New Zealand geoduck Panope zelandica, photographed by Graham Bould.

Belongs within: Heterodonta.

Panope, geoducks, are a genus of bivalves found from the Late Cretaceous to the present day in Europe, North America and the South Pacific. Representatives have a large, muscular siphon that is permanently extruded from the gaping shell. Some species are prized as food.

<==Panope Ménard de la Groye 1807 G77, S98 [=Panopea F27a]
    |--P. glycimeris (Born 1778) SB93 [=Mya glycymeris S98; incl. *P. aldrovandi Ménard de la Groye 1807 S98]
    |--P. abrupta (Conrad 1849) TW07
    |--P. agnewi F27a
    |--P. angusta Nyst 1836 F27b
    |--P. ‘angusta’ (d’Orbigny 1850) non Nyst 1836 [=Pleuromya angusta] F27b
    |--P. awaterensis F27a
    |--P. bitruncata C66
    |--P. clausa F27a
    |--P. fragilis Gould 1861 C64
    |--P. generosa (Gould 1850) G77 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. hedleyi Finlay 1927 [=P. angusta Hedley 1915 nec Nyst 1836 nec Pleuromya angusta Agassiz 1845] F27b
    |--P. malvernensis Woods 1917 [=Panopea malvernensis] S98
    |--P. neozelanica H86
    |--P. orbita F27a
    |--P. plicata H79
    |--P. ralphi Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--P. reflexa C64
    |--P. smithae Powell 1950 P61
    |--P. thomasi von Ihering 1914 S98
    |--P. worthingtoni F27a
    `--P. zelandica (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) P61

Panope generosa (Gould 1850) G77 [=Panopea generosa C64; incl. Glycimeris estrellanus C64, Panopaea generosa var. sagrinata C64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C66] Clench, W. J. 1966. Panopea bitruncata (Conrad). Nautilus 80 (1): 36.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G77] Goodwin, L. 1977. The effects of season on visual and photographic assessment of subtidal geoduck clam (Panope generosa Gould) populations. Veliger 20 (2): 155–158.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. "Times" Office: Christchurch.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

Last updated: 30 October 2021.

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