Lasius

Lasius neoniger, copyright Tom Murray.


Belongs within: Lasiini.

Lasius, moisture ants, is a genus of largely nocturnally foraging ants that is widespread in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

Characters (from Bingham 1903; Wheeler & Wheeler 1990): Worker: Mandibles short, elongate, triangular, masticatory margin dentate and somewhat oblique, the apical tooth long, curved and acute; clypeus trapeziform, convex from side to side, its anterior margin rounded, posterior margin distinct; frontal area not distinctly limited, about twice as broad as high; antennal carinae short, wide apart, parallel and vertical; antennae 12-segmented, originating close to rear margin of clypeus, scape surpassing occipital margin by less than one-third its length, often much shorter; eyes of moderate size; ocelli present, but not distinct, very small. Thorax with pronotum rather short, strongly rounded, mesonotum broad, convex; metanotum short, basal level portion about half length of obliquely sloping flat apical portion; pro-mesonotal suture very distinct; thorax at mesometanotal suture deeply emarginate; propodeal spiracle round; legs somewhat short and stout, claws simple. Pedicel with small quadrangular, more or less laminate node; abdomen massive, broadly oval, not produced in front or overhanging the pedicel. Erect body hairs short and golden, not coarse. Queen: Head and pedicel as in worker; ocelli larger and more distinct. Thorax very massive, pronotum short, vertical, not forming part of dorsum; mesonotum very large, convex; scutellum broad, somewhat flat; metanotum short, rounded posteriorly; abdomen large, oval. Male: Mandibles broad, masticatory margin acute, with only one apical tooth, or whole masticatory margin dentate. Antennae 13-segment, flagellum filiform, segments nearly equal in length, first segment thicker than others. Antennal carinae short, diverging posteriorly. Genitalia very small on under side of abdomen, covered by tectiform dorsum of apical abdominal segments. Exterior genital plates narrowing towards apex, twice as long as at base, broad, and rounded apical plate crescentic. Ventral plate not emarginate.

Lasius Fabr. 1804 B03
    |--*L. niger B03
    |--L. affinis MS01
    |--L. alienobrunneus Forel 1894 [=L. niger brunneus var. alienobrunneus] B03
    |--L. alienoflavus Forel in Bingham 1903 B03
    |--L. alienus (Förster 1850) B03 [=Formica aliena B03, L. niger alienus MS01]
    |--L. atopus Cole 1958 WW90
    |--L. brunneus W01
    |--L. californicus BS06
    |--L. crinitus (Smith 1858) [=Formica crinita] B03
    |--L. distinguendus ES12
    |--L. flavus S61
    |--L. fuliginosus (Latr. 1798) [=Formica fuliginosa] B03
    |--L. grandis ES12
    |--L. hikosanus Yamauchi 1979 I92
    |--L. himalayanus Forel 1894 [=L. niger brunneus var. himalayanus] B03
    |--L. murphyi ES12
    |--L. neglectus ES12
    |--L. neoniger GE05
    |--L. nevadensis Cole 1956 WW90
    |--L. nitigaster WD16
    |--L. pallitarsis ES12
    |--L. platythorax WD16
    `--L. umbratus A71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[ES12] Espadaler, X., & S. Santamaria. 2012. Ecto- and endoparasitic fungi on ants from the Holarctic region. Psyche 2012: 168478.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WD16] Wrzosek, M., G. Dubiel, M. Gorczak, J. Pawłowska, M. Tischer & S. Bałazy. 2016. New insights on the phylogeny and biology of the fungal ant pathogen Aegeritella. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 133: 1–7.

[W01] Wurst, E. 2001. The life cycle of Lemanniella minotauri n. sp. and the erection of the new family Lemanniellidae (Acari: Astigmata). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie A (Biologie) 621: 1–34.

Polistes

European paper wasp Polistes dominulus, copyright Hans Hillewaert.


Belongs within: Polistinae.

Polistes is a genus of social wasps whose nests usually comprise small paper combs suspended from a peduncle (Richards 1978).

Characters (from Richards 1978): Usually larger wasps. Humeri with a keel separating off a narrow, smooth area in front of the first thoracic spiracle. Mesoscutum margined opposite the tegula. Muscle-slit of the propodeum long and narrow, more or less pointed at the top. Second gastral tergite and sternite overlapping, not at all fused.

<==Polistes Latreille 1802 NK11 [Polistini]
    |--P. (Polistes) C85
    |    |--*P. (P.) gallicus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Vespa gallica] C85
    |    |--P. (P.) chinensis H02
    |    `--P. (P.) dominulus (Christ 1791) [=Vespa dominula] C85
    |--P. (Aphanilopterus) aterrimus CC85
    |--P. (Gyrostoma Kirby 1828) NK11
    |    |--P. (G.) diabolicus de Saussure 1853 NK11
    |    |--P. (G.) rothneyi Cameron 1900 NK11
    |    `--P. (G.) tenebricosus Lepeletier 1836 NK11
    |--P. (Megapolistes van der Vecht 1968) C85
    |    |--P. (*M.) olivaceus (DeGeer 1773) C85 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. (M.) balder Kirby 1888 C85
    |    |--P. (M.) erythrinus Holgren 1868 C85
    |    |--P. (M.) facilis Saussure 1853 C85
    |    |--P. (M.) schach (Fabricius 1781) [=Vespa schach] C85
    |    |--P. (M.) semiflavus Holmgren 1868 R78
    |    `--P. (M.) tepidus (Fabricius 1775) C85 [=Vespa tepida C85, P. (Gyrostoma) tepidus NK11]
    |         |--P. t. tepidus [incl. P. malayanus Cameron 1906] C85
    |         |--P. t. arthuri R78
    |         |--P. t. picteti Saussure 1853 C85
    |         |--P. t. religiosus R78
    |         `--P. t. speciosus R78
    |--P. (Polistella Ashmead 1904) NK11
    |    |--P. (*P.) manillensis Saussure 1853 C85
    |    |--P. (P.) affinis Gusenleitner 2006 NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) bambusae Richards 1978 R78
    |    |    |--P. b. bambusae R78
    |    |    `--P. b. humboldti Richards 1978 R78
    |    |--P. (P.) bernardii Le Guillou 1841 C85
    |    |    |--P. b. bernardii C85
    |    |    |--P. b. comis Cheesman 1951 R78
    |    |    |--P. b. duplicinctus Richards 1978 C85
    |    |    |--P. b. insulae Richards 1978 C85
    |    |    |--P. b. papuanus Schulz 1904 [=P. marginalis papuanus, P. stigma papuanus] R78
    |    |    `--P. b. richardsi G. Soika 1975 R78
    |    |--P. (P.) buruensis Petersen 1990 NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) callimorpha de Saussure 1853 NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) elegans Smith 1859 NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) extraneus Kirby 1883 NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) flavobilineatus NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) horrendus Gusenleitner 2006 NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) humilis (Fabricius 1781) [=Vespa humilis] C85
    |    |    |--P. h. humilis (see below for synonymy) C85
    |    |    |--P. h. centrocontinentalis Giordani Soika 1975 C85
    |    |    `--P. h. synoecus Saussure 1853 (see below for synonymy) C85
    |    |--P. (P.) meadeanus (von Schulthess 1913) NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) multipictus Smith 1860 R78
    |    |--P. (P.) nigerrimus Gusenleitner 2006 NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) nigrifrons Smith 1859 NK11 [=P. (Stenopolistes) nigrifrons R78]
    |    |    |--P. n. nigrifrons R78
    |    |    `--P. n. obdurus Cheesman 1951 R78 [=P. (Stenopolistes) nigrifrons obdurus] R78
    |    |--P. (P.) philippinensis de Saussure 1853 NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) sagittarius de Saussure 1853 NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) sgarambus Giordani Soika 1975 C85
    |    |--P. (P.) simulatus Smith 1860 NK11
    |    |--P. (P.) stigma (Fabricius 1793) NK11 [=Vespa stigma R78]
    |    |    |--P. s. stigma R78
    |    |    `--P. s. tamula (Fabricius 1798) R78
    |    |--P. (P.) townsvillensis Giordani Soika 1975 C85
    |    |    |--P. t. townsvillensis C85
    |    |    `--P. t. austrinus Richards 1978 C85
    |    `--P. (P.) variabilis (Fabricius 1781) [=Vespa variabilis] C85
    `--P. (Stenopolistes van der Vecht 1972) C85
         |--P. (*S.) lateritius Smith 1857 C85 [=P. (Polistella) lateritius NK11]
         |--P. (S.) laevigatissimus Giordani Soika 1975 C85
         `--P. (S.) riekii Richards 1978 C85

Polistes incertae sedis:
  P. canadensis B06
  P. cinerascens B06
  P. crinitus B06
  P. fasciatus L02
  P. ferreri B06
  P. ferrugineus L02
  P. fulvofasciatus [=Vespa fulvofasciata] L02
  P. fuscatus WD04
  P. hebraeus MS01
  P. jadwagae SS99
  P. jokohamae T06
  P. liliaceusculus B06
  P. limai B06
  P. linearis [=Vespa linearis] L02
  P. marginalis (Fabricius 1775) [=Vespa marginalis] GS61
    |--P. m. marginalis GS61
    `--P. m. africanus Palisot de Beauvais 1805 [=P. africana] GS61
  P. metricus HH07
  P. opinabilis YS10
  P. petiolatus L02
  P. ruficornis B06
  P. smithii Saussure 1854 GS61
    |--P. s. smithii GS61
    `--P. s. defectivus Gerstaecker 1871 GS61
  P. spinolae B06
  P. stotherti Meade-Waldo 1916 R78
  P. subsericeus B06
  P. versicolor B06

Polistes (*Megapolistes) olivaceus (DeGeer 1773) C85 [=Vespa olivacea C85, P. (Gyrostoma) olivaceus NK11; incl. V. hebraea Fabricius 1787 R78]

Polistes (Polistella) humilis humilis (Fabricius 1781) [incl. P. humilis pseudoschach Giordani Soika 1975, P. tasmaniensis Saussure 1853, P. tricolor Saussure 1853] C85

Polistes (Polistella) humilis synoecus Saussure 1853 [incl. P. humilis clarior Giordani Soika 1975, P. variabilis reginae Meade-Waldo 1911, P. humilis xanthorrhoicus Giordani Soika 1975] C85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B06] Brèthes, J. 1906. Véspidos y eumenídidos sudamericanos (nuevo suplemento). Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 310–377.

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[CC85] Carpenter, J. M., & J. M. Cumming. 1985. A character analysis of the North American potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Eumeninae). Journal of Natural History 19 (5): 877–916.

[GS61] Giordani Soika, A. 1961. Hymenoptera (Aculeata): Vespidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 440–451. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[H02] Harris, A. 2002. Recent range extensions of some introduced Hymenoptera, with observations. Weta 24: 20–21.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O'Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295–3299.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NK11] Nicholas, A. S., J. Kojima, M. Y. Ruslan, M. Fauzi & A. B. Idris. 2011. A list of social vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from Kuala Lompat, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 59–74.

[R78] Richards, O. W. 1978. The Australian social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 61: 1–132.

[SS99] Stein, G. M., G. Schaller, U. Pfüller, M. Wagner, B. Wagner, M. Schietzel & A. Büssing. 1999. Characterisation of granulocyte stimulation by thionins from European mistletoe and from wheat. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1426: 80–90.

[T06] Tsurusaki, N. 2006. Geographic variation of chromosomes and somatic morphology in the Japanese polymorphic species Leiobunum hiraiwai (Arachnida: Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae). Zootaxa 1325: 157–190.

[WD04] Wardhaugh, C. W., & R. K. Didham. 2004. The effect of introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Hymenoptera: Vespidae) predation on the dispersive life history stages of beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp., Homoptera: Margarodidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 91–101.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A., & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

Vespinae

Queen hornet Vespa crabro, photographed by Markus Flath.


Belongs within: Vespidae.

The Vespinae are a group of social wasps, including hornets and yellowjackets, in which most species have queens that are distinctly larger than their colony's workers.

<==Vespinae HH07
    |--Dolichovespula Rohwer 1916 HH07, C85
    |    `--D. maculata HH07
    |--Provespa Ashmead 1903 NK11
    |    |--P. anomala (de Saussure 1854) NK11
    |    |--P. barthelemyi (du Buysson 1905) NK11
    |    `--P. nocturna van der Vecht 1935 NK11
    |--Vespula Thomson 1869 NK11
    |    |  i. s.: V. austriaca (Panzer 1799) NK11
    |    |         V. flaviceps (Smith 1870) NK11
    |    |         V. kingdonwardi Archer 1981 NK11
    |    |         V. koreensis (Radoszkowsk 1887) NK11
    |    |         V. lewisii SS99
    |    |         V. maculata (Linnaeus 1763) [=Vespa maculata] BM76
    |    |         V. maculifrons HH07
    |    |         V. nursei Archer 1981 NK11
    |    |         V. orbata du Buysson 1902 NK11
    |    |         V. pensylvanica MG06
    |    |         V. rufa A71
    |    |         V. squamosa HH07
    |    `--V. (Paravespula Blüthgen 1938) C85
    |         |--V. (*P.) vulgaris (Linnaeus 1758) [=Vespa vulgaris, Dolichovespula (*P.) vulgaris] C85
    |         `--V. (P.) germanica (Fabricius 1793) [=Vespa germanica] C85
    `--Vespa Linnaeus 1758 NK11
         |--V. affinis (Linnaeus 1764) NK11
         |--V. analis Fabricius 1775 NK11
         |--V. auraria Smith 1852 NK11
         |--V. basalis Smith 1852 NK11
         |--V. bellicosa de Saussure 1854 NK11
         |--V. bicolor Fabricius 1787 NK11
         |--V. biglumis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. binghami du Buysson 1905 NK11
         |--V. calida Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. canadensis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. crabro Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. dorylloides B03
         |--V. ducalis Smith 18523 NK11
         |--V. dybowskii André 1884 NK11
         |--V. emarginata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. fercida Smith 1858 NK11
         |--V. flavescens Fabricius 1775 [=Bembex flavescens] BM76
         |--V. fumida van der Vecht 1959 NK11
         |--V. luctuosa de Saussure 1854 NK11
         |--V. mandarina Smith 1852 NK11
         |--V. mocsaryana du Buysson 1905 NK11
         |--V. multimaculata Pérez 1910 NK11
         |--V. orientalis D02
         |--V. philippinensis de Saussure 1854 NK11
         |--V. rufa Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. rupestris Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--V. saxonica MS01
         |--V. sibirica MS01
         |--V. soror du Buysson 1905 NK11
         |--V. sylvestris MS01
         |--V. tropica (Linnaeus 1758) NK11
         |--V. velutina NK11
         `--V. vivax Smith 1870 NK11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[D02] Donovan, B. J. 2002. Description of Sphecophaga orientalis sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae), a potential parasitoid of Vespula spp. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespinae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 3–15.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O'Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295–3299.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NK11] Nicholas, A. S., J. Kojima, M. Y. Ruslan, M. Fauzi & A. B. Idris. 2011. A list of social vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from Kuala Lompat, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 59–74.

[SS99] Stein, G. M., G. Schaller, U. Pfüller, M. Wagner, B. Wagner, M. Schietzel & A. Büssing. 1999. Characterisation of granulocyte stimulation by thionins from European mistletoe and from wheat. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1426: 80–90.

Ichneumonini

Ichneumon extensorius, copyright James K. Lindsey.


Belongs within: Ichneumonidae.

The Ichneumonini is a diverse but poorly defined group of generalised Ichneumoninae mostly parasitic on large Lepidoptera (Gauld 1984).

<==Ichneumonini [Acanthojoppini, Joppini] NI11
    |--Stirexephanes melanarius Cameron 1912 NI11
    |--Crytea G84
    |--Chiaglas longicornis Cameron 1903 [=Stenichneumon longicornis; incl. C. tinctipennis Cameron 1903] NI11
    |--Hytophatnus lineatus Cameron 1907 NI11
    |--Stenaoplus ornatitarsis (Cameron 1904) (see below for synonymy) NI11
    |--Aculicoxa Gauld 1984 G84
    |    `--*A. striata Gauld 1984 G84
    |--Algathia Cameron 1902 G84
    |    `--*A. maculiceps G84
    |--Longichneumon Heinrich 1934 G84
    |    `--*L. annaelisae G84
    |--Phaeneumon Gauld 1984 G84
    |    `--*P. phoenix Gauld 1984 G84
    |--Setanta Cameron 1901 G84
    |    `--*S. rufipes G84
    |--Uloola Gauld 1984 G84
    |    `--*U. brevis Gauld 1984 G84
    |--Barichneumonites Heinrich 1934 G84
    |    |--*B. sphaeriscutellatus G84
    |    `--B. australasiae G84
    |--Lissosculpta Heinrich 1934 G84
    |    |--*L. impexa [=Ichneumon impexus] G84
    |    `--L. basalis G84
    |--Eutanyacra Cameron 1903 G84
    |    |--*E. pallidicoxis G84
    |    `--E. licitatorius [=Ichneumon licitatorius] G84
    |--Tricholabus Thomson 1894 [incl. Epiopelmidea Viereck 1913, Otohimea Uchida 1926] G84
    |    |--*T. femoralis G84
    |    |--*Epiopelmidea’ erythrogaster G84
    |    `--*Otohimea’ nigra G84
    |--Losgna NI11
    |    |--L. cariniscutis (Cameron 1905) [=Agarenes cariniscutis] NI11
    |    `--L. nigrita NI11
    |         |--L. n. nigrita NI11
    |         `--L. n. maculate Heinrich 1965 NI11
    |--Ctenochares Foerster 1869 (see below for synonymy) G84
    |    |--C. bicolorus (see below for synonymy) G84
    |    |--*Stenophorus’ amoenus G84
    |    |--‘Hoplismenus’ fulvidus [incl. *Talimeda pallidiceps] G84
    |    |--*Anisojoppa’ lutea G84
    |    `--*Henicophatnus’ rufithorax [incl. *Celmis blanditus] G84
    |--Gavrana Cameron 1906 [incl. Rossitera Cheesman 1953] G84
    |    |--*G. maculipes G84
    |    |--G. conica Gauld 1984 G84
    |    |--‘Ichneumon’ ischioleucus [=Levansa ischioleuca] G84
    |    |--‘Cryptus’ tiphiipuppis [=*Rossitera tiphiipuppis] G84
    |    `--G. spinosa Gauld 1984 G84
    `--Ichneumon Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy) G84
         |--*I. extensorius Linnaeus 1758 G84, L58
         |--I. abbreviatus L02
         |--I. albiger PK17
         |--I. annulicornis Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901 MS01
         |--I. aphidum Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. appendigaster Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. ariolator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. assectator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. camelus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. caudator Fabricius 1775 G84
         |--I. cerinthius P93
         |--I. circumflexus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. coccorum Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. compressus [=Banchus compressus] L02
         |--I. compunctor Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. constrictorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. coronatus [=Stephanus coronatus] L02
         |--I. coruscator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. crispatorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. culpatorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. cultriformis L02
         |--I. cyniphidis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. deliratorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. delusor Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. denigrator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. deprimator L02
         |--I. desertor Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. designatorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. dubitator L02
         |--I. edictorius linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. elongator L02
         |--I. enervator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. exarator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. extensor Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. flavator L02
         |--I. flavomaculatus Lucas 1849 E12
         |--*Coreojoppa flavomaculata’ Uchida 1926 non Ichneumon flavomaculatus Lucas 1849 G84
         |--I. formicarius L02
         |--I. fossorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. glaucopterus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. globatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. glomeratus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. hemipteron Riche 1802 R02
         |--I. incubitor Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. inculcator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. insidiosus P93
         |--I. jaculator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. juniperi Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. juvencus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. latrator [incl. *Brachypterus means, *Pterocormus means] G84
         |--I. lotatorius [incl. *Colobacis forticornis] G84
         |--I. luctatorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. mandator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. manifestator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. migrator L02
         |--I. moderator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. muscarum Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. nominator L02
         |--I. nunciator L02
         |--I. ovulorum Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. pendulator Latreille 1800 L00
         |--I. peregrinator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. perturbator L02
         |--I. pisorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. praerogator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. primatorius [incl. *Matsumuraius grandis] G84
         |--I. profligator L02
         |--I. promissorius G84 (see below for synonymy)
         |--I. pugillator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. pugillator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. quadrialbatus MS01
         |--I. raptorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. reluctator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. resinellae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. rubrocinctus Lucas 1849 E12
         |--*Tyanites’ rufipes [incl. *Vabsaris forticornis] G84
         |--I. ruspator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. sarcitorius Linnaeus 1758 L58 [=*Euichneumon sarcitorius G84]
         |--I. saturatorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. secalis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. serrator L02
         |--I. sessilis [=Evania sessilis] L02
         |--I. spectrum Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. strobilellae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. subcutaneus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. sugillatorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. titillator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. tuberosus [incl. *Bureschias balcanicus] G84
         |--I. turionellae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. urinator L02
         |--I. vaginatorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--I. varius [=Banchus varius] L02
         |--I. venator Linnaeus 1758 L58 [=Banchus venator L02]
         |--I. vesparum Rossi 1793 R93
         |--I. vespoides L02
         `--I. volutatorius Linnaeus 1758 L58

Ctenochares Foerster 1869 [=Joppites Berthoumieu 1894, Joppoides Berthoumieu 1904; incl. Anisojoppa Cameron 1906, Celmis Tosquinet 1896, Henicophatnus Kriechbaumer 1894, Pseudojoppa Kriechbaumer 1898, Stenophorus Saussure 1892, Talimeda Cameron 1912] G84

Ctenochares bicolorus [=Ichneumon bicolorus; incl. C. apicalis, I. instructor, *Pseudojoppa instructor, Ctenochares rufator, Ichneumon xanthomelas, *C. xanthomelas, *Joppites xanthomelas, *Joppoides xanthomelas] G84

Ichneumon Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Brachypterus Gravenhorst 1829 non Kugelman 1794, Bureschias Heinrich 1936, Colobacis Cameron 1900, Coreojoppa Uchida 1926, Euichneumon Berthoumieu 1904, Matsumuraius Ashmead 1906, Pterocormus Foerster 1850, Tyanites Cameron 1903, Vabsaris Cameron 1903] G84

Ichneumon promissorius G84 [=Pterocormus promissorius F02; incl. I. albocinctus G84, I. australis G84, I. leucaniae G84, I. varilineatus G84]

Stenaoplus ornatitarsis (Cameron 1904) [=Hemiteles ornatitarsis; incl. H. caducus Schulz 1906, H. geniculatus Cameron 1904 non Thomson 1884] NI11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F02] Foord, M. 2002. Entomological Society conference field trip 2002. Weta 24: 37–38.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[L00] Latreille, P. A. 1800. Sur une nouvelle espèce d'ichneumon. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (42): 138.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NI11] Norhafiza, A. F., & A. B. Idris. 2011. A catalogue of Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 29–50.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[R02] Riche, M. 1802. Description de l'Ichneumon-Hemipteron, espèce nouvelle. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (Bulletin de la Société Philomathique, a ses correspondans): 1'.

[R93] Rossi, M. 1793. Observations de M. Rossi sur un nouveau genre d'insecte, voisin des ichneumons. Bulletin de la Société Philomatique, a ses Correspondans 23–24: 1.

Crabronini

Crossocerus quadrimaculatus, copyright Slimguy.


Belongs within: Crabroninae.
Contains: Williamsita (Androcrabro), Enoplolindenius (Iskutana), Podagritus (Podagritus), Podagritus (Echuca), Podagritus (Parechuca), Neodasyproctus, Foxita, Anacrabro, Entomognathus (Mashona), Encopognathus, Rhopalum (Rhopalum), Rhopalum (Calceorhopalum), Rhopalum (Corynopus), Rhopalum (Latrorhopalum), Dasyproctus, Lindenius, Ectemnius, Lestica (Solenius), Crabro, Crossocerus (Crossocerus), Crossocerus (Ablepharipus), Crossocerus (Blepharipus), Crossocerus (Cuphopterus), Crossocerus (Microcrabro).

The Crabronini are a diverse group of wasps characterised by a large, cuboidal head, a relatively stout thorax and stout legs (Bohart & Menke 1976).

Characters (from Bohart & Menke 1976): Small to medium large forms, 2 to 14 mm long; eyes naked or rarely hairy, inner orbits nearly always converging below, often strongly so; eye facets usually enlarging ventrad; frons often with a definite scapal basin which may be margined laterally, dorsally, or both; ocellar triangle various, occipital carina complete or incomplete; antennal sockets usually close to each other and to inner orbits; clypeus usually transverse; male antenna with 12 or 13 articles, female with 12; scape often with one or two carinae; male flagellum sometimes broadened and, or fringed beneath; palpal formula 6-4, 6-3 or 5-3; mandible apex simple or bidentate, rarely tridentate, inner margin simple or dentate, inner base sometimes with a large tooth or prog; mandible socket often closed; metanotum and propodeum without mucro; metanotum usually without squamae; submarginal cell separated by vein from discoidal cell I; gaster often pedunculate; male pygidial plate present or absent; female pygidial plate triangular and flat or narrowed and guttered.

Crabronini BM76
    |--Lestica Billberg 1820 PK17, BM76 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: L. cinctella (Fox 1895) [=Crabro cinctellus] BM76
    |    |         L. rufigaster Tsuneki 1984 I92
    |    |--L. (Lestica) BM76
    |    |    |--*L. (L.) subterranea (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |    |    |--L. s. subterranea BM76
    |    |    |    `--L. s. ochotica (Morawitz 1866) [=Crabro ochotica] BM76
    |    |    |--L. (L.) compacta (Kohl 1915) [=Crabro compactus] BM76
    |    |    `--L. (L.) nitobei (Matsumura 1912) [=Crabro nitobei] BM76
    |    |--L. (Solenius) C85
    |    |--L. alata group BM76
    |    |    |--L. alata (Panzer 1797) BM76 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--L. aurantiaca (Kohl 1915) [=Crabro aurantiacus] BM76
    |    |    |--L. dasymera Pate 1948 BM76
    |    |    `--L. pygialis (Pérez 1903) [=Ceratocolus pygialis] BM76
    |    |--L. clypeata group BM76
    |    |    |--L. camelus (Eversmann 1849) [=Crabro camelus; incl. C. sapporensis Matsumura 1911] BM76
    |    |    |--L. clypeata (Schreber 1759) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |    |--L. reiteri (Kohl 1915) [=Crabro reiteri; incl. C. kuramaensis Iwata 1938, C. kuramensis (l. c.)] BM76
    |    |    `--L. wollmanni (Kohl 1915) [=Crabro wollmanni] BM76
    |    `--L. pluschtschevskyi group BM76
    |         |--L. eurypus (Kohl 1898) [=Crabro eurypus] BM76
    |         `--L. pluschtschevskyi (Morawitz 1891) [=Crabro pluschtschevskyi, *Ptyx pluschtschevskyi] BM76
    `--+--Crabro PK17
       `--Crossocerus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834 PK17, BM76
            |  i. s.: C. italicus Beaumont 1964 BM76
            |         C. jason (Cameron 1891) [=Crabro jason] BM76
            |         C. perpusillus (Walker 1871) [=Crabro perpusillus] BM76
            |         C. ruandensis (Arnold 1932) [=Rhopalum ruandense] BM76
            |         C. varus (Panzer 1799) [=Crabro varus] BM76
            |--C. (Crossocerus) BM76
            |--C. (Ablepharipus) BM76
            |--C. (Acanthocrabro Perkins 1913) BM76
            |    |--C. (*A.) vagabundus (Panzer 1798) (see below for synonymy) BM76
            |    |    |--C. v. vagabundus BM76
            |    |    |--C. v. koreanus Tsuneki 1957 BM76
            |    |    `--C. v. yamatonicus (Tsuneki 1948) [=Crabro yamatonicus] BM76
            |    `--C. (A.) annandali (Bingham 1908) [=Crabro annandali] BM76
            |--C. (Ainocrabro Tsuneki 1954) BM76
            |    `--C. (*A.) aino (Tsuneki 1947) [=Crabro aino] BM76
            |--C. (Alicrabro Tsuneki 1968) BM76
            |    `--C. (*A.) rufiventris Tsuneki 1968 BM76
            |--C. (Apocrabro Pate 1944) BM76
            |    |--C. (*A.) aeta Pate 1944 BM76
            |    |    |--C. a. aeta BM76
            |    |    `--C. a. loa Pate 1944 BM76
            |    |--C. (A.) pyrrhus Leclercq 1956 BM76
            |    `--C. (A.) ursidus Leclercq 1956 BM76
            |--C. (Apoides Tsuneki 1968) BM76
            |    `--C. (*A.) alticola Tsuneki 1968 BM76
            |--C. (Blepharipus) BM76
            |--C. (Bnunius Tsuneki 1971) BM76
            |    `--C. (*B.) domicola Tsuneki 1971 BM76
            |--C. (Cuphopterus) BM76
            |--C. (Epicrossocerus Ashmead 1899) BM76
            |    |--C. (*E.) insolens (Fox 1895) [=Crabro insolens] BM76
            |    |--C. (E.) guerrerensis (Cameron 1891) [=Crabro guerrerensis] BM76
            |    |--C. (E.) raui Rohwer 1923 BM76
            |    `--C. (E.) universitatis (Rohwer 1909) [=Crabro universitatis] BM76
            |--C. (Eupliloides Pate 1846) BM76
            |    |--C. (*E.) albocollaris (Ashmead 1904) (see below for synonymy) BM76
            |    |--C. (E.) bougainvillae Pate 1946 BM76
            |    |--C. (E.) cheesmani Leclercq 1955 BM76
            |    |--C. (E.) leontopolites Pate 1946 BM76
            |    |--C. (E.) spilaspis (Cameron 1907) [=Dasyproctus spilaspis] BM76
            |    `--C. (E.) ‘tanoi’ (Tsuneki 1974) non Tsuneki 1968 [=Eupliloides tanoi] BM76
            |--C. (Hoplocrabro Thomson 1874) BM76
            |    |--C. (*H.) quadrimaculatus (Fabricius 1793) (see below for synonymy) BM76
            |    `--C. (H.) angelicus (Kincaid 1900) (see below for synonymy) BM76
            |--C. (Microcrabro) BM76
            |--C. (Neoblepharipus Leclercq 1968) [incl. Fentis Tsuneki 1971] BM76
            |    |--C. (*N.) potosus Leclercq 1968 BM76
            |    |--C. (N.) amurensis (Kohl 1892) [=Crabro amurensis] BM76
            |    |--C. (N.) guichardi Leclercq 1972 BM76
            |    |--C. (N.) maculitarsis (Cameron 1891) [=Crabro maculitarsis] BM76
            |    |--C. (N.) pignatus Leclercq 1968 BM76
            |    |--C. (N.) porexus Leclercq 1968 BM76
            |    `--C. (N.) quinquedentatus Tsuneki 1971 [=*Fentis quinquedentatus] BM76
            |--C. (Nothocrabro Pate 1944) BM76
            |    `--C. (*N.) nitidiventris (Fox 1895) [=Crabro nitidiventris] BM76
            |--C. (Ornicrabro Leclercq 1973) BM76
            |    `--C. (*O.) flacissimus Leclercq 1973 BM76
            |--C. (Oxycrabro Leclercq 1961) BM76
            |    |--C. (*O.) acanthophorus (Kohl 1892) [=Crabro acanthophorus] BM76
            |    `--C. (O.) federationis Leclercq 1961 BM76
            |--C. (Paroxycrabro Leclercq 1963) BM76
            |    `--C. (*P.) sotirus Leclercq 1963 BM76
            |--C. (Pericrabro Leclercq 1954) BM76
            |    `--C. (*P.) sociabilis (Arnold 1932) [=Thyreopus sociabilis] BM76
            `--C. (Stictoptila Pate 1944) BM76
                 `--C. (S.) maculipennis (Smith 1856) (see below for synonymy) BM76

Crabronini incertae sedis:
  Holcorhopalum Cameron 1904 [incl. Amaripa Pate 1944] BM76
    `--*H. foveatum Cameron 1904 [incl. *Amaripa thauma Pate 1944] BM76
  Podagritoides Leclercq 1957 BM76
    `--*P. oceanicus (Schulz 1906) [=Crabro oceanicus] BM76
  Leclercqia Tsuneki 1968 BM76
    `--*L. formosana Tsuneki 1968 BM76
  Towada Tsuneki 1970 BM76
    `--T. flavitarsus (Tsuneki 1947) (see below for synonymy) BM76
  Chimila Pate 1944 BM76
    `--*C. pae Pate 1944 BM76
  Taruma Pate 1944 BM76
    `--*T. bara Pate 1944 BM76
  Odontocrabro Tsuneki 1971 BM76
    `--*O. abnormis Tsuneki 1971 BM76
  Isorhopalum Leclercq 1963 BM76
    |--*I. mayoni Leclercq 1963 BM76
    `--I. marunum Leclercq 1963 BM76
  Echucoides Leclercq 1957 BM76
    |--*E. piratus (Leclercq 1957) [=Podagritus piratus] BM76
    `--E. cercericus (Leclercq 1957) [=Podagritus cercericus] BM76
  Notocrabro Leclercq 1951 [=Spinocrabro Leclercq 1954] BM76
    |--*N. idoneus (Turner 1908) (see below for synonymy) C85
    `--N. micheneri Leclercq 1974 BM76
  Huavea Pate 1948 BM76
    |--*H. chontale (Pate 1948) [=Moniaecera chontale] BM76
    `--H. pima Court & Bohart 1966 BM76
  Piyumoides Leclercq 1963 BM76
    |--*P. hewittii (Cameron 1908) [=Crabro hewittii, Crossocerus hewittii] BM76
    `--P. narcissus Leclercq 1963 BM76
  Hingstoniola Turner & Waterston 1926 BM76
    |--*H. duplicata (Turner & Waterston 1926) [=Crabro duplicatus] BM76
    `--H. pagdeni Leclercq 1954 (see below for synonymy) BM76
  Williamsita Pate 1947 BM76
    |--*W. (Williamsita) novocaledonica (Williams 1945) [=Crabro novocaledonicus] BM76
    `--W. (Androcrabro) BM76
  Pseudoturneria Leclercq 1954 [=Turneriola Leclercq 1951 non China 1933] BM76
    |--*P. perlucida (Turner 1908) [=Crabro perlucidus, *Turneriola perlucida] BM76
    |--P. couloni Leclercq 1974 BM76
    `--P. territorialis Leclercq 1974 BM76
  Chimiloides Leclercq 1951 BM76
    |--*C. nigromaculatus (Smith 1868) [=Crabro nigromaculatus] BM76
    |--C. doddii (Turner 1908) [=Crabro doddii; incl. Cr. erythrogaster Turner 1910] BM76
    `--C. piliferus Leclercq 1954 BM76
  Arnoldita Pate 1948 BM76
    |--*A. perarmata (Arnold 1926) [=Thyreopus perarmatus] BM76
    |--A. canalifera (Arnold 1944) [=Crabro canaliferus] BM76
    `--A. senex (Arnold 1926) [=Thyreopus senex] BM76
  Vechtia Pate 1944 BM76
    |--V. rugosa (Smith 1857) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |--V. r. rugosa BM76
    |    `--V. r. forticarinata Leclercq 1951 BM76
    `--V. prerugosa Leclercq 1963 BM76
  Moniaecera Ashmead 1899 BM76
    |--*M. abdominalis (Fox 1895) [=Crabro abdominalis] BM76
    |--M. asperata (Fox 1895) [=Crabro asperatus] BM76
    |--M. evansi Pate 1947 BM76
    |--M. foxiana Pate 1948 BM76
    `--M. pinal Pate 1947 BM76
  Piyuma Pate 1944 BM76
    |--P. prosopoides (Turner 1908) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |--P. accepta Leclercq 1963 BM76
    |--P. butuana Leclercq 1963 BM76
    |--P. familiaris (Smith 1858) [=Crabro familiaris] BM76
    `--P. selangori Leclercq 1957 BM76
  Pae Pate 1944 BM76
    |--P. (Pae) BM76
    |    |--*P. (P.) paniquita Pate 1944 BM76
    |    `--P. (P.) amaripa Pate 1944 BM76
    `--P. (Lamocrabro Leclercq 1951) BM76
         `--P. (*L.) nasicornis (Smith 1873) [=Crabro nasicornis; incl. C. dentatus Smith 1873] BM76
  Entomocrabro Kohl 1905 BM76
    |--*E. duckei (Kohl 1905) [=Crabro dukei] BM76
    |--E. amahuaca Pate 1941 BM76
    |--E. bequaerti Pate 1941 BM76
    |--E. richardsi Pate 1941 BM76
    |--E. sacuya Pate 1941 BM76
    `--E. terricola Leclercq 1950 BM76
  Quexua Pate 1942 [incl. Arecuna Pate 1942] BM76
    |  i. s.: Q. essequibo Pate 1942 [=*Arecuna essequibo] BM76
    |--Q. cashibo group BM76
    |    |--*Q. cashibo Pate 1942 BM76
    |    |--Q. inca Leclerq 1955 BM76
    |    |--Q. pano Pate 1942 BM76
    |    |--Q. ricata Leclercq 1955 BM76
    |    `--Q. witoto Pate 1942 BM76
    `--Q. verticalis (Smith 1873) [=Crabro verticalis; incl. Q. llameo Pate 1942] BM76
  Tracheliodes Morawitz 1866 (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |--T. curvitarsis (Herrich-Schaeffer 1841) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |--T. amu Pate 1942 BM76
    |--T. foveolineatus (Viereck 1909) [=Crabro foveolineatus] BM76
    |--T. hicksi Sandhouse 1936 BM76
    |--T. mortuellus Cockerell 1905 BM76
    |--T. quinquenotatus (Jurine 1807) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |--T. succinalis (Cockerell 1909) [=Crabro succinalis] BM76
    `--T. tornquisti (Cockerell 1909) [=Crabro tornquisti] BM76
  Enoplolindenius Rohwer 1911 BM76
    |--E. (Enoplolindenius) BM76
    |    |--*E. (E.) clypeatus (Rohwer 1911) [=Lindenius clypeatus] BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) boyaca Pate 1942 BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) chibcha Pate 1942 [incl. E. paria Pate 1942] BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) partamona Pate 1942 BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) pugnans (Smith 1873) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    `--E. (E.) serrei Leclercq 1951 BM76
    `--E. (Iskutana) BM76
  Podagritus Spinola 1851 BM76
    |  i. s.: P. arechavaletai (Brèthes 1909) [=Crabro arechavaletai] BM76
    |           |--P. a. arechavaletai BM76
    |           `--P. a. joergenseni (Brèthes 1913) [=Crabro joergenseni] BM76
    |         P. chambersi H02
    |         P. digyalos H02
    |         P. pius (Strand 1910) [=Crabro pius; incl. P. geraesae Leclercq 1951] BM76
    |         P. sorbicus Leclercq 1957 BM76
    |--P. (Podagritus) BM76
    |--P. (Echuca) BM76
    `--P. (Parechuca) BM76
  Neodasyproctus BM76
  Foxita BM76
  Anacrabro BM76
  Entomognathus Dahlbom 1844 BM76
    |  i. s.: E. arnoldi Bohart & Menke 1976 [=Crabro tridens Arnold 1944 non Fabricius 1793] BM76
    |--E. (Entomognathus) BM76
    |    |--*E. (E.) brevis (Vander Linden 1829) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) breviusculus (Gussakovskij 1952) [=Crabro breviusculus] BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) dentifer (Noskiewicz 1929) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) euryops (Kohl 1899) [=Crabro euryops] BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) fortuitus (Kohl 1915) [=Crabro fortuitus] BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) libanonis (Kohl 1905) [=Crabro libanonis] BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) sahlbergi (Morawitz 1866) [=Crabro sahlbergi] BM76
    |    |--E. (E.) schmidti Beaumont 1967 BM76
    |    `--E. (E.) schmiedeknechtii (Kohl 1905) [=Crabro schmiedeknechtii] BM76
    |--E. (Koxinga Pate 1944) BM76
    |    |--E. (*K.) siraiya Pate 1944 BM76
    |    `--E. (K.) nitidus (Cameron 1890) [=Oxybelus nitidus] BM76
    |--E. (Mashona) BM76
    `--E. (Toncahua Pate 1944) [incl. Florkinus Leclercq 1956] BM76
         |--‘Anothyreus’ panurgoides Viereck 1904 (see below for synonymy) BM76
         |--E. (T.) arenivagus Krombein 1963 BM76
         |--E. (T.) evolutionis (Leclercq 1956) [=Encopognathus evolutionis, *Florkinus evolutionis] BM76
         |--E. (T.) geometricus Leclercq 1955 BM76
         |--E. (T.) lenapeorum Viereck 1904 BM76
         |--E. (T.) memorialis Banks 1921 BM76
         `--E. (T.) mexicanus Cameron 1904 BM76
  Encopognathus BM76
  Rhopalum Stephens 1829 (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |  i. s.: R. atlanticum Bohart 1974 BM76
    |         R. bamendae (Leclercq 1961) [=Podagritus bamendae] BM76
    |         R. brevinodum (Spinola 1851) [=Physoscelis brevinodus; incl. R. pucarense Leclercq 1970] BM76
    |         R. bruchi Schrottky 1909 BM76
    |         R. carbonarium G27
    |         R. claudii (Janvier 1928) [=Crabro claudii] BM76
    |         R. cruentatum (Arnold 1944) [=Crabro cruentatus] BM76
    |           |--R. c. cruentatum BM76
    |           `--R. c. belgarum Leclercq 1955 BM76
    |         R. fenimorum Leclercq 1970 BM76
    |         R. gorongozae (Arnold 1960) [=Crabro gorongozae] BM76
    |         R. guttatum Tsuneki 1955 BM76
    |         R. hanedai Tsuneki 1973 BM76
    |         R. heterocerum (Mantero 1901) [=Crabro heterocerus] BM76
    |         R. ichneumoniforme (Arnold 1927) [=Thyreopus ichneumoniformis] BM76
    |           |--R. i. ichneumoniforme BM76
    |           `--R. i. stramineipes (Arnold 1932) [=Thyreopus stramineipes] BM76
    |         R. pacificum Bohart 1974 BM76
    |         R. pallipes (Lepeletier & Brullé 1834) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |         R. ‘petiolatum’ (Nurse 1912) [=Crabro petiolatus non Panzer 1797] BM76
    |         R. seychellense Turner 1912 [incl. Crabro oceanicus Turner 1911 non Schulz 1906] BM76
    |--R. (Rhopalum) BM76
    |--R. (Aporhopalum Leclercq 1955) BM76
    |    `--R. (*A.) perforator Smith 1876 BM76
    |--R. (Calceorhopalum) BM76
    |--R. (Corynopus) BM76
    |--R. (Latrorhopalum) BM76
    |--R. (Notorhopalum Leclercq 1978) C85
    |    `--R. (*N.) carnegiacum Leclercq 1978 C85
    `--R. (Zelorhopalum Leclercq 1955) BM76
         |--R. (*Z.) aucklandi Leclercq 1955 BM76
         `--R. (Z.) zealandum Leclercq 1955 BM76
  Dasyproctus BM76
  Lindenius BM76
  Ectemnius BM76

‘Anothyreus’ panurgoides Viereck 1904 [incl. Crabro texanus Cresson 1887 non Cresson 1872, Entomognathus (*Toncahua) texanus] BM76

Crossocerus (*Acanthocrabro) vagabundus (Panzer 1798) [=Crabro vagabundus; incl. Crabro esakii Yasumatsu 1942, Crabro fasciatus Costa 1871, Crossocerus lefebvrei Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, Blepharipus quinquemaculatus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834] BM76

Crossocerus (*Eupliloides) albocollaris (Ashmead 1904) [=Rhopalum albocollare; incl. Crabro elongatus Dudgeon in Nurse 1903 non Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, Crossocerus holtensis Leclercq 1950, Cro. pricesa Pate 1948] BM76

Crossocerus (Hoplocrabro) angelicus (Kincaid 1900) [=Crabro angelicus; incl. Crabro boulderensis Rohwer 1909, Crabro spinibuccus Viereck 1909, Crabro vierecki Smith 1908] BM76

Crossocerus (*Hoplocrabro) quadrimaculatus (Fabricius 1793) [=Crabro quadrimaculatus; incl. Cro. bimaculatus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, Cro. laevipes Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, Crabro levipes Vander Linden 1829, Crabro murorum Latreille 1804-1805, Crabro quadripunctatus Fabricius 1793, Crabro quinquemaculatus Dahlbom 1838 non Blepharipus quinquemaculatus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, Crabro rotundarius Dahlbom 1838] BM76

Crossocerus (Stictoptila) maculipennis (Smith 1856) [=Crabro maculipennis; incl. Crabro albertus Carter 1925, Crabro canonicola Viereck 1908, Crabro confertus Fox 1895, *Stictoptila conferta, Belpharipus maculatus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834 non Crabro maculatus Fabricius 1781, Crabro pictus Smith 1856 non Fabricius 1793, Crabro ventralis Fox 1895] BM76

Enoplolindenius (Enoplolindenius) pugnans (Smith 1873) [=Crabro pugnans; incl. E. aymara Pate 1942, C. circumscriptus Kohl 1892, C. mexicanus Cameron 1904, C. stirocephalus Cameron 1912] BM76

*Entomognathus (Entomognathus) brevis (Vander Linden 1829) [=Crabro brevis; incl. Lindenius apicalis Lepeletier & Brullé 1834] BM76

Entomognathus (Entomognathus) dentifer (Noskiewicz 1929) [=Crabro dentifer; incl. E. permixtus Nouvel & Ribaut 1956] BM76

Hingstoniola pagdeni Leclercq 1954 [incl. Crabro fimbriatus Pagden 1934 non Rossi 1790, C. parviornatus Cameron in Leclercq 1951 (n. n.)] BM76

Lestica Billberg 1820 PK17, BM76 [=Hypothyreus Ashmead 1899 BM76; incl. Ceratoculus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834 BM76, Clypeocrabro Richards 1935 BM76, Ptyx Pate 1947 BM76, Thyreus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834 non Panzer 1806 BM76]

Lestica alata (Panzer 1797) BM76 [=Crabro alatus BM76, *Ceratoculus alatus BM76; incl. Cr. alatus var. basalis Smith 1856 MS01, BM76, Cr. japonicus Schulz 1904 BM76]

Lestica clypeata (Schreber 1759) [=Apis clypeata; incl. Sphex clypearius Schreber 1784, Crabro lapidarius Fabricius 1804 non Panzer 1804, Cr. nigridens Herrich-Schaeffer 1841, Sphex ovata Christ 1791, Cr. vexillatus Panzer 1797, *Clypeocrabro vexillatus, *Thyreus vexillatus] BM76

Lestica confluenta (Say 1837) [=Crabro confluentus, C. confluens (l. c.); incl. C. atrifrons Cresson 1865, C. bellus Cresson 1865, C. cinctibellus Viereck 1908, C. dubius Smith 1856, C. eburneus Taschenberg 1875, *Solenius interruptus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834 non Thyreopus interruptus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, C. opwanus Rohwer 1908, C. planaris Mickel 1916, Solenius seamansi Carter 1925, C. townsendi Rohwer 1911] BM76

*Lestica (Lestica) subterranea (Fabricius 1775) [=Crabro subterraneus, *Hypothyreus subterraneus; incl. C. philanthoides Panzer 1801] BM76

*Notocrabro idoneus (Turner 1908) [=Crabro (Rhopalum) idoneus, *Spinocrabro idoneus; incl. Rhopalum spinulifer Turner 1918] C85

Piyuma prosopoides (Turner 1908) [=Crabro prosopoides; incl. C. dentipleuris Cameron 1908, C. iwatai Yasumatsu 1942, *Piyuma koxinga Pate 1944, C. makilingi Williams 1928] BM76

Rhopalum Stephens 1829 (nom. cons.) [=Euplilis Risso 1826 (nom. rej.), Physoscelis Westwood 1839, Physoscelus Lepeletier & Brullé 1834] BM76

Rhopalum pallipes (Lepeletier & Brullé 1834) [=Physoscelis pallipes, Crabro pallidipes Dalla Torre 1897] BM76

Towada flavitarsus (Tsuneki 1947) [=Crabro flavitarsus; incl. Crossocerus leclercqi Tsuneki 1959, *Towada leclercqi] BM76

Tracheliodes Morawitz 1866 [=Brachymerus Dahlbom 1845 non Chevrolet 1835; incl. Fertonius Pérez in Ferton 1892] BM76

Tracheliodes curvitarsis (Herrich-Schaeffer 1841) [=Crossocerus curvitarsis; incl. Crabro filigranus Costa 1871, Crabro megerlei Dahlbom 1845, *Brachymerus megerlei, *Tracheliodes megerlei, Blepharipus rondani Spinola in Costa 1871 (n. n.)] BM76

Tracheliodes quinquenotatus (Jurine 1807) [=Crabro quinquenotatus; incl. Crabro bucephalus Smith 1856, Crossocerus festivus Marquet 1881, Fertonius formicarius Ferton 1896, Crabro herinaceus Gribodo 1894, Crossocerus luteicollis Lepeletier & Brullé 1834, *Fertonius luteicollis, Blepharipus politus Costa 1871 (n. n.), Crabro quinquesignatus Jurine in Bignell 1900, Ceratocolus trochantericus Herrich-Schaeffer 1841] BM76

Vechtia rugosa (Smith 1857) [=Crabro rugosus; incl. C. bucephalus Smith 1864 non Smith 1856, C. spinifrons Bingham 1897, *Vechtia spinifrons] BM76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[G27] Gourlay, E. S. 1927. Notes on the New Zealand wood-wasp Ophrynopus schauinslandi Ashmead. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 691–693.

[H02] Harris, A. 2002. Further observations on the nesting of Podagritus chambersi and P. digyalos (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Spheciformes: Crabronidae). Weta 24: 22–24.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

Gorytes

Gorytes laticinctus, copyright Jeremy Early.


Belongs within: Gorytini.

Gorytes is a genus of medium-sized to large wasps found in Eurasia, North America and Africa that provision their nests with leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha) (Bohart & Menke 1976).

Characters (from Bohart & Menke 1976): Medium-sized to fairly large wasps; inner eye margins converging below, often strongly; mandible usually with two inner subteeth; labrum inconspicuous; male flagellomeres often with tyli but last four articles not specially modified; pronotal collar rather thin, rounded, nearly even all across, not closely adherent to scutum; female foretarsal rake well developed, fore basitarsus with two long setae before apex; female arolia usually nearly equal in size; posterolateral oblique scutal carina present; prescutellar sulcus foveate; episternal sulcus when well impressed ending on scrobal sulcus which is continued forward in nearly a straight line to omaulus; acetabular carina incomplete or obscure; sternaulus complete or essentially so; forewing costal margin gently or sometimes strongly bowed out near base, media diverging before cu-a, stigma moderate, veinlet of submarginal cell II between recurrents about one-fourth posterior length of submarginal cell I; jugal lobe considerably larger than tegula, hindwing media generally diverging before cu-a but in some species at or a little beyond it; midtibia with two apical spurs; propodeal enclosure either extensively sculptured or longitudinally ridged, ridges sometimes confined to a frontal strip; spiracular groove present, usually distinct; gaster tapering toward base, sometimes nearly pedunculate; male with seven terga normally exposed, sterna without fimbriae, sternum VIII narrowly blade shaped, often minutely notched at apex; female pygidial plate variable, flat, usually long.

Gorytes Latreille 1804 (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |--*G. quinquecinctus (Fabricius 1793) BM76 (see below for synonymy)
    |--G. africanus Mercet 1905 BM76
    |--G. aino Tsuneki 1963 BM76
    |--G. albidulus (Lepeletier 1832) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |--G. albosignatus Fox 1892 BM76
    |--G. ambiguus Handlirsch 1888 BM76
    |--G. angustus (Provancher 1895) [=Hoplisus angustus; incl. H. angustatus Ashmead 1899] BM76
    |--‘Hoplisus’ archoryctes Cockerell 1922 BM76
    |--G. atricornis Packard 1867 (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |--G. atrifrons Fox 1892 BM76
    |--G. browni GS61
    |--G. canaliculatus Packard 1867 (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |--G. cochisensis Bohart 1971 BM76
    |--G. cribratus Morawitz 1892 BM76
    |--G. deceptor Krombein 1958 BM76
    |--G. dorothyae Krombein 1950 BM76
    |    |--G. d. dorothyae BM76
    |    `--G. d. russeolus Krombein 1954 BM76
    |--G. eous Gussakovskij 1933 BM76
    |--G. fallax Handlirsch 1888 BM76
    |--G. flagellatus Bohart 1971 BM76
    |--G. flaviventris Morawitz 1894 BM76
    |--G. foveolatus Handlirsch 1888 (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |--G. hakutozanus Tsuneki 1963 BM76
    |--G. harbinensis Tsuneki 1967 BM76
    |--G. hebraeus Beaumont 1953 BM76
    |--G. heptapotamiensis Kazenas 1972 BM76
    |--G. intrudens Nurse 1903 BM76
    |--G. jonesi (Turner 1920) [=Arpactus jonesi] BM76
    |--G. koreanus Handlirsch 1888 BM76
    |--G. kulingensis (Yasumatsu 1943) [=Hoplisus kulingensis] BM76
    |--G. laticinctus (Lepeletier 1832) [=*Euspongus laticinctus] BM76
    |--G. limbellus Bohart 1971 BM76
    |--G. maculicornis (Morawitz 1889) [=Hoplisus maculicornis] BM76
    |--G. mcateei Krombein & Bohart in Krombein 1962 K62
    |--G. melpomene (Arnold 1936) [=Arpactus melpomene] BM76
    |--G. mongolicus Tsuneki 1970 BM76
    |--G. mystaceus MS01
    |--G. neglectus Handlirsch 1895 BM76
    |--G. nevadensis Fox 1892 BM76
    |--G. nigrifacies (Mocsáry 1879) [=Hoplisus nigrifacies] BM76
    |--G. pieli Yasumatsu 1943 BM76
    |--G. planifrons (Wesmael 1852) [=Hoplisus planifrons] BM76
    |--G. pleuripunctatus (Costa 1859) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |--G. p. pleuripunctatus BM76
    |    `--G. p. barbarus Beaumont 1953 BM76
    |--G. procrustes Handlirsch 1888 BM76
    |--G. prosopis Bohart 1971 BM76
    |--G. provancheri Handlirsch 1895 (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |--G. proximus Handlirsch 1893 BM76
    |--G. quadrifasciatus (Fabricius 1804) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |--G. quinquefasciatus (Panzer 1798) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |--G. q. quinquefasciatus BM76
    |    `--G. q. levantinus Pulawski 1961 BM76
    |--G. radoszkowskyi Handlirsch 1888 BM76
    |--G. schlettereri Handlirsch 1893 BM76
    |    |--G. s. schlettereri BM76
    |    `--G. s. ponticus Beaumont 1967 BM76
    |--G. schmiedeknechtii Handlirsch 1888 BM76
    |--G. sepultus (Cockerell 1906) [=Hoplisus sepultus] BM76
    |--G. simillimus Smith 1856 [incl. G. ephippiatus Packard 1867, G. gyponacinus Rohwer 1911] BM76
    |--G. sogdianus Gussakovskij 1952 BM76
    |--G. sulcifrons (Costa 1869) [=Hoplisus sulcifrons; incl. H. laevigatus Kohl 1880] BM76
    |--G. takeuchii Tsuneki 1963 BM76
    |--G. tricinctus (Pérez 1905) [=Hoplisus tricinctus] BM76
    |--G. umatillae Bohart 1971 [incl. G. vicinus Handlirsch 1893 non Euspongus vicinus Lepeletier 1832] BM76
    `--G. verhoeffi Tsuneki 1967 BM76

Gorytes Latreille 1804 [=Euzonia Stephens 1829, Hoplisus Lepeletier 1832; incl. Arpactus Panzer 1805, Euspongus Lepeletier 1832] BM76

Gorytes albidulus (Lepeletier 1832) [=Hoplisus albidulus; incl. Euspongus albilabris Lepeletier 1832, Mellinus dissectus Panzer 1801 non Panzer 1801, Gorytes elegans Smith 1856 non Lepeletier 1832] BM76

Gorytes atricornis Packard 1867 [incl. G. decorus Fox 1895, Hoplisus elegantulus Smith 1908, G. rugosus Packard 1867] BM76

Gorytes canaliculatus Packard 1867 [incl. G. asperatus Fox 1895, Hoplisus corrugis Mickel 1918, G. geminus Handlirsch 1888] BM76

Gorytes foveolatus Handlirsch 1888 [incl. G. dichrous Mercet 1906, G. longicornis Handlirsch 1898 non Sphex longicornis Rossi 1790, G. rubrocinctulus Strand 1910, G. usurpator Schulz 1906] BM76

Gorytes pleuripunctatus (Costa 1859) [=Hoplisus pleuripunctatus; incl. G. fraternus Mercet 1906, H. tirolensis Kohl 1880] BM76

Gorytes provancheri Handlirsch 1895 [incl. G. laticinctus Provancher 1888 non Euspongus laticinctus Lepeletier 1832] BM76

Gorytes quadrifasciatus (Fabricius 1804) [=Mellinus quadrifasciatus, *Arpactus quadrifasciatus; incl. Hoplisus montivagus Mocsáry 1878, Euspongus vicinus Lepeletier 1832] BM76

*Gorytes quinquecinctus (Fabricius 1793) BM76 [=Mellinus quinquecinctus BM76, Ceropales quinquecinctus L02, *Euzonia quinquecincta BM76, *Hoplisus quinquecinctus BM76; incl. Mellinus arenarius Panzer 1798 BM76, Crabro calceatus Rossi 1794 BM76, Gorytes cinctus Latreille 1805 BM76, G. ruficornis Latreille 1805 BM76, Hoplisus sinuatus Costa 1869 BM76]

Gorytes quinquefasciatus (Panzer 1798) [=Mellinus quinquefasciatus; incl. Hoplisus anceps Mocsáry 1879, H. eburneus Chevrier 1870, H. geminatus Costa 1869, Gorytes intercedens Handlirsch 1893, H. lacordairei Lepeletier 1845, G. mauretanicus Handlirsch 1898] BM76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[GS61] Giordani Soika, A. 1961. Gli Odynerus sensu antiquo del continente Australiano e della Tasmania. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 57–202.

[K62] Krombein, K. V. 1962. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XIII. Descriptions of new wasps from Plummers Island, Maryland, (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 1–18.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.