliocheilus moribunda (Guenée 1852) M99 [=Leucania moribunda M99, Canthylidia moribunda P27; incl. C. arenosa Turner 1943 M99, Leucania invaria Walker 1856 M99, C. invaria pallescens Warren 1913 M99]

Heliocheilus neurota (Lower 1903) [=Tarache neurota; incl. Canthylidia clathrata Warren 1913, C. crocopepla Turner 1925, Oruza crocotoschema Turner 1936, C. eurhythma Turner 1915, C. clathrata ab. exesa Warren 1913, C. clathrata ab. notata Warren 1913, C. clathrata ab. pallida Warren 1913 non C. pallida Butler 1886] M99

Heliocheilus pallida (Butler 1886) [=*Canthylidia pallida; incl. C. albida Warren 1913, H. osmidus Swinhoe 1901, C. rosea Warren 1913] M99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

Rubiaceae

Luculia gratissima, copyright A. J. T. Johnsingh.


Belongs within: Gentianales.
Contains: Canthium, Rubioideae, Ixoroideae, Cinchonoideae.

The Rubiaceae are a cosmopolitan group of flowering plants usually bearing radial flowers with four-lobed corollas, often associated in tight cymes or clusters.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual, perennial, shrub, vine, or tree. Leaves generally opposite, entire; stipules generally on stalk, sometimes leaf-like (then leaves apparently whorled and stipules considered leaves), adjacent pairs sometimes fused. Inflorescence a cyme, panicle, cluster, or flower solitary, generally terminal and more or less axillary. Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally more or less four-lobed, sometimes absent; corolla generally radial, four-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate with corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1, more or less fused if 2. Fruit two or four nutlets or a berry, drupe, or capsule.

<==Rubiaceae [Cinchoneae, Coffeoideae, Coptosapelteae]
    |--Luculia RB01
    |    |--L. grandifolia RB01
    |    |--L. gratissima SK02
    |    `--L. pinceana RB01
    `--+--Rubioideae RB01
       |--Coptosapelta RB01
       |    |--C. diffusa BM00
       |    `--C. flavescens RB01
       `--+--Ixoroideae RB01
          `--Cinchonoideae RB01

Rubiaceae incertae sedis:
  Atractogyne YY22
  Siphonandrium YY22
  Alibertia edulis BJ99
  Amajoua YY22
  Anthispermum YY22
  Basanacantha YY22
  Byrsophyllum YY22
  Crocyllis YY22
  Duroia YY22
  Garapatica YY22
  Kotchubaea YY22
  Melanopsidium YY22
  Morindopsis YY22
  Stachyarrhena YY22
  Thieleodoxa YY22
  Bataprine YY22
  Bobea YY22
  Cuviera YY22
  Hodgkinsonia YY22
  Myonima YY22
  Pachystylus YY22
  Timonius timon YY22, WP99
  Bathysa YY22
  Pouchetia Richard ex de Candolle 1830 FT93
    `--P. gilletii BJ99
  Psydrax LK14
    |--P. odorata LK14
    |    |--P. o. ssp. odorata LK14
    |    `--P. o. ssp. arnhemica LK14
    |--P. pendulina LK14
    `--P. suaveolens G04
  Rutidea orientalis BM00
  Schenckia blumenaviensis BM00
  Aidia BJ99
    |--A. micrantha BJ99
    `--A. racemosa VT13
  Aoranthe penduliflora BJ99
  Bertiera breviflora BJ99
  Burchellia bubalina BJ99
  Calochone redingii BJ99
  Canthium BJ99
  Casasia clusiifolia BJ99
  Chomelia BJ99
  Cremaspora triflora BJ99
  Cubanola domingensis BJ99
  Didymosalpinx norae BJ99
  Euclinia longiflora BJ99
  Feretia aeruginescens BJ99
  Genipa americana BJ99
  Glossostipula concinna BJ99
  Gonzalagunia affinis BJ99
  Heinsia crinita BJ99
  Hippotis BJ99
  Kailarsenia ochreata BJ99
  Keetia zanzibarica BJ99
  Kraussia floribunda BJ99
  Ladenbergia pavonii BJ99
  Leptactina platyphylla BJ99
  Massularia acuminata BJ99
  Meyna BJ99
    |--M. laxiflora P03
    `--M. tetraphylla BJ99
  Oxyanthus BJ99
    |--O. pyriformis BJ99
    `--O. zanguebaricus BJ99
  Paracoffea melanocarpa BJ99
  Porterandia crosbyi BJ99
  Posoqueria latifolia BJ99
  Pseudosabicea arborea BJ99
  Psilanthus mannii BJ99
  Rachicallis americana BJ99
  Ramosmania rodriguesii BJ99
  Randia BJ99
    |--R. aculeata BJ99
    |--R. benthamina WB-P93
    |--R. fitzalani [=Atractocarpus fitzalani] BJ99
    |--R. karstenii MM96
    `--R. moorei BJ99
  Rosenbergiodendron longiflorum BJ99
  Rothmannia longiflora BJ99
  Sabicea BJ99
    |--S. speiosa M09
    `--S. villosa BJ99
  Sukunia longipes BJ99
  Tamridaea capsulifera BJ99
  Tarenna BJ99
    |--T. cymosa BJ99
    |--T. dallachiana LK14
    |    |--T. d. ssp. dallachiana LK14
    |    `--T. d. ssp. expandens LK14
    |--T. neurophylla BJ99
    `--T. pentamera LK14
  Tricalysia BJ99
    |--T. cryptocalyx BJ99
    |--T. malaccensis J06
    `--T. ovalifolia BJ99
  Plectronia Linnaeus 1767 BR65
    `--P. latifolia [=Canthium latifolium] BR65
  Mastixiodendron pachyclados (Sch.) Melch. 1925 [=Fagraea pachyclados Sch. in Sch. & Laut. 1905] C95
  Chione venosa J87
  Stevensia hotteana J87
  Xeromphis spinosa KJ05
  Thecagonum ovalifolium P03
  Wendlandia P03
    |--W. exserta P03
    `--W. tinctoria P03
  Caelospermum reticulatum B00
  Kelloggia galioides H93
  Ixorophyllum anceps CBH93
  Paleorubiaceophyllum eocenicum (Berry) Roth & Dilcher 1979 CBH93
  Rubiaceocarpum markgrafii Kräusel 1939 [=R. markgrafi] CBH93
  ‘Triporotetradites’ nachterstedtensis CBH93
  Retiniphyllum AS02
  Ravnia triflora [incl. Lagenanthus parviflorus Ewan 1952] SK02
  Didymochlamys Hook. 1872 KC01
  Disperma Gmel. 1792 KC01
  Higginsia Pers. 1805 KC01
  Jackia Wall. 1823 KC01
  Piringa Juss. 1820 KC01
  Psathyra Spreng. 1818 KC01
  Schachtia Karst. 1859 KC01
  ‘Ludwigia’ erigata Linné 1767 [incl. L. triflora Desr. in Lamk 1792 (nom. illeg.)] R77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS02] Albert, V. A., & L. Struwe. 2002. Gentianaceae in context. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 1–20. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny—case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413–435.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Loganiaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 132–188. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115–132.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 121–130.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[R77] Raven, P. H. 1977. Onagraceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 98–113.

[RB01] Razafimandimbison, S. G., & B. Bremer. 2001. Tribal delimitation of Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae): inference from molecular and morphological data. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71: 515–538.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

[WB-P93] Walter, D. E., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 1993. Systematics and ecology of Adhaesozetes polyphyllos sp.nov. (Acari: Oribatida: Licneremaeoidea), a leaf-inhabiting mite from Australian rainforests. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 1024–1040.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Morindeae

Noni Morinda citrifolia, copyright Wilfredor.


Belongs within: Rubioideae.

The Morindeae are a group of rubiaceous plants bearing flowers in head inflorescences, and fleshy drupes with one or two ovules per carpel.

<==Morindeae
    |--Morindinae BM00
    |    |  i. s.: Gynochthodes coriacea BM00
    |    |         Pogonolobus BM00
    |    |--Appunia guatemalensis BM00
    |    `--+--Coelospermum balansanum BM00
    |       `--Morinda BM00
    |            |--M. canthoides LK14
    |            |--M. citrifolia RB01
    |            |--M. elliptica P88
    |            `--M. jasminoides LK14
    `--+--+--Mitchella repens BM00
       |  `--Damnacanthus indicus BM00
       `--Prismatomerinae BM00
            |--Renellia [incl. Didymoecium] BM00
            |--Motleyia BM00
            `--Prismatomeris BM00
                 |--P. beccarianum BM00
                 `--P. labordei BM00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RB01] Razafimandimbison, S. G., & B. Bremer. 2001. Tribal delimitation of Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae): inference from molecular and morphological data. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71: 515–538.

Coussareeae

Faramea cf. multiflora, copyright Scott Zona.


Belongs within: Rubioideae.

The Coussareeae are a small but morphologically diverse group of flowering plants found in the Americas, many of which have tetramerous flowers, flattened berry-like or thin-walled capsular fruits, and flattened seeds (Bremer & Manen 2000).

Characters (from Bremer & Manen 2000): Herbs (creeping in Coccocypselum), subshrubs, shrubs, or small trees. Stipules entire, cleft, as a ridge with appendages, or deeply bilobed. Flowers homo- or heterostylous, often tetramerous, white, blue, or bright yellow (Cruckshanksia, Oreopolus). Ovary 1–2-1ocular, with 1–2 or many (Coccocypselum) ovules per locule. Fruits often flattened (not Coccocypselum), fleshy, white (Coussarea) or often blue (Faramea, Coccocypselum) berries, schizocarps (Declieuxia), or thin-walled capsules (Cruckshanksia, Oreopolus), with 1–2 or many seeds, often flattened. Pollen 3-colporate or 2–4-porate. Chromosome basic number x = 10, 11? with 2- or 4-ploidy level.

<==Coussareeae [Coccocypseleae, Cruckshanksieae]
    |  i. s.: Cruckshanksia hymenodon BM00
    |         Oreopolus glacialis BM00
    |         Declieuxia fruticosa BM00
    |         Heterophyllaea BM00
    |         Schizocolea BM00
    |--Coccocypselum hirsutum BM00
    `--+--Coussarea BM00
       |    |--C. contracta BM00
       |    `--C. macrophylla BM00
       `--Faramea BM00
            |--F. multiflora BM00
            `--F. porophylla BM00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

Crusea

Mountain saucer-flower Crusea diversifolia, copyright Sue Carnahan.


Belongs within: Spermacoceae.

Crusea, saucer flowers, is a genus of small annual plants found in southern North America.

<==Crusea
    |--C. coronata F79
    `--+--+--C. coccinea F79
       |  |    |--C. c. var. breviloba F79
       |  |    `--+--C. c. var. coccinea F79
       |  |       `--C. c. var. chiriquensis F79
       |  `--C. megalocarpa F79
       `--+--C. diversifolia F79
          `--+--C. lucida F79
             `--+--C. parvifolia F79
                |--C. psyllioides F79
                `--+--C. calcicola F79
                   |--C. setosa F79
                   `--+--C. wrightii var. wrightii F79
                      `--+--C. longiflora F79
                         `--+--C. wrightii var. angustifolia F79
                            `--+--C. calocephala F79
                               `--C. hispida F79
                                    |--C. h. var. hispida F79
                                    `--C. h. var. grandiflora F79

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F79] Farris, J. S. 1979. Review: Cladistics and Plant Systematics. Systematic Zoology 28 (3): 400–411.

Epicriidae

Epicrus canestrinii, copyright Matthew Shepherd.


Belongs within: Gamasina.

The Epicriidae are a group of mites known from the Northern Hemisphere with species found in habitats such as moss, leaf litter, decaying wood or animal nests (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Female and male dorsal shield entire, usually expanded laterally and consolidated with peritrematic shields, which in turn are expanded posteriorly onto the ventrolateral surface behind coxae IV, ornamented with 11–19 pairs of dorsal glands and a network of large bi-, tri-, or qundrifurcate tubercles. Stigmata prominent, typically on protuberances, peritremes vestigial or lacking. Tritosternum reduced to stubby base and abbreviated laciniae. Sternal setae I on paired jugular plates, poroids may be absent. Female sternal shield with 2–3 pairs of setae, apparently without poroids; 4th sternal setae usually free on soft integument or rarely inserted on metasternal plates or on posterior edge of sternal shield; epigynal shield with two pairs (occasionally one pair) of setae and well separated posteriorly from an anal or small ventrianal shield. Males with sternitigenital shield separated from ventral and anal shields or from ventrianal or anal shield (the latter sometimes integrated with posterior margin of dorsal shield). Posterior margins of coxae IV with single or multiple inguinal glands. Leg I elongated, without tarsal claws and with two to several setae that are more or less elongated and minutely clubbed apically. Peripodomeric suture of tarsi II–IV usually with a dorsal intercalary sclerite bearing two setae. Femur I with thirteen setae, including four ventral setae and five dorsal setae; tibia I with four ventral setae, six dorsal setae, and 2 anterolateral setae; tibia III with nine setae (2 1/1, 2/1 2); genu III with ten setae, including two ventral setae. Palptarsal claw three-tined (occasionally two-tined). Corniculi small, slender, much shorter than internal malae. Female tocospermous. Male with genital aperture located between coxae III and without spurs or modified spinelike setae on legs II–IV; male chelicerae not obviously elaborated for sperm transfer. Larva lacking pygidial shield; protonymphal pygidial shield with eight pairs of setae, setae S4S5 on shield; dorsal shield of deutonymph entire.

<==Epicriidae [Epicrioidea] LKW09
    |--Neoepicrius LKW09
    |--Adenoepicrius LKW09
    |--Berlesiana Turk 1943 ET79
    |    |--*B. cirrata (Berlese 1916) [=Epicrius cirratus] ET79
    |    `--B. denticulata ET79
    `--Epicrius Canestrini & Fanzago 1878 (see below for synonymy) FH93
         |--E. mollis (Kramer 1876) [=Gamasus mollis; incl. *E. geometricus Canestrini & Fanzago 1887] ET79
         |--E. canestrinii S61
         |--E. menzeli Schweizer 1922 S61
         |--E. spinituberculatus ET79
         `--E. washingtonianus Berlese 1916 FH93

Epicrius Canestrini & Fanzago 1878 [incl. Diepicrius Berlese 1916, Epicriella Willmann 1953, Eugamasus Absolon 1899 non Berlese 1892, Parasejus Trägårdh 1910] FH93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

Pachylaelapidae

Pachylaelaps sp., copyright Matthew Shepherd.


Belongs within: Eviphidoidea.

The Pachylaelapidae are a group of predatory mites found in soil habitats such as litter or animal nests; dispersal is often by means of phoresy in association with beetles (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Tarsus II in female and male usually with one or two of the distal setae enlarged into stout spines (if lacking such spines, female with a genitiventral shield closely bordered by an anal shield or with peritrematic-exopodal shields extending posteriorly beyond coxae IV to fuse with metapodal plates); tibia III and genu and tibia IV each with one anterolateral seta.

<==Pachylaelapidae [Neoparasitidae, Pachylaelaptini]
    |--Pachyseius Berlese 1910 ET79
    |    |--*P. humeralis Berlese 1910 ET79
    |    `--P. adeliensis P94
    |--Sphaerolaelaps Berlese 1903 ET79
    |    `--*S. holothyroides (Leonardi 1896) [=Laelaps holothyroides] ET79
    |--Meliponapachys Turk 1948 FH93
    |    `--M. pallidus Turk 1948 FH93
    |--Neoparasitus Oudemans 1901 FH93 [incl. Brachylaelaps Berlese 1910 V25]
    |    |--N. oudemansi Oudemans 1901 [incl. Pachyseius molussus Berlese 1923, P. quartus Vitzthum 1924] V25
    |    `--*Brachylaelaps’ rotundus Berlese 1910 V25
    |--Megalolaelaps Berlese 1882 FH93
    |    |--M. enceladus (Berlese 1910) [=Hypoaspis enceladus; incl. Pachylaelaps ornata Keegan 1946] FH93
    |    `--M. spinirostris Berlese 1910 V25
    |--Olopachys LKW09
    |    |--O. skalri LKW09
    |    `--O. vysotskaja LKW09
    |--Zygoseius Berlese 1916 FH93
    |    |--Z. furciger Berlese 1916 FH93 [=Lasioseius (Zygoseius) furciger V25]
    |    `--Z. sarcinulus Halliday 1997 H98
    |--Pseudolaelaps Berlese 1916 LKW09, ET79 [Pseudolaelapinae]
    |    |--*P. doderoi (Berlese 1910) [=Laelaps (Hoplolaelaps) doderoi] ET79
    |    |--P. gamaselloides LKW09
    |    `--P. paulseni LKW09
    |--Onchodellus Berlese 1904 ET79
    |    |--*O. reticulatus (Berl. 1904) [=Pachylaelaps (*Onchodellus) reticulatus] ET79
    |    |--O. antillanus Turk 1948 FH93
    |    |--O. eurasius (Vitzthum 1925) [=Pachylaelaps (Onchodellus) eurasius] V25
    |    `--O. hispani (Berlese 1908) [=Pachylaelaps (Onchodellus) hispani] V25
    `--Pachylaelaps Berlese 1888 H98
         |--*P. pectinifer (Canestrini & Canestrini 1881) [=Gamasus pectinifer] ET79
         |--P. aegypticus LKW09
         |--P. australicus Womersley 1942 H98
         |--P. cluozzai Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. furcifer Oudemans 1903 FH93
         |--P. haeros Berlese 1888 V25 [incl. P. haeros var. mexicanus Stoll 1893 FH93]
         |--P. hamifer Trägårdh 1931 T31
         |--P. humusorum Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. jurassicus Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. laeuchli Schweizer 1922 S61
         |--P. latus Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. littoralis Halbert 1915 H66
         |--P. longipalpoides (Felt in Lintner 1896) (see below for synonymy) FH93
         |--P. longisetis ET79
         |--P. magnus S61 [=P. pectinifer var. magnus S22]
         |--P. penicilliger Berlese 1920 H98
         |--P. purcheri Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. regularis Berlese 1920 S61
         |--P. sculptus Berlese 1920 S61
         |--P. siculus [=P. strigifer var. siculus] S61
         |--P. singularis Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. stabelchodai Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. strigifer S61
         |--P. tablasoti Schweizer 1961 S61
         |--P. tesselatus Berlese 1920 S61
         `--P. trupchumi Schweizer 1961 S61

Pachylaelaps longipalpoides (Felt in Lintner 1896) [=Gamasus longipalpoides; incl. P. sellnicki Hirschmann & Kraus 1965] FH93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H66] Hirschmann, W. 1966. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 15. Gänge von Litoralmilben und neue Litoralmilbenarten. Acarologie: Schriftenreihe für Vergleichende Milbenkunde 9: 25–44.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[P94] Pugh, P. J. A. 1994. Non-indigenous Acari of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 110: 207–217.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

[T31] Trägårdh, I. 1931. Acarina from the Juan Fernandez Islands. Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Islands 3 (4): 553–628.

[V25] Vitzthum, H. 1925. Fauna sumatrensis. (Beitrag no. 5). Acarinae. Supplementa Entomologica 11: 1–79.